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Introduction to Vibration Problems at Compressor Stations Presented by: Gary Maxwell, Chris Harper, Shelley Greenfield (Beta

Introduction to Vibration Problems at Compressor Stations

Introduction to Vibration Problems at Compressor Stations Presented by: Gary Maxwell, Chris Harper, Shelley Greenfield (Beta

Presented by:

Gary Maxwell, Chris Harper, Shelley Greenfield (Beta Machinery Analysis)

Welcome…

Welcome… Purpose: Introduction to compressor vibration (for more detail, recommend the 2.5 day GMRC Course in

Purpose: Introduction to compressor vibration

(for more detail, recommend the 2.5 day GMRC Course in May)

Focus on practical issues. Audience participation…demo’s, case studies, questions, etc.

(We can’t take you to the field, so we are bringing the field to the classroom)

Presenters introductions Questions for the parking lot?

Welcome… Purpose: Introduction to compressor vibration (for more detail, recommend the 2.5 day GMRC Course in
Welcome… Purpose: Introduction to compressor vibration (for more detail, recommend the 2.5 day GMRC Course in

Vibration Induced Pipe Fatigue Failure

Vibration Induced Pipe Fatigue Failure Compressors, Pumps, Engines, Turbines and other Rotating Machines Cause Vibration Related

Compressors, Pumps, Engines, Turbines and other Rotating Machines Cause Vibration Related Problems

Vibration Induced Pipe Fatigue Failure Compressors, Pumps, Engines, Turbines and other Rotating Machines Cause Vibration Related
Vibration Induced Pipe Fatigue Failure Compressors, Pumps, Engines, Turbines and other Rotating Machines Cause Vibration Related

HIGH IMPACT FAILURES:

Significant financial costs Safety/environmental liabilities

Vibration Induced Pipe Fatigue Failure Compressors, Pumps, Engines, Turbines and other Rotating Machines Cause Vibration Related
Vibration Induced Pipe Fatigue Failure Compressors, Pumps, Engines, Turbines and other Rotating Machines Cause Vibration Related

Today’s Topics

Today’s Topics 1. Vibration Overview 2. Sources of Vibration 3. Pulsation Control 4. Mechanical Resonance 5.
  • 1. Vibration Overview

  • 2. Sources of Vibration

  • 3. Pulsation Control

  • 4. Mechanical Resonance

  • 5. Torsional Analysis

  • 6. Pipe Strain

  • 7. Small Bore Piping

  • 8. Start-up Vibration Survey

  • 9. Summary

Today’s Topics 1. Vibration Overview 2. Sources of Vibration 3. Pulsation Control 4. Mechanical Resonance 5.
Today’s Topics 1. Vibration Overview 2. Sources of Vibration 3. Pulsation Control 4. Mechanical Resonance 5.
1. Vibration Overview Presented by: Chris Harper

1. Vibration Overview

1. Vibration Overview Presented by: Chris Harper

Presented by: Chris Harper

How Equipment Fails

How Equipment Fails Vibration is the leading cause of mechanical problems Equipment and piping fail due

Vibration is the leading cause of mechanical problems

Equipment and piping fail due to excessive STRESS (fatigue failure)

Failure Pulsation Forces Vibration Stress
Failure
Pulsation
Forces
Vibration
Stress
How Equipment Fails Vibration is the leading cause of mechanical problems Equipment and piping fail due
How Equipment Fails Vibration is the leading cause of mechanical problems Equipment and piping fail due

What is vibration?

What is vibration? Vibration = periodic motion about an equilibrium position Vibration can be described with:

Vibration = periodic motion about an equilibrium position

Vibration can be described with:

Amplitude and

Frequency (number of

cycles per time) or Period (time to complete one cycle)

What is vibration? Vibration = periodic motion about an equilibrium position Vibration can be described with:
What is vibration? Vibration = periodic motion about an equilibrium position Vibration can be described with:

Vibration frequency

Vibration frequency Number of cycles per unit of time CPM = cycles per minute Hz =

Number of cycles per unit of time CPM = cycles per minute Hz = cycles per second (cps) RPM = rotations per minute For simplicity, frequency is measured in Hz

Convert from CPM or RPM to Hz by dividing by 60

3600 RPM 60 Hz

Vibration frequency Number of cycles per unit of time CPM = cycles per minute Hz =
Vibration frequency Number of cycles per unit of time CPM = cycles per minute Hz =

Vibration amplitude

Vibration amplitude Three related units Displacement ( µ m, mils) Velocity (mm/s, in/s or ips) Acceleration

Three related units

Displacement (µm, mils)

Velocity

 

(mm/s, in/s or

ips)

 

Acceleration (mm/s 2 , in/s 2 , g’s)

Only related when vibration is simple, like in a spring- mass system

Vibration amplitude Three related units Displacement ( µ m, mils) Velocity (mm/s, in/s or ips) Acceleration
Vibration amplitude Three related units Displacement ( µ m, mils) Velocity (mm/s, in/s or ips) Acceleration
Vibration amplitude Three related units Displacement ( µ m, mils) Velocity (mm/s, in/s or ips) Acceleration

Two Ways to Look at Vibration

Time domain amplitude typically higher … Units = seconds … than frequency domain amplitude Units =
Time domain amplitude
typically higher …
Units = seconds
… than frequency
domain amplitude
Units = Hz

Time-domain Overall vibration

Frequency-domain Individual vibration

Time domain frequency domain

Time domain frequency domain

Another way to visualize it

Another way to visualize it Time domain and frequency domain show the same information, just in

Time domain and frequency domain show the same information, just in different ways

Frequency domain breaks out the components of the time domain

Time domain is

measured

Frequency domain is calculated

Another way to visualize it Time domain and frequency domain show the same information, just in
Another way to visualize it Time domain and frequency domain show the same information, just in
Another way to visualize it Time domain and frequency domain show the same information, just in

Overall time-domain vibration - terminology

Overall time-domain vibration - terminology RMS peak Peak-to-peak RMS peak Peak-to-peak Peak (measure of deflection) is
RMS peak Peak-to-peak RMS peak Peak-to-peak
RMS
peak
Peak-to-peak
RMS
peak
Peak-to-peak

Peak (measure of deflection) is used more often than RMS (measure of energy)

Frequency domain is either peak or RMS (not peak-to-peak)

Overall time-domain vibration - terminology RMS peak Peak-to-peak RMS peak Peak-to-peak Peak (measure of deflection) is
Overall time-domain vibration - terminology RMS peak Peak-to-peak RMS peak Peak-to-peak Peak (measure of deflection) is

Vibration Directions (common terminology)

Vibration Directions (common terminology) Vertical Axial: along crankshaft Horizontal: direction of piston motion
Vibration Directions (common terminology) Vertical Axial: along crankshaft Horizontal: direction of piston motion

Vertical

Axial: along crankshaft

Horizontal: direction of piston motion

Vibration Directions (common terminology) Vertical Axial: along crankshaft Horizontal: direction of piston motion
Vibration Directions (common terminology) Vertical Axial: along crankshaft Horizontal: direction of piston motion

Video #1 – Vibration Equation

Video #1 – Vibration Equation
Video #1 – Vibration Equation
Video #1 – Vibration Equation
Video #1 – Vibration Equation

