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CHAPTER

I

JI.IDICIARY DIJRING PRE CONSTITUTIONAL ERA

AMIR ABDUR REHMAN & AMIR HABIBULLAH
(1880- t919 AD)

Amir Abdur Rehman (188&1901 A D)

Errdlcltion

of

Trib:l Justice

Protonged civil waB in Afghdislan, beforc Amir Abdur Rehmatr Kh.t's comnrg to power in 1880. had almost dstroyed the judicial and adminislrativ€ orSanizarion of th€ @unlly. v/ith wqkding of lhe central Sovcffnenl, tdbal chieG vinnally became 'kings' of thcir areas, adminhleting their ost stvle ofjustic€, without any regad lor ihe laws One of fte jokes of drc trital chiefs' &cording to Amn Abdur Rehma! was "lo cut offthe heads of Een and wonen and Put tbem or .cd-hot sh@ts of ircn lo see tltcm jmP alout" To cstlblish thc leof law' it was cssential to chcck lhe vild trjb.lism and adtninieration of private justice bv the two 'rribal krngs . whose audority had rcmined unchalldged ovd the fioo this Poinl ccnrurics. Amtr Abdur Rehman stfilEd his efoEns d8hl abolishins 'sove'mdtr' decided to eslablisi his own eovem.Dt in rerl sense, tv of.ll rhe lribes.': To eslablis} a ltablc kingdoft, he suborditdted all fcudal chieG roughout the coutry to the centnl gov.Dment

Tlr,{tir

lat

'

cxceDt for 'r€sP.ciing solne rc4onablc cnstoms" obolishcd the us. olP,rr,!,'rdli (fie tro{titional tribal code)' in ih. administntjon of rust|ce. rs roush norions oilaq Practice of'every mcn srighrrodojusticehimsclf r",""ncil"s o*n injurics. bas€d on rhc In{nurion or sadal (rcvence) of "na Prsr&rv,a1t was banDed. Various exc.sses again$ tle women, caEied out under tle \ribal law' were declarcd ill.t l 3nd righls of \Lom€n udcr Islanic law w'r' resto.ed.r In c.se of cru€lty. wond wd€ authorized to suc thei. husbdds for .hDony or divorce.' Rogistralion of nraniages in rle Qazi couns on stsmp PaPer valued rupe€s ten was started, those reSistding illegal or enforccd maniaees wer€

Anir Abdu. Rehm4

lcurtre hold ofrhc so\creim\ beard and rurban was aboluhed lt *as rcPhced bv a irooei oroceaurc or periri& ro rhe coln of,{,r'6 AdministEtbn ofjustice bv rhe rrib;l mcta-iudrc'al bodics, opcdhng rhroughour rhe counttv $as prohibired w'th

2

srricr imDlementalion of such m4ures. iiere rcmained Do minister or tribll chiefin Afghanisian who could torturc or exlract moDey from the people except under the By extending aulhority of the Amir to every commaDd or coment of tbe person in thc country, adninistmtion of p6onal, priv.te and t.ibaljsticc, @re to an end inAfghanisratr during ihe pqiod ofADi.Abdur Rehman.

,.lrn'

Resular Jrdiciarv
justice, imDlemenratior ofs/mridi as a @tEl law was encolcgcd, to consolialate aulhority of rhe govcmmcnt In the country. FEe hand w6-8ivet ro rhe Judic'ary for Re8!lar judrcirl ser'uP, cascs accordrne to rhe Sraaal adjudrcarion implen€ntin8 Srdndl during lhe period wd as under

wlile

sulprcasing

ih€ Eibal and privat€ administration of

ol

"

t.

Datul Qazd-e-Kabul
,rlr'?//d, Abdur

6s Qozial qdzdt (Chief Justice) and Khdn-eatloa (Head of Religious Affdn), during the period ofAmir Abdur R€hman Khan. His familyh.d heldthis p.cstisiols officc for seve.al gendations staning from dr€ appoirhent of Muhmmad S^@d s KhaM Mulla dlring the P€riod of Shah Mahmood Sadozai. The gred daughter ofM!/lafi Abdur Rehman was the second w'fc of,r,,t Habibullah. Her farhq, Oz:i Syed-ud-Din ws Oazi (Chief Judge) of H€rat. Th€ uncles and @usins of this lady wcrc hcrds of the courls at Kabul' Jrlalaba<t. Kandabar. Herat and Balkh, lh.lare.st tous in the kingdon ll3ving a lot of innuence, he was lhe only official, resPected by Amir Abdlr R€hman to a certain cxlenr. M!/ldn Abdur Rehdan condnued s clicfjutice througtout tenure of Amir Abdu. R€hman, te later died at ihe age of85 years in 1916 A D'

Rclmn Khan contin\cd

2.

DarulSazda-K@.lahat

Saeed-ud-Din. son, and Mlral' Abdul Shakoor Khan, gnndson of the clief j usti@ Abdur Rehlm,.llMircd chiefjudgcs of th. Kandahar coun fot alnost lwo decades, <tlriDs the p4iod of Alnir Abdur Rchnen. M!{a/l said Ahhed Khan

M!r,l,

was appojnled chicf judge of lhe Kandahar oourt in lasl vears of Amn Abdur Rehrnan. Oet Noorud-Din and Ort Shatn$ddin, both sons of M,//al Abdul Salam, al; renaircd judges of rhe Kandalar coDd Muila Abu Baka. and ,url,/' \azar M ohabmad ,eNed as,,tr',lt ofrhe Kandaharcouft ''

3.

Coutls of .rthq Tows

LomDamrivelv hlse numb.r oicouni was esbblished in the country dunng Amn'Abdir Rchman.'r Oazi ofeach town rePrc*nted rhe coud of rhe Dcnod ttre Qa;r ot ttre to*n was appoinlcd bv thc ,-trd on Khanc uloo"t \.hi.l j\stice).

;f

''

the recommendations of the chiefjustice.'3 Qazi assisted by one or two n'4i, (adviser h lesal sffairs). was appoi cd for evcry distdct ofAfshanistar'' . More compet€nt bigge.and imponanttoMq ke€pirg nnd intclligeni peoplc were appoinled as Odzi 'n The candid.tes for aPpointment in in vierv naiDre and qusrity of work load.'' judiciary \'ere required lo take a test in Islanic Law, '' before Guming charge a!

Qazi or M!li. Afghans qualified from forcigf, religious schools were lie*ed wilh suspicion, tlros€ qua)ified from oiher lslamic counlri€s wele either considercd !o be t/dra6, (A sat of Muslim putitans, dislik€d by tnajority of Afghan conscrvative Vuslims) o, spies. Consequenlly, the Posrs of Qzi and M,li w.rt elelv to ihe .Suri U/c,,a edduared from Afghan rcligious schools The jurisdicLion ofa O.zi was ior rcsn(ted to rhe religious marteB. ir €x(ended lo all cases, even fte cas4 punishable by death wft Fied by thBe couft '' AccordinS Lo"Mn Murhi Sult n MolEmmad. every p€Gon coutd ensagc a ryat e/ (Advcale) '' lo plead his c.se'. Howea€r, details about hiring of an Advocrle for pleading cases' during the Pcnod of Amir Abdur Rchman, arc nor lvailablc frcn aty othd soue.

"

4.

Confl ofAppeals agalNt

Ja.li.ia.t

A spccisl coun ro h.ar oPpels against .bu$ ol Powc bv -tltc judScs 9a csublirhed by Anir Abdur Rehnan. PBided by d,e chicfju$icc'" Oih* twelve judset nrcmbers ofthe coun besides the chiefjlstice, vere, four Naib Qazl (deputv rnd (,!hr ,{rrl?, ( lv'soG on t|t lcsrl rrrns) Tlis coud rc\icwcd lhc ctsct of caD'ral ounishmenr. b advice the,4tru as io tullillDent oflie rcqui(meDts of the jll;iice. Ir appellaie junsdiciiot, the pourl used lo nake inquires and investiSstions fron rhe veiy beginning, presming that th€ c$e wd being tried fo. th€ {irsl time Appeal to lhis speci.t @un, .8ai6t judgnot of$e Odi wa.dmissiblc cithd on comphint of a pany lo the case or on rcferng lhe @se by ine,{ttrt hrmselr'- ln casJ iniusr'ce Oone ro d pany by rhe Ozzi was erHblished. hc ws required lo compe;sate the agaricved p.q.D Any omc'al of the judtriarv. excced'ng hrs Iimits' punished morc s*trely, to check ablse ofpowtr ror cruellres on lne massey 'vas (probably fo. amountiry ro interferencc in fte Roval Prercgalive)' It was a judicial commiu;c, eslablishcd for review of the coun verdicts and ac@untabilitv of the
judges, will,out any cx@utive inlerferen@.

Courrs of Spcclnl Jurlsdlcdon
Couns ofspecialju.isdiction during this penodwcre as under;

L

Pnrct'at (Conndciat Ttibunat)

Pir,.rdr (Commercial Tribunal) was establisled in lat€ nineieenth @ntury, to .diudicutc coNnrcrci.l disputcs, accordins lo ftc trnde clstoms, conthcts .hd

do;umenlary evidcnc.. 'Pa"crd, Bshi' (Pr€sid.nt ofthe Comm@ial Tribuml) wG an honorary omcial, elected by the trsders from among lhemselves Usuallv Hindus' bclieved to be expert in brsines, having deeP influencc ove. fte business comunity, were electcd to tih officc. Majority of lhe lribuial nembels w.re Afphans ftoth Hhdu and Mushn), som. Hindu, fiom ShikarPur (lndrt)' and fcw Ind:an Mushms wne aho members ofthe mbunall Grcsorian is ofrh€ oPinion that vew est.blishnert of tbis comnercial tribunal was a part of Amn Abdur Rehmant Conmcrcial Policy. aimed at taking tway the jurisdiction ofcommercial tansaclions and non-vuslim rirerchans ofAfghanistan, from lhe s/la.ian couns ':s Dosl Ali Shah F;shmii kn Indian MBfim) rcfiined "Pa,chat Bashl' for a lons time '?6 Latcr o4 ro ove the mbunal a narional touch, instead ofirs being t semi'inlemational courl" Am",r Abdur Rcltman, removed Dos! AIi Shah snd other Indtan oembe6 of the tribunal. Anir Afzal Baburi, an Afghan w6 aPpoinled new Presiddr ofthc tribunal' The deckion was pan oftlre,{r'ir's commercial Policv of protectilg ihe int*5ts of rhc Aishan nerchant3 .ecinsl $e foreign Faders Even when rhe nibul6l was Drendc; oler by Ihe lorcigners or@nsisted ofinflDenlral foreiSn mmb'ts' 'l had noi innuencea rrre iommerciil policy ofthe,'l'"/ vis-i-vis protection of thc intercst of rhc Afshan rr.dc6.r? MirMltshisultan Mohimmad Khan, fathcr oflhc re'owncd Urdu ;oct Faiz Ahmed Faiz, who Em.ined sccctary of Amir Abdur Rehtnan for lbout iwclvc yed6, telh us tti.l a commcrcial coui existed in €vely princiPal lom of "Panchat Cor" (a council), consisting of a numbd of rtre country tmm ^s merchanrs ofvarious onmuities, tresided over bv a chaidan aDd dcciding onlv c.ses of conmcrcial nalurczr' Howev.r, functioning ofconmetcial colrts in €very priDcipal town of Afghanistan, durirg $e r€ign of Amir Abdur Rehman, cotrld not be subshntiated from ot}€r solrces.

'

2.

It adjudicat.<l th. casd ofmilirary p4onnel rclsting to theii duii'B Sp'cial man'rs. thc Anrv On:i wcre;ppoinled asmilitarycoutls forthis PurpGe ln miliury punishmenu cdmca of o l a rgtranisian was suulco ro the m ililarv law wirh severe rtrc mitirnry men notrelitine lo theiduties and thcir civil dispulcs were d@lr with bv |he ordinary Or:i @!ns. like thal oI other ordiDary cilizfls Tle c'ses of sdcrc

^.ePt or implement judgemdt of lhe Indi courts. aarninister lashes and imprison rle PcoPle involved in religious offences like n€sligence i' prayers. non-obseNance of fasr abuse of a Sl-?d ldescendcnt of the p'i.e suPPosed to be wise just and sell infomea about rhe rc|c'o'n. for Afgfi anistan. oocr.i rtrcm wcrc commrtted lo oak.. flrcD8h Lhey we. wqe r€quird to Pe6uad€ tllc MElims to pedom lh€ir religious dutics lnd lo wam lhose . $e mihrary Qdzi had rhe jurisdiction over ih. cse. dle Ktbul Couns ddided disputcs involving Af.han citizen.. ** ".5 punishmen6 to rhe eldieB by lhc militlry omcers.ri"L rpeace ee Uoon Him)]. Intenatiorol Cou'r Afghanisran was authorizcd diploFatic relations onlv witl the govcment of British lndi. U"t.(lv.. arracteJ ro rhcr office. EvcD the.*. and slaffofthe Bntish Agen! under thc law of Afghdishn sedous m.toril " Monrosi.ns.'l-lolr6i.. Conscque. werc psonally invcsliSated by itre zD.. Excepr for lhe sqious matte6.t -5.':" tn caqe ofa drspure between s soldicr and a civilian. bv both ihe lreatv or pEcticc of extradition betw€et tnc lt".egl@tirs such duries Thev had the poweE to impose finc.judiciary' wrth some duties assi$ed bv rh' .{u Tlibunah ftibunals adhininered Hindu p€rson4 law.r. cow and shep wjth olivewood hatdle tor ldsi.. ln tie samc natnd the clief court of Punjab conridered cases decid. under krle 53 of'7$asdl gaza. one each of rhc skrn of @mel.-*'. erc ltev had a sPecial d!ra' (whip) madc of thr'e srrros.d in the couns of Afshanhtan to bc void Staffofthe Briish Aeenr b6. natioD or nltional leader' sexual anaichv. about Afghan citizeE tiied by lhem. " J. Afglar coorts did nor ac.oval fanilv) abused his pos'lron nll hk impnsonment b.ne6 md lolilical comDlicatio$ wcrc $ttled at the Soverm'nt level.ts in Indi.allv mos . of Ahula Eo'ho \sl^ves of .-ti. torced inroircarion. monev bv abusing aa. thc go\'Fmst The votrrasrb rcrc mainlv subordinale to lhc.c "" "xrndition lr'rhutr lnd Indidn go\crnmcnr. noi. a triDirrdl cros$nB over lo thc othcr t'-oed ovs ro his ow lud ** ". a scholar. with Hindu councillols Tlsc Hi'du subj€crs of 4. Hi't. for lhcir dnDltcs.d at Kabul was rcf€n€d lo the law @u.*. reli8ion.

