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Management Tools 2007

An Executive’s Guide
Management Tools 2007
An Executive’s Guide

Darrell K. Rigby

www.bain.com ISBN 0965605973

$14.95 US
Management Tools 2007
An Executive’s Guide

Darrell K. Rigby

Copyright © Bain & Company, Inc. 2007

All rights reserved. No part of this book

may be reproduced in any form or by any
means without permission in writing from
Bain & Company.

ISBN: 0-9656059-7-3

Published by:
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Table of Contents
Preface 10

Balanced Scorecard 12
Related topics:
• Management by Objectives
• Mission and Vision Statements
• Pay for Performance
• Strategic Balance Sheet

Benchmarking 14
Related topics:
• Best Demonstrated Practices
• Competitor Profiles

Business Process Reengineering 16

Related topics:
• Cycle-Time Reduction
• Horizontal Organizations
• Overhead-Value Analysis
• Process Redesign

Collaborative Innovation 18
Related topics:
• New Product Development
• Open Innovation
• Open-Market Innovation

Consumer Ethnography 20
Related topics:
• Corporate Anthropology
• Day-in-the-life Ethnographies
• Observational Research
• Slice-of-Life Research
• Voice of the Customer

Core Competencies 22
Related topics:
• Core Capabilities
• Key Success Factors

Corporate Blogs 24
Related topics:
• Avatars
• Online Communities
• Podcasting
• Viral Marketing
• Wikis

Customer Relationship Management 26

Related topics:
• Collaborative Commerce
• Customer Retention
• Customer Segmentation
• Customer Surveys
• Loyalty Management Tools
Customer Segmentation 28
Related topics:
• Customer Surveys
• Factor/Cluster Analysis
• Market Segmentation
• One-to-One Marketing

Growth Strategy Tools 30

Related topics:
• Adjacency Expansion
• Managing Innovation
• Market-Migration Analysis

Knowledge Management 32
Related topics:
• Groupware
• Intellectual Capital Management
• Learning Organization
• Managing Innovation

Lean Operations 34
Related topics:
• Lean Consumption
• Lean Manufacturing
• Lean Six Sigma

Table of Contents continued
Loyalty Management Tools 36
Related topics:
• Customer and Employee Surveys
• Customer Loyalty and Retention
• Customer Relationship Management
• Net Promoter® Scores
• Revenue Enhancement

Mergers and Acquisitions 38

Related topics:
• Merger Integration Teams
• Strategic Alliances

Mission and Vision Statements 40

Related topics:
• Corporate Values Statements
• Cultural Transformation
• Strategic Planning

Offshoring 42
Related topics:
• Core Competencies
• Cost Migration
• Outsourcing

Outsourcing 44
Related topics:
• Collaborative Commerce
• Core Capabilities
• Strategic Alliances
• Value-Chain Analysis

Related topics:
• Automatic Identification
• Electronic Article Surveillance
• Electronic Product Codes
• Supply Chain Management

Scenario and Contingency Planning 48

Related topics:
• Crisis Management
• Disaster Recovery
• Groupthink
• Real-Options Analysis
• Simulation Models

Shared Service Centers 50
Related topics:
• Joint Ventures
• Offshoring
• Outsourcing
• Performance Improvement
• Strategic Partnerships

Six Sigma 52
Related topics:
• Lean Manufacturing
• Lean Six Sigma
• Statistical Process Control
• Total Quality Management

Strategic Alliances 54
Related topics:
• Corporate Venturing
• Joint Ventures
• Value-Managed Relationships
• Virtual Organizations

Strategic Planning 56
Related topics:
• Core Competencies
• Mission and Vision Statements
• Scenario and Contingency Planning

Supply Chain Management 58

Related topics:
• The Borderless Corporation
• Collaborative Commerce
• Value-Chain Analysis

Total Quality Management 60

Related topics:
• Continuous Improvement
• Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award
• Quality Assurance
• Six Sigma

Subject Index 62

Author Index 65

For two decades now, executives have witnessed an explosion of management
tools, ranging from Knowledge Management to Strategic Alliances. That burst
was fueled by their need to successfully navigate an increasingly competitive
marketplace. With operations spanning the globe, companies have become more
complex, adding to the challenging decisions corporate leaders face. Fortunately,
they now have an expanded toolset at their fingertips, thanks to the emergence
of faster, less expensive information delivery systems.