Demo #1 – Scrubber Vibration

Demo #1 – Scrubber Vibration
Demo #1 – Scrubber Vibration
Demo #1 – Scrubber Vibration

BETA guidelines - velocity

BETA guidelines - velocity Dashed lines adapted from SwRI Piping guideline also applicable for vessels ,

Dashed lines adapted from SwRI

Piping guideline also applicable for vessels, and for small bore piping (≤ 2“ NPS)

At individual frequencies, not overall (time- domain) vibration

BETA guidelines - velocity Dashed lines adapted from SwRI Piping guideline also applicable for vessels ,
BETA guidelines - velocity Dashed lines adapted from SwRI Piping guideline also applicable for vessels ,
BETA guidelines - velocity Dashed lines adapted from SwRI Piping guideline also applicable for vessels ,

Comparison

Comparison Many different vibration guidelines Remember than vibrations over guideline mean more investigation needed Use 1

Many different vibration guidelines

Remember than vibrations over guideline mean

more

investigation

needed

Use 1 ips (FD) or 1.5 ips (TD) as a screening guideline for piping

Comparison Many different vibration guidelines Remember than vibrations over guideline mean more investigation needed Use 1
Comparison Many different vibration guidelines Remember than vibrations over guideline mean more investigation needed Use 1

18

2. Sources of Vibration Presented by: Shelley Greenfield

2. Sources of Vibration

2. Sources of Vibration Presented by: Shelley Greenfield

Presented by: Shelley Greenfield

Vibration Risk Areas

Vibration Risk Areas Mechanical Pulsation Torsional (Acoustics) Small Bore Skid & Foundation (Dynamics)
Mechanical Pulsation Torsional (Acoustics) Small Bore
Mechanical
Pulsation
Torsional
(Acoustics)
Small Bore

Skid & Foundation (Dynamics)

Vibration Risk Areas Mechanical Pulsation Torsional (Acoustics) Small Bore Skid & Foundation (Dynamics)
Vibration Risk Areas Mechanical Pulsation Torsional (Acoustics) Small Bore Skid & Foundation (Dynamics)

Risk Areas and Design Considerations

Thermal Expansion: Piping Layout and Supports Off-skid Pulsations Interaction Between Other Units
Thermal Expansion:
Piping Layout and
Supports
Off-skid Pulsations
Interaction
Between Other Units

Risk Areas and Design Considerations

Risk Areas and Design Considerations Thermal Expansion; Piping Layout and Supports System Pressure Drop (performance issue,
Thermal Expansion; Piping Layout and Supports System Pressure Drop (performance issue, losses) Off-skid Pulsations
Thermal Expansion;
Piping Layout and Supports
System Pressure
Drop (performance
issue, losses)
Off-skid
Pulsations
Risk Areas and Design Considerations Thermal Expansion; Piping Layout and Supports System Pressure Drop (performance issue,
Risk Areas and Design Considerations Thermal Expansion; Piping Layout and Supports System Pressure Drop (performance issue,

Responsibility

Owner
Owner
 

Engineering firm

Pulsations and thermal growth cross boundaries of responsibility

Packager
Packager

Vibration consultant hired by packager may be acceptable for small gathering systems

good specifications and communication

Large critical pipeline, storage, or offshore units - recommend vibration consultant hired by owner

Vibration consultant

Responsibility Owner Engineering firm Pulsations and thermal growth cross boundaries of responsibility Packager Vibration consultant hired
Responsibility Owner Engineering firm Pulsations and thermal growth cross boundaries of responsibility Packager Vibration consultant hired
Responsibility Owner Engineering firm Pulsations and thermal growth cross boundaries of responsibility Packager Vibration consultant hired
Dynamic force on reciprocating compressor
Dynamic force on
reciprocating compressor
Pulsation Shaking Forces in Piping Unbalanced Forces and Moments due to Reciprocating Motion Crosshead Guide Forces
Pulsation Shaking
Forces in Piping
Unbalanced Forces and Moments
due to Reciprocating Motion
Crosshead Guide
Forces
Gas Forces
(Cylinder
Stretch)

Forces occur at “multiples of runspeed”

Forces occur at “multiples of runspeed” 1x Compressor primary forces & moments Cylinder gas forces (rod

1x

Compressor primary forces & moments

Cylinder gas forces (rod load)

Pulsation shaking forces (single-acting)

2x

Compressor secondary forces & moment

Crosshead guide forces

Cylinder gas forces

Pulsation shaking forces (double-acting)

3x … Cylinder gas forces Pulsation shaking forces

Forces occur at “multiples of runspeed” 1x Compressor primary forces & moments Cylinder gas forces (rod
Forces occur at “multiples of runspeed” 1x Compressor primary forces & moments Cylinder gas forces (rod

How High Can Pulsation Forces Get?

How High Can Pulsation Forces Get? Cooler Nozzle Failure System: • Ariel JGK/2 compressor • Booster

Cooler Nozzle Failure

System:

• Ariel JGK/2 compressor • Booster service (0.605 specific gravity) • Waukesha L7042GSI engines (700-1200 RPM) • 880 - 1000 psig suction pressure, 1058 - 1270 psig discharge pressure • HEVV pockets, double acting, 1 stage

Problem:

• The cooler nozzle cracked shortly after start-up

• Many other problems

Beta Mobilized to Site

• Collected vibration and pulsation data

How High Can Pulsation Forces Get? Cooler Nozzle Failure System: • Ariel JGK/2 compressor • Booster
How High Can Pulsation Forces Get? Cooler Nozzle Failure System: • Ariel JGK/2 compressor • Booster
How High Can Pulsation Forces Get? Cooler Nozzle Failure System: • Ariel JGK/2 compressor • Booster

Pulsation Shaking Forces Can Be Very High

Pulsation Shaking Forces Can Be Very High Guesses as to how high force could be in
Guesses as to how high force could be in this run of piping? 6” pipe -
Guesses as to how high force
could be in this run of piping?
6” pipe - area = 26 in 2
Original
Bottles
Pulsation Shaking Forces Can Be Very High Guesses as to how high force could be in

No acoustical study had been performed

To solve problem, Beta conducted acoustical study and recommended new bottles

Pulsation Shaking Forces Can Be Very High Guesses as to how high force could be in

As Found Unbalanced Forces

As Found Unbalanced Forces 11000 lbf pk-pk at 38 Hz What speed? Vertical Riser to 38
11000 lbf pk-pk at 38 Hz What speed? Vertical Riser to 38 Hz x 60 s/min
11000 lbf pk-pk at 38 Hz
What speed?
Vertical
Riser to
38 Hz x 60 s/min ÷ 2
= 1140 RPM
Cooler
As Found Unbalanced Forces 11000 lbf pk-pk at 38 Hz What speed? Vertical Riser to 38
As Found Unbalanced Forces 11000 lbf pk-pk at 38 Hz What speed? Vertical Riser to 38

Gas Forces Cause Cylinder Motion

Gas Forces Cause Cylinder Motion Act on cylinder, bottles, scrubber and piping Create high vibrations around

Act on cylinder, bottles, scrubber and piping Create high vibrations around compressor