uDes in the courtroom (Rule 8) Io avo'd sathenns ofrhe lo crowd and lresenting thcir petilions in improper nunner. of othet Muslim tit'e ier ieious o' potir.'d in.othcc. Afshtn MNIin!) oPinion rhe jurisls.f n'* **..a. O@t was dnpower'd otbringing ocr m ordslv * rhe eale oiihc coun Tlr ordcrlv \as assrgrcd the ttsk rh' lrriganrs and . ""a sl. L.$aJJl O...conr"in'ng t23 pa8es Thctook wA iiv." in. was sn impoiant code of judicial nstruciions prepded for the curdance of lh. Thls book is de mos! imponant source on judicial systcm ofAfghanistan during lh€ P.riod of Amir Abdu' Rehmd' Ae oet 'Assosdt Qadi . -strrc a d'srrnce ofrwo mcrcrs bctween il* "". 'iui The Oazi was ro cnforcc the ?.on of thr book was publishcd bv Kabul iouemnror press in 13ll Hrjn Qdmn (l892l..dt of th. h's.s interprcted bv rhe junsts of Hatrari sch@l of thousht ."' . . rt"''ry. belonsiDg to othcr sclools of thoushr' wcrc valid subjar to rheir co"ro#iry wirn rle:aarc1 Ftqah"\) MuIli ac|!d nct'tv as courr adviser on lcsal . Anmrd Jd Al-kozai.t-cted tobc well dre$ed a'd ro fiave a sober dtreanor oi tr'oii.i.cat mall. i.ublic.=r -a V. ns well as '/arcrrreer" ofAmir Abdur Rchman. Rehman.i".*ind '' .lamic hwj.n'..ial day in the wesk was a$igncd for women to app€ar'" .'" ro *oia *astase oftimeJhe Odzi was to make calculations about .i"r. tudicl'ry.eetr" (Proclamalions) of the forlnd Afghan thev were in line nrrcre.. exccpr rlrn ne'resr rela(ives --.i."t"'i rriur" .'i.1.'i.i8htv lcr. o."Assasal )atdt" by M^ut't.ed ro per|. slceping. O. rhcm " ir*\ *re rstdined f'om heJrins rB sll rlteir spare truuflv.s. consislins of Il3 RJlet.'r. ""-.h" $@nry oirhe counb oi be involved iD desmction of -1""e* 'r'.ro A spe. whilc rnrcQrtint rhe h*) .ia to eive -Fdeu rto sive a bindins op'nion in "or "rr. onlv whcn *itl'1r.'." *p-ation ofthe Plaindfrand d'feDdant bv a distance ofoneiii" b. cnforced in 1880s bv Amii Abdt.Iusrful or iU Tlev wcre to sPend qth iiii the accordance updarhg cases 'rassiol 'n 'i' rriy "".ru':o* I'o.. Numan bir Sabit Alias Abu Hanrla ws lhe founder oflhis l4ding school ot ih€ lslamic bw fouow. nd"'e.?.po." q"'i .j:' rt'" iue-e*t eilher Onzi sere paid adequate salanes and wse not allowcd lo 'cepl or rhe '4rli BoLh o . the Qo?t werc bound to senlc cdes according to Srarin.r.. th' panie *ho Presmrcd thor i'...d bv about ..e.:ar" !'vcs us rhc coln prcccdutc in delait Thc Qdzr $as slric'lv cd.aed in rhree seclions..*ayi'ie I'r. ir..i'-iei'i Msiim $bjecls and rhctr Propeq'" Hmce rhe aDthoriry of d'e Qdz' bccame "*. nt" q*"tio" *t'eiher a lPecific'/a'rdr" was in line wilh the S'}a'ial' (!he executive was to be deteDniled by a ?dzi and tot bv 'ront?f'or Covemor authorized to trv thc iDdividuah' whom rbev Qei . Second edrl.ft "*" *'*incd fron inrimrdarrns ( cs's or Pa$'ng j udscdenr wrrm :.

cven to his ow clerks. ic was not ro depend on his oM judg€ment (Rule I l8). lfllrc c.r of$€ people and the cas€s. tcstinonies and lhe cornler claim hasbeen Iaid doM in Ru)6 fifty{.cisions *e'e rflivcd dr lccotdilg ro sr!/ur. a lapse of fifteen vears (Rule 5 l ) be Odzt The O. noi entrusdng them.fi of rlre king" (Rulc l2l).ireria for es'bhshins tl'e truth A I'4udtm sas rcquircd io rake an oarh in the nsme of Allah (The Jcrual phEse used w^s lvd dh Bllloh h . ln such natt€rs' I'e had io \qite io fte Chief Oazi for Suid!t@.In case lvhere lhe O. i.try dccision \vrs iound not to bc lccoding to injunctions ofSfut"/'.ved by h'm to the chjef Oa2i This 'nstruclion 'l-\r'emely . Thc 94:i was bowd 1o rccord Nritjng his decision in every case (Rule 53). of the king.s.ding d1c cl.ims. ThE oarh nkinsand wimes callitg$ere rhe basic comPonenb of rhe court L.vemors and Police officcrs. by alt rhe Juds6 {Rulc 37.d ridy. Th.tn coun repon. Thc proccdurc of. a nrajority of tlc cases. it The Od:i nust leNorally safeguatd tle books of tbe court.quired lo preseni witnesses or.rhe On.c c.eopen caes alreadi deided by de !resent o. on the basis ofrvlicb a verdict was given in the case (Rulc S9). failing rhat. fomer Afshan ruleF. leaving no ambiSuity or doult (Rulc 8l and 82). along with ihe low{ courts' s3 lo be considered as Koons rcce.lhe chief ?dzt would take approP. Hc was bou'd to indicate the nam€(s) of rfie books. A Qazi was not to . 10 make the acclsed lake .i of th. Tte Qdzi was to examine lhe llainiiff. Tte Qdzi ofthe Provincial capitsl world seDd in the sane ft6nner hh o\.iarc mcasuEs to sct the case right and punnh$e culpnt(Rulc38). p.nd ve6e. Chi€f?azi vould sifl all 'mporuni ihe mate.ccuraicly reco. Every €ffort was lo be made to keeP the b@ks clee a.ial scnl io hin. However.eopened in tle 04zi court (Rule ll5)' In case of conflict belween the jnhabitanls oflhe cily and the counlrvside' dre Qnzi of rhe c'rv had ro hcar the cse (Rule 52) No c4e etcepr lor rhose relatin8 lo who were absent could Inhcr'r. If the maner so required' the chief Qazt had lo qlole 0rc rclelant rrlhgs ol law lpplictblc to lhc c!sc. case decidcd bv the G.i had to dcmand a @eipt of every pnsonef handed over to the govemor (Rule 92) A o@ls dccision iad ro be cleaFcur andprecke./aadl. Io cosc .nce. could be. which could bc decided. The out going 04zi was snpPosed to land over all the docuft€nts of th€ coun to the newly posted Qd.ovincial aPittl. tlE plainriffwas r. ts Ebove. tie Nnncsscs and thc defenddnl carclllly (R!lc 5?).rhe nunrb.se dcntndcd auenrio. Lisl of the pcople preparcd on fie basb of priority in tlc submission ofthcir claifts. wG bound to submit a monthlv rcPon ofall his coun busrness. where rhe delendant denied tho lccuetion.:i failed in aEivitg at a decision on the b8sis ofihe authorilative books.zi of rhe vrll. the chief Qazi would connunicate n to His Majestv and convey the royal edicl lo lhe inquircr (R!le lll). 'ndividutls presenled for hearing it the courl afte.y not bc punishcd by God o! fall prcv to the *l. (rcheious prcperty r and th. chaplef .nd bccame rl.vo to nfty_nine ofthe guidc. "$ tl)!l the ?azt rn. io dctminc wbdhd or not thc d. r.n oarb. wes lo !c postcd on the door of rfie coun (Rule l0).i (Rule 134) TrE oa.o(cdure .

. whqe the. supposed ro uptrold ihe supromacy of law. iho!8h the Oa:i using his oM discrction could .Ti ah). was not prepared to go bv rbe ambitions of Ami.elisious d€partment of Afghonistan and clief j$tice of the country.if and thc jldic'ary continu.J cDnailed rhc jubd ictian ol Khdne uloaat lur.lul a check upon the fake witness€s Cold war betwceo the Jndi.lso deqced that only'ftose known to be }onest mcn colld be accepled as witnesses. was against th. Srd.ser frce". rcfEed to obev rhe unlawful ambitions of lhe "Absolute .ls sill swear on Ouldtr alone.case' while Jloiding.iiots).s not bea proved rccordi{g to Mol. *cre dishonGl li was .{ zqal (propenies belonging to religious found..l. In I 866... itc (r"re r/.o lnd the.llnd out wlether thc wilness was sp€aking lhe trutlt Th.cc) r.d The sentcnces rlut llie Krane !1orr.o. who../ wiiholt anv f@! or temptanon' lr.jtslice in a "mebleSal ' matner.{r.'" As Afdans respecl€d the Qrldn.ir rd Amir Abdur Rebmu Khue oa|.g do$ examination.iar' We hav€ to oltion o$er lhan ro salute fi.cfuscd ro lct as an inslru'ne ofieEor for ftc ruler and pEfered adhenns to fie suPremacv of law vnl viciimiation of the judiciary. r slecial law ofcvidence."1 Amir Abdu Rehmq arivilg . il was laler decreed lbal in serious cases individu. when the l. irnrfi car.ccused to be senlcnc'd in a mutder :Ae rrE yerdicr o{ the Khdne //ao was that the case I.{n"r was widened .'noL ro hr"c-heard'rhc evidence coftc y on accounr of lhc no. beinahead of tie . he llfnght. Passed were usuallv opPosite to wllat the l''if bad exPected (of hG court). ." SLlo.t f'a'e 'rhc Cold war betwccn the . whom. and lhis requircment larer rcsulled tu hiring of false wifiesses. lhe gllfbetwccn ire L%. decllrcd that tlrc man had "not been fonnd guiltv aid shou)d b. Qozt was also cnpo\rcred ro rcjcct wiincsses.mmadan Law"'r Similadv in Molher fturder. After lh€ cuntilment of its powers in the crinrnral area..t. ln other words. Abdur Rehman. starled tettling' ftost of the crilninal cases' himself.$ Larer on.n unlusr decision rhe (lo'? x/oo.ionsuch "harsh atd quicf'.4r'ir wdied dath sentdce fot a Dd atd womd' accused ofrdnlrcrv." u prcper lcgat mannd reqlliring ai claboEtc pro@dlre and stood for quick and hash d€cisions consequently long tine. requiring all ihe wid€nce to be qualified by law _ aDdpermitri. Tle wihesses were required to sale tlat rhey lad actually witnessed the act comined by the accuscd.ir wanied an ./oar.se in the coun"" In anorher case.4'. lhe judiciary was left to settle cases of inheritance of lropertv and cases of .rihinal cases and legal and civil cases *ere rcfentd to the Sldriolt (Clliet coulls. bcing rui bv fte U/c''a. (ndne !/oo.t the conclusio! thal K'd'e z/oart rvas a hard n to be cracked.'o leschry osr much ofils significancc"! The idd(irq .The . nat hy such phrases indicating tribal tendencies lile "may my aife be divorced". Tll is d ir krol | . witloul recouse to the coun. rried ro save hls skin bv clarming. the Anrir scttlcd .In hhopi. for iic sake ofsupremacv of the law. believ€d in aDd conducted trial of cases strictlv according to it.in.

t lo lhe Stale and worked sthusiastically to weakd ftc influence of thc r.nt p. Some views of Amir Abdur Rehman lbout the religiols leaders.all i. kindling a fire from which sPraDg .ve on I he property of o(heb and to fig]'r against each other '- 4..iests than bv atrv othe! cla$ of 2.cten@ .g fal$ lad.rdh.viervs of Amir Abdur ReLman rbout the Rellglous Lead€rs . "Thc ereat drswlack to progcss in Afghani€tan has been tlat lhes€ M'ldl. have taught things which werc enri. secretary of Amir Abdur Rehnan.c aPPropdaie name for him than ihe and his behavior still mor€ conr.hic! @uscd gMr bloodshed and nisery to thousands of a ci!-il fis! because his face was like lhat of a mouse' Id 5. Thev called Mull1i in order to appear according to lhe geal thcmselles Ghazi ^nd over the igroranl.ligious lcadeB over lhe masses.B of rcligiotr.rly abour some lqding U/errd ofhis ime. According to Mir Mutshi Sultan Mohanmad Khan.ely conirary to tie piinciples ald lechiDgs ofMoham$ad (PBU}0.cised nadon.trer it would te". uder llt prelenc€ of religion. peoPl. Thev contiNed 'hei inrigues for ycas. vel which in h c been thc cau* of thc domf. bccn clused ir this wodd by ignor. are given below. meddle wilh the oohricsof rhekinsdom' ln hisoprtion rhe.Amir AbdLrr Rebnan considered tle deeD influence of alera as a tlre. "rhe well-l<nown D. which wse nevet in the teachinS of Mohammad.4ta"" (tlL mouse ofnre univcrse' a mo. beif. the b.mptible) ' joiled Pith tp so c'Ued Glazi wbo us€d rc exion monev from th. J \ Man] ol these pnests (Mzldr) tiughr as Islamic r. ro which they thmselve belorged. under lhe P. panicnl. of r€li8ion. the .ligion.m'Mdstri-. uncivilized pcoPle of Chilzi inotrcnce thcy cxe." favoiite sayings was "More was and hurde6 have On€ of tle . nrange do.r.{rrn bwards lhe ftliSious esiablishment: l. tnd succeeded in.ll of all lsldic nations 'v'ry country. Mushk-i'Al@ (frasrance of the uivcF )' I .4rt..(in6. the soDer they dc go*id of.ir "onc€ or twice tied up lh€ir tM'rzdh \ r tong berdt lo a rcpe !r to each otheis bedds ordding the onc lopullaway fiom thc othe/'. to demon*ale axitudc of drc . tley tdughl rhat people wer nwer lo do 3nv workbul onlvlo l.L1lal wereonlv'1oP!€ach ibr rrrc retreion aitt wcllarc or tstam )nd ro rcror-n frod'triricizing treir soveign *ho was the reprcsentativ€ ofcod"-tr I dislike lhos€ who.