Executives must be more knowledgeable than ever as they sort through the options
and select the right management tools for their companies. The selection process
itself can be as complicated as the business issues they need to solve. They must
choose the tools that will best help them make business decisions that lead to
enhanced processes, products and services—and result in superior performance
and profits.

Successful use of such tools requires understanding the strengths and weaknesses
of each tool, as well as an ability to creatively integrate the right tools, in the right
way, at the right time. The secret is not in discovering one magic device, but in
learning which mechanism to use, how to use it, and when. In the absence of
objective data, groundless hype makes choosing and using management tools a
dangerous game of chance. To help inform managers about the tools available
to them, in 1993 Bain & Company launched a multiyear research project to gather
facts about the use and performance of management tools. Our objective was to
provide managers with:

• An understanding of how their current application of these tools and subse-

quent results compare with those of other organizations across industries
and around the globe;
• The information they need to identify, select, implement and integrate the
right tools to improve their company’s performance.

Every year or two since, we’ve interviewed senior managers and conducted research
to identify 25 of the most popular and pertinent management tools. We’ve defined
the tools in this guide and, based on a detailed survey of managers, we explain how
the tools are being used. We determine the rate of success for each tool. We also
conduct one-on-one follow-up interviews to learn the circumstances in which each
tool is most likely to produce the desired results.

Over time, our research has provided a number of important insights:
• Overall, satisfaction with tools is moderately positive, but the rates of use, ease
of implementation, effectiveness, strengths and weaknesses vary widely;
• Management tools are much more successful when they are a part of a major
organizational effort;
• Managers who promote fad tools undermine employees’ confidence. Decision
makers achieve better results by championing realistic strategies and viewing
tools as simply a means to achieving a strategic goal;
• No tool is a silver bullet.

We also found some new trends from the 2005 survey:

• Executives are spending more time thinking about customers—how to acquire
them and how to keep them—and then satisfying and delighting them;
• There is an increased sense that goods and services are becoming commodities,
causing managers to search for more effective ways to innovate;
• Global competition continues to be fierce, which is a major reason for the
growing interest in management tools. Those companies searching to finance
growth through customer satisfaction and innovation continue to look for ways
to cut costs;
• Tools with strong technology components are coming of age.

Detailed results from the 2005 Management Tools survey are available at

Our efforts to understand the continually evolving management tools landscape have
led us to add five tools to this year’s guide—Consumer Ethnography, Corporate Blogs,
Lean Operations, Mergers and Acquisitions and Shared Service Centers. While none
is new, per se, each tool is growing in use and playing an increasingly important
role in today’s business world.

We hope you will find this reference guide a useful tool in itself. The insights
from this year’s global survey and field interviews will be published separately.
Survey results and additional copies of this guide may be purchased by calling
or writing to:

Darrell Rigby
Bain & Company, Inc.
131 Dartmouth Street
Boston, MA 02116
tel: 617 572 2771
fax: 617 572 2427
Balanced Scorecard
Related • Management by Objectives
topics • Mission and Vision Statements
• Pay for Performance
• Strategic Balance Sheet

Description A Balanced Scorecard defines what management means by

“performance” and measures whether management is achieving
desired results. The Balanced Scorecard translates Mission and
Vision Statements into a comprehensive set of objectives and
performance measures that can be quantified and appraised. These
measures typically include the following categories of performance:

• Financial performance (revenues, earnings, return on

capital, cash flow);
• Customer value performance (market share, customer
satisfaction measures, customer loyalty);
• Internal business process performance (productivity
rates, quality measures, timeliness);
• Innovation performance (percent of revenue from new
products, employee suggestions, rate of improvement index);
• Employee performance (morale, knowledge, turnover,
use of best demonstrated practices).

Methodology To construct and implement a Balanced Scorecard,

managers should:

• Articulate the business’s vision and strategy;

• Identify the performance categories that best link
the business’s vision and strategy to its results
(e.g., financial performance, operations, innovation,
employee performance);
• Establish objectives that support the business’s
vision and strategy;
• Develop effective measures and meaningful standards,
establishing both short-term milestones and long-term targets;
• Ensure companywide acceptance of the measures;
• Create appropriate budgeting, tracking, communication,
and reward systems;
• Collect and analyze performance data and compare actual
results with desired performance;
• Take action to close unfavorable gaps.