Example:

ODS Field Data

Gas Forces Cause Cylinder Motion Act on cylinder, bottles, scrubber and piping Create high vibrations around
Gas Forces Cause Cylinder Motion Act on cylinder, bottles, scrubber and piping Create high vibrations around
Gas Forces Cause Cylinder Motion Act on cylinder, bottles, scrubber and piping Create high vibrations around

Vibration Risk: Compressor APPLICATION

Vibration Risk: Compressor APPLICATION Lower Risk Vib. Risk Factors Higher Risk 1 # of Units Online
Lower Risk Vib. Risk Factors Higher Risk 1 # of Units Online Many Convenient Location Offshore
Lower Risk
Vib. Risk Factors
Higher Risk
1
# of Units Online
Many
Convenient
Location
Offshore or
Remote
Not
Unit Criticality
Critical to the
Process
Not
Efficiency
Important
Important
Vibration Risk: Compressor APPLICATION Lower Risk Vib. Risk Factors Higher Risk 1 # of Units Online
Vibration Risk: Compressor APPLICATION Lower Risk Vib. Risk Factors Higher Risk 1 # of Units Online

Vibration Risk: Compressor CONFIGURATION

Lower Risk Vib. Risk Factors Higher Risk Sweet 1 Step, DA Gas Composition Load Steps Sour,
Lower Risk
Vib. Risk Factors
Higher Risk
Sweet
1 Step, DA
Gas Composition
Load Steps
Sour, Heavy
DA + SA
(>50% turndown)
Fixed
Fixed
Suct./Disc. Pressure
Speed
Wide range;
Wide Range
2
stg (4 or
Compressor Stages
6
cylinder)
1 stg (many
cylinders)
CR > 1.7
< 150
Compression Ratio
HP/ Cylinder
< 1.3
> 750
Vibration Risk: Compressor CONFIGURATION Lower Risk Vib. Risk Factors Higher Risk Sweet 1 Step, DA Gas
Vibration Risk: Compressor CONFIGURATION Lower Risk Vib. Risk Factors Higher Risk Sweet 1 Step, DA Gas

Vibration Study Scope

Compressor Package •Pulsation/mechanical analysis •Torsional vibration analysis •Options: thermal, skid analysis
Compressor
Package
•Pulsation/mechanical analysis
•Torsional vibration analysis
•Options: thermal, skid analysis
Off-Skid Piping Vibration •Pulsations & other units •Mechanical analysis (supports) •Transient analysis
Off-Skid Piping
Vibration
•Pulsations & other units
•Mechanical analysis (supports)
•Transient analysis
Foundation & Structure •Dynamic analysis to avoid resonance
Foundation
& Structure
•Dynamic analysis to
avoid resonance
Small Bore Piping •Design review and/or field audit
Small Bore
Piping
•Design review
and/or field audit
Vibration Study Scope Compressor Package •Pulsation/mechanical analysis •Torsional vibration analysis •Options: thermal, skid analysis Off-Skid Piping
Vibration Study Scope Compressor Package •Pulsation/mechanical analysis •Torsional vibration analysis •Options: thermal, skid analysis Off-Skid Piping
3. Pulsation Control Presented by: Shelley Greenfield

3. Pulsation Control

3. Pulsation Control Presented by: Shelley Greenfield

Presented by: Shelley Greenfield

Pulsation animation

Pulsation animation Pulsations in non-flowing gas Notice change in pressure and velocity

Pulsations in non-flowing gas Notice change in pressure and velocity

Pulsation animation Pulsations in non-flowing gas Notice change in pressure and velocity
Pulsation animation Pulsations in non-flowing gas Notice change in pressure and velocity
Pulsation animation Pulsations in non-flowing gas Notice change in pressure and velocity

Video #2 - Pulsations and Other Forces

Video #2 - Pulsations and Other Forces
Video #2 - Pulsations and Other Forces
Video #2 - Pulsations and Other Forces
Video #2 - Pulsations and Other Forces

Pulsation Forces In Piping System

Pulsation Forces In Piping System Example: Interstage System Cooler Suction Discharge Piping Piping

Example: Interstage System

Pulsation Forces In Piping System Example: Interstage System Cooler Suction Discharge Piping Piping
Cooler Suction Discharge Piping Piping
Cooler
Suction
Discharge
Piping
Piping

Pulsation Forces – DA vs. SA

Pulsation Forces – DA vs. SA
Pulsation Forces – DA vs. SA

Cylinder vertical forces

Cylinder vertical forces Can be significant Pulsations controlled with orifice plates Vibration controlled with outboard supports

Can be significant Pulsations controlled with orifice plates Vibration controlled with outboard supports

Cylinder vertical forces Can be significant Pulsations controlled with orifice plates Vibration controlled with outboard supports
Cylinder vertical forces Can be significant Pulsations controlled with orifice plates Vibration controlled with outboard supports
Case Study: Compressor Vibration Before - Vibration Problem

Case Study:

Compressor Vibration

Case Study: Compressor Vibration Before - Vibration Problem
Case Study: Compressor Vibration Before - Vibration Problem

Before - Vibration Problem

Case Study: Compressor Vibration Before - Vibration Problem

After Modifications

Compressors Installed – Vibration Problem

Compressors Installed – Vibration Problem 6 Compressors – 1700 HP each
Compressors Installed – Vibration Problem 6 Compressors – 1700 HP each

6 Compressors – 1700 HP each

Compressors Installed – Vibration Problem 6 Compressors – 1700 HP each
Compressors Installed – Vibration Problem 6 Compressors – 1700 HP each

Vibration Problems

Vibration Problems Customer tried to fix problem – no success Units not fully operational … very

Customer tried to fix problem – no success Units not fully operational … very expensive … called BETA for help

Unacceptable Vibration
Unacceptable
Vibration
Vibration Problems Customer tried to fix problem – no success Units not fully operational … very
Vibration Problems Customer tried to fix problem – no success Units not fully operational … very

Vibration Test Points (from Client)

Example: Piping to Cooler (Riser)

Example: Piping to Cooler (Riser) Excessive Pulsation Forces (lbf Pk-Pk) As Found: Forces > 3 time

Excessive Pulsation Forces (lbf Pk-Pk)

As Found: Forces > 3 time guideline guideline
As Found:
Forces > 3 time guideline
guideline
Example: Piping to Cooler (Riser) Excessive Pulsation Forces (lbf Pk-Pk) As Found: Forces > 3 time
Example: Piping to Cooler (Riser) Excessive Pulsation Forces (lbf Pk-Pk) As Found: Forces > 3 time

Excessive Vibration (forced response model)

Other Problem Locations (Unbalanced Forces, lbf pk-pk)

Other Problem Locations (Unbalanced Forces, lbf pk-pk) Suction Bottle Forces guideline Discharge Bottle Forces guideline •
Suction Bottle Forces guideline
Suction
Bottle Forces
guideline
Discharge Bottle Forces guideline
Discharge
Bottle Forces
guideline

Excessive forces in suction & discharge system Major changes required

Other Problem Locations (Unbalanced Forces, lbf pk-pk) Suction Bottle Forces guideline Discharge Bottle Forces guideline •
Other Problem Locations (Unbalanced Forces, lbf pk-pk) Suction Bottle Forces guideline Discharge Bottle Forces guideline •