ov€nly for cd.ir daught ls and wivs to rcalirc th. and adnini$ation aE v€sted in th' hdd5 of "."' irimes *cre ratcn out of t!3ir 6r ii. S/'dridl' cod d'ccioB v* subjeded to jaisdiciion and eic* tv execL."*u. Pavment otallowanes lo the Ukt'a w.cating the backward Uzbel6.* * i.*'w.t "r".v to tlt.ii.. and trosri)o to irrc rcllgior" "t'"ists Campnlen Aqrlp!t lbe R€liqlous Establlshpert To abolish the virtual independence exefcised bv tle cl€rgv and i'o weaken ften 'nuisance value' against the state. toi" wa**. han.rive off'cials.rr".l witl now senl."r.lar. was acuallv aimed at .v. r"' i..o" or. 2. "'i c-"-.Bv adopnns this svsm the Mudim r"*.asu." Mdl/d/' were r€ouIred to Nqr colored rurban having resemblance {ith non' M6lim minonties of Afshanisbn "J Oispatch of large numbd of Ut?nd to Ir*error. ti. onlv thos qualifvinS t sPccific -*iael"J io b..erieii* propeny''and sropPcsc or allowances of S)ad trll the sords ofAnir Abdu Rehmanr"Allthe land . Amir Abdur Rchnan mainlv rcsoned b &e L To make U/euo dependent on lhe sure.*..i. well as monev..i. delatal lh€ anounts." "". p"sons enploved in the religious sefliccs € s '(ozt' 'ouioirtt" M4i.. which 6ed to suPPort thc M/Iu'' is T. These cuokolds do not cxhorl thc pcrplo.rfoFlance of Srare dudes likc couection of taxes takiDg dePosil ot Zakdt and Saddqa! in th' Sl'tc reasury'" .*"*"L J. M.dicial posts wde restinded ""'.ii' L To reduce num@cal st@81h of MIrl/d. Thc ./ld. rt. Wlty do not thcac Mrld/' denounce fiem (tlc Mangal) as K4lt' because dtey are figlting agliDst rhe king of Islaln.ii."nr i6 orun*'lline. and Paid allow'nces Non-qualified "*".4Dt r' ?. I will sll th.rr"r. Mu. .vitege ofrhi irown nev arc drercfore' bound willins & a.i".liii."i""iin. lheir affais Prcpenv '.l0 6.sh ^nd Muht6ib. to obey thc crcw - To cduce innuctce of Jldiciary.Jr"il"'ii*i ornoi"x sete*"d and aPpoiDted bv thc croM' and iri€v hold tleir """i"'iasti"a onrci unoa rlc sore p. "'fhe Mn ah of this counfiy enjoy allowanc€s atnounting to laca of rupc€s.s subiccled lo p.r'i" 'r'". and monthtv fixed s't'des arc poid ..""i"r."r "Now I will make them retum the allowances thev have received during the last scv€n y€ars.

' Amir Abdur Rehtnan."".ke-rhe 'eiieious r'."n"J *...-1r.t personrllv " Secretarv of Aoir Abdu' Rchman who wihcssed DeBecurion of the rcligous clas< feels ln the present dav n is imDossiblc-for th. Coun of Go'ernod Like Ooli ofa town. and ro som€ extenr for Prcstige.hreary s. were lesr pushed about $e suplemacv of Ia{1 1. l..ir i" .i. Najm-ud-Din ali^s Hadd^ Mullah (anii'soveDmcnl) was a rarari. fo. Consequently.Mad. DaDd $nt . "rj". against 'lifidel Brnish subsidv holde.s caried out for spreading tcrcr in the clergv M!/. who was r€p.l was a kind of coun for dsidins (ascs of his oM dePannmr' Howflcr' nosr powerful cxecutive couts ofihisperiod$€re!s lnder: I.tr of Kabll The Sovcmor was "i .^bdur Rchnlan..xrl/a. rhev were more inte'ested in lben carrying oui caeer.upon ihe Sovemmcnt for promotion' income.rvr' rhcse exccutites iudiciary.ied to put an cnd to all thed -influence and Hc ex@iscd lhcv djovcd for scv@ldtrics . lhey optcd for baoming an instrumml of lcrcl All e\ccunv.ls oi crime and ssurnv mirrc6 uilik' rhe l..flices could nol bc PUblished unril read ard scen bv the.ni "r 6flic..s arrempred-t'i 5.- 6.r in rhe ncl. ""tt'.""ii'" t*"t'. \r. Slrict press and Publication cmsoshiP was inpos€d All the leaditrs t'e'ta were reouired to read each wod of$etrcomprled books/Panphles and Amn Abdur Rehmn used ro give cuidane.!.iicc jusrtre wrth rherr respectiv€ludsdictioG Almo$ {crv .//d/' in the u'llues and Muslim Judges -"r'or "ir""r'"i of various ranks were lnade dePendent. Mir Munsbi Sulian Moh. mosr powsful rtl/ir.lopcd counrries." r-" .ted agaitst U/atd capable ofgaining popular suPPon. Abdul Ahad of Kandshar aere executed bv Amir . rtt" regiotr was rcpr€senring $e ....1" ".f ""* E{ecutlve Courts ts whcn iudicirrv tctuscd ro submir to rlc rmbirionq of rlF hon 'nril ro thc wrs mnsfcned u'sarcrr. deparimenrs or lhe sovemmenr also ir.'{D.@ 7.4i Ab{tur Rahim af.vi. Laler $crcl elifritanon of lhe M/ita. Amir Abdur iehmal..r'" Ul"-" "rti"h rl" aersv. to gen€_Fte latred againsl hin. to stir up the fcelinS: ofPopult@ ' TIE . suPPorring Satdar Ayub.4/. For inslance Covemment first madc efion! to get Fdrw4 (verdict) from Mrild.esenEdve ofthe chief.4.v all tlcse arbilrarv !ow$s fros rhe Mulldh" ' To conclude.t has lakcn aw. ti"g' *1-.r'* *acrdcv. Conspiracis wcre sta. namelv sovcmor and l<o. amend atd imprcve ir' Evcn b@ks of rhe leading U/entd busy in €ligious.i. ." V.d M///d.iustie in his area' gou"-o. Execurion of U/e[d w.

s the anival of d.nnrcnr.r/ administation ofjusticc were as udq: . H.. and SuDerjnrendenr ol Prisons. serl mtke6 who had not obtained licenses to DEdice rhen Drofession. Thcy hld widc powerc of imprisonDenf and a lot of'luisancc valuc' in $e sociery as mentioned below: - the ..sets of documenG They had suthorny to rl \erll€ $edEpllesoflandrcvenue_3 Cowl ofKotual The Ko.s rheir messenge6 or enrered into coE€+ond. 2. Covemors were Sivet q. Govemo6 werc aurho.'" nrcy were.l I ca*s whcthcr small or scrious. .nd robbers in thei' villages. virtuauv rulinghis area Bente ajldgc of rhe diminal court.riminal coun. His judgcment in small cases wd final The serious .the king was considered the highest coun in hk area. verv oowerftrl.c Kotv4l regirding ^. tc had j urhdictio! ro riy all clinin.-robbery. adultery. lowerful official.m or look Psn in thc cbcllions' j.. holding all these posts at a rime tle had beconr c teror iD I'is are!-" Marn Po\c6 oIrl.ulhonzed to impnen fo.ized lo impn$n th.3. ' . 'Govemors b.ca$.nge$. H@d of the lntelliScnce Dco.' blood money.Flilure in lbove duties.e who shell€Ed !@ for the the Thev wcrc emoowcrcd lo procurc undeaskings frcm €ld'6 and villEae6 rhc. .ncc with thcn or spicd for th.atery ol roads passrtrs rhrough rherr locbl'rics and for reponing ro authonri.d of lhe Police De9artment.ide pwers in cases of abduction' Dttrd€r' exbnio. in considcrcd thc higbe$ @un of fte Capital. but lowq in rank and on a smaller sc5le " The Sovemors ctrjoycd corsiderable authodry in maiie6 of seclrity and revdue With the unpMcdented €xpansion of thc Pow€r of thc Slale. resulted in imPrisonmdl of rhe concemed villages bv tl'e .ral w. and evcn quarreh that entilled to revenge o' They ])ad authority to imPrison lhe individuals suT€cted olhcr people' and lhose wto uttcnd swcanvordr'" of inbnding to shoot the banishcd Efus. asjudge of the . He had $e same son ofofficials around hin as lhe king himself.ilcd undcr ordors of the govemoE'- Iho. .

& 3' tle {. probabiy depddins on the State intdest in rhecase.ln this capacitv. vet jr was imPossible forclaimcd him lo . and some times eveD in @ses of govemment rocnu.cc.(o/w.DDlied in criminal cases. and poliricalolfcncs ofvarious linds Though this onen made.. s' ir'" ii"ri sr-rt".uril. i"'rig . was howevn hrnscd.ccount of this 'Public Prince H.t"ut .cld4t so! ofrh. he was ako Iisble ro confess anv rhing out oiPain 6nd rear'"" Thc 'Krrv.""a** i! the listorv of Afghdistan-au}le sent the !oli@ to tic . was 5 notorious and most lowertul official of Amif Abdur Rehman who crurhed all the undesirable elenents through 'cign of i"".rc rcfencd by him ciihcr io $c court oflmif or lo th€ coun ofchiefOdziin Kabul.mc Coun of lhe ApPetls.rr *"nr ri. ir'c..xry thousdd p6ons to death Ir is toc that the hin io-do so roit ror.*r'". public and private werc cdicd out. rhe Kan'dl' had io enforce jDdgments of olhe! coutts and osure proPcr plnishments.wdl' ha<l to conduct lhc tornrrc m@nt for Procuing colfessioD and 13 identifying abettors ofthe cnme Todure for exloning confession oflhe trulh was . Scpias .. Cou ofPnrce Hobibu ah D"'rD'r since l8ol.. sraned holdinspublic ''Complaindnis.uty *"ll off familv ro exttcr monev frcm rhem Hc offered iio"* 3'. . p.'. after rhat of thc ''{n''' Amir Abdur Rehman has given conprehqsive .{'r's sovemDdt h'd bencfited publiclv iornplerion of the prccess of Iiquidation $6.rtl-ik€ justices ofpqce in England' the 'Koieaf had porvcrs to sumfton lnd aresr crimilals ofall kinds lll of The 'Ka.thc cininalsDerk. t"yond the limits. tr was Supr. r'a . p. bringing tlcir grievancs befc tnv son. srard one by ..amir Audut Rchman him<elfadmirred th't "'""ry frr"nos as e'fis i.bibullah Khan./ used to sedd daily performaDce rePod of his coun' diiect to Ami' Naib Konatl Suftan Afshar. which p€mi$ onlv one peFon walkins uP '/I.well-wkhei. woodc.'lthout lh€ explicir knowGdge and Peftision of the ''{'til Tt' '4Dd' a lor''e But after t"-'Ji *itr'"I r.hi'd .lor". fe.obably duc to having lost hisulilirv- courts of RoYal Jurisdlctlon t."r ."r" "r *i-""".'c b.criminal ca$s w.'. To see that all execltions.l' canied out all addinistrarion of executions /punishme s.as dpowered to lry lhe civil c6es relating lo the S@uity ofthe State.

he attcDds his D!'rar abolt ten four or five iD the aliemoon. or who frcm any other cause €mot explair themselves lroperly.d io nc in the Ii it rorm or a *ort outtine foi rle final judgemcnt"e' 2.s. Tbc senicecontinued ilrcughout the reiSn ofthe Attir.This is thc daily prcglAmm€ of Habihullah's ihc momins.tcd and t. and ifnec. On Mondays atd Thu6davs the sccrctaries ofh.He atteDds mv coun before ie goes io bed for a few ninutes.ril had lis gnde Pernions of llF peotle. bv Shahghasi AMul Quddus' who rcad llie neiidons to tho.r.t s. In complic. these uslFF speak loudly in the presdcc of thc .xr' inlroduced 'Juslice Boxes' for rcceiving Petitions ftom tle nasses Obiect of the bo(es was \edress for lhe codnon peoplc' wilhout taking the trouble of.-.diou! ca$s which €q!trc looking th.. there are any old women or old men.l4 rhe aisle ar .stance and also tubmihilC petitions dnecllv Mlhoul f$r of rhe sovcmoB and orh€r hi8h rankhg omc'als " People we€ askcd lo srmPlv ftrow i. werc boutd to be confined 10 tr lertv matters . Durrat read to hjm all the aPPlimtions and lette6 which com€ bv post or by iunneB fiom Herat. On Salurdays he tries and sentences prhones and release othersi he listens to climinal case brotrSlt before him bv the ]Kottart and fron oihcr sources. cic. ' ' Common people were jlliterate. Petitions tfuough Sutlooq-Landtut (Jutti. Th€ boxes wcre op€'ed at Kabu'I.s the c{lse mav demand' ro nake lhe preliminary inquiries. ftanks to spies being susPected every whcrc in vhom thc.r anendanr appoirted foi tlrc purpose. India and oller pans ofdominiof. however. Howcvir.ssary... then. conrmcrcnrl or rcvcnlc o{ficei .nds thc cases lo the €cclcsialtical' crnnhml.. Jalalabad. in the Dresence of the . also whcn I awak€ in ihe mominS.ro thee box6. their complaint! lgaitst any onc.onplainants 10 my son. Ghazni. "sandooq-i-ala/d/" was not much effective due 1o lhe following .omins fioh the long d.e Beg Tle.oughvarious counls or P@tmclcd evidcnces of prooi my son Habibullah fits. or rhose who are too weak or ndous. diroissing it at work.-.. Balkh.. majoritv of then could not wnte the GertiDg a complaint sritien by a third Person' against the govemors and 'ror"'it'was sirnpty out of quesdon. Kandahrf. time.. they are ushered itr by tlE !rcp.{tr'nq The reDlac@qt ofold box€s by ih€ ncw ones' ws publicty leclared through beadnSoldrums. The boxes' propdlv s@ted and suarded were sent to Kabul on half-ve'rlv basis.-{. appeals.'{rttt. Th€ @se is lben foryad. who rcrcupo! Ddkcs inquirics and gives lhe final judgemdt.