Common A Balanced Scorecard is used to:
• Clarify or update a business’s strategy;
• Link strategic objectives to long-term targets and
annual budgets;
• Track the key elements of the business strategy;
• Incorporate strategic objectives into resource allocation
• Facilitate organizational change;
• Compare performance of geographically diverse
business units;
• Increase companywide understanding of the corporate
vision and strategy.

Selected Epstein, Marc, and Jean-François Manzoni. “Implementing

references Corporate Strategy: From Tableaux de Bord to Balanced
Scorecards.” European Management Journal, April 1998,
pp. 190-203.
“Harvard Business Review Balanced Scorecard Report.”
Harvard Business Review, 2002 to present (bimonthly).
Kaplan, Robert S., and David P. Norton. Alignment: Using the
Balanced Scorecard to Create Corporate Synergies. Harvard
Business School Press, 2006.
Kaplan, Robert S., and David P. Norton. “The Balanced Scorecard:
Measures That Drive Performance.” Harvard Business Review,
July 2005, pp. 71-79.
Kaplan, Robert S., and David P. Norton. The Strategy-Focused
Organization: How Balanced Scorecard Companies Thrive in the
New Business Environment. Harvard Business School Press, 2000.
Kaplan, Robert S., and David P. Norton. Strategy Maps: Converting
Intangible Assets into Tangible Outcomes. Harvard Business
School Press, 2004.
Niven, Paul R. Balanced Scorecard Diagnostics: Maintaining
Maximum Performance. John Wiley & Sons, 2005.
Niven, Paul R. Balanced Scorecard Step-by-Step: Maximizing
Performance and Maintaining Results, 2d ed. John Wiley &
Sons, 2006.

Related • Best Demonstrated Practices
topics • Competitor Profiles

Description Benchmarking improves performance by identifying and

applying best demonstrated practices to operations and sales.
Managers compare the performance of their products or
processes externally with those of competitors and best-in-class
companies and internally with other operations within their
own firms that perform similar activities. The objective of
Benchmarking is to find examples of superior performance
and to understand the processes and practices driving that
performance. Companies then improve their performance
by tailoring and incorporating these best practices into their
own operations—not by imitating, but by innovating.

Methodology Benchmarking involves the following steps:

• Select a product, service or process to benchmark;

• Identify the key performance metrics;
• Choose companies or internal areas to benchmark;
• Collect data on performance and practices;
• Analyze the data and identify opportunities for improvement;
• Adapt and implement the best practices, setting reasonable
goals and ensuring company-wide acceptance.

Common Companies use Benchmarking to:

• Improve performance. Benchmarking identifies methods
of improving operational efficiency and product design;
• Understand relative cost position. Benchmarking reveals a
company’s relative cost position and identifies opportunities
for improvement;
• Gain strategic advantage. Benchmarking helps companies
focus on capabilities critical to building strategic advantage;
• Increase the rate of organizational learning. Benchmarking
brings new ideas into the company and facilitates
experience sharing.

Selected American Productivity and Quality Center. www.apqc.org.
references Bogan, Christopher E., and Michael J. English. Benchmarking
for Best Practices: Winning Through Innovative Adaptation.
McGraw-Hill, 1994.
Boxwell, Robert J., Jr. Benchmarking for Competitive Advantage.
McGraw-Hill, 1994.
Camp, Robert C. Business Process Benchmarking: Finding and
Implementing Best Practices. American Society for Quality, 1995.
Coers, Mardi, Chris Gardner, Lisa Higgins, and Cynthia
Raybourn. Benchmarking: A Guide for Your Journey to
Best-Practice Processes. American Productivity and Quality
Center, 2001.
Czarnecki, Mark T. Managing by Measuring: How to Improve
Your Organization’s Performance Through Effective Benchmarking.
AMACOM, 1999.
Denrell, Jerker. “Selection Bias and the Perils of Benchmarking.”
Harvard Business Review, April 2005, pp. 114-119.
Harrington, H. James. The Complete Benchmarking
Implementation Guide: Total Benchmarking Management.
McGraw-Hill, 1996.
Iacobucci, Dawn, and Christie Nordhielm. “Creative Benchmarking.”
Harvard Business Review, November/December 2000, pp. 24-25.
Reider, Rob. Benchmarking Strategies: A Tool for Profit Improvement.
John Wiley & Sons, 2000.
Spendolini, Michael J. The Benchmarking Book, 2d ed.
AMACOM, 2003.
Stauffer, David. “Is Your Benchmarking Doing the Right Work?”
Harvard Management Update, September 2003, pp. 1-4.
Zairi, Mohamed. Benchmarking for Best Practice: Continuous
Learning Through Sustainable Innovation. Butterworth-
Heinemann, 1998.

