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1833-1840 sPArN
Parl II: TheCrtsttno Forces

plates by Conrad Cainu. Colour by RalphWeaver

(ln this a icle I am delighed to supplement my own diagrams preparedby Ralph with colour plates of the ombatants, Wea!er. theSecretary of the Conlinenlal WarsSociety. fhis society exists to further rsearchinto European warfare (includingwars conducted in other continents by European forces) in the nineteenth century,and publishes a newsletter, TheForciqn Cone.spondent. Newmembers arealways welcome andshould contact Mr Weaver at 32 Perwell Avenue.Rayners Lane,Harrow,Middlesex HA2 9LS.) artilleryreadyto serve, but in factduringthe conflictfar fewer wereavailable, andall seem to have served asinfantry(theonly artillerypieceswere 16guns ofthe Madr'dmilitia,whoparaded them aroundbehindthe mulesnormallyemployed to pull the municiDal dust-carts). Naturally,the Militia wasunableto performas well as the regulars, for lakof training,but it nevertheless emerged with greatspirit, particularly creditfromth war,oftenhaving shown in the defence of suchstrongplaces as Bilbao, and in 183,{, Eibar.Whensummoned to surrenderthe lattertown.itsMilitia wrotebackto the attacking general commander addressing hirn as 'the litle leaderof Biscayan traitors and cowardJ'. As previoudymentioned. relationsbetween the Militia and rhe wereparticularly Carlists bad, Five other sources of troopswere the Carabinros, volunteers,and the Portuguese, Frenchand British legions, which will be covered in separate sections. Finally,the Queenhad th useof the navy,and this included threebattalions of Marine lnfantry,who sometimes sewed on land.


\{,hy Oneofthe mostimpo antreasons theCarlistsin theNorth wereableto oryanise themselves beforebeingputdownby the wasthat in 1833 forcesof the centralgovemment the Spanish regulararmy wasnot very large,and. in somebranches, not very good either. Over the next sevenyearsit grew fairly moderately in size;but therewasnothingmoderate aboutits improvement in quality. Thisarticle will describe the Queen's forcearmby arm,but as a preliminarynote it is well to set out the severaldifferent 'armies'at her disposal.The regular army was raisedby THEINFANTRY with longand Due partly to the terrain over which much of the war was conscription, andconsisted ofinfantryregiments glorious traditions ratherasin Britain,although someof the fought,the infantrywas the predominant arm of the Liberal rcgimen$were older than any British equivalent aswell as army,although not to thesame extentaswith theCarlist forces. morerecently raised bodies. Sometimes;t is hardto keeptrack Itwas organised andtrained afterFrench models; the standard of regiments overthe decades, however, because nol only did drill'bookwasthe 1791 R6glement, the same ashadbeenused they changetheir names,but the political uncertaintyand byNapoleon's army,andso battalions couldform line, column mistrustof the 1820's had meantthat the Spanish maniafor andsquare in the normalEuropean way.Lineswere eithertwo wasgivenfull rein. The situation re organisation waswont in or three men deep. Naturally,colunns were rnuchusedin thecavalry;beause Ferdinand VIII sawthisarm asparticularly combar, r) rheywe'e easie'ro mdnoeuvre in mountainous "Liberal", he had dissolved many ancientbodiesand set up countryside thanwerelinesiafterZumalaoirregui hadinflicted entirely newregiments. several deleatson the Cristinos.aheytook to formingthick It wasasa resultof the King'slossof controlof hisarmyfor columns in battlewhichthecarlistswerereluctant to aDoroach. power,he Squares threeyean that in 1824, whenhe regained absolute wererheclassic means of \eerng ott ca\alry. bul drd created a RoyalGuardthat wasdesigned to be totallyloyalto not, contrary to popularbelief,always work- asIateas 1866 a the thrcne. It was, no doubt, partly inspiredby Napoleon's Prussian square, with needl-guns, wasbroknby the Hanove6lite, but moredirectlybased on the revivedRoyal Guardof rians- and in Spain,the formationouldfail both sides. For LouisXVIII notonly because l-ouiswasa fellowBourbonand example,at Maella in 1838,two baltalionsof the C6rdoba absolutist, but because Spain, even more than the rest of regiment,an old-established regular unit, were rolled over Europe,took to imitatingFrenchmililaryfashion in the years bcause theycouldnot form square in time. At the endo{ the afterWaterloo. The Guardwasdiv'dedinto palace bodyguards battleof Herraraon 24thAugust1837, all tbat remained ofthe - who will not be described here and the GuardiaReal govemment's forceson the field were a coupleof baltalions. Ert?dof, a miniature army,complete in all arms.andmanned Carlisthorsemen charged the squares several times,and the personnel. by chosen Apart from a tendency to play politics, lancers finally broke them after the cavalryhad riddenround always a riskin sucha corps,the RoyalGuardwasa greatasset them,inflictingcasualties (Verylikely with pistols andcarbines. to the govemment, beinga fi$t-ratefightingforce. theLiberales hadrun out of ammunition by thisstage). A second recently-rahed corpswasthe NationalMilitia, or The mostimportanlskill that the armyof 1833 hadto leam Urranar,re-titledNationalGuardfrom 1835. The Militia had wasthat ofskirmishing. whichwasessentialfor all troops,not beena short-lived, highlypoliticalbody duringRiego'srule, just those officiallydesignated lightregiments or companies. In andwasrevived by a decree of 16thFebruary 1834 to fightthe connection with this, I will summarisethe 1837 Trutado de Carlists. Theoretically all men betweenl8 and 50 who had lictica, writtenby a Guardcaptain andpublished officially. It is certain levels of wealihwereliableto serve. but in oncticethe a practical work, showinghow troopsshould b trainedto fight number ofmilitia who couldbe deployed waslimitedby a lack the Carlists giventhe natureofthewar, it effetively, although o{ armsandtheneedto makesureall members heldDoliticallv wouldhavebeenimpossible for all colonels to havereceived a correcr opinion\. Onewflter(Duncan. JJ7)esrimar;d thari; copyby 1840, anda thorough overhaul ofdrill hadto awaitthe - like the Frenchrevoluiionaries 1841 therewereover 195,000 infantry,6,000 cavalry and7,000 1840's. Manv resiments