ihe l\ins or his ramilv and matteE of c.Tlc mainjudicial functions of this '/'6ar h€aring and fte criminals accused of high trcaen and ofter @res ud off4ccs' . atccpt for }avi!8 some deleEenl ctrect for thc govemors ard olhef liSh ranking officials.l5 Period ofsix morths. cases or orieinal iurisdidion for lhe oses of ereat 'rlsi rreason or orhq offences agdnsr'mponance. remined of very litlle bflclit for J. thc. Coutt of Antr Abdtr Rehnti.ior couns. was lhe highest judicial' n..t. Prince lldbiblllah Khan N?s asked to hold thetublicru'b.d Mrl/i?n (h.Thc lhird Dartv coBists of the fltdr{-u ioa'r (lhe h€ad of the retision) the Qazt Cud8es ofth.and byseruing in lhe rchsious dePanmenls fie Amir Abdur Rehnan Dsed io }old Drtaf of two tvpes' fie 'Ptivare Durbdr" were t'iat of which was hcld by tbe. callcd Drrdf er Amir Abdur Rehhu has legislative a. was roo long to wait.4r. aner which thcj$tic€ boxcs werc opened. could get his cae would ./'. exercbed bolh original and .-.cmncnr revenuc. religious scholaB) The last named peolle are the ecclesidtical heds.nnons or represeDtatives of rltc peoPl€) and M!/1.Ar. bcing the higlesi judicidl court of the country.e infc.4.d Sadar (or distocEcv) these Khardneen-c-Mtlki <.equircd ro kite thc conplainls on a ProPer piper oftupes tlFe each. .y Pcrson hlving anv disPule. It wds commorly onderstood that the.. Pclirions wcre lare' .It fuflherreduccd utility of the svnem- stamped To conclnde Sand@q-i adalzr. courts).tain caes frcm tlte bcginning and decided hirselflikecourt of rl.rt actcd tikc Politi€l d'spDt6.r.'t .t.d excculivc insiiiution of the countrv himself d€scribcd lhe @mposition of fic @un rs under- "Therc are tlre€ kinds of rePresentatives who assedblc in mv coun' clsses of p€ople Nre @ll. l(chman.e court of Anir Abdur Relmm.tsing eram'nafion il Ehgious studies and in lhc la$s ofrhe country.tling justice from the olher infdior cour8 ln such casca' it Dr?rar of AuiL Abdu! 6 . a.41t ?t (legal adviscls a(ached to the. and risc io ihe position of holdiDe lh€ir s4ls rn rhe coua by p.theard ce.ecidcd lty ihc Providcd Lc could cotvincc lhc kitg thar rhc applicanl was ihe tror be g.amendmcnt of ihc law of the land and introducing rcfoms Anir Abdur Rch Fan licld d.ppellate jurisdiction ove. the cases' As a coun of first nlsllnce. proclically.lcciding tbc appeals ftom rhe courls of?rince Habibuilah and all other infe'jor courts or rrre iov*iris and esrablhhment of new couris Main lesislative flncnons i""lude. for $etetitionm having lrobletns ofinmediatc natlre.a.c ?'rrlic Drlbar' rill I891 ln tlr same vcar.ouris).

ihe wvs ofbringing such cases before him nre the following Firstlv.for confimation. Trrrdly.ir To illustEtc rhe point.4.t. thc 1l'" sumoDs them ihro. in ca*s whse nc dericuve deoonmenr of rhc . a$isted ihe king in boldiDg his court' sllmonils ihc plaintifi and defendant. rhot anv PcEon .als sro brcu8hr beforc the king in rhe followrne wav6: Fi6tlv. of sone . no m€rcy Pclitiot froft thc convict was requir€d. af..oPerly) mav ?ul tle Peiition bv wiling inst€ad of orally"-r@ in As a slpreme corn ofApIJeal. has 5ho given sources of presenlaiion of thdc -App. includinS $e coun offtince Habibullah.xplain hlmself p. do not likc (o r'kc lpon thcmsclv€s ihe resPonlibility of deciding Secondlv' lhc sadc couns iorwa.. death Punishmcnrby anv coud was sifrplv not valid secretary of Amif how the case of original jurisdiction were lrescnEd to fte Mir Munshi Sultan Mohaminad.d rherctore.eget ntture or the pson unable ro. execution of dl€ dath sent6cc being subject to cotfimalion of the . AftnAbdur Rehman. and making aU the amngemenls of the kinS\ judgemetu lo be prosecuted He used to inlroduce hundreds of?eople wlo had their eses or apleals 10 be tlied by rbc . scliled aPPcals from all rhe orb€r couns olthc coun'lry. anv Pcsot or pers and put tleir claims ty word of molth bcfo. the vanius cor:ns foruard for rhe kin8 s approval such judg. Head of thc state has powes lo nullify death Dunish cn! on thc lnercy appcal'' of thc convict ConEry to this Provision. if People arc reponed bv the deleclives or by any otlter olficial of tne govemmcnt' to have done any lhinS \uong...1.mcnB as lhcv consider of grsl importan@.. Ozzi courts and lhe aPpellote coun ofKabul. All strch cases were auto(ali€lly sent to lhe.n Abdu Rehman.dkcrcrior oflhc "Crown". .'{..4. courts of Govmos.{. Till the confimalion oflhc. which dre suPPosed to be .'ir.4fii.rt .nce ws awarded by any coun of fte countly.rir' j6t as ihev wouid before any magislrale Secondlv. headedbv'Khane ulood" Mir MMElisllta! Mohammad. Pakislon.ho does not like to Dut his conDlainl beforo him in tle publicaudience (tftc comPlaint bein. It nray aho be mcntioned here lhst the /rrn-hrd a son oforiginaljunsdiction on all lhe cases in which death snl. cithcr to hcar the casc.'tt r sic s an odinary court and hears cases which have not been decidcd by any other murt sdier. the .lrrt*..d to the hng for hB oPition. t}e gentlman usher.{azri.€ the . or to have suffered anv injustice. quesnons on *hi'h iheF is no delinitelv laid dou law for rhem to sbidc bv Thrdlv. or rcfcr it lo ony slboidinalc coun.gh one ofhis oflicials io atlcnd his court for rhe trial oftheircase.'tnrir lnrrcduccd a new svstcm.. during ihc reign ofAmir Abdur Retman.. tells us "When the .

"''r'.. Al1 cas€s iilt""'. proPeny and mercanlile affaiB elc se'e enlered In rhe recods oi them were kept for reference 'reersrers eovemmenr "nd io Anrir Abdur Rehnan has hnns€lf given a comPrehensiae account of Petiion lhc roy3l cotrn..*". report to him $at sone kind of fnud or Paniality has bccn hinsell shown in a d€cision.. is siven below: ''The DLocedurc fo." aoo.k somc Foprc sor wav He "Any pe6on can put his claims bcfore me in the following lr. . and very littlc s€nse in themr bll lhe oop. both in an appeal and rhc origif.0 r.i."i"q"1"a. Therc is much time waned in rcading tbcse lons lcdious application.ciu'rrv i. phere a pla'nt'ff or defodant " tudeemcnr ofany." rc @ut Lroublc ih.ievance in .' r . ordercd lhat everybodv cxcepting cour .'"r'ro come in ard lellme hi elt Orto pul lis g. Besides.*ided a lot of finarces lo the sovernndt. triah in all the couns ofnv kingdon is verv easv and .'"i ." . .ieor' rrrr pur sroP ro rhc unncccsslrv s.. Any individual can see me or anv of the reslonsible ieads of ny govemmm! personallv. a@ording to tb€ aiden@ dnd p@fs oflhe c. .lna t"potts tlat hc wishes to see ne.. were the same.Ie in his own handwtins rhcr lrnrcrs cut for .oun hecan aPPeal ro rhe.corc oolazvromouetheirlongues though lhev *rllw'ste timc itr w.i.i"'"i "rtr"'i or cxecuting Pc6-on. as Srven by Amir Abduf Re}ftan. the jailcr wa6 requircd ro get r.i"'". who wished to make a comPlaint in sairins should buv a sutc his applitution orobcr {rmpcd fom. i" .4xtn k Ilodes oflrial.ofthe PeoPle.ficials.Ifa Derson does not likc to state hh case in lublic' i€ can sen<l it u! in wdling.t1 ev€ry{here.al case. .'o'rhe procedure for the rial of cases..iiing yims rnd y.6 *"'.i. and stale bis oqn cas'' without intercission or recommadation fiom anv one An inPanial judgernml h then gn'en by me or by my son. providins solid foundadon of2 l€gal p. he sends for il€ cas€ to examine 'twirh lhe d"isstrisfied Founhly..r" csql ' "d G* **r*d '"]ll i.nd Afg ristan.r"s sm*wc 't sistratures wer' ro bc obt'incd For rnstance a"".*"a*"a l" a"-.se.'e" l'r.r'" orde6 or releas'ns of rhcse ffi"i". ir'*" 'itaune to rrhenrance....nple. val*d !t lhrcc rupccs.mr' I lhcrcforc.crehries make shon abstracE ofthere lenffi and answe6 r '' was to be wrntet lnd ADv connnan<t o! insfuction verbilly givcn by tlrc '4'ri Presentadon ds was lo be obrained oD for re'ord rr'".'*""i"g tr'e ofJic i.iil:.'s prcpeav sqled Restcs wct 'r'" pmon'" a .*i' dnd lbms ior conlrftr" d6eds oulirs othe omciar businss wft for the n*r 'enrensi. and is inviled to wiing and give "o..tc srh dre rcErruE VJrious rvpcsofsEmps iai'" ho.-l Ecord E\ eryone sening poss<ssjon rhal h' Promisq (o h*e hh i"". 'nd rntl.

..xceDr .rd Ju3dce bv Amn Abdur R€hnan. . Prisons for scvml veE {ithout 'xPsunS s rhev wre alisrd or rhe '{n' .* r."r' " r'-i "unisimors. Ifhe does not succeed in hG lener DuI before me from dv of these sources. since his comiDs into Powe'."elves backwards and fod ards " ..ivrle.n rheir rcrarie and ftods \ho $a5 arread) rn tne oao dDDIea'ure in casc ol $knding anv help ro lhe peRon ""a u. and forwa'd it to the peftiontr bv getting sam€ means by which it came to me.1.being blowing fiom @nnds nmg'ng and bevonsrn8' oerhods of exe. He musi write on lhe @vtr Not to be oPcned bv ..'^ii' 1i." poisoned lo dealh Morcove. there de mv spres det4ivs bolh oubl'c and o.r. ri-" i..llv conduct€d trials of all drc senous strog orhcr n'dhods h"--.-tu' .ngunabledfrloobevrhe@Ll .*"Jr" o"** "f "'."".""'..i..*.. i"*. "r."r'* jao"d Loensurct)rrt no sieht Nas len Fineenncn wee round arr on $e rhird dlv or blindins .--t ih. *en Admloistrrdotr ot H."' Lhe pol'ri€l d€rainecs' Pan'cularlv thc elders werc .."1*g tr'".dincw Deo... on the o..". srrting wft iyng o'ao $r' ofnature.i"" fi. his assislant.h ned onero orher."' . some of tle livrs sc'e unconsc'ous \hilc orhcs ir.rne @mmor -" ".uas not onlr accesiblc ro the ii he hinself sloPp.a-el" A Mrrt'n rhc '4'. T}iv lived in rh. inilePrisons.. irequentlv includins imaemarive foms of i. or ro one ofmy court secretaries. wer€ seldon Political opposnior was simplv intolerable ?olitical prisonqs an_v ried at once.-.t8 it to lhc Naztr.c'tuI rul€r' w3 a He pdso.1" "v* blindedir ij'*r."i""a t . rhev weE filthv bevond descnption Three ol lhm werc Iivine.. who arc sevftlvPunished ifrhe '"d case is nor reponed to me.tu rvire rtre amwcr wirh mi own hand. ""nronmcDt rn a ros on the group Be. I open sdch l€ eru mvqelt and if n'cc$ar) l also anv oDe ..l." ofticial 'blitdei 'tn e-vins @t puishment or a dro! ofnrnic !c'd *as PUr in rhe eve were Ianced and "oon' ii"Ji"g... iDclud'ng the old womn."""-" 'ri" 'nch'dcd dcJrh bv stadrlion stoning ind cun'ng hetnroar' 'Blindins ws a common Punrshment ro the exr'nr rhar lhe orirc.le..ution h b'li'v'r in and fo.t'".. i"pir. or even inro lhc Dosl omce.. to tak' peririons iro-m rhe hands oflhe people.lti' fin ih' cffi' .Jiii.ilr."'ai" r. as a th.' hld im*l r admined to havc ordercd Iac Peopre.... 't.d shilc mvclling."'Ji.l6The .. "..

e" ..ofBala con!!tt''g very h€rnous Hisar.""i*r due rrre rock. empting a couP .nin: "urho.! ."""i."a men."a t" mind€d "*".ga'nsl rhe'1xrr "*i n. untii thev became unconsciols snd died h.lrrlr ' L s own son' A Mullah. '' 2. also knoM as Sd/t Cnal' (Black well).leadd ofthe L{"'a ofKan&hsr' jnst Amir Atdur Rehman (whom the M'lla'r considered Lvrt.r':oAcco. Tte poor (probablv unwisc) Muuah w* bloM fromthe mourh ofa sut " {. dcainng rhe death of ! rheking' who suPPorted Sardar M'.//a/r Abdu Rahim.nd rhc othcr Jrldlibid 'r'" peoplc woe blown Dunne rhc 116r rhtcc vera ot rcbcllions five thousand killed ren thousand Eisht caPt'i's w€re blo*n flom r.'r'. l." *oot ona. once depuiv comnander-in_chiefofthe in a rebellion agarrsr the L.tt" mouth ot rhc wclt r 'n i""i"i.Tlrose wtre tmPnconed ir rhis well T6e p'isoftrs ii" tr'" 1.ihes) "r*. M.towels one i'iiia i" finr" 't'"uld at the tsidetdal place ofShahmod who flcoudgeo .. sptcuding runor lbout lhc dcr|h of thc ''hir rrom i.'."."ii*""." .r*ns v. 'ome finccn hut which suard or se/o'r r'ttl"" l.e i. m"'.eD'if wNs lhal lheEmor indicated wishtul(hinking s"'*a days. i' r.ise forces' wd '{ni'\ /dn objcct ofthc ""'. r-ogi" of the culpnrs.'.i."ot rhe boftom ofrhe $ell is dark ed rhe onb lisht Jt ict pmetnis is from ttre mouth abo\ e and no sound from the outcr .'* .ort ar"ua"a lunishnsl was imPnsonment in oldwell.'fteir remins wqe 'xhibited in th' mrk€ts for ir'oi*" **" "it ofrtte.i"i *a*"a.clron ..* p. i"ii"r. rh€ '1'ril ordcrcd lhat hetds rt be filed uD in the shape ortwo bis.ding ro Frlnk A. once made a repon against fie '{''t rr'" ii". t"ine io cause a deretent effcct oD the other like p.l9 A fcw vcrdicls.'r'" |''j'"1''" -a a'i.r.ry soon ended $etr davs bv dghinssolii'de rnd lo throusl rcck' with the "This is an old well which has bcd excavaled feet in di'mcrer' and or twentv ui.qarnsl the Shin*ans. clers !itt'".nor.ir' .*""iiy li"i'".ai al*.mur '. thcnsrv's il. i""' ""J'r'" luns lor. be bacl$s..rgcd Ib. other like minded people' f'om la'ticipation in of all lhos ncr .r "n""*r *"ll The bod'es ol the dead were left wirh the oLho living . named Kishmash. pie. "gi d subsidv holder of rhc Bndsh Govemmcnt) was i" intia"t io.just 10 show how Amir bdur Rchman c sled rhe opposition l.""a i' h " shah Chilzi. - 'iwo mcn ch. lrir'" p..