Business Process Reengineering
Related • Cycle-Time Reduction
topics • Horizontal Organizations
• Overhead-Value Analysis
• Process Redesign

Description Business Process Reengineering involves the radical redesign

of core business processes to achieve dramatic improvements
in productivity, cycle times and quality. In Business Process
Reengineering, companies start with a blank sheet of paper
and rethink existing processes to deliver more value to the
customer. They typically adopt a new value system that places
increased emphasis on customer needs. Companies reduce
organizational layers and eliminate unproductive activities in
two key areas. First, they redesign functional organizations
into cross-functional teams. Second, they use technology to
improve data dissemination and decision making.

Methodology Business Process Reengineering is a dramatic change initiative

that contains five major steps. Managers should:

• Refocus company values on customer needs;

• Redesign core processes, often using information
technology to enable improvements;
• Reorganize a business into cross-functional teams
with end-to-end responsibility for a process;
• Rethink basic organizational and people issues;
• Improve business processes across the organization.

Common Companies use Business Process Reengineering to

uses substantially improve performance on key processes that
impact customers. Business Process Reengineering can:

• Reduce costs and cycle time. Business Process Reengineering

reduces costs and cycle times by eliminating unproductive
activities and the employees who perform them. Reorgan-
ization by teams decreases the need for management layers,
accelerates information flows, and eliminates the errors
and rework caused by multiple handoffs;
• Improve quality. Business Process Reengineering improves
quality by reducing the fragmentation of work and establish-
ing clear ownership of processes. Workers gain responsibility
for their output and can measure their performance based
on prompt feedback.

Selected Al-Mashari, Majed, Zahir Irani, and Mohamed Zairi. “Business
references process reengineering: a survey of international experience.”
Business Process Management Journal, December 2001,
pp. 437-455.
Carr, David K., and Henry J. Johansson. Best Practices in
Reengineering: What Works and What Doesn’t in the
Reengineering Process. McGraw-Hill, 1995.
Champy, James. Reengineering Management: The Mandate
for New Leadership. HarperBusiness, 1996.
Davenport, Thomas H. Process Innovation: Reengineering
Work Through Information Technology. Harvard Business
School Press, 1992.
Frame, J. Davidson. The New Project Management: Tools for an
Age of Rapid Change, Complexity, and Other Business Realities.
Jossey-Bass, 2002.
Grover, Varun, and Manuj K. Malhotra. “Business Process
Reengineering: A Tutorial on the Concept, Evolution,
Method, Technology and Application.” Journal of
Operations Management, August 1997, pp. 193-213.
Hall, Gene, Jim Rosenthal, and Judy Wade. “How to Make
Reengineering Really Work.” Harvard Business Review,
November/December 1993, pp. 119-131.
Hammer, Michael. Beyond Reengineering: How the Process-
Centered Organization Is Changing Our Work and Lives.
HarperCollins, 1997.
Hammer, Michael, and James Champy. Reengineering the
Corporation: A Manifesto for Business Revolution, revised
and updated. Collins, 2003.
Keen, Peter G.W. The Process Edge: Creating Value Where
It Counts. Harvard Business School Press, 1997.
Sandberg, Kirsten D. “Reengineering Tries a Comeback—
This Time for Growth, Not Just Cost Savings.” Harvard
Management Update, November 2001, pp. 3-6.

Collaborative Innovation
Related • New Product Development
topics • Open Innovation
• Open-Market Innovation

Description Collaborative Innovation applies the principles of free trade to the

marketplace for new ideas, enabling the laws of comparative
advantage to drive the efficient allocation of R&D resources. By
collaborating with outsiders—including customers, vendors and
even competitors—a company is able to import lower-cost,
higher-quality ideas from the best sources in the world. This disci-
pline allows the business to refocus its own innovation resources
where it has clear competitive advantages. The company is also
able to export ideas that other businesses could put to better use,
raising cash for additional innovation investments.

Methodology Collaborative Innovation requires corporations to:

• Focus resources on core innovation advantages. Allocate resources
to the highest-potential opportunities in order to strengthen core
businesses, reduce R&D risks and increase innovation capital;
• Improve innovation circulation. Build information systems to
capture insights, minimize duplication of efforts, improve
teamwork and increase the speed of innovation;
• Increase innovation imports. Access world-class ideas, comple-
ment core innovation advantages and strengthen the company’s
cooperative abilities and its reputation;
• Increase innovation exports. Establish incentives and processes
to objectively assess the fair market value of innovations,
raise incremental cash and strengthen relationships with
trading partners.