37 wouldhavehadto learnon ahejob. DIAGRAMS T.3 The aimofthe l/arado wasto trainthesoldier in closeorder (Afl re-dmwn ftom Tmtado de TAdica. This work shows a drilltrjr, and lhenin skirmishing, so that the finished product six-company battalion,but the movements would havebeen would be able ro act in formed massesor en zuerri d. as just the sameforthe standard eight-company unit.) circumstances drcrared. The Crisrinoswere trying. as had 1. The battalionin line sendshalf its companies forward. Zumalaceregui, to produce a'lmiversalinfantryman", but by put These in tum out a skirmish line. very differentmerhods. They had learnt by bitter experience not onlythedangers ofhavinga forcethatwas unable to fightor movefastin brokenterlain, but alsothoseof usingunrrained troops- secondlineones,admittedly- that were not solid enough to stand up to Cabrera's armyon the plainsofAragon. The lratudo first shows how the individualis ro be driled. then the company, then the bartalion.Lineswere two-deep, and,for a corps oflight infanlry.whichis thebodyfor whichthe trathewaswritten,all mo\ementwasdoneat pasorcdoblado to bugle-calh. Thereweresquares of l company,3 companies, and a wholebattalion,somewith facesfour deep.Linesand columnswere trained to advanceand fall back. and Dass 2. A line formsinto a columnof march(4 wide) to crossa expediriou.l) lhrough defrle.. Afrerclo,eorderdnll hadbeen bridge, andre-deploys into a columnofattack. ompleled, the menwere dividedinto groups of 16 or 20 for practice.Each file fomed a pair. The two men skirmishing would operateat variousdistanes from eachother, but not morethan8 paes apart,and not morethan24 paces from the nextpair.The skirmish line ("la guerrilla") couldbe srraighr, or asemicircle, assuited thesituation. Soldienshould makeuse of anynaluralcover: whenoneof apairwa. loading. lheoLher was lo leepqalchwirha loaded sererheskitls musker. Alsoraughl of advancingto the front and side, and (most difficult) retreating, shooting a1l the while. Once thesesmall groupswere trained. two groupswere taughthowto operate together. thencompany skirmishing was - normallyhalf a company introduced was to be er gre'r7la whilethe otherhalfremained in the rear asa support. Finally, the wholebattalionexerched together, so part could form a skirmishline;everso often men were fed from the supports, and others retired. so the guenilla was kept fresh, and strengthened or wakened asrequiredwasable One battalion to coverthe wholeof a mulli-batralion columnon all sides. the outposts beingstrongest on the sidewilh the mostdemanding tefain. 3- A line formsinlo a columnof marchto pass a defile,then formsanother line.


In 1833the army and guard numbereh about 116,000 in all (excluding volunteers andmilitia),the greatmajorityfoot. All battalions had eight companies, exceptin the Militia, where battalions variedbetween six and ten companies. Guards and Marinebattalions lacked flank companis, but in the line there wersix centrecompanies (f&rr/eror, or cazadoles in the light infantry) and t\|o companiasde prclerencia ({anadercs ^nd cazadorcsin rhe line, carubinercsand d/alorer in the light units).Grenadier companies couldbegrouped togetherto fonn There$'ere24 line regiments, eachof threebattalions, and Table A (from Clonard)showsthe 17 rgiments he listsas in SDain in 1829. However. confusion is boundto ariseduto the re-naming andre-numbering of regiments beforeandafterthe war. and it may not list all the units that fought in the war. Cenainlyat leastone extra regiment.'La Princesa', served. \ere also There 42single pro!incial bal'alion regiment.. some ofwhichlaterbecame regulars. andwhichcouldthemselves be - 'Guadalaiara' very ancient wasfounded in 1667 andbecane regular after the war. In peacetime. only a cadre of each provincial unil wasnobilised;in war they ated,lookd,and behaved asregulars. Nine regiments of light infantry servedin the war. three, includingReinaGobemadora'. beingraised duringits course. Allhad two battalions. exceptReins Gobernadora', whichhad