. r'." **.Juri' *d icclr surficicnt ro @ts dcari"rrl ii* of was The mosl deadly and $nforsivable oifencc' in tie eves of lhe spies.. ".ii"'" """i*r.. sovemmenr' Those cdsidded 'Enslish and el.."e..i"rr ".'*.ii.t. "f a crime. rhc old m'n wd th6hcd to dcarh His . .cxcrcisc continued rillthe Nan dicd *' l"yi"o pi"i"a.o it t"itl'"i r'i..". s'adcd rhcE To make the punislnenl i" .i.r'.riii f'ont ofrhc "rsiri ."iiii"i" ro sro.li -liEon reliows.". "i". non-Muslim in .l.ii. t.""ii*".i' .".c th. 'r'" " """" r.rt" . rhc coffni$.". forcibrt dakrns ii" t'. tr'" "ti!n"n ir'" *'i".lo'sing to Kafirisisn.ng.B rhe fatld oftle bov was imPnson'd a'd bro!g)'t 'lii.n's hanced in lhe facrorv as a wami g io was commurcd to cunins l""iJi"" *.lir...et"a f'"^ nnv thousand torNo hcl' ruPces' on all I failed to Pav two or lnre "" .nds were cur on wR prunged inro boirrns oir " "" a pre@ oI "."tii"o . throush same crinc and received $e samc puishEenl A few exatnples Punhhmen$ for robberv and $elt we'e also dreadful bed in lhe m. lf $e villass bcsed in rhe vrllase Liu the pavmcnt--was .tt" .iii H. t .'"..m.'i '."ai.-i'.r'-"r".t ""0 of{aNalion _ "lt'is - besidcs To punish sreal.uoorvi'e u'ro-"rionio rLe tndit.ii. '". one of the usu6l penslues ordered bv lhc 'arrr' cur ofrbv a butcher' and r'*["i"..'?'"Jt...rket for in the brcader sense of'vicarious liabilitv" Unds the smc made rcsPosible for rr'e o"ool" or*"...ho sa."t "ra nto davs i-t"'j.. n"".""'r*.:.on ofws h€ld to be suihv of the rhc sov€lnmqo il ..ea':' bodv $d' cxhrbiicd nrenewcnniMlcode imPotda qlla8tswithin ten . ".r. h.""1r.e. lerch n." .r'-" 1*t""d offen@' the anempt for cs@pe to lDdia' wd abo dealt a@ invaded bv th' i-" u"y.i l.ru his wav rhroush thc :.1'" i*'u.i... it'" "'rman died a couple of davs arter srtrins hs hand othes Later' on represenlation by the .tSi^ t"ine it'" or u 'n.t" doM wnh his srick and ordored th€ oth6 Present in .". was ord€red bv lhe '4''ir to bc r".""*W conequentlv.ijr.i"i-"'i**a . *capi to i1du."*i.i. the hemonhaee A factory worknan found to be coDc'ar'ns land).t o". "ere uavmered ln ano'her case a vounsstcr chars€d wirh ..ii".i tlir*"d ioir.v vrlt'se and toM Ncre collectivelv o_ ."i wcrc broushr ro rrim No ot rhrcc tih* .p..r i." a-nnovett at rhc vouns n'n escapins hr vmsane th' '4''i' [ii* ir'".20 world can reach those impnson€d rhcte' while fic $ench and follncss I.y.'J"'."" .f . wolld I ' tras A n..'.an who slole lhe lood ofsome poor children leavin8 fiem norhinS uaaar' and $a. . .nared dunng rhe nishr' c'rher bv Poison bavonet or "i''"'"r*" l'tr ". r'i* r1'" 1'"n4 "u166 ganos wcre ii.""'i""i"i *ral"^ wcrc tcncrallv a *ime wrthout anv effons .*. il."'erciin rhet.* t"".* ' tm r"crorf rhe punrshment .a ro rndia.cach *.

overcome by a shopkcepd. inlo so.cnds ofhis victim." ""* ".i""r'rJ.r'. i"a. n. some wft blinded.a"..r th€ ''{''ir' lcsse.sdaris ma uials.was na"ing a enve suspicron ttrar an ri "i...*"t in lhe ma*er fo! a iewdavs '" was lcn to As far as fturder was conceh€d' unds the '"'irt law a murdftr f.. some persons To end constanl robbing of gov€.'.{rrn was also savage -efgtm 'rvolved $ar his wife.of i".atnr also had mm throq into boiling oil on ocqsions Thee wec repons of bakers beins bak€i for ramperins wil! the qualitv and csoecially Nrth rhe weighl ofbrcad. i.*r a. o rcyal Jrlillery.ori"o". f"-.i. tohat.i.'_ robbcr.ii..r"d'* ."i i."p. 0"."i *i" 'onslidcv all rhosc the nale.i".lly punbhmenr for tnurdet adulterv 'nd onrr rrrasnine " ihe offtrde's on these Pornrs wec rrca'ed-wirh ." murder' ror mor p"n * a .h" *a.-i.d snl sxarr or with hord a Pardon lf pardoned-' the courd Ev'rv t'l' [fe bjpaving a fine of seven tholsand ruPces .t--""t 'n-. rloueh rheorer'c. or gdve hih advice.herc starc rnrercsf necesitated rhr leniencv) some i" t'"n*""Ji "iil . wiie. r. convicred of embezzlcment tullblat.. and confisctrron of then monev (he werc btown off fiom $c suns publiclv o' rr'.i.L it tft. and lhe othe6 were A .tferenl rorues on lhe order of rh! Oithse Prisoncu. ."irry *"it n"tl for lhe dogt ro be earcn their bones were len at).*o" * ii.r -*ali ** "ti. "ms."r':p. punishments for offences dePended on the 'mood' of rhse were no iixed and defined punishmenB for fte crimes One pe6on was the o$er peson.borlerwhm '. f""tUes."." '.a.. l.lorrl "m ourrinca and allof tlrcmwere imPnsoncd five were bloqn liom rhc sw."'"1 " .i.lly...".D. bur evn rr thev chose ro forsivc 'h" "..v werc throM alive into in charuc ofsoaD shops...mons rhc constablcs sivins (rupeq ren Lulorr.. fr'" p"n"h. Pere When Badakhstan merciants akcled lhe constablcs' Iiftv of thcm oi i. upthc deficitbv boilinsrhcm doq .ii"*iip-u"try i"*' .' *"*. as a signof htr unfairhtuln'ss andlo spoil h'r .. ..4'" 5. was taken lo the 'Kotw'l' Aftd some rhirtv names of spplying d..".s tonur'd ull he Eave an \ho helped hrm.'a* rnd rhcn wde compromisable Afrer reconciliation ofrhe .s senrenceo ro acirt rtc mudeEr w.rhe State drd nor inrerferc"' in outraS'ng in Punishments of the men The . *y p"" i.'.. ror rhe same crime' was rereascd ir""ir' -rme.*ls awarded bv rhe ''nlir rncluded distribulionthe ho6's of . Thc.i'"* TIe *.rtid.^1"r.re buned in rhe sround uP to theirchins 'i" **t"red i. "r 't1e in a cac w.g"rtotti'"m 'r.. r"n rhe-e rrll death Affer thc dath dogs were auowed ro e'r thcn ".*nar. or took anv pan in the murder'''' However' *.

his mistresJs dcath' was hauled uP "fter. "r..r' * i.la' disnsudns Punishm€nr Mosr or the helpeo $."r oriniinc rhe toLlp"'* .i.v b Paid"rrT .n.wcre lwarded capitol Plnishmenl' .r "i""i.wft ordned to livc loeether put on-roP or rhe As sn Hershls ti'd hack to...M lo soup A b. s ou ld be sent to e riorhcr peron. rheF \tcre dircrimimtions A ..."" ?.ihesing ofadull'ry' Wherc the relarrve of rhe rulihg laDilv wer€ tmplicated in cases was brrnd'd or nto rhc m. Plucking out beards' rubbing nrakrne Dcoplc ndnd for scvedl davs and nrghre $rhoul anv movehent' qavs uscd lo rtke thc '4'ri' s dkpl'asurc fcll sni'r'_nro rr" cyo ma Oiffotrl olher For insonce in case ofa Mfe seekrns drvorce on the plca ofler r.! sL...imc cri'n. prefmed lo die Usuallv the relahvcs rhcm with a docs olDoisor'' . . *iii 't'"i" -til '"p""..nd rnd.. har inc rhe sane strlence ol r Pnsonmcnl ti'Jmgaom and atlone<l lan..s found indulging in adultery with a nanied the man that rvoman.i".* ft..l'i *.un tl. ""a'*^ r.*la :fil"..ts for cultivaiion.y ""a r-evenucs consitlmutv ''" Amir '^bdur Rehnon has hims'lf "nn..s.od $ere whrle lhe woman *d the pol'cman rhrust th€tr bavonets throl'eh ir till ii.u.'il' "i" ir'".hrir ordered a sdaDgc punishment The '4'tir said 's I'c sl'dld have hs as @mplctelv 6 possible The *u.back thcv died ofexPosurc and stanarioD Poli@ ."i" Plinishlnents for some crirnes itcluded cutting ofnose.es pe'son Asa n. .r (Havins sexual inte'coursc wi$outlroPer lcgal to thc io bc .'o'lsl'" of hing hu'b. *"..irc) wc'c ordcrcd ''kcn for him to ..e dcalt with very soictlv. .". if dislik€d bv 0r' '{Dn for I fe. ." ir'" ii:stana ueing morrtess.a 'r.op". ttc verdict wa! crr6crion of her rc'th Confisc0hon or itp".risoned f.. mamed man w.-*a rr.r. aner lhis Punishmol.sin of this soup was siven to tle naD' *ho *as fo@d to ln a ctsc wllerc a *"**. rr'*". ws a common punishment wh'cll o. -o*V to.als -*t"t"d "f ".fi" .*" al" i*a .e *a i"p. tarious crimcs ard offdces and confiscated pioPcny' as r.. ". i.. .p fh" .r. '' Individuals involved in Zt."i'.rr' .i..r life would be rhrcq 'n rhe Black well. ftom which the mo. tr'".". {6 a.1..e punishmenb. rhe .r -^*t. wome caught in adlltcD.r'" i"to a huge cauldrcn of boiling warer' and boil€d d.n was impnroned atd De'ct heard ot Tlc woman g"' some sim."i. rn rmplemenration of $c sentcncer.. !s utdcr: Sexul crines we.."a "rm *o .l"g n""s for vsnous crin.."n fa.n "' 3.. usunllv wilh award of innovalive l.-"p" *.djlsted arcund rhc man s neck readv Put in a sacL the .omen.11". . *ns .""-*"t ir'. Anorhe' man and i'iil i.

peihdls not €vf. -r rhe lincs ofrhc Russi.e..r''-l'. tbe are borh consilcred equi.D MohaDnFd claimsi ''There is to country in th..*" ' . in Rulsi4 wherc drcrc arc o nmv si:ies ad such a pelfect detective de!'itment as in is believed ro have sPv: ' \qlc rs afiaid of aieh""ist-.eopte 'uere t'epr In rhe s?'ni of Zrkrya.ry fourth m.'y trcitr^ua'o ueire *t s a spv uPon h{ dnd rhc husband is afisid ofhis i " ..'.hee-tspv) sendtng rePofls !o lhe.crion The unmaried a'd beauritul daushteB $as "irtrour comdonlv S"rai r. (fan.rl bo..rii Mn MunshiS(li. mdv however be mentioned !tre thar trch derenent and innovarive for sexual cnm6 w. of rh.ib.rc n.4nrir cbout his fair adm'nrs@rron of ''There is no differencc in the laws for rich md and be8aaE in our bcsgar an<l a p.'{"/t Nol only lhe '!''if tad sP'es opmring in rhe houses ofhis tons rnd €ven thatofhis .lhev coun.rdar Habibullal and N.of thc punishmcnl and stop 6ny inlerfercnce inthcPunishmfrl by thcpeople 5- convic.rs $e bodting of.irir".la'i.*" m roi kt am (rhe Fairv Holse) Th. own l?fc. cven to his fticn'Ls as Erffs .ra r'.'l-t". powcr of lis ollic€ ro a tov prclry girls. th€v both siand sloulder bv shouldd in presflce of me and mv son until lhc cse is uied There is no non seroe ifi irir'".{.d.ring ber ng "well wshs ofAmirAbdur n. ds prison€B The i. A strong and sound cllig€ncc 'et work wls being which had rf. whe et rhcv liked iL or nol As far !s the'blue iEd Dlcdscd .Prcscd the rt'c .n InrclliScnce s)tem duins his srav it Russir' Ev. for rhe ordin. had aboul the activities Thcrc is no logic in Presuming $at rhe /4'rt \!6 urawaE openled df the .ry P@plc' whom the '4'rn' "unishments lo civilize bv force.ter 'ro cool his wam blood". to ensw Proper imPlcmertadoD..ved not a single s..rtit'-i.ilv).ince bave grievanes sgainsl each odrcr.23 guard was posred on Lhe spot.onrr"ai."" *"* i'.r'a T}cy r ecc.all RDaa. e'. world.bove omcial.t r'i.rt utto'.. ofhs when rhe srong bv usrne rhe influene "r.x/ were conem.lrt Naib Korval Sultan Afshar offercd fmal€ prisoners.(otual Slllan having sexual intercouBe Ir wirh them.ran cerkin priv'legcs hd advaniaS6 ovcr rDe weaK fricnds. S.en of usins th.n in Al8hanrstan was Derrevcd 'o oct tn.'" A Kab$l Policc Chief.sc girls wqe Gpaiallv wcll clothed and well fed.. was lied to a posr on a fieezing srnter night and doused with w. rhev freelv indulged tn sexual anarchv of rcspK'able inv rcsr.