Recommendations

Recommendations Modify Piping and Supports (including off-skid) New Bottles (Suction; Discharge)

Modify Piping and Supports (including off-skid)

New Bottles (Suction; Discharge)

Recommendations Modify Piping and Supports (including off-skid) New Bottles (Suction; Discharge)
Recommendations Modify Piping and Supports (including off-skid) New Bottles (Suction; Discharge)
Recommendations Modify Piping and Supports (including off-skid) New Bottles (Suction; Discharge)

Recommendations Implemented

Recommendations Implemented BEFORE AFTER Location: Piping Riser to Cooler
BEFORE
BEFORE
AFTER
AFTER

Location: Piping Riser to Cooler

Case Summary

Case Summary Vibration problems are expensive Small errors during design stage are avoidable Illustrates how vibration

Vibration problems are expensive Small errors during design stage are avoidable Illustrates how vibration analysis techniques used to solve or prevent problems (compared to trial and error fixes)

Case Summary Vibration problems are expensive Small errors during design stage are avoidable Illustrates how vibration
Case Summary Vibration problems are expensive Small errors during design stage are avoidable Illustrates how vibration
Case Summary Vibration problems are expensive Small errors during design stage are avoidable Illustrates how vibration
What Happens to Pulsations if Operating Envelope Changes?
What Happens to Pulsations if
Operating Envelope Changes?
What Happens to Pulsations if Operating Envelope Changes? Design Change : Increased # Initial Operating Points

Design Change: Increased #

Initial Operating Points

of Load Steps and Ps Range

ACCEPTABLE Bottle Shaking Forces
ACCEPTABLE Bottle
Shaking Forces
What Happens to Pulsations if Operating Envelope Changes? Design Change : Increased # Initial Operating Points

Bottle Shaking Forces >200% of Guideline. High Risk of Vibration Problem

What Happens to Pulsations if Operating Envelope Changes? Design Change : Increased # Initial Operating Points

Bottle sizing

Bottle sizing Risks of incorrect bottle sizes: Oversized bottles: Mechanical problems (i.e., low MNF bracing) Expensive

Risks of incorrect bottle sizes:

Oversized bottles:

Mechanical problems (i.e., low MNF bracing) Expensive – materials and welding

Undersized bottles:

Pulsations/forces not controlled secondary volumes

Orifice plates pressure drop lost capacity, fuel gas costs

Bottle sizing Risks of incorrect bottle sizes: Oversized bottles: Mechanical problems (i.e., low MNF bracing) Expensive
Bottle sizing Risks of incorrect bottle sizes: Oversized bottles: Mechanical problems (i.e., low MNF bracing) Expensive

Pulsation mitigation

Pulsation mitigation Surge volumes and resistive elements (orifice plates) are simple but can be costly (capital

Surge volumes and resistive elements (orifice plates) are simple but can be costly (capital and pressure drop)

Pulsation mitigation Surge volumes and resistive elements (orifice plates) are simple but can be costly (capital

Acoustic filtering offers much more pulsation control with some capital cost but very little pressure drop

Pulsation mitigation Surge volumes and resistive elements (orifice plates) are simple but can be costly (capital
Pulsation mitigation Surge volumes and resistive elements (orifice plates) are simple but can be costly (capital
Pulsation mitigation Surge volumes and resistive elements (orifice plates) are simple but can be costly (capital

Factors affecting pulsation mitigation

Factors affecting pulsation mitigation Speed range Difficulty Difficulty Valve unloaders controlling pulsations controlled vibration Fixed Very

Speed

range

 

Difficulty

Difficulty

Valve

unloaders

controlling

pulsations

controlled

vibration

Fixed

 

Very low

Low

Narrow

 

Low

Medium

Wide

 

Medium

High

Fixed

Medium

Low

Narrow

High

Medium

Wide

Very high

High

Factors affecting pulsation mitigation Speed range Difficulty Difficulty Valve unloaders controlling pulsations controlled vibration Fixed Very
Factors affecting pulsation mitigation Speed range Difficulty Difficulty Valve unloaders controlling pulsations controlled vibration Fixed Very

For example, fixed speed =1200rpm, narrow speed range = 900 - 1200rpm, wide speed range = 600 - 1200rpm

Optimizing Pulsation Control

Optimizing Pulsation Control
Optimizing Pulsation Control
Optimizing Pulsation Control
Optimizing Pulsation Control

Case study - Impact of off-skid piping

Case study - Impact of off-skid piping Case study: One stage, two-throw Dresser-Rand 5BVIP2 1200 RPM,

Case study:

One stage, two-throw Dresser-Rand 5BVIP2 1200 RPM, gas speed of sound 1200 ft/s Both single-acting (SA) and double-acting (DA) Off-skid piping comes several weeks after pulsation study was completed - two units with two coolers Stages of analysis:

Bottle sizing with a “damper check” On-skid design with “infinite pipe” termination Off-skid piping added On-skid design is volume-choke filter

Case study - Impact of off-skid piping Case study: One stage, two-throw Dresser-Rand 5BVIP2 1200 RPM,
Case study - Impact of off-skid piping Case study: One stage, two-throw Dresser-Rand 5BVIP2 1200 RPM,

Piping layout

Piping layout Damper On-Skid Check Piping Piping Layout Layout Off-Skid Piping Layout Pulsations: - Cylinder nozzle
Damper On-Skid Check Piping Piping Layout Layout Off-Skid Piping Layout Pulsations: - Cylinder nozzle - Bottle
Damper On-Skid Check Piping Piping Layout Layout
Off-Skid Piping Layout
Pulsations:
-
Cylinder nozzle
-
Bottle outlet nozzle
-
Skid edge
Shaking Forces:
-
Cylinder
-
Bottle
-
Crossover piping

Pulsations - discharge nozzle

Pulsations - discharge nozzle 25 Damper Check 20 On-Skid Off-Skid 15 10 5 0 1x, SA
25 Damper Check 20 On-Skid Off-Skid 15 10 5 0 1x, SA 1x, DA 2x, SA
25
Damper Check
20
On-Skid
Off-Skid
15
10
5
0
1x, SA
1x, DA
2x, SA
2x, DA
Pulsations, psi pk-pk
Pulsations - discharge nozzle 25 Damper Check 20 On-Skid Off-Skid 15 10 5 0 1x, SA
Pulsations - discharge nozzle 25 Damper Check 20 On-Skid Off-Skid 15 10 5 0 1x, SA

Shaking force - crossover piping

Shaking force - crossover piping 450 On-Skid 400 Off-Skid 350 300 250 200 150 100 50
450 On-Skid 400 Off-Skid 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 2x, SA 2x, DA
450
On-Skid
400
Off-Skid
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
2x, SA
2x, DA
Shaking Forces, lbf pk-pk
Shaking force - crossover piping 450 On-Skid 400 Off-Skid 350 300 250 200 150 100 50
Shaking force - crossover piping 450 On-Skid 400 Off-Skid 350 300 250 200 150 100 50

What was the difference?