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in lhe Guards, two Therewerefour regiments ofGranaderos - all ofprovincial Grenadirs. andtwo of Provincial Cazadores had threebattalions. The Drovincial units had beenraisedin regiments andby 1833 1824 ftomflank companies of provincial weretull-timesoldiers. - th war Therewereno true corpsin the Napoleonic sense wason too smalla scale-andno standardised organisation for division or brigades. All thebattalions ofa regiment mightfight together. or be in differenttheatres at the sametime. Guards werc sometimes with the massed, but alsocould be brigaded lineandprovincial units,although it wasnot regarded asa good ideato include National Militia in field armies. unless therewas no option. lnfantry sometimes co'operated admitablywith

38 - andboth armscould be cavalry- for example,at Chiva in 1837 includedin the samedivision. For example,the armythat lost at Maella was an excellent division called "El Ramilete" (the pickedones),conposedof all tkee battalions of 'C6rdoba', two of'Africa', two squadrons of the lst Line Cavalry and one ofthe 6th Light Cavalry. 18.3mn bore ("de a t7" in contemporary parlance- l7 balls weighedone (Spanish) pound). In 1835it was decidedto standardise on the Britishboreof 19.3mm ("de a 15")because of the largeDumbenof B.itish weapons then in circulation, and a 1836modelwasproducedin this calibre still Frnchin style. The 'Reina Gobemadora' regiment seems to have carried Baker rifles.


The fu[ dressfor the line is shownin PlateI; the cut is basedon that of contemporary France,althoughthe predominantcolour of Spanish unifoms, turqru, seems to havebeena rather lighter or brighter shade than the indigo of the French soldier. (Natunlly, there wasno standardisation of the actualcolour of garmedts,especiallyin the field.) On the shalo - which was sometimes more cylindrical than illustmted here - wasthe red cockadeof Spain,wom on aI shakosin the army, aod a plume and band in companycolours. (Red for granaderos, geen for yellow for fusileros.) cazadores. The flank companies wore coloured epaulettes, and, usually, yellow barc on the cuffs known asrardinetdr.Trousen werc white or pale grey. NCO'S, drunmels and flank companieswore a hanger, either in a doublftog with a bayonet,or by itself on the left hip, withe the bayonet on the other shoulder,belt, forward of the cartridgebox, in Frncy style. The pack was of brown leather; aboveit was the geatcoat, rolled into a blue-and-white striped bag. Drunlnels had red andgold laceand,probably, white chewons on their sleeves. Rank badges will be covercdat the end of the article, It is very likely that evenparadedressdid not conJormalways to regulations,and certainly it was ftequently much modified for campaigning(Plates2,3,4). The shakocould be coveredin oilskin, or rcplacedby a turqui forage-cap,tasselledand piped in companycolouls. nbarSdrar (rope-soledsandals)replaced boots. The knee-lengthgreatcoatsaw much service, as did a sLightlyshoaer rurqui trock-coai.with collar in company colours. Where appropriate, epauleites and sardinatascould appearon thesegaments. Soldien might leavetheir hangers, andone 6oss-belt, in store, and they took up a white waistbelt to keepequipmentin place. Eight of the light regimentslooked much the same,excpt theh coarees and trousers weregreen.rhe tormerwith yellow collars, piping, and cuff-flaps. The buttons were white. Except (i.e. the cenlre companies) thal the caTadores had yelow epaulettesand the tiradorcs none, Companydisrinctions*ere as in lhe Line. Plate 5 shows the 'Reina cobemadora"s distinctivefield dress,with black belts; its full drsscoateewas green,facedlight blue, and double-breasted. The cut of the Marine Infantry rmifom wasmuchlike that of the line, but in rather differcnt colours. Facings,piping, and epaulettes were rcd, and all wore yellow sardinetas_ The shako hadarcd bandandbluepop-pom; equipment wasblack. The Royal Guard infaotry's unifoms are too complex to describein tu detail here. The fu dressof 1$3 fPhte 6) was muchthe samefor all regiments,the Provincial regimentsusing yellow lace, and the catadores wearing a shako aod yellow epaulettes.This wasmodified by the removal of the chestlac, rcplacement of the bearskinby a cylindrical shako,the addition of a waistbelt, and of rcd trousers.Plat7 showsone variant of field dress;coveredshakoes, sandals, white linen cartridge,box covers,q/hitelinen packs,and greatcoats (a darker grey than in the line) were alsoused.All ranksshouldhavecarried hanqers. Theredoesnol seem b havebeena setdress for lhe Miiiria; eachregionor town pmbablyhadits own. However, the general appeamnce*as probably much like that of the Line, with shakoes or turqui foragecaps,coatees and frock-coats. S$ords are covered in the captions.The standard muskets were the 1815and 1828models,both French in aDDearance. of