ctdtioN wne aried oul openly rnd on a mass s.'ls.'* Herc a glance at the statc of thc prisoncrs would also be helpftl in asscssitrg rhc sevcdly ofthejustice administer€d by !h. (fl.t loaves weighing about half a pound cach) w@ given daily.c. ofcou6e. The food given io the prisoners was far fton sufficient. jlstification of the rule of lerror. one in the oming and one at night.4rri. if not mcrtioned in Islamic taw. Manin.'ae The dcrrl rac among prisonm was very hi8h.n offrcial Epod.-{.{. BefoR de Rvolr ofSardd Moharnmad lshaq. Ir . lvere also righr€ned). wairing tlreir tum for lhis €xdclse.'" A number ofprisorcB were seretly dispo*d off Ev€ry niSbt a man wa ordered to go wirh his and w6 nev. Two Na. only law ..'. The law is. fo.rs. Tryh6 alone caused the dcrtl of scventy to eishty p@t. For in8tae.Amir Abdur Rehrnar also bclievcdi "The shrewd and cl€v€r system of my intelligence dQartnent is such rhat no person of ary importanc. witbout being claned.r! Poisonirg pnsoDds was continuauy practiced. supposed ro be appropriate ro lhe mndiuon ofiLs pcople. rDhus and ofier disedes w€rc common lmonB prisoneF. According to . They had leg-irons fancned around their ankle to iampcr their novcmenl. lolal of three hundred prisonm dicd iD Krbul betwc€n. hved in rmor.PtuGd alir escape iiom jail.''' Ex@tion was ! commot melhod of disposing of lhc prisoneB. werc also hanged. a stred dog's life was bettq as compared to that of the pnsoreB.nitalion. and only cxercis€d by the law of.4Dir According lo Frdk A.r5'z Sevml of rhos. without being notic€d and rcponed . offercd by thc . fo' whom 'lorce wa th. en move in Pc6iq Rlssia bdia or in Af8hanislan. sometimes aI the rar€ ofthree ro lour or eren seven a day. Thos€ receiving no asshtance from ftinds and relatives wcrc ir bad conditions.d ro bc seveiry lhousand prisoneK in Kabul. Consequenlly. resuhcd in getting butt-md of lhe rifle ir the back by th€ prisoners.r hcard oi Orhd prison.The pracdce ot mass aresf was also L. Thde wc absolltely no lhought ofs. it was b@ause hc had to rule over the iron p@ple. Eve! delay in ob€ying commsnd of the guards. except lhe hands. rhcrc werc sc.soned to.. which werc frce (hands of tlose who were tlken 10 executiot or odercd spec'al putrishmenl. 'Jrnuary and J0 April 1886 .'" j. wctc inflicted at times when the Afghais .ate. Ar rimes whole tamilies dd ribal lccrs wcre pur inJ8il. Arsuments ip Favopr of Hlird Justite vould be inteBting to go thrcugh thc followitg exc!s6. himself. ir Iq9S. The prisoners wcrc hdded togethd in a house that was perhaps uscd as a prison for twdty or lhirty yeau.rif ruled with an iron ha!d. r. They werc rearcd with greal severity.rr and his supportes: lr the l 2.'" re AII theses severe punishmenls.

Hencr rhe only cou6e for rhe . Whereas. when thc p@ple la$s . Fewc! crincs Nere comnitted in Afgbanistan. his ownjudgemetrt. would establish that they had also passed through bloodshed foi .g a PoPDlatiot of merely lwenry thousand faDilies.c' .'. and would nor subhit to the iule of aryonc.nd punishDents werc lncivili4d. *hat if. was cirhcr lo let hh oM $roat bc. Il was the case in Afghanistan.cce$fully accompl.. The scvcr punilhmenis.ortosend'nemouroftl.ld dtc rduc.'- 3. where checkirg hundleds of peny chiefs. lld lcry scvcrc.obbers. and cutihrc. Iife sas lost for rhis or that reason. glancc !l lhe hislory ofall the cmpiB rking fiom feudal or blood feud system to the civilized powe.eas on lhe border of Afglanislan.'" L was thc only way 10 put thc country i to a stale of order and peacc.. civilized couniric! of d1c world.i6' A 9. ste4h:A 3 shccp. If.tion ofpeacc in rhe conntryjusliiied sucl 'precauiionary measurcs'.Dc wlc! it was l.wo'ldbeforehim .rous.eaching ilis stage. in a province havi.ts ncccssilalcd brcakins dorvn lte feudal and lribal sysh.tul and good for his people. 6 a esult of s. The task was s.i.ing prol*led by a stlong Peoptc 5.n'.ncd sacred ar no rime lr cvcry lcvel or /'ir. .cut by t}e enemiesof rlelaw. thst loo h the eniire kiDgdom. Ie ihought to be la$. plundereF. put an €nd to th. as compared to othc. As compared ro thc prcvious record of fivc hlndrcd 1o onc llousand murdeE annually.*ful b lBtrg { person fo.'"" Those who lem lhc.{.hed and lhe €nrirc counrry war brouShr under onc law and ore rulc (rhroush rhe haBh punishments).nd his lav lo be barb... lhc.d only up to 6ve cases annually.n punished people with thc besr intendons of justice.. The. once constant fighting b€tween fte Afghan tribes. socierv. in a.'r3 ll wcrc civili2ed' wnh lhe hard justice ro the extqt rhat rhc ravelds along wnh thcn weahh could travcl saf€ly throuehour lhe kingdoln cven during the night.25 could undc. Only 4il intcntioD3 (M.6 Acd) ire punishiblc by rhc law. lt appeared ftar an evil spirit caried away chief robbqs and bu." rEd rcma.od no law. In rhe bcginning.oi' rii"'n nrgh. undcr lhe Brinsh R!lc-_io body could movc a slep wnhout b.lr* was 'Justinid ofAfghanistaD'.'6t . Ieadslrong.glaB al night. whcrcas. and resuhed in crushing many irlemal iDsuFccrions and rebellioDs. thc mur... should not conParQ laws of thc druncd !r a .{t'ir a tav. Renor.d as the law tlroughoul the 7. wirh lhe present-day modem society.st. rebellious. eslablisiing lhe will of the .vcrc punishmenr. nild or lenicnr policy wqe . He did.{'.4r.

Mir Mtrnshi Sultan Molrannrad has rishlly otsened rhai ih€ Holy Prophei (PBUH) neither Drcached no. Prcmissory . dcspotic melhods of govemmcnt.. Qdzi Courts. rcnihing in execudon of moic $an oncimrginltivc ncthods -l])c /. He. t{e infoduced.(o^k/ Mi. l. deeds.otes. resbrnlion of peace and obcdience ofth€ $bjects.'6 Ater rhe cshblishmen( oflaw and ordcr.ib. corsidered as thcir prerosalive by numerols Muslim sovereiSns.r) 'q' Frll of amir Abdur Rclmrn Amir Abdu Rehman succeeded in checking tle rule ofihe tribal kings atd e€dicarion of ih.gh Amir OOO* *"n. ln the.nd foms for conr6cts.ntps .r.r ordc6 oftle. . Properly s€alcd rcgkters for ourr rccords w@ also intrcduccd. (Islamic La1o.{fshat.ction of the loss of so many lives (no matt€r if ibe Proteclior wls-at thc cost of crccurnls nmrc lt. This .. I.{.ry showed rclucrancc h adtuinistqing 'Quick & Hard' juslice. \viih nuhcrcus cou.fl onc lnc pcoplo nid.4. hlam ncve. Governor. viol€nce cominedin the name ofrhc Srare w. polluling tle minds of the p€ople. fiininal and secunty Darte6 wcrc transfcncd to the executive couns.i4/. i! mnny cnscs his own despolic willwasthe only suide Whcn thcjudici.r. claiming themselves ro be fouowe6 of Mohammadan Law.r@ Tbq. in thc words ofN. /4sdr 4/ Oazar. it would have seem€d like encouraging an unnly and r€bellious people. Bur his ambitious handling as a despotic rcfomer mrEed rllhis above iudicial relomr'_ establkhed couns in every locatity of tbe counlry. pemits aDy ruler to ex€ed beyond the punislment laid dow! ill the Sror..id down tle law of cluelly and powe6 of wtole-sale murder. a fdlcon much fond of fl6h . Since 1he cruel mtrtyrdom of /. sanguinary wars and in-human bloodshed havc bccn considcredto be ficir prc.te clemency.rcn! types of si.xi} rcign.c huun bcirlgs.- vharever the excuses and lsuficauons.4rrt hnnself became the oDly aurhoized coufl for awardnrg $e capital puflisbment. punishm.bidine and ensudng Prot.s Nirhout paallel rn Alshan hrslory. rotudl and Military Couns.'- 10. Hlssein. laid thc foundaiion ofprcper judicial syslem in Afghanistan. s w@ madc morc leni€nt.r'bccane. appellll€ coun.og. From time 1o time kcAing pace with €dtctlion. tribdl jlslice. A comprchcnsive guide forjudicirry. nuEiaSe seulmnts. fo! lhc fisttime. in the leal scuse. in Afghanistan.ts. diff. Ir rook fifte€n yea6 in making $epeoplc law-.26 had be€n adopted beforc the p€opl€ could appreci. €tc. The innovative 5nd oflortu€ wtre lricd. Sult!tr. es6blkhed aiudicial sysEmin Afghatrisran. Comnqcial Tribunal.tiae by $De Mulsinkings. the subj<ts wee den Srven 3 voice tu rhe adminslralionand welfare oflhekitgdom.

6lh ofArii Abihr Rchnrn.6! ofcdtlse m cxccprion.Ii$emc of Bur not . sindc pcrsor i[ hunld history hrs dll€d to dcny dF sratest fict of'dc. tu. his llda3i ion. hnru! being ald aI hui. of weahess of Urc Vustim sovercignti*.'' Thc world h35 slen frrDy 6ucl .!d dcspotic rulc$. hc war . lill thcy follow in lhc ftotsicD! of thc-Holy Plrphcr. Habibnhh su(.r th! d.vc ro l.opl! s.d beirp.av€ this world. . without lry ciccprio.€lded !o thc thlol|c in 1901. by goveming on thc Cotrsritutioul !rirciDl6. loft€ ofihd goirg to thc €xicnt of dcning th€ vqy .y liko it or nor Ai.th'. An r rll. whethd lh.tuslim kingdomr will Dcvlr prospcr. t.is $c caus. MohaDlDrd (PBUH). Thc powlrftl AbdE REhmrD c'i6 hi! plans of forEing civilizriotr or rh€ A&had p. h.

Alier wiming in one coun.l. Coun of Noibus Sdltdnot (Depury of thc Rule. Durine the (l90ll9l9 AD) Paio. Oazi-e-Askar (Milirary Judse).l decuron oi rhis coun was ho$ever subl€cr ro apprclal o f thc . r1is ore btotltct Mt dh Abdul Aziz was Od'i of Jalatabad and the olher.4n. _Fin. as 'sanclion' behind iheir ve. by 6ll thc. Itis brclhd Nasrullah. conJnct!. .. the Dcw govcmmcnt appoinB a.nd thc cldcst sons all hcld slch Drbai The incorsislmcies in thcir decisioN can easily be imagined.7{nt Habibullah.ran Abdul Wadood.). Mql/a. w@ csl..28 Arnir Habib Ullah Jtdician.blishcd nt (hc Capn.ithout dal by rhe !rcvious' govcmoent. was also empowefed lo lry the cases involving sifting of Inuc\ e|dence and rskinS ]ong rime. conducled by Sardar Nasrullan Khan and .j ty ll. Ancr failurc in one courl tlE applicant had the choice of rc@uN to rh.'" All Afgbd subjects w. inlroduccd the followirg ncw jurhdictions. bcsidcs lhc lhcn cxistingjudicial sysrc established by Amir Abdur RehmaD: l. other four.l Qazat (clief justice) duriDg entir€ period of. Abdu Rehmat Klan remained Oazi ..{.{. A leeislativ€ Asenbly conshting of*irty ty "' 3- special jury to try cases of those imprisoned without trial \r€s appointed..rc cnhdcd by custom to cone befor. Saadudin.. His sixth son. a roy. Dr. th€ winner had equal chances of eening ih.t. E3ch offte abov€ fiae royal notables had lheir pri_vatc prisons and pesonal body grards. fomcd . It had to submit a co.-{.bove couns.Wlen ilis govemment conrplele ils lcnurc.i Habibullah.ral /t[i's ftr "' 2.onn of Mu@n rr.latardr (Asislant of the Ruler).dicls.l (cou.lirullah was appointed as oazi of Kandahar.. M."" rresred \.t€ chiefjustic.u Habibullah Kho).d. Evcry neN Afshan Golemoenr coming into power pledSes ju$ce to 'lhousads ot people' lnt.'ir Habibullah Khd.bihulhl\ sdn SrdM Inay'frllnh. heads of departnerts. even ir mosl nino! royal verdicts. "' . decision reversed in orc of the rcmining rcyal couns.plete iepon about such c6es !o the Fodation of A s(ch tnbunals appqB to bc a judicial todirion.o$€r tomfrissjon'b declarc lrest without tnil of 'thousands of p€ople by rbe previous .l. . son of l.l M. Ahmed Ali was Qazi of H@t. Ar eg\ally bindinAlamtar (proclanation) r*s issu. Odrt ofBulkh.t) to present iheir 6es.Baba Mund was later appoinled oari of K^bll & Malloh Nizdhuddi.//d.