Common Companies use Collaborative Innovation to:

uses • Clarify core innovation competencies;
• Maximize the productivity of new product development
without increasing R&D budgets;
• Decide quickly whether to pursue or sell patents and other
intellectual capital;
• Increase the speed and quality of new product introductions.

Selected Adner, Ron. “Match Your Innovation Strategy to Your Innovation
references Ecosystem.” Harvard Business Review, April 2006, pp. 98-107.
Bean, Roger, and Russell Radford. The Business of Innovation:
Managing the Corporate Imagination for Maximum Results.
AMACOM, 2001.
Chesbrough, Henry William. Open Innovation: The New Imperative
for Creating and Profiting from Technology. Harvard Business
School Press, 2003.
Chesbrough, Henry William, Wim Vanhaverbeke, and
Joel West (eds.). Open Innovation: Researching a New Paradigm.
Oxford University Press, 2006.
Christensen, Clayton M., and Michael E. Raynor. The Innovator’s
Solution: Creating and Sustaining Successful Growth. Harvard
Business School Press, 2003.
Hagel, John, III, and John Seely Brown. “Productive Friction:
How Difficult Business Partnerships Can Accelerate
Innovation.” Harvard Business Review, February 2005,
pp. 82-91.
Huston, Larry, and Nabil Sakkab. “Connect and Develop: Inside
Procter & Gamble’s New Model for Innovation.” Harvard
Business Review, March 2006, pp. 58-66.
Linder, Jane C., Sirkka Jarvenpaa, and Thomas H. Davenport.
“Toward an Innovation Sourcing Strategy.” Sloan Management
Review, Summer 2003, pp. 43-49.
Prahalad, C.K., and Venkat Ramaswamy. The Future of Competition:
Co-Creating Unique Value with Customers. Harvard Business
School Press, 2004.
Rabe, Cynthia Barton. The Innovation Killer: How What We Know
Limits What We Can Imagine... And What Smart Companies
Are Doing About It. AMACOM, 2005.
Rigby, Darrell K., and Chris Zook. “Open-Market Innovation.”
Harvard Business Review, October 2002, pp. 80-89.
Selden, Larry, and Ian C. MacMillan. “Manage Customer-Centric
Innovation—Systematically.” Harvard Business Review, April
2006, pp. 108-116.
von Stamm, Bettina. The Innovation Wave: Meeting the Corporate
Challenge. John Wiley & Sons, 2003.

Consumer Ethnography
Related • Corporate Anthropology
topics • Day-in-the-life Ethnographies
• Observational Research
• Slice-of-Life Research
• Voice of the Customer

Description Consumer Ethnography, a qualitative research technique, uses a

variety of methods to study behavior, attitudes and culture to better
understand what customers want and how they make their pur-
chasing decisions. Ethnography, a branch of anthropology, is
viewed by a growing number of experts across industries as a
core marketing competency and an alternative or supplement to
traditional focus groups. Instead of asking consumers to discuss
products or services while sitting in a room, researchers, who
are trained in ethnographic fieldwork, observe people (openly or
secretly) and interview them where they live, work, play and shop.
A detailed analysis of observations reveals consumer motivations
and interactions with brands, and enables companies to discover
new segments and design more satisfying offerings and more
effective marketing campaigns.

Methodology Consumer Ethnography has the greatest impact when used

at the start of product development, where findings can spark
innovation that translates into a winning product or service.
A trained ethnographer should oversee the step-by-step
research process:

• Create a focused research proposal;

• Allow time for thorough observation;
• Develop an interview outline;
• Select field techniques: one-on-one interviews, audio/
videotapes, photographs, team observations;
• Conduct fieldwork: at homes, stores, work, recreational
sites, or a combination of locations;
• Analyze findings.

Common By chronicling the cultural trends and lifestyles that influence
uses consumer decisions—habits, annoyances, desires, unfulfilled
needs of emerging markets—Consumer Ethnography can help

• Break into new markets;

• Refresh established products;
• Transform a corporate culture—for example, transition from a
technology to consumer-product focus;
• Create brand image or re-brand a company or product;
• Validate a new product concept.