u)iththelegend"viva IsabelII" A nonregulation officer's su)ord Blade length 30' (76cnts).Like a Ctistino infantry swottu, it would havebeencaried in a bla.k lEathetscabbardwith brass mounts,suspended from a waist-or shouldrr-bebin a frog. By rcgul^tions, cente conpany olficercshould have cofied a staight-blided sttord. (AU u'eapotlsappearby pemission of a

Ttato Frcnch st+'otds that may have seenaction in the war. The FrcnchForcign Legion mat havebeenequippedn)iththeModel "coupe-chout" but il not they A'ouldhave pseudo-Roman 1831 , still beencarryingtheod"sabrc-biquet" (thespecimenshown is the Model 1816). The side arm of Spanishflank conpany rank-and-file wat a copy of the lancr y)eapon- sergeanr and officetshad a slightlr longerhangetv)ith a thrce-batgund.

Ofthe I16,000 menin thearmyin 1833, only8,500 werecavalry, andof thesenot all would havehad horses. The total numberof regimentsroseftom sixteento ighteenby 1840(seeTable C); the difficulties of providing enoughhones and the natureof the theatres of war precluded greater expansion. The cavalry exceptfor the Royal Guard was not paticularly good at the beginningof the war, fearsof policital unreliability andexpense of maintenance having harmed it more than the infantry. However,the horsedarm leamt its trade, andby the time of the Royal Expedition it was a highly proficient force, limited only by a lack of opportunity to show its full potential on many The nature of the war meant that the squadron,rather than the regiment, was the normal tactical unit, and the various squadronsof a regiment might se e separatelyfor years on end. In tfteory both Line and Guard cavalry was divided into ("line") andlightunits,but in Facticall troopeEhadto heavy undertake all the duties of cavalry, acting as convoy escorts, scouts,etc. aswell as a striking force in battle. The exploits in theopenfield naturally haveattracted themostattention, but it could be arguedthat the sizeof Spanish horses(smaller,slower and weaker, but better on broken ground, and - like Spanish

soldiers- morehardy andfrugal than their British counteryarts) made them more suited to scouting than fomal charges. Various genrals, notably Espartro and hon, did keep concentmtedbodies of horse which could be vry effective in battle, but theswere nomally countedin the hundredsrather than the thousands. Excellent results could be obtained in batde wherc cavalry and infantry supported one another, and the fact that the Cristino Horswassmal in numbersperhapsmadeit easierfor th generalsto use it in a sensiblemanner,and to prevent a of exclusivityand arrogancethat wasa featue of cavalry sense in some armies. For one instance of how usefi even one reginent - in this case an 6lite one - could be, there is Espartero'svictory over Guergu6on 22June1838 at Pefracrrada. T\e Carnst'H'i:arcs de.4rkbnr' tkew back someCristino light infantry, and were endangeriDg units of Guard infadry, when they wer chargedby the'Hrtsarcs de Ia Pi cesa'.The Liberal hussars went on to defeata squadronof Carlist lancers, take 3m prisoners,4 guns,and rcut the enemyarmy. More examplesof distinguishedwork can be found among the deedsof Leon's force, which at Los Arcos the sameyear consisted entirely of cavalry - Gmnadms a Caballo and Lancerosof the Royal Guard, British lancers,and the lst and 3rd Line. It charged and beat a Carlist cavalry force in a face-to-face baltle in which, it is said,only oneshotwasfired. At Allo the next year kon (now lading 1 squadroneachof the Cazadores and Comcerosof the Guard, the British lancrs,and line and light horse) was buming Carlist crops, when the Cazadoresfound themselvesat risk fiom a flank charge by Carlist hoNe. Leon had placed the Comcerosand Bitish in a position to take care of suchan eventuality,which they did by routing the Carlists. In 1828 each regiment should have had 480 men and 384 horses,in foul squadrons eachof two companies, exceptfor the Guards,whosefour rcgimentseachhad648menandtl4 horss (atrd fm too many officers many of thesewould have been srviDgfor social rather than military reasons).Until 1835all regirnentsexcpt the Cuards equippedtheir men with swords and carbins,but in that year all troopersin the line and light regimnts were convertedinto lancers,exceptfor one company oftiradores per regiment, who retainedcarbines.The 'lltirares de la Princesa'took trp the lancein 1835.It appears that ooly the Lanceros of the Royal Guard carried lances; all of the Cazadores hadcarbines,asdid one tiradore companyin eachof the other three resiments.