t@d L The Gazenecr tells us that th€ dh!. These atd most olher civil suits werc rcfered by the r30 Hokn 07 dis]trict ro pdncrar.dicls by tlejudiciary.r3'Srar.r Habibullah.t of fte cotn 2.rtr't Habibullah Khan.29 govemment Starting ftorn . was assigned the task of judicial review of all coud verdicts and to point olt any iregularity. disputes of ^ by Panchat (Board of commerce\ nor Pancharol tradeF were handled ^nd (colncil ofclde6 forscltling petly d ispules.1rwasnotaspecialjurisdictionbutlawof the ].nd. cotsisted of one Qozi.AmhAbdur Rchmln had decl.tal.rks and tcn policemen wirh ho66. wc can see t}is p}enomenon up to the era ofthe present Afghan rul€s.licr. Hotrever. the compilers of tbc inperial Gazetteer have included'most civil suits'./ (council of eldeB) Acilally. duing lhe period of . Mdhkdnn-e-Darul Adalsle Hazoof. jury was esrablish€d ro try the cases which would othd wise be refered to the . Mistaking Ponchot for the Perchayot. on the basis ofiis eslnblhhnerl of a ncw coun at Kabul. about judicial system clarillcaiion at this slage.nBs of the jury.rcd lra.l Srstetn Some misconceplioDs of rhi coDrpile6 Afghanistan and Nepal. Wbilenaoating re of."' This jury.. in aU cases se. one reader. Evcn.{Eif Amanullah Khan. Justioe court ofthe kin8. As statcd earlicr. Maioo.a/tan(relisiouslaw). of.e senr to the 4.. namcd Mizdnxl Tdhqeeqdt al Shaiah (Researci Institute of Islamic Legal Sciences).e Datul Adaldt (Ofttc€r h clarg€ oftbe Coud) supeflised th€ co|'n.Habibullah. in lhe jufisdiclion olthe coun. Lalcr. spccDlpowe6 for the aborepurpose.i/ ror A special 5.{.find.npotrered lo I'ear_petitions of the pcople agarnsl rhe civrl coun tshatiah Count oi Kabul. of Impdial Gazeneer of India. It was c. the 'lmDerial Cazetlecf' meniioDs establishtue. four cl.t/. rhe. . two MuJti. .' The jury was 8ivef."' Mis@nceonons About The Ju.!tcs belweet tndeB werc not d@ided according to the S/@ndr.s pEcticed in Punjab). Dosl Mohammad Klar and Sardar MohamDad Akbar Xltan mained In charge ofthe coun.. Powers of$rs coun vcre tmnsferrcd to rhe MjnisFy oflustice by .4r!r. ro be basis ofallve.rrrn.

on the s'ound.isonmen( and 'uninB of imposonmcnr.?n st.however.iri Thc .ct Thc irstitltc w6 $peryised bv S.s howcvcr' lenient and bv sober iowards bis subjecls. Shad ud din.i. Eigh! ofthfr died under rhe blows. Hrs.{''t v*'. the orhe6 werc uDable lo movc for weeks While in prison thev Nere allowed no medrc. He rePlac€d crucl and in_luln.4. Lrre on.ttnude tos'rds rhe judicrarv was. th. andbeat.ho iu"a i"ri..k was staned bv Mi.ir asked abou! thc man responsible for tlc ncglccl A woman tumed Dp. due to his dcath. Thd he was $roM from the roof of the palace to ibe ground. as the. dF.{Dn Habibnllah Khan eslablished a bi8 lslamic Research Instiute' with ihe name of Mizar ulTahgeeqat.cscarch wo. but in general he adopied less repressive policies in presewing law and order. The woman was accordinglv laid on ner back.ting tha mnsgrcsions oflhcit supetior oflicer. (police st tion). prcj.'lDir with stick unril he beme panly insensible.. ard being forccd to ittcid tcrhusband she found tro tiNc for sweePing. conlinued softe of his falher's harsh melhods. - Overall policy of. for comPilatior ofa comprehenive laq code. The punishm4l of'blindinS' was conveftd into twelve \eail imerisonmenr.l Shariarr.. ampuralron of ear into er veaE rmp.ted that he would relieve her of her burden He ordercd the wo6en liftv strokes wilh sricks on tbe abdomen. Lai encou. saying ltrai her hutbsnd was loo ill with fever lo get up. with lhc int€nlion of getting anothq dttendant blamed.4.Iustice ofAni Habibulalt Habibullah. u!1likc fiis fathc!. '"' 0"-_t Raziq \ras "ppohred Amir Abdur Rehman Khan hsd startcd work for comPilation of an lslamic .aging.n law of the conparatively beiter laws.rdjustice" by.tf Habibullah are as under. lrxi {l) W}er rhe ground arcund th€ gateway of thc ga.den was obsered 10 be nnwepr. rbc chiefjustice.ir Habibullah Klan Fhallv Mulld.4.ni she di€d alnost immedialcly after'wards. ile work remait€d incomplele.'" (2) The Aftir rcsorted to beatins of Fiffecn ' l(orwali" SePovs charged for not repo.tr Habibullah..'a (3) An afienda comiltitrg somc mischicf. The woman also rdded that sle was hea!ry with child. r"n . A few a\amPt€s of ''It. to compl.4.30 Ha .Ali Jan Agla sanib and Sardar Mohammad Usnan Kha!.'{rtr' could see The. w. dnd Mr[a.he wa! d68Acd by a rcpc faslened to h's leSs' ro ihe Ko^?d/.Abtur Head ot the Mi:an al Tahqeeqa! lResearch Instrtule.Si/aiul AliQtt La\\ Code.rdnr N$rulhh Khan thc most Dowcrful pcFontrlity of th€ countrv aft( lr'e kin8.lircamcnt to aucvialc lhcir sutrcnngs..'" Cotuoilatior ol Code . Pas beld by lhe.4. Zio ut Ahkalt. as desired by ..

' frcm thcn as brite.d tron rhem as bribe.lutiors tith the Uleuo Unlikc Amir Abdnr Rcfindn.4rlftrt' Nrs an cxcellenl elfofl fo.//.4. sgainst sLdtrge$) were issued.ra. Orders for obseryance of Arddn (coverins of )er bodv bv a nuslim tronrn. p.to be Pard 300 o 600 nrpecs.nd a suir ofclothes as a pEmrum by the government. . being non-Muslim subjcds of thc Sbre $ere oidered lo wcaryellow turbats. told thc king lhat Maulana Abdur RrhFan had rot rcceived evd a sinSle'D.r'SiEi a/ .if Hdbibllldh Khatr prefered lhe policy of conrpron. fiEt lav code.ncd a a program of Islatniation was launched..y thar the Oazt misht havc @eiv. Once Anir Habibullah Knan aresred him.lins Bl'sious opinion. pious and leamed Qa:i. Only fte tle. corsohdating tle . no one crn dcnv rhe fact th.rrr India.'" Forsuch lslamic measures.rd.a ofsucn a srong chaBcler and rhorcugh knowledge of Srddl.4fshatr Pc6iaD. playcd a leading role in the conpilation of fte ldw code..t sensc. Sirajul Ahkon was a monumenral work it four volunes. (lt Abdur RMiq had completed r.rh rhc sl". of &id.hib. His brothcr..t Atdui Raziq. codilicalion of Islamic Law in Afghanistan.It was .ul-Uoom DeobaDd. . and oiher leam€d sclolars.ompiled to make ddral law easilv available for legal Dracricc in lhe couns.ror A conven to lslam undet rhc samc d6ree Ms. Oa.d. which d iscoumsed sututory . various relieious schools we€ op. rc.rlMaulana Abdur Rehman Paghmani was an honest. who considcrcd Afghan gEduates of foreign schooh to b€ suspect. enforccd aner rhe elablisbment of thc state of R. in additiot lo Pavment of Ji:m (pou lax).ohibiting their induclion in lhe govemhent seraice). Nssn'llah cxteldcd full slppon to the Uk.(r't Habibullal w. It Nas n.s of ottonan Mojdlldh.rcrfcrcncc N./rr Mi at Wdd Ditf (L8ntP ornatioD ud rcliBion).yeaE in Panjsher.ry powers of Qazi \ndq "Tari/' (sll rbc oinrcs for which no fixed sentmces were laid do{n) So lhis act of thc llovcmmcnr wis iB.insl rhc pRva.* "a*"ton was a clcor dcparlurc from tbe lolicy of Amir Abdur Rebman.1.! awarded thc t'ltl. peoplc of Panjsher wft asked to clain aty mon.l liw itrto.r{ no*ever. froD ils otiginal Ambic sou@s. on complaint of a local feldal lord. Peoplc ofPaijshe.r. dicirior for supremacy oflaw. on lhe lin. Nhil€ he was udd delention. Hindls and Sikl's...o.Aar. who sewed for swqal.t$ory enactment oflslamic Law r€sulted in the cudailnent ofwide dhcretion. lh. Maulana Abd r Rchma Paghfrani Alias Ra?er S. wd€ calable of standiDg aSairst.z/r.r"r . Besids od.hc wirh lhc U/z. lt may be addcd hcrc drat sl.

ccording lo Nlaulana Obaidullah Sindhi (well known saint and scholar of Sindh) ihe families Some .inl box' llso ass!rcd no edress.fforl! ofgrnng rheir pclitron to thc.h. Afghanhtln f€ll io aDothcr '.{/.4tut H.4rtr ssned raping ladies belonging to nobl€ and honorable r'r ladies.6 ofresPccbble people who we. havitg P€mission to mect hin lelation of.'"' As a ruler of Afghanistan. velo ot Zota Jifsa resolulionsr" in ta"or ofjoinr Tr. Afghanislan glining indcpendencc in ns intcmal and forcigD affaiB entered the CoDstitndonal eE.ir Habibull.!t3 3.asury.ish activities-rtt His Loyalty to Britishors i! world war I.. on th. who Dadc .hman who wd accessible lo rhe @sss. l:9lgtlg!-tgr4-the masses:. Au{na dd Cetrlw Delegarion and eicn spying for lh.n$t of l[6. 2.. .. "n* di:. fifty thousdd rees.rnd asainst Brilisho6 issued by M. .itution is the iopic ofour neal chapler.r. .s. us./l.y "fsome DioG on his lif.4'tt Amanullah Khar.-"".t. Unlik€ Amir Abdur R. road sidc OPtion ofcomPlaint! on DEon.4.**. Bnishors.bibultah issu. Dut iD 'coDDl.. init!!.d to have sexual intcrcorFe with 'unmaried and bcauriful daughl. gg4!!ig! Habibullah.lrrif Habiblllah 6nfined himselfto ihe pslse with only sclect d pcoPl.l.lt'if. This period is known forambitious Progmns ofAmanullah Khan for modemiztion and reforms. as annual subsidy from Brilkh Tr...d ordcu of . Fall of. nuui&ing ratvd ofJ. Najnuddin otHudda in 1909.d suicide. " iv". 9tc4er41!19-Ed!$98. was end of lhe 'Hard Justicc Period' in Afghanisla!.d rhc nait. Habibullah Khan fom his own subjcca.'ir Habibull.tion id Febnary 1919. his aul@Etic attitude and hG oler loyalty ro the Brilishe6 lcd to his downfall lnd finallv his assassin. l.mbitiols rcfomer'..h rcccivins two lacs.rk. ln this way.e kePt in Serai Zrkrya as prinsones. afttr losing rheir virginit. Judiciary under lhe first Afghan Cons.rir Habibullah.J2 Fa ofAnit Hablbu ah Following factors rcsuhed i' fall of.. evcn committ. was bound to dis@uBgc antiB. as a Prince.

( I954).33 REFERENCES l.Op. . Faiz MohMM4 $jlgilLfugEgL Gisrory of Afsl'anistan). lndia Ofiice LibEry. p.c Library.p. (Firsr edirion Published by John Munay. Indi.n Mohammad.Lifc. Dari) & Kabul Asflcy Diary.op. s!h.cit.Il.44. Pp. 108. Kak r.225.bnl Agcncy Dairy of 10. 539.) llsli&_ejl\l iLUULSeltElli 'n Two 2.cilp.cit. Life. Sultan-Constitutior. and ModcFisation (1880-1946): Sl.65-67. MatbMe Haroofi. 3. Moha ftad Hasan. 1980 edition.) 17 March 1885. 1979. Vol.nfo.P. Kabul.) vananr@ Suhan. Gov€ffflcnt and Societv in Afshanislan: @ Reiqn of Amir Abd al.Constirution. Vol. Ofti. I 333 Srarl.d Unive6ity PGs.2l7-18 (H€reafter ciled. Oxford university Press. London 1900 AD). Volume IILp. P.O!.II op.. a.36l.p. Judiciary.cir. 5 Apnl. op. Califomia. Karlchi.35.life.32. and Sultan.Consritudon. 12. | 39. in "Polilical and Sccret ktteb and enclosu@s rcc€ived from lndia". (Hereafter ciled as Grcgonan. 1969. 1887.96.cit p. 142. 6. 48. DunrniDrr. flr. London & DuraDi.ari op.cit. Cresorian. (Hccaftd cited a Kakar.cit.cit.37l. E\-Justice Mi'istq . lntcrviewofthc author with Syed Shams-ud-Din Majrooh. Consritution. Mif Munshii vobmcs. ll. Op. p. 7.op.33-34. I 50. Poliii@l and Secret letter ind cnclosurcs rcceived frcm Indi. Sllran. 89.op-cikd PP. p. 739.Rahman Khan: Tcxas. Dar.t.363. Sullan. Pp. Sulian. ll. 5.1078 (Her€afrcr cited as Faiz. Sabil. K.70.pp..as Sultrn.p.

ri. lu op cit pp66&71 27.op. . 34.III op crtF978 33. lbid pp 139. 18. lbidp ll5.n of Afrhlnblln: (ii) 1968.28 22.t Al-Kozi. D. 19. op cit p. Sultar. Sullan. op cit pp.l Ddi. op cit pp?35-36 24. (Joum. Nasro ah Afsh'nhtiD 2l Svsoe. Faiz. Comnlitltion.p.c. lbid Rub 0 35.ri.t4 14. Rul. 20E. lbid Rul€ l15 | . K. Ahncd Jan. Sultan. op cit Rul€ l0E. 200. Cortulitution.P. Al-Kozi. Sultm. Slhr!. 130. 32. Ufc.op. op cit p. I op. Krk6r.136 26.kir. Kskn op cit pF 35220 25. Ddi.35 28. Comtirutio.opcilp. 20. III op cit p I I 14 23. Qaat.) Sulrsn.50.l 120.l92 A S$rvcv of ftc Ll!!l 21.cit. 31. Faiz Dari. Consnlitution.a. Qrz. FrizD.33 Kabuli 131I (Hcr. strr gd"/t (1892). Friz Dni.l ofth! Hbldry Sooiety ofAfshaniltn.39 l5 l l5 '17.j&Ze! (A comprchcnsive guid€ for judgcr): Govcrnmcnt printing pr.p.cit p. Lifc.!fter ciled as Al-Kozi.cit. Zbregl. Ibid pp 129-30 30. I op.Gitp. op cit pp-96 29. CEsorian. Suh6n.

lbid Rulc 25 41.. 49. p.B a. Op cnRub 52.icr cit€d as India Bio ) 47. p. Consntitution. 53.ry of23 D@dbcr I892' in roliiical and Secrct ktts dd enclosuts rec. op cit p. Srllan. rnndon & Arnir !o Mull6 Najm al Din. Ibid pr 2T 40.Kakar.ived ftom India"' vol 69. Op citp-35. cil P 251 Ibid.14. of Political and S"ret r-cttca ind cnclcsris @ived ftom Indi" p.. BiogaPhical Accounb ofchiefs. 46. Kam.J.Qaal Dari. India officc Librarv. pp.. Ibid Rulc4 & 5 38. 1888.70 aod 7E.. Ibid Rule 4? 39. p. p 9 lndia Ofiice Libra. Pesbawa. Peshawar Agcnov biary of 23-26 Sept€rnber 1893. 48. p 2l4l.5l Klbul Agency Diary of 24 August I 889i in Vol 57 of Political and .2l7-18 Ibid..li. Govemment ofldia. op.7 Sulhn. (Her.Slont Lelt. in Political and Sedet Lene6 and cnclosur€s receivcd from India".251 A$ir to Mllla Najm al Di!. op cit p52 43. 51. Agctcv Di. p. Al-Kozi.13 8 45. lbid Rule l14 37.d dclosu€s rec6ived ftom Indi. 52. cit. lbid p l2 42.36. 44. Kakar. Vol. Lrdq! and OtheF of Afshanistan: Calcuta. 383' India OfE@ Library' Kabul Agency Diary of23 Algust 1887i in vol. India Otlice Librarv' brdon . Life op. 72. 50.