What was the difference? Hint: the length between the discharge bottle and the cooler header is

Hint: the length between the discharge bottle and the cooler header is 15 feet

What was the difference? Hint: the length between the discharge bottle and the cooler header is

Half-wave between bottle and cooler header box

volume amplified pulsations

Multiple compressors – beat frequency Unit A out of phase Unit B Total pulsation amplitude is
Multiple compressors – beat frequency
Unit A
out of phase
Unit B
Total pulsation amplitude is sum
of pulsations from each unit
Beat frequency is related to the
speed differential between Unit A
and B

Unit A and B run at slightly different speeds

Because of this, the pulsations go in and

Unit A Unit B Combined Pulsations
Unit A
Unit B
Combined Pulsations

Animation courtesy of Dr. Dan Russell, Kettering University

Summary

Summary Shaking forces are more important to control than pulsations Acoustic filters are more effective than

Shaking forces are more important to control than pulsations

Acoustic filters are more effective than orifice plates for controlling pulsations

More pressure drop is required to filter pulsations when wider speed ranges are used or unit single-acting

The more information included in a pulsation study improves accuracy and reduces risk

Summary Shaking forces are more important to control than pulsations Acoustic filters are more effective than
Summary Shaking forces are more important to control than pulsations Acoustic filters are more effective than
4. Mechanical Resonance Presented by: Chris Harper

4. Mechanical Resonance

4. Mechanical Resonance Presented by: Chris Harper

Presented by: Chris Harper

4. Mechanical Resonance Presented by: Chris Harper

Summary

Summary

Example of Mechanical Analysis Model

Example of Mechanical Analysis Model
Example of Mechanical Analysis Model
Example of Mechanical Analysis Model
Example of Mechanical Analysis Model
Example of Mechanical Analysis Model

Mechanical Analysis - MNFs

Mechanical Analysis - MNFs Frequencies where small forces result in large vibration response of structure

Frequencies where small forces result in large vibration response of structure

Mechanical Analysis - MNFs Frequencies where small forces result in large vibration response of structure
Mechanical Analysis - MNFs Frequencies where small forces result in large vibration response of structure
Mechanical Analysis - MNFs Frequencies where small forces result in large vibration response of structure
Mechanical Analysis - MNFs Frequencies where small forces result in large vibration response of structure

Modal Analysis

Modal Analysis Finite Element Analysis (FEA) used to calculate Mechanical Natural Frequencies (MNFs) Elastic Modulus Geometry

Finite Element Analysis (FEA) used to calculate Mechanical Natural Frequencies (MNFs)

Elastic Modulus Geometry Density

Modal Analysis Finite Element Analysis (FEA) used to calculate Mechanical Natural Frequencies (MNFs) Elastic Modulus Geometry
Modal Analysis Finite Element Analysis (FEA) used to calculate Mechanical Natural Frequencies (MNFs) Elastic Modulus Geometry
Modal Analysis Finite Element Analysis (FEA) used to calculate Mechanical Natural Frequencies (MNFs) Elastic Modulus Geometry
Modal Analysis Finite Element Analysis (FEA) used to calculate Mechanical Natural Frequencies (MNFs) Elastic Modulus Geometry

Measure MNFs with Bump Test

Modal Analysis Finite Element Analysis (FEA) used to calculate Mechanical Natural Frequencies (MNFs) Elastic Modulus Geometry
Modal Analysis Finite Element Analysis (FEA) used to calculate Mechanical Natural Frequencies (MNFs) Elastic Modulus Geometry

Demo #2 – Mechanical Natural Frequency

Demo #2 – Mechanical Natural Frequency
Demo #2 – Mechanical Natural Frequency
Demo #2 – Mechanical Natural Frequency

Mechanical Resonance

Mechanical Resonance •We define resonance when force frequency is +/- 10% of MNF •At resonance, displacement

•We define resonance when force frequency is +/- 10% of MNF

•At resonance, displacement can be magnified by 40 times – can cause fatigue

failure

•What happens at 3X?

What about 4X? 6X? Potential resonance, but insufficient force to cause problems MNFs
What about 4X? 6X?
Potential resonance,
but insufficient force
to cause problems
MNFs

|

1x

|

2x

Mechanical Resonance •We define resonance when force frequency is +/- 10% of MNF •At resonance, displacement

|

3x

Frequency

| | | 4x 5x 6x Change design to shift MNF away from resonance
|
|
|
4x
5x
6x
Change design to shift
MNF away from resonance

Forces

Mechanical Resonance •We define resonance when force frequency is +/- 10% of MNF •At resonance, displacement

Mechanical Analysis Design Goal

Mechanical Analysis Design Goal MNF | | 1x 2x Forces | 3x | 4x API 618
MNF | | 1x 2x
MNF
|
|
1x
2x

Forces

|

3x

|

4x

API 618 Design Goal MNF > 2.4 x

Mechanical Analysis Design Goal MNF | | 1x 2x Forces | 3x | 4x API 618
Mechanical Analysis Design Goal MNF | | 1x 2x Forces | 3x | 4x API 618

Wide speed range

Wide speed range Frequency avoidance becomes challenging as speed range is increased Blocking out speeds may

Frequency avoidance becomes challenging as speed range is increased

Blocking out speeds may help avoid resonance

Magnitude of Force No room for MNF to hide MNF
Magnitude
of Force
No room for
MNF to hide
MNF
Wide speed range Frequency avoidance becomes challenging as speed range is increased Blocking out speeds may

|

Wide speed range Frequency avoidance becomes challenging as speed range is increased Blocking out speeds may

|

Wide speed range Frequency avoidance becomes challenging as speed range is increased Blocking out speeds may
Wide speed range Frequency avoidance becomes challenging as speed range is increased Blocking out speeds may

1x

2x

Frequency (orders of run speed)

Speed of

driver

1200 rpm 700 rpm
1200 rpm
700 rpm

MNFs of Main Components in Relation to Compressor Harmonics

MNFs of Main Components in Relation to Compressor Harmonics 2.4 X 1200 RPM Bottle MNFs: 40-70

2.4 X 900 RPM 2.4 X 1200 RPM

Bottle MNFs: 40-70 Hz Typ. Cylinder MNFs: 30-50 Hz Typ. Scrubber Example: Scrubber Design MNFs: Move
Bottle MNFs:
40-70 Hz Typ.
Cylinder MNFs:
30-50 Hz Typ.
Scrubber
Example: Scrubber Design
MNFs:
Move MNF to Higher Frequency
15-30 Hz Typ.
= Extra costs; design modification
20 Hz
40 Hz
50 Hz
60 Hz
70 Hz
MNFs of Main Components in Relation to Compressor Harmonics 2.4 X 1200 RPM Bottle MNFs: 40-70
MNFs of Main Components in Relation to Compressor Harmonics 2.4 X 1200 RPM Bottle MNFs: 40-70

Load Path Considerations

Load Path Considerations Poor Installation/Design: Cylinder Pile compressor and piping skid foundation

Poor Installation/Design:

Cylinder Pile
Cylinder
Pile

compressor

and

piping

skid

foundation

Load Path Considerations Poor Installation/Design: Cylinder Pile compressor and piping skid foundation
Load Path Considerations Poor Installation/Design: Cylinder Pile compressor and piping skid foundation

Better Design:

Load Path Considerations Poor Installation/Design: Cylinder Pile compressor and piping skid foundation

Example: Mechanical Analysis

Example: Mechanical Analysis Demonstrates MNF (Mechanical Natural Frequency), resonance, cylinder gas loads, forced response Analysis, LWN

Demonstrates MNF (Mechanical Natural Frequency), resonance, cylinder gas loads, forced response Analysis, LWN (Long Weld Neck) solution for suction bottles.