Somefeaturesllerc similar for all cavalry.The metalcolour was white (exceptfor the Hussars),and a[ units savethe Coracsfor (cuirassiers) had a pouch-blt,doubldfor rhosewith carbines. Troopersof Guard regimentshadwhite epauleties,of all others (exceptthe Hussa6) brassshoulder-scales. Plates8 and 9 show the Light and Line cavalry in their 1824 uniforms, replacdby thoseshownin Plates10and 11in 1835. The line cavalry's horse-fumiture was like that of a French Napoteonic cuirassier - turqui edged whit with a white sheepskin unti 1835,whenit changed to sky-blue,edgedyelow. Th light cavalry had a pointed shabraqueand round valise, sky-blueedgedred, and a black sheepskin,edgedred; in 1835 the colour ofthe cloth changedto green,edgedyellow. When they were raised in 1833the'Hrisares de la Princesa' had a most elabomte costume- white shako,sky-bludolman facedwhite, white pelissewith black fur, yellow lace, a red and yellow banel-sash,and sky-blue ovenlls with a yellow stripe. They were the only troops to usea sabretache, of black learher. The pointed shabraque and round valisewere sky-blue, edged yellow. There wasno sheepskin.This uniform wasrcplacedin

1838 by red lancer coatees faced white (ex-British?) and czapskas,and in 1839by sky-blue jackets, faced white, and wide-toppedshaloes. Cavalrymen appear to hav been issud shel-jackets - in yellow for the Hussa$ - and foragecaps.Trumpeterswore red in the Line and Light units; in the Hussars their lacewasof this colour, and the coloun of dolman and pelissewere in rcveised colours.Their shakoes were sky-blue. As with the infanty, the Guad cavalry uniforms are too complex a subject for me to cover fully here, so I wi[ linit mysef to describingwhat seemsto have been the situation by the middl of the war, when all four regimentswore much the sameuniform. This consistedof a single-breasted, short-tailed turqui coate, with red cufis, collar, and piping. There was white laceon th collar, andon the cuffsof the heaq rcgiments. The booted overallswere grarci (Frcnch: garanc),a deepish red. Coracerosappearto havegive[ up their cuirasses towards the endofthe war, althoughthey werestill usingthem at Huesca in 1837- they looked like French cuirasses, with brasscenbal Dlates. Their headgardistinguished the regimentsfrom eachother. The Coraceroshad a hlmet like that of the Dre-1835Line cavalry. but witb a forward{urlingbearskincresai lhe tiradores of the regiment had a shakolike the 1812Russiankiwer. The Granaderosa Caballo had a tall bearskincap, with a red patch on the backbearinga white genade, a white tassl in ftont, and white cap-lines.Their tiradoreshad a lower busby, red{opped, with a white plumeandlines. l-ancershad anelabomteczapska, with a white plumeandlines. Lancershad anelaborateczapska, which could be coveredin oilskin. The Cazadores hada tall iron helnet with brass fittings and a high brass comb carrying a horsehairtail; in 1835they changed to a cylindricalshalo \r'ith a white top band and plume, and yellow cords as well as $h;te cap-nnes. Shabraques were turqui, edged white; valiseswere in the samecolours,squarefor the hea\y regimentsand round for the light. Sheepskins were black for Lancerosand Coraceros, white for the rest, always edged red. Cloaks werc turqul, double, caped,and lined red with a red collar. (Thosof other cavalry weremediumgrey, exceptfor the Hussars, who wore white.) The swordsare describedin captionsto the plates. Lances were, it appears,of no standardpattem, and measured2.5 ro 2.9m. The blades were flat, rather than triangular as in the Bdtish army; sometimes they wereheld to the shaftsby langets. Penonswer red over white for the cuard, red-yellow-redfor the Hussars,and red over yellow for all otheN. (Or perhaps sky-blueover yellow for the Line. ) Carbinesand pistolswereof various models, of 18.3mm calibre.

Thestaight sword is the 1815 modelfor heavJand linc cawlrt, caftied bt a nnk"e. It b a copy of the French heavy cavalry modeb, and the very similat 1825model i'ould haveabo been wom in the war. A thirulmodel \)a: inboducedin 1832,trith the same hilt but the1796modelblade, Iess suitable for theth st but 'Ihe sabrc is the 1815model, fot lvt cavalry, and b again basedon Ftench Napoleonic ori?inal:. 1822and 1825modeh lookeclevenmore French.