1972. LoDdon & Kabul Asency Diary of 18 lanulry 1887. Kamali. Op. in vol : 50. London. 8?. Op.rct l. P. cit. lndia Oflic.47. Dp. 59. London. 6 I . 62.374. Drmni. in Vol. 'Politi@l and Secrc! 62. 64. Ncw-ell. 58. Comell U'iversitv Prcss' Ircha@ aadLoado\ 1972. cil. p. Library. O!.pp.36. 333.lndia Offr@ Librarv.: 65.748 & Kabul Agency Diary of 9-12 Feb@ry 1892. iD Vol 62. cit. 103-4. Vol.7.ncy Daily of 18 D€cenber 1883 enclosures r€ccircd frcn India'. 39. Dari.36 54. I.cret lenets aDd eDclosDres received fron Idia'. 533'Politi.op. '?olitical and Se. in Vol. l669. Karnali. 55. in vol. I173. in'Poli.:65. p. Vol. 4'1.ll.0. India otrcQ Lib6ry' Lndon. London & Kabul Agency Diary of9l2 !. Kabul Agency Dia. 65.4 May 1883.. 63.ll and Serct len4 and mclosures @ivcd from India".. 71 . p. p.pp. Sultan.y of 19 July 1887. p. lndia Oflice Library. Col Afzdl (Jalalabad).n. p.t lettels and cnclosurB rcccived from India'. cit.l and S@ret ldtcB and cnclosures r@eived trom In{tia'. p. Cit. cjt. 55.: 48. (. &14!q9-9l21&144]j!g!. Peshawar ASency Dialy of l0 Augu$ 1889. India Office Secret letters and dclosuEs receiv. India Offi@ Library' London & Kabll Agency Diary of6-9 F€bruary 1892.bruary 1892.Indid Office Library.493. Liac.p.tion. Richards. Constit. Newell.re' And enclosurcs received frcmindia'. p.'Politic. . Kabul Agency Diary of 6-9 Fcbruary 1892. 7. cit. Londot i. Vol. P.lndia Offi@ Library' Londo' 66. 56. P 967.tl4s and Kabul Ag. vol.65 'Political and Sccrct lettd and eD.op.i@l and Secr. New-ell. p 94.losurcs received ftom India'. 748. Sultan. Vol. p. cit. Kabul Agency Dairy of29 Octohd 1886..204-5. 'Poliiical and S. Sultnn.d from India" Lib€ry. 47. in Vol. in vol. p. 68. 67.Il. Op. 69. 48. 57.. Life op. p.: 5?. P. 'Pohical and 1385. in Vol. Kandahar Diary of22 FebNary 1E92. Op.533.

65-67.pl98 80.. cir. Kakar. Ibid.it. P. Constilutioi. 74. London. Scc. cit. 90. cit.ct letren and criclosures received ftom India'..{. Sulia!. P. 138. P.. Sulhn. Sultan. tA. Life. oP. 86.31 70.13. cit.?p.Corstitution oP. 75.'t to Sardar Habibullah. op. Qanu. cit . 208. . p.37. Vol.Conslilntior. p. lbid. in Vol 68.? 98 85.. p.98. 77. cir'. Suitan.37. i4. lJkozi. Ibid. 72.9l . op. p. Op. cil.p. 76. SultaD. p.IJI. Life op. 71. Manin. F. vol. cit. India. Op.. Peshawar Ag€ cy Diary of23 Novcmbe! 1E92. Ibid. p. Katul Ag. l09.ciiD.50.P. CiL. ql.op. Dari.cil. 09. Op. 12. Op.. 87. Kakar op. Sullan.op. 81.'Political Librarv.. Faiz. BiogFphical. 98 & Matti. Consritution.rcv Di.^': Un&r cited 6 Mani!)' Ilarpd & Brcthe6 LoDdon. lbid. cn. pp. p. Sultan. vol. 78. pp l42 to 145(Hereaft€r 83. and 88.p. I.ll.n. Pp.p. he absolst' Antir' 82. ll0 13. 96. Constilutiot. 79.142 84. l3-18. l9o?. cn.694 India Officc 89. lbid. Kahr.795.v of27 April 1889' ir vol 57' Polnical and Secret lcrtcts and dclosurcs rcccir€d from Indit" P 353' India Officc I rbEry. Op.

pp.r p.cii. London. Constitunon.ry of 13 Jue 1884. Op. cit. Consliturion. p.op. 106. 167. Kand. Sullan.l0l.Op. Peshawar Agency Diary of28 Novembcr 1885. pp. India Office Libiary. l0E. 93. P. in vol. t0?.3E0. Lifc.l88-89.op. 105. Op. p.99l0l. l.id Di!ry of 2 Detdbd l.ILp.pp. 96. Vol.p.64.l52 & Smft. 76. lv9.]E 92.cil.rtin. sultnn. lll. 97. l0l. u. Malrir.l47. p. D!ri. 1081 P. P. 437 &570. Op. cit. Ibid. !. Ibid.380. cit. 4344 vol. cir. cit.39- 113. cir. 'Politi@l and S. 1641.n. op. p. 104.op. Indi. Suhan. Op. 98. Kakar op. cit. 95.94 103. 92-93. Slltar ConBtitution.p.ra lcn€rs atrd mclosures rec€ivcd fton India'.ondon. Indit Oftc! LibEry.p. lbid.66. 77. ll2. 41. in Vol 45. lbid. 1885. Snith. Kakar. Op. cit. 102.160. Constilution.cit. Sullln. 947.91.op. 99. 'Political and Sccr. vol.168.II. ll0. Msnin. in vol.d fion lndir'.op. lll.p. cn. 418. p. ci1.p. 142. op. Lifc.cit. Strltnn.91. p.cit. Op. Kadahar Di. op.. Otr@ LibEtv. Faiz. pp.'Politicdl and Secret lcttffi and mclosurs received frorn India'.P. Sulr. cit. . 100. 94. 46. Lifo. $ltan. M.92-94.Vol. 152.ncF a'd €nclosurcs rceiv. Lifo.Pp.

op.l52. lbid. l2l.238 Il7. Gregorilr. Manin.P.liq to P€shaeff CormDi*eioner.l6? Ibid.op. Merin.pp. pp.I63.cit. 120. lbid.cir. Sult n.op.pp.zi Abdul Kh.19 l14. l2?.P. 149.p.!iYcd fion bdii'. p.l3E.o. 'Politicd and S.cit. Peshawlr Agcdcv Diav.crtP. OP. 143.p. 124. P. b.op. Crcgoriln.A.154. Lif. 132. OP. 135. Martin. Martia.cit. ll8. 162.!. l?3.62{3. Ibid. l3l. Irftion. Conltitulio6. Op. : 'it' . | 38 130.:i . 134. 122. I O. Life. cit.op.op.l65-166 I29.380.op. P.pp.oit.150..pp.p. vol. Constitution.158.op. S!lr.op. 16. Smilh. P.p. Surbr Ufo. hdit Offics Ubnry.l5. Sultrn. l19. giL P.cil.cit.cit Pp. 128. Manin. Lifc. Ibid. 125. p259. 132.op€it. l .cil.op. 126. cir P. I.258. Vol Lp-34. Sultan. ll5. lbid. lbid. l3O. t70 135. 22. CdlribtioD. | 37. Ibid. I33.. Sult n. Sultan.259.32.pp.48-49.l59-160. lI. Vol.cir Vol E P.l|r!3.ctla lctt E tDd @lo.30"3l.

154. in vol.. India Ofncc Librarv.l.ll. 145.136.oP.147.l63-64. p. 'Polilictl . p. . 149. 165.op.Vol 47. 157. Ibid.Manin. 2l July 1889. Ibid. sulon.cit. Itdia Office Library. London and S@rct letteE and l5l.P 38. London 155.cit.ivcd frcfr tndi.op.l64-65.d S@t ! tcucF atrd cnclosurcs rcc. p.134. 139. Manir.nd S€cr€t letters and cnclosDm r€ceivcd from India'.2593.India Ofiice Libnry. 84l.cit. P. 150. cil.40 138.P.op. Offce LibEry' r5b. 158. Ibid. cit. June 1886. t ndon 145. l4l. Kak.l64. pI. 569.p. 146. Ibid. l0?3. 153.l20.i Op.!.l 19.bul Agdcy Diaty of22 Octobq 1898.pp.ry 1884.7l & 155. P l48. Indi!. 47. KrbulAgency Diflry of4 Feb. 'Political eDclosures. Manin.cit. vol. !ndi. Ibid.101.p.'Political and Secret lcttcrs and €nclosures .op. P l3E lnd Klbul Ag.cit. Monlhly Menontdum. lbid.P. K. Manin. 147.p. Vol. 140. Biogaphio. 144.nin. PP. Suftan.cit. consrituhon.'Polilical and S@rct leners md flclosu€s @ived ftom India'. p.lo9"Polili.pp.l5l. in Vol.op.pp. 142.cit. Sulian.4?.164.€ccivcd fron lndia'. op.al a.l64- 143. Vol l.op. India Oft@ Libnry' Lodon. 120. 148. M.pp. Warbunon lo Dumnd. lbid. 152.146-149. Life.ncv Di!ry oJ2 hlv 1886'in Vol.Life.cit.op.P. 58.

I19. Life.53. P€sh. Pp. Constitution. p.Ddi.!. PcshaNarAseDcy Diaryof12 February 1887.pp. Ibid.125. Dari ).202. 150. 162.4l 159. I.diq. 6l sh.399. 111.1S?9'P.n.l24-125.232.) 173. o!. (HeEfi er cited Es SupenntendeDl.155. Sultan.176-177.ci!. l7l.op. Srdiq. India Office Librarv' l-ondon l ?0. 163. Constiirtion op.124.'Political Lettm received ftom India. SuDtriDrendent of Govemenl PrinliDgl ImDqial Caz€tte€r of Itdia' Af.wr. Voiaddidr.l24. lbid. . Sulld.p. Fsiz.7l. Il7-118.it 174. W. 576. 175. inVol 49. Dumi. ulop. consiitltioD.429A3o 172.cit P.p.hanishn and NeDal: Ctlcuua: 1908.14-15.. 167. Sulian. 200.cit. !!!r!a!arl&!aa Rehndn Po2hMadi (A Bn€f Hislory of llat dna Rehnan of Paghman). Ibid. 1973 d.Il. P.219. 4or 4ro.40. vol.cit.pp. Ibid.cit. Manin.o!.53. P.25-27.120 164.cit.Afdmis!.pp.op. lMn 178. cit. Ibidp. op.oP. (Hereaft€r ciled as Mojaddidi. Kakar.Dari.p.cit. 1 68. 1984.!. Sullln. pp.". 165.41l. lbid-pp. Palisrani edilion Sange Meel e"6ri*i. Vol.441'442.cil pp 9g'965and Secret 169.. 176. Life. Pp.op.201. Sultan. Ddi Charsdd! Ro8d. 166. Ma in-o!. Dup@.iklt MohaMd S.108. l6l.cii. Op.

29 r93. Kamali.740.Urdu.lhi Urdu.op. p.P. Dal1.414- 187. (Hereaftcr cjted as Stewad. Op cit. Mojaddidi. 189. I 973. Stewart. p.cil.4o. Op.cit. 195. 194. Op.38. Dari. L.p.l6l184.39-40.cil. Kakar.p.42 l?9.4l9-421. Sadiq.b!!] lfujtL$ltlrdq!!. Chubar.pp. I91.p.740.p. 182.p.tiztioni Afdan Jchad work! TrAIslatid Cdtrc. Sadiq.p. Sindhi. Sadiq.Ddi. (Hettaftq ciied a! Asbdti.pp. Op. r88. 190. Dari. 1982. Kamali.cit. Martin. sindhi.p 16.cit.cit.l9. Durani. Govfficnr Priniing Press' Kabr i 1967t. 197. 183. Chulam Mohammad.l3l6. 6 Sin.p!. Ibid-p. I 54.p.horc. Ashnti. 192.op. Dari.lrs in Kabul)i Urdu. New York.l62. lbid.) 186. S9yi9LID!!q!99 !94lilbsldi9!!ryi tu ed Yousuf Elmi.r A@dmy.op. S.29. SuterinlendenLop.cit.).op. Mojaddidi.35.op.161-162. Atehakist'n Dar M&eeLirTati&l (Afghanistan: A Hist6rical PeFpeclivc). (Serd y. Dan. Mojaddidi. Op.cit.cit. 185. DuFani. obaid(tlihi K!. Phelalleyr Firc in Afqha stan: 1914-1929: Doubledav.cir. Mojaddidi. Ibid. .). cil. Abdul Ahad. Afslanistat: A decade of Sovi. 180.Dan. I81.pp. (He@ft4 oted Sadiq.710 196.p. Dari.pp. Mn.op.g.).3?3. P€shawai 1988.700 (H€reafier cited as Ghubar.

d Pesrawa" (M. Sindhi.43 198.op.138.Uldu. . 1979.shrwa. P.).to & Shahjeh^ P!.op.cif.rBr Abdur Relman ofP.p.26. Marlin. P.cit.t GhuillMur Rehann Shdhe. I99.