Example: Mechanical Analysis Demonstrates MNF (Mechanical Natural Frequency), resonance, cylinder gas loads, forced response Analysis, LWN

Ariel KBZ-6, Gas Load of 7,500 lbs (0-pk) at 3x on stage 3

Example: Mechanical Analysis Demonstrates MNF (Mechanical Natural Frequency), resonance, cylinder gas loads, forced response Analysis, LWN
Example: Mechanical Analysis Demonstrates MNF (Mechanical Natural Frequency), resonance, cylinder gas loads, forced response Analysis, LWN

Case Study – 3rd Stage MNF (API 618 Step

3a)

Case Study – 3rd Stage MNF (API 618 Step 3a)
Case Study – 3rd Stage MNF (API 618 Step 3a)
Case Study – 3rd Stage MNF (API 618 Step 3a)

Case Study – 3rd Stage MNF

Case Study – 3rd Stage MNF
Case Study – 3rd Stage MNF
Case Study – 3rd Stage MNF
Case Study – 3rd Stage MNF

Case Study – Cylinder Gas Loads at 3x?

Case Study – Cylinder Gas Loads at 3x? TABLE L.2 - Cylinder Gas Forces (kips,0-Pk) in

TABLE L.2 - Cylinder Gas Forces (kips,0-Pk) in Horizontal direction Unit: Ariel KBZ/6

STAGE#3 CYLINDER# 2

COND#

01X

02X

03X

04X

05X

06X

07X

08X

09X

10X

75.0

  • 1 5.7

4.3

0.7

3.4

1.2

0.7

0.8

0.9

0.8

  • 2 5.5

69.6

6.5

1.1

2.9

1.2

0.7

0.9

0.9

0.8

  • 3 5.4

67.8

7.0

1.2

2.7

1.2

0.9

0.9

0.8

0.8

  • 4 7.5

65.8

5.3

1.3

2.5

1.1

1.0

1.0

0.7

0.8

49.1

  • 5 4.5

5.2

4.1

1.6

1.1

0.4

0.4

0.2

0.6

  • 6 4.3

48.4

5.5

4.1

1.6

1.2

0.4

0.3

0.3

0.5

Therefore 7500 lbs (0-pk) at 3x compressor run speed. (Weight of large SUV fully reversing 43.5 times per second!) Causes “cylinder stretch”

Case Study – Cylinder Gas Loads at 3x? TABLE L.2 - Cylinder Gas Forces (kips,0-Pk) in
Case Study – Cylinder Gas Loads at 3x? TABLE L.2 - Cylinder Gas Forces (kips,0-Pk) in

Case Study – Forced Response Analysis (API 618 Step 3b1)

Case Study – Forced Response Analysis (API 618 Step 3b1)
Case Study – Forced Response Analysis (API 618 Step 3b1)
Case Study – Forced Response Analysis (API 618 Step 3b1)

Case Study – 3rd Stage MNF, with LWN

Case Study – 3rd Stage MNF, with LWN

Case Study – 3rd Stage MNF, with LWN

Case Study – 3rd Stage MNF, with LWN
Case Study – 3rd Stage MNF, with LWN
Case Study – 3rd Stage MNF, with LWN
Case Study – 3rd Stage MNF, with LWN

Case Study – Cylinder Gas Loads at 4x?

Case Study – Cylinder Gas Loads at 4x? TABLE L.2 - Cylinder Gas Forces (kips,0-Pk) in

TABLE L.2 - Cylinder Gas Forces (kips,0-Pk) in Horizontal direction Unit: Ariel KBZ/6

STAGE#3 CYLINDER# 2

COND#

01X

02X

03X

04X

05X

06X

07X

08X

09X

10X

  • 1 4.3

75.0

5.7

0.7

3.4

1.2

0.7

0.8

0.9

0.8

  • 2 6.5

69.6

5.5

1.1

2.9

1.2

0.7

0.9

0.9

0.8

  • 3 7.0

67.8

5.4

1.2

2.7

1.2

0.9

0.9

0.8

0.8

  • 4 7.5

65.8

5.3

1.3

2.5

1.1

1.0

1.0

0.7

0.8

  • 5 5.2

49.1

4.5

4.1

1.6

1.1

0.4

0.4

0.2

0.6

  • 6 5.5

48.4

4.3

4.1

1.6

1.2

0.4

0.3

0.3

0.5

Gas Loads are less at 4x compressor run speed than at 3x

Case Study – Cylinder Gas Loads at 4x? TABLE L.2 - Cylinder Gas Forces (kips,0-Pk) in
Case Study – Cylinder Gas Loads at 4x? TABLE L.2 - Cylinder Gas Forces (kips,0-Pk) in

Case Study – Forced Response Analysis

Case Study – Forced Response Analysis
Case Study – Forced Response Analysis
Case Study – Forced Response Analysis
Case Study – Forced Response Analysis
Case Study – Forced Response Analysis

Conflict Between Thermal and Dynamic Study

Conflict Between Thermal and Dynamic Study Thermal solution has large distance between clamps, thermal loops, and

Thermal solution has large distance between clamps, thermal loops, and resting supports

Dynamic solution has short distance between clamps and avoids elbows

Balanced solution has clamps and thermal loops

Conflict Between Thermal and Dynamic Study Thermal solution has large distance between clamps, thermal loops, and

API 618 recommends same company conduct both studies

Conflict Between Thermal and Dynamic Study Thermal solution has large distance between clamps, thermal loops, and
Conflict Between Thermal and Dynamic Study Thermal solution has large distance between clamps, thermal loops, and

Solutions - Scrubber Bracing

Solutions - Scrubber Bracing Increase MNF of scrubbers to guideline levels, or inter-tune if possible May

Increase MNF of scrubbers to guideline levels, or inter-tune if possible

May be required on some high RPM compressors

Scrubber attachments more likely to fail

Solutions - Scrubber Bracing Increase MNF of scrubbers to guideline levels, or inter-tune if possible May
Solutions - Scrubber Bracing Increase MNF of scrubbers to guideline levels, or inter-tune if possible May
Solutions - Scrubber Bracing Increase MNF of scrubbers to guideline levels, or inter-tune if possible May
Solutions - Scrubber Bracing Increase MNF of scrubbers to guideline levels, or inter-tune if possible May
Solutions - Scrubber Bracing Increase MNF of scrubbers to guideline levels, or inter-tune if possible May
5. Torsional Vibration Presented by: Chris Harper

5. Torsional Vibration

5. Torsional Vibration Presented by: Chris Harper

Presented by: Chris Harper

Torsional Vibration – Crank Failures

Torsional Vibration – Crank Failures

Torsional Vibration – Coupling Failures

Torsional Vibration – Coupling Failures

Video #3 – Torsional Vibration

Video #3 – Torsional Vibration
Video #3 – Torsional Vibration
Video #3 – Torsional Vibration
Video #3 – Torsional Vibration