40 theory) the MacheteModelo 1834 (a copy of the French "coupe-choux"), or an equallyridiculous1836-pattem short Anillery wasmuchless important thaninfantryor evenavalry sword. Nodoubtthesewereoften lft in store orreplaced bythe in mostbattles, andwasrarelydeployed in greatrumbers, due muchsuperior infantryhanger. Therewasan 1836 musketoon partlyto thedifficulty oftransportingit overthelandscapesoverfor mounted andmouniain artillery,of 18.3mm calibre,which whichmuchof the war wasconducted. As Spainwasshortof lookedlike a shortinfantrvmusket. draught ho$es,gunsmighthaveto bepulledby oxen,or mules, or left behind.Therewaslittle risk of beingoutgunned by the enemy,for Carlistartillerywasevenweaker.Evenif one did THEVOLUNTEERSANDPARA.MILITARTES bring gunsup into the mountains, there might be little they coulddoagainst an enemywhotended to fightin openorderor One of the reasonswhy the army expandedrelatively du ngthewarmayhavebeena desire not to annoy fiom behindcoveras muchas possible, although oneweapon moderately populace too much. The lack oI manpower forced the the whichthe Bdtishfounduseful wasshrapnel-thiscould besetro govemment to rely, to a considerable degree, on volunteer or explode above or behinda Carlistbarricade, rendering it wors para-military units, especially early in the war. These had the thanuseless. ofbeingsimple to administer, andwereassuitedto guns Where reallycouldmake a difference wasinsieges, and advantage with dealing the Carlists as were the regulars, at leastuntil the point to illustraaethe one can compare Oniah almost proper army. enemy managed 10 organise itself into a disasterous siege of Morellain 1838 with that of Espartero in provinces Volunteen from the Carlist were equipped in the 1840.Oreahad only five gunslargerthan 8-pounders and his sane wayas the Carlists, so could move aseasily asthem. They gunners werenotonly lacking quarter-sights andtangent-sights sufferd from conesponding disadvantages. Volunteen who portfires, and but inexperienced in the techniques of battering neighbours oftheirfoeswerepanicularly brutalto the walls.In contrast Espa(erodeployed 800gunners, 600sappers, hadbeen whose duties eight24pdrs, l6pdrs,ten7'howitzers andter mortars. His three Carlists, and the para-militaryCarubinercs, included fighting smugglers, could not have expected to be fieldbatteries hada totalof two 16pdrs, four 12pdrs, rwo8pdrs, popular. volunteers The were called Pserelor because their of 4 pulled and howitzers. Mules guns,and2,000 the heavy more dailypay,whichwasa lot morethanthat of the regularsAfter drewthe 500cartsneeded to bringupammunitron. organised it was found that real The field anillery expandedfrom three to five reginents the Carlist armiesbecame were soldiers needed to fight them; one hears less of the duringthe war, eachwith two battalions. Eachbattalionhad progressed. Carabineros and Peseteros as the war Although, threebatte es(or companies the wordsappear to havebeen because Cabrera\ army took much longer to achieve a stateof plus a train company. usedinterchangeably) Therewere also than that of ZumalacArregui, voluntee$ werc fixd gadson gunnersithe siegetrain seems to have been competeDce to playa majorrole formedandmanned as andwhenneeded. The horseartillery imponantin Aragonaftertheyhadceased in the north: by 1838 or 1839 their days were overeventhre. wasincreased fromsixto twelve batteries in 1835. orsanised in 3 Peseteros and Carabineros were said to numberbtween b.Aad?t.One brigade wa! a.aralo. lrue hoFe aniller) \irh menin 1833Most of the former seemto both gunnen and drivers mounted; the other two were them 10 and 12.000 served asinfantry, andhavea blackor rifle-green uniform, /,ronrddo, with the gunners ridingon limbers. A fourthbrigade have which led to their nickname of Zos Negror, later applied to all r{asfonned in 1840. Cristinos. There are scattered references to various squadrons Arti e a a lono , or mnle-pack guns, mountain wereraised in cavalry, threeof whichwereunitedin 1839to form 1833, but itappears to havetakensome time to equipandtrain of volunteer the 8th LightCavalry. Howeverthe most Pesetero famous unit the batteries. By 1838 thereweresixcompanies, eachof eight was a battalion of Biscayans known as the Chapelgorris howitzers, attached to the NorthernAJmy, with othergunsin reason to hatethe Carlists they Ged-capt,who hadparticular closely resernbled. A which few foreignen served in thiscorps, The Guardartilleryexpanded from rhreeto four batteries in popularthan mostCristinos withthe BritishAuxiliary 1835, onevolarre or a caballo. theothers montado. Eachshould wasmore Legion,lowhicb was it attachedfrom 1836. Plate14shows one have hadfour guns, but the actual sizeof batteries depended on jacker. uniform; laler the battalion took up the British red but the numberofeuns afldcrewat hand. keptthe distincaive brets. Carabineroswere mounted andfoot gendarmes andcustompredecessors provided officers, the who of the Civil cuard, ARTILLERY UNIFORMS AND EQUIPMENT thn own honesandequipment. Plate15shows their uniform; Thepieceswere ofbronze, andbased on thecribeauvalsystem, an Enghh Carlist(Henningsen, I. 115,6, 147)described them whichhadbeenintroduced into Spain pieces aswearinS in 1783. Standard blackuniforns,but that mayhavemeanttheir very included24,16,12 (lone and short), 8 (long and short) and 4-pounderguns, a 4-pounder mountain gun,9" and 7" howitzers, lookingmorelike gunsthanthe stubbyGribeauval THEFOREIGN LEGIONS howitzers. By 1839the normal mountainpiecewas a short re-chambered 5" howitzer.A B tish-style horse-hamess had I will notbe coveringthe Brithh Legionhere.asI intedit tobe beenintroduced in 1820, and by 1833 batteries werereceiving the subjectof a separate study;nor is anything but the most newboxedlimbers gun-carriages andsingle-trail on the Bdtish basicinformation appropriate for the FrenchForeignLegion, model. The government also purchased Congreverockets, asAzanafldWindrowhavealready described its deeds andits whichwereoften easierto moveacross mountains than were dress in greatdetail. guns. The Ledonaries (refered to by Spaniards asthe A/gelirosPlates12 and 13 show line gunners.The Cuard artillery Algerines because of their previousstation)arrived4,000 startedthe war in a very fancy braidedcoatee,which was strongin 1835. in six battalions. ln March 1836 a batteryand replaced by onelike that of the cuard cavalry, but with yellow threesquadrons of 'Polish'lancers wereformedout of Legion epaulettes andbnss buttonsOveralls wereasin the cavalry; personnel. By 1838, afterfightingwirh asmuchdetermination wasmuhlike that of line horseartillerv.but with a asthe best the shako of the Spaniards, andhaving beenpunished severely white plume. brar\plate. andyellow cap-lines. by the Carlists. the country,and the neglectof the French Horsegunners caried light cavalrysabres, (in government, foot gunners the Legionhadbeenreduced to 500.