Selected Abrams, Bill. Observational Research Handbook: Understanding

references How Consumers Live with Your Product. NTC Business Books,
Ante, Spencer E., with Cliff Edwards. “The Science of Desire:
As more companies refocus squarely on the consumer,
ethnography and its components have become star players.”
Business Week, June 5, 2006.
LeCompte, Margaret D. Designing and Conducting Ethnographic
Research (Ethnographer’s Toolkit, Vol. 1). AltaMira Press, 1999.
Mariampolski, Hy. Ethnography for Marketers: A Guide to
Consumer Immersion. Sage Publications, 2006.
McFarland, Jennifer. “Margaret Mead Meets Consumer
Fieldwork: The Consumer Anthropologist.” Harvard
Management Update, September 1, 2001.
Schensul, Stephen, L., Jean J. Schensul, and Margaret D.
LeCompte, Essential Ethnographic Methods: Observations,
Interviews, and Questionnaires (Ethnographer’s Toolkit, Vol. 2).
AltaMira Press, 1999.
Sherry, John F. (ed.). Contemporary Marketing and Consumer Behavior:
An Anthropological Sourcebook. Sage Publications, 1995.
Underhill, Paco. Why We Buy: The Science of Shopping. Simon &
Schuster, 1999.
Zaltman, Gerald. How Customers Think: Essential Insights into the
Mind of the Market. Harvard Business School Press, 2003.

Core Competencies
Related • Core Capabilities
topics • Key Success Factors

Description A Core Competency is a deep proficiency that enables a company

to deliver unique value to customers. It embodies an organiza-
tion’s collective learning, particularly of how to coordinate
diverse production skills and integrate multiple technologies.
Such a Core Competency creates sustainable competitive advantage
for a company and helps it branch into a wide variety of related
markets. Core Competencies also contribute substantially to the
benefits a company’s products offer customers. The litmus
test of a Core Competency? It’s hard for competitors to copy or
procure. Understanding Core Competencies allows companies
to invest in the strengths that differentiate them and set
strategies that unify their entire organization.

Methodology To develop Core Competencies a company must:

• Isolate its key abilities and hone them into organization-

wide strengths;
• Compare itself with other companies with the same skills,
to ensure that it is developing unique capabilities;
• Develop an understanding of what capabilities its customers
truly value, and invest accordingly to develop and sustain
valued strengths;
• Create an organizational road map that sets goals for
competence building;
• Pursue alliances, acquisitions and licensing arrangements
that will further build the organization’s strengths in core areas;
• Encourage communication and involvement in core
capability development across the organization;
• Preserve core strengths even as management expands
and redefines the business;
• Outsource or divest noncore capabilities to free up
resources that can be used to deepen core capabilities.

Common Core Competencies capture the collective learning in an

uses organization. They can be used to:

• Design competitive positions and strategies that capitalize

on corporate strengths;
• Unify the company across business units and functional
units, and improve the transfer of knowledge and skills
among them;
• Help employees understand management’s priorities;
• Integrate the use of technology in carrying out business
• Decide where to allocate resources;
• Make outsourcing, divestment and partnering decisions;
• Widen the domain in which the company innovates,
and spawn new products and services;
• Invent new markets and quickly enter emerging markets;
• Enhance image and build customer loyalty.

Selected Alai, David, Diana Kramer, and Richard Montier. “Competency

references Models Develop Top Performance.” T + D, July 2006,
pp. 47-50.
Andrews, Kenneth. The Concept of Corporate Strategy, 3d ed.
Dow Jones/Richard D. Irwin, 1987.
Campbell, Andrew, and Kathleen Sommers-Luch. Core Competency
Based Strategy. International Thompson Business Press, 1997.
Chen, Yu-fen, and Tsui-chih Wu. “The Conceptual Construction of
Core Competence for TwoDistinct Corporations in Taiwan.”
Journal of American Academy of Business. March 2006,
pp. 197-201.
Critelli, Michael J. “Back Where We Belong.” Harvard Business
Review. May 2005, pp. 47-54.
Drejer, Anders. Strategic Management and Core Competencies:
Theory and Applications. Quorum Books, 2002.
Hamel, Gary, and C.K. Prahalad. Competing for the Future. Harvard
Business School Press, 1994.
Quinn, James Brian. Intelligent Enterprise. Free Press, 1992.
Quinn, James Brian, and Frederick G. Hilmer. “Strategic
Outsourcing.” Sloan Management Review, Summer 1994,
pp. 43-45.
Schoemaker, Paul J.H. “How to Link Strategic Vision to Core
Capabilities.” Sloan Management Review, Fall 1992, pp. 67-81.
Waite, Thomas J. “Stick to the Core—or Go for More?” Harvard
Business Review, February 2002, pp. 31-41.
Corporate Blogs
Related • Avatars
topics • Online Communities
• Podcasting
• Viral Marketing
• Wikis