Purpose of Torsional Analysis

Purpose of Torsional Analysis To predict excessive vibratory stress or amplitude problems in driveline of driver

To predict excessive vibratory stress or amplitude problems in driveline of driver / coupling / compressor

Potential Torsional Problems

Compressor/Engine Crankshaft failure

Motor Shaft Failures or Spider Failure (welded joints)

Coupling Failure (Disk Pack, Rubber, Other)

Damper/Coupling Heat Loads

Compressor auxiliary drive amplitudes

Engine Free End Amplitudes (Gear Problems)

Motor Free End Amplitudes (Fan)

Current Pulsation

Purpose of Torsional Analysis To predict excessive vibratory stress or amplitude problems in driveline of driver
Purpose of Torsional Analysis To predict excessive vibratory stress or amplitude problems in driveline of driver

Torsional Vibration - Applications

Torsional Vibration - Applications A TVA should be done for : Any new driver or compressor

A TVA should be done for:

Any new driver or compressor combination

Any change in compressor configuration (different cylinders)

Different motor (same frame rarely means same rotor inside)

Different operating conditions (than what was originally studied)

Drive trains experiencing failures

VFD applications

Critical applications

Risk Chart May help to determine if a Study is required

http://www.betamachinery.com/uploadedFiles/001_-

_Design_Services/001_-

_Reciprocating_Compressors/Recip_RISK_Chart_Vibration_Control_3.

1.xls

Torsional Vibration - Applications A TVA should be done for : Any new driver or compressor
Torsional Vibration - Applications A TVA should be done for : Any new driver or compressor

Thorough Checks Required

Thorough Checks Required Analyze full operating map PLUS upset conditions Include tolerance band to consider fabrication

Analyze full operating map PLUS upset conditions Include tolerance band to consider fabrication and installation uncertainty Motor stub shaft to be the same diameter as the compressor stub

Risk of Failure at some pressures and speeds

Thorough Checks Required Analyze full operating map PLUS upset conditions Include tolerance band to consider fabrication
Thorough Checks Required Analyze full operating map PLUS upset conditions Include tolerance band to consider fabrication
6. Pipe Strain Presented by: Chris Harper

6. Pipe Strain

6. Pipe Strain Presented by: Chris Harper

Presented by: Chris Harper

Pipe Strain

Pipe Strain Several recent jobs where we encountered unexplained high frequency vibrations and failures Isolated the

Several recent jobs where we encountered unexplained high frequency vibrations and failures

Isolated the cause as pipe strain

Pipe Strain Several recent jobs where we encountered unexplained high frequency vibrations and failures Isolated the

Effects

Effects Pipe strain can: Increase natural frequencies (like a guitar string) Reduce damping (high frequency vibrations

Pipe strain can:

Increase natural frequencies (like a guitar string)

Reduce damping (high frequency vibrations increase)

Increase mean stress in system (making it more likely to fail due to vibrations)

Effects Pipe strain can: Increase natural frequencies (like a guitar string) Reduce damping (high frequency vibrations
Effects Pipe strain can: Increase natural frequencies (like a guitar string) Reduce damping (high frequency vibrations

Contributing Factors

Contributing Factors Misaligned flanges Gaps between pipe and support

Misaligned flanges Gaps between pipe and support

Contributing Factors Misaligned flanges Gaps between pipe and support

Flange Misalignment

Flange Misalignment ASME B31.3 offers guidance for flange alignment

ASME B31.3 offers guidance for flange alignment

Flange Misalignment ASME B31.3 offers guidance for flange alignment
Flange Misalignment ASME B31.3 offers guidance for flange alignment

Solutions

Solutions Custom or modified spool pieces, orifice plates, etc. Shim between piping and supports, rather than

Custom or modified spool pieces, orifice plates, etc.

Shim between piping and supports, rather than just tightening clamp bolts

Post-weld heat treating (e.g., vessel nozzles) Designing more flexibility into system

Small details are important!

Solutions Custom or modified spool pieces, orifice plates, etc. Shim between piping and supports, rather than
Solutions Custom or modified spool pieces, orifice plates, etc. Shim between piping and supports, rather than
7. Small Bore Piping Vibration Presented by: Chris Harper

7. Small Bore Piping Vibration

7. Small Bore Piping Vibration Presented by: Chris Harper

Presented by: Chris Harper

Small Bore Piping - Introduction

Small Bore Piping - Introduction Also called Branch Connections Generally 2 inches (50mm) or less Instrumentation

Also called Branch Connections Generally 2 inches (50mm) or less Instrumentation connection (taps, thermowells, gauges), vent lines, drains, site glasses, etc. Common on piping and vessels near compressors, pumps, etc.

Small Bore Piping - Introduction Also called Branch Connections Generally 2 inches (50mm) or less Instrumentation

Demo #3 – Small Bore Piping

Demo #3 – Small Bore Piping
Demo #3 – Small Bore Piping
Demo #3 – Small Bore Piping

Video #4 – Small Bore Piping Vibration

Video #4 – Small Bore Piping Vibration
Video #4 – Small Bore Piping Vibration
Video #4 – Small Bore Piping Vibration
Video #4 – Small Bore Piping Vibration

Why is SBP a High Risk Problem?

Why is SBP a High Risk Problem? Small bore piping is often overlooked: May not be

Small bore piping is often overlooked:

May not be explicitly designed - field installed

Not shown on compressor package GAs Not included in typical pulsation/vibration study Difficult to measure properly in the field Failure can lead to significant downtime

Why is SBP a High Risk Problem? Small bore piping is often overlooked: May not be
Why is SBP a High Risk Problem? Small bore piping is often overlooked: May not be

Field Measurements

Measure Relative Vibration, if required
Measure Relative Vibration,
if required

Steady State (Running) Transient (Start-up) Further check/investigation if exceeds screening guideline

Field Measurements Measure Relative Vibration, if required Steady State (Running) Transient (Start-up) Further check/investigation if exceeds

Assessment Methods

Assessment Methods Energy Institute Need dynamic force & poor design & poor location = high likelihood

Energy Institute

Assessment Methods Energy Institute Need dynamic force & poor design & poor location = high likelihood
Assessment Methods Energy Institute Need dynamic force & poor design & poor location = high likelihood

Need dynamic force & poor design & poor location = high likelihood of failure

Assessment Methods Energy Institute Need dynamic force & poor design & poor location = high likelihood
Assessment Methods Energy Institute Need dynamic force & poor design & poor location = high likelihood

GMRC

Tables of lengths and weights

FEA

Calculate allowable vibration before failure

Assessment Methods Energy Institute Need dynamic force & poor design & poor location = high likelihood
Assessment Methods Energy Institute Need dynamic force & poor design & poor location = high likelihood
Assessment Methods Energy Institute Need dynamic force & poor design & poor location = high likelihood
8. Start-up Vibration Survey Presented by: Chris Harper

8. Start-up Vibration Survey

8. Start-up Vibration Survey Presented by: Chris Harper

Presented by: Chris Harper

Steps for Commissioning

Steps for Commissioning Note the operating condition (speed, loading, pressure, temperature, SG) Take vibration readings (remember

Note the operating condition (speed, loading, pressure, temperature, SG)

Take vibration readings (remember units!) at consistent locations

When to call an expert Solutions

Steps for Commissioning Note the operating condition (speed, loading, pressure, temperature, SG) Take vibration readings (remember
Steps for Commissioning Note the operating condition (speed, loading, pressure, temperature, SG) Take vibration readings (remember

Typical vibration measurement points

Scrubber: Top seam Bottle: Both ends of bottle (seam); sometimes middle Cylinder: Cylinder head end Compressor
Scrubber:
Top seam
Bottle:
Both ends of bottle (seam); sometimes
middle
Cylinder:
Cylinder head end
Compressor frame
& engine:
Crank height drive and
non-drive ends
Pipe:
PSV:
Main skid:
Small Bore Piping:
Elbows, between supports
Top of valve body
Front and rear corners
End of cantilever; between supports
Plus other points if vibrations at above points are suspect!