The uniform was usually a tall, taperingred cloth cap, I Line Coizadot, FuI Drcss. covered in oil-skin, anda blue-grey greatcoat, double-breasted 2t Line Grunaderch frock coat-Note the non-regutation tinen with red epaulettes for grenadiers and yellow for volriguers. pack. Grenadietsmight also weat epaulettes and sardinetas Trousers wereredorwhite,wom overwhitegaiters. Theforage ap was nuch like that of rhe Spaniards. dark blue with a crimsontasseland piping. Equipmeniwas as in Napoleont 3t Line Fusilercin grcarcoat. He rctainsthegrest-coat bagon hi: time, but it appears to have beenreplaced by a Carlist,sryle pack,to holdarc ed blanket. belly-box.Officershad a dark blue frock-coat. The lancers probablywore the Legion's shell,jacket, dark blue, piped crimson,the fringes red mixed with silver or gold. First crimson, with epaulettes whereappropriate. hadtwo diagonal portuguese redstripes on each forearm. Second I will alsospend a little space on the Legion,for corporals the oppositercason - I have discovered little about its appearance. The bodythat entered Spainin 1835 consisted of 6,000 foot and750horse, recruited from thebestresularunitsBIBLIOGRAPHY ahhough one.lhe Cr(adalpr10 Pozo , wassdidro havebeen madeup of adventuren of all nations left over hom PortuAal's This list is far from cornprehensive; it excluds worksdealing recenr civil war. The only uniformwhrchwe can be sure-was primarilywith the BritishLegion,but triesto provide asmuch wornin Spain inEnglish.Pirala is a weighty wasthatoftheinfantry a darkbluecoatee, classic, but goodshort faced aspossible red,withwhitewoolly canbe found In Holt.andAlbi rnd Slampa. Cene'al shoulderwings, whitecrossbetts andgrey .accounts trousers. history are also e\cluded,lor reasons Onecouldguess or that the Cacadoresworc brown,and works on Spanish thecavalry at least oneregiment wasof well-equipped tancers - blue, if regularPortuguese uniforms were followed. J. Albi & L. Stampa,Canpanat de h caba eria espanola en el siglo XIX , Il, Ma&id, 1986. P.F. Apalateg\ti, O anendi,SanSebastidn,1940. BADGES OI'RANK P. Azan, La L'gion Estrcngercen Espagne, Pais, N.D. The four grades of field officerdisplayed Slrlearr t 8,rca), London,1838. their importance by J.F. Bacon, ringsof lacearoundthe cuff; captains hadtwo full epaulettes, Lt. Col. L. Badcock,Ro! Chleaves lron ajournal kept in Spain while lieutenants only had fringeson the right shoulder, 2nd and Portugal durine the lears 1832, 1833and 1834,Londor', lieutenants only on the left. All regimental officersalso had 1835. theirrank indicated by lacebands Lavida militatenEspana, around the topofthe shako. F. Barado, Barcelona,1888. The lacewassilverfor cavalry(except hussars, who had their B. BareloRubi, ,4aari atoportatil etpanol, Ma&id, 1976. ownsystem ofrank-badges) andlightinfantry, gold. W. Bollean, The wa6 of succession in Spain and Portu7sl, otherwise First sergeants had epaulettes on both shoutders, second London,1870. sergeants only on the righr. The slrap of the epaulertes de Espana,Melaga, 7978. was LM. Bteno. Soldados