Not all vibrations are alike

Not all vibrations are alike Be clear what is being measured and what guideline is being

Be clear what is being measured and what guideline is being applied

Overall vs. individual frequencies Units: mm/s vs. inches/second Peak or RMS (or pseudo RMS) Frequency range Apply appropriate guidelines (time-domain vs. frequency domain guidelines)

Not all vibrations are alike Be clear what is being measured and what guideline is being
Not all vibrations are alike Be clear what is being measured and what guideline is being

When do I call an expert?

When do I call an expert? Basic repairs/modifications do not work Try temporary bracing first Very

Basic repairs/modifications do not work Try temporary bracing first Very high vibration levels Vibrations are high in multiple areas Vibrations are high for multiple operating conditions Suspect pulsations are high High vibrations away from compressor Need help measuring or interpreting data

When do I call an expert? Basic repairs/modifications do not work Try temporary bracing first Very
When do I call an expert? Basic repairs/modifications do not work Try temporary bracing first Very

Solutions

Solutions Vibration = Dynamic Force x Dynamic Flexibility Control forces Pulsation control devices like orifice plates
Vibration = Dynamic Force x Dynamic Flexibility
Vibration = Dynamic Force x Dynamic Flexibility

Control forces Pulsation control devices like orifice plates Moving acoustic natural frequencies Control flexibility Gussets Bracing Modified or additional clamping Moving mechanical natural frequencies

Solutions Vibration = Dynamic Force x Dynamic Flexibility Control forces Pulsation control devices like orifice plates
Solutions Vibration = Dynamic Force x Dynamic Flexibility Control forces Pulsation control devices like orifice plates

Braces – Test temporary brace

Braces – Test temporary brace Add wooden brace as field test
Add wooden brace as field test
Add wooden brace
as field test
Braces – Test temporary brace Add wooden brace as field test
Braces – Test temporary brace Add wooden brace as field test
9. Summary Presented by: Shelley Greenfield

9. Summary

9. Summary Presented by: Shelley Greenfield

Presented by: Shelley Greenfield

Video #5 - Summary

Video #5 - Summary
Video #5 - Summary
Video #5 - Summary
Video #5 - Summary

Summary - Vibration

Summary - Vibration Vibration = Dynamic Force x Dynamic Flexibility Vibration cannot be eliminated, but can
Vibration = Dynamic Force x Dynamic Flexibility
Vibration = Dynamic Force x Dynamic Flexibility

Vibration cannot be eliminated, but can be controlled through a balance between cost, performance and reliability

The earlier vibration risk is identified, the easier (and cheaper) it is to deal with

Summary - Vibration Vibration = Dynamic Force x Dynamic Flexibility Vibration cannot be eliminated, but can
Summary - Vibration Vibration = Dynamic Force x Dynamic Flexibility Vibration cannot be eliminated, but can

Draft Vibration Specification (GMRC)

Scope of Work for Compressor System (Pipeline, Gas Injection/Withdrawal, Critical Application)

Study

Analysis Step

Description

 
  • A. Preliminary Design Review &

Project Planning Stage:

Preliminary Pulsation Bottle Sizing

Assess operating range, unloading plan, piping layout options. Provide preliminary pulsation control scheme and estimated vessel sizing.

 
  • B. Torsional Vibration Analysis (TVA)

Assess stress and vibration on crankshaft(s) (driver and compressor system), and coupling dynamic torque effects.

C

Pulsation Analysis

Pulsation study of compressor and piping system (including package and station piping). Provide final recommendations on pulsation control solution.

D

Pressure Drop and Performance Report

Evaluate pressure drop of pulsation control devices and piping system concurrently. Evaluate impact on compressor performance.

E

Mechanical

Mechanical dynamic analysis of on-skid piping, supports, and vessels. FEA modelling can be applied where

Analysis

necessary.

 

Provide recommendations for small bore piping support and vibration control.

Optional: Forced Response Analysis of the Compressor Manifold and Vessels when necessary. (Proper design practices using resonance avoidance can eliminate the need for this task.)

Optional: Forced Response Analysis of Off-Skid Piping System when necessary. (Proper design practices using resonance avoidance can eliminate the need for this task.)

F

Piping Flexibility (Thermal Stress) Analysis

Static Analysis of piping and vessels to evaluate stress and equipment loads due to weight, pressure and temperature changes.

G

Skid Dynamic and Static Analysis

Evaluate vibration of the skid and equipment mounted on the skid due to dynamic loads from the compressor and driver. The foundation and the geotechnical properties should be considered. Evaluate skid design relative to lifting.

H

Commission Testing

Evaluate vibration of compressor, piping, skid, foundation and small bore piping. Evaluate pulsation, pressure drop, performance, and torsional vibration.

Draft Vibration Specification (GMRC) Scope of Work for Compressor System (Pipeline, Gas Injection/Withdrawal, Critical Application) Study
Draft Vibration Specification (GMRC) Scope of Work for Compressor System (Pipeline, Gas Injection/Withdrawal, Critical Application) Study

Key Take-Aways

Key Take-Aways Properly specify vibration studies (scope, etc.) Assess vibrations on-skid and off-skid (across operating envelope)

Properly specify vibration studies (scope, etc.)

Assess vibrations on-skid and off-skid (across operating envelope)

Thermal/Mechanical: performed by same group

Consider small bore vibration survey

Attention to details (alignment, installation, etc.)

Start vibration study early

Attend GMRC’s 2.5 day course, “Compressor Station Vibration,” for more training.

Key Take-Aways Properly specify vibration studies (scope, etc.) Assess vibrations on-skid and off-skid (across operating envelope)
Key Take-Aways Properly specify vibration studies (scope, etc.) Assess vibrations on-skid and off-skid (across operating envelope)

Questions?

Questions? Chris Harper ( charper@betamachinery.com ) Shelley Greenfield Gary Maxwell

Chris Harper (charper@betamachinery.com) Shelley Greenfield Gary Maxwell

Questions? Chris Harper ( charper@betamachinery.com ) Shelley Greenfield Gary Maxwell
Questions? Chris Harper ( charper@betamachinery.com ) Shelley Greenfield Gary Maxwell