42 I.M. B\teio, Trcpascarlistas,1833-1810,M lala,1984. (Aftr Clonard,1851, VI,472-3) J.M. Bueno,La infante a y a i eia de narina, 1537-1931, regiments wereformed,but saw,it appears,little 8 provisional M'tlaga,1985. I .M. B\eno, Guaftliasrcalesde Espana,Madnd, 1989 . In aI. 1.015officersand 20.769men died of illnessand I .M. Bt|J.eno. Andaluciay su: nilicias , Madnd, 1990 . wounds and10,751 werctaken in the lineandlightinfantry;195 J.L. Calvo Peres& L. cravalosGotuales, BonderatdeEspafia, prisoner and did not rejoin later; only 173officers and 18,738 Madrid,1983. mendeserted, 2.450 othernnks werecommissioned. Cafilogo generaldElmuseode a i e a,Madid,7909. R. Heman Chant, Spanrrh,?e/, TunbridgeWelh, 1983. Conde de Clonard, Histotia oryanica de las annar, Madrid, TABLE B -LIGHT INFANTRYREGIMENTS 1851. Conde de Clorard, Alrrm de la cabelleia espafiola,M^dnd, TITLE FOI'NDED 1861. Cazadores del Rey Porprivilegio W . Cam$^ll, Gonez at SanRoque,and thesoidisantliberclsof Voluntarios de Arag.jn 1762 An dalusia,Lnndon,7837. Gerona 1792 Gustave d'Alaux, Arc8on vista por un Iranc* durante Ia Voluntarios de Valencia 1794 pimeru guera ca ista,ed. J.R. Cimenez, Zaragoza, 1985. Voluntarios de Navara 1802 F . Dtlx.can,TheEnglish in Spd;a,London, 1877. Voluntados de Bail6n 1808 F. Ferrer LUI & J. Hehet, Biblioqrafia iconoercficadel trcje de la Reina Gobemadora 1835 Cazadores militat de Espana,Mexico,7963. 1835 R. FoId, Theunchangeabb character of a b'arin Spain,London, Caz adores de Luchana 1831 1838. (After Clonard,1851, VI, 472-3) A. Gil Al\aro , Gloias de la infanteriaespanola, Madid,7893. - in SanSebastidn J.W. Giles,Prints MilitaryMuseum. C.F. Henningsen, / trelve month'scampaignwith Zumalacdr regd, Londor, 1836. TABLE C - CAVAI,RY Historia y Vida, spe.ial number, 1976 "Una guera salvajey C"baIeria de Lina E. Holt, TheCaiist t/,atsin Spain, Londor., 7867 . M. BurkeHonan,fre couftandcampofDonCa os.London, 1836. B. Ja es, ZumalacAtegui, el caudiUo rcmAnico, Madid, t9'72. J.L LasaEnsaola,.li.rregui elBue i erc,Bilbao.1973. F. Lichnowsky,SoayerirudEla Buete ctuileen Espaqne, Pais, 1844. A. Pnah, Historia de la guena civil enie lospartidos libetal y (andmanyothereditions). calirra, Madrid1855 A. Ruiz Martin, Etolucion (k los divisas en los armat del eiercib espafiol,Madid, 1982. Duque de la Torre, Erpaia beltcd,XIX, Madrid, 1961. Tratadode tdctica parc Ia infanteia ligetu,Valencla,l83'l. I.vlgon, Hi:toriadelaa i eia espanola,Ma&id,1941 . M. Windrow, Unifonns of the French Forcign Legion,Poole, 1986. No I 2 3 4 5 Rey Reina Principe Infante Borbon

Cabalcria Ligera I Castilla 2 LEon 3 Extremadura 5 6 7 8 Albuhera Catalufia Navafia (founded Lusitania 1839)

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4t Lieutenant of Line Grcnadien, canpaign dress. A brust grcnade 6 womovct hc oihkinshako-cover. 5t lst Seryeant, Reina Gobemadan rcgiment, in campaign Royalcuad,1833, Fu Drcss. 6| Grenaderc, Co arswere sometimes T crcnaderc, RoyalGua, field drcss. btuefor this unit. 1824-1835. 8&9t Light andLine Cavalrymen, l.0&lL 1835 onwards. Theyellow LineandLight Cavablmen, vlas be ha epv,earing than iti turyul coake sad b predecessot. A wakrcolow in the Mabid Amf Museumshowsan offrcet vlith pink facings,nthet than appearto the morc normal ich sky-blue. Fomge-caps

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