Description A blog (short for Web log) is a website where communities of

users create the content by sharing information with each
other. A corporate blog is managed by company employees to
post information about the company and its products for
public consumption. There are two common types: external
and internal blogs. External blogs can strengthen relationships
with targeted customer groups and position CEOs and other
employees as industry experts. Internal blogs promote collabo-
ration, foster discussions among employees at all levels of
the organization, and enable the quick exchange of knowledge
and information. Blogs often are more practical than e-mail
for sharing information. They also are more inclusive. Blogs
are open to the entire community, and anyone can participate
by adding comments or suggestions.

Methodology Corporate blogs are transforming the way corporations com-

municate, both internally and externally, by reducing the reliance
on internal e-mail and the traditional public relations-oriented
corporate website. A successful corporate blog should:

• Establish the blog’s focus and mission;

• Develop a simple-to-use site and update it frequently;
• Create links with key audiences;
• Ensure consistency with corporate image and product branding;
• Employ RSS (Really Simple Syndication) technology: RSS
encourages readership by displaying recent posts without the
need for readers to log onto the blog website;
• Consider the option of wikis (named for the Hawaiian word
for “quick”)—a variation on corporate blogs that promote
collaborative brainstorming, in which visitors can easily add,
remove or alter the content itself by using links at the bottom
of a page;
• Establish clear blogging guidelines for the corporation and edu-
cate employees about potential legal repercussions. Postings
become part of a permanent public record.

Common Blogs are being used innovatively to boost product sales, respond
uses to a crisis, encourage teamwork, and reach out to new consumers
to spur growth.

External blogs promote:

• Improved branding. Blogs can create product communities
that increase customer loyalty;
• Gathering market research. Feedback from customers about
new products and services can help companies develop a rapid
response to problems;
• Stronger market segmentation. Blogs can build brand awareness
in market niches;
• Broadening the CEO’s reach. CEO bloggers reinforce the
company’s image and message, establish the CEO as an
expert, and provide customers with direct access to top
management. A growing number of Fortune 500 CEOs
are tapping into the power of blogs, including the heads of
McDonald’s, IBM, GM and Sun Microsystems.

Internal blogs encourage:

• Sharing and distributing information. Employees who’ve been
outside the decision-making or brainstorming process are
encouraged to participate;
• Round-the-clock employee forum. Blogs can become a virtual
meeting place for a global corporate community working in
different time zones.

Selected Baker, Stephen, and Heather Green. “Blogs Will Change Your
references Business.” Business Week, May 2, 2005, pp. 56-67.
Carr, Nicholas. “Lessons in Corporate Blogging.” Business Week,
July 18, 2006, www.businessweek.com.
Holtz, Shel, and Ted Demopoulos. Blogging for Business:
Everything You Need to Know and Why You Should Care.
Kaplan Business, 2006.
Lyons, Daniel. “Attack of the Blogs.” Forbes, November 14,
2005, pp. 128-138.
Scoble, Robert. Naked Conversations: How Blogs are Changing
the Way Businesses Talk with Customers. John Wiley & Sons,
Inc., 2006.

Customer Relationship Management
Related • Collaborative Commerce
topics • Customer Retention
• Customer Segmentation
• Customer Surveys
• Loyalty Management Tools

Description Customer Relationship Management (CRM) is a process com-

panies use to understand their customer groups and respond
quickly—and at times, instantly—to shifting customer desires.
CRM technology allows firms to collect and manage large
amounts of customer data and then carry out strategies based
on that information. Data collected through focused CRM
initiatives help firms solve specific problems throughout their
customer relationship cycle—the chain of activities from
the initial targeting of customers to efforts to win them back
for more. CRM data also provide companies with important
new insights into customers’ needs and behaviors, allowing them
to tailor products to targeted customer segments. Information
gathered through CRM programs often generates solutions
to problems outside a company’s marketing functions, such
as supply chain management and new product development.

Methodology CRM requires managers to:

• Start by defining strategic “pain points” in the customer

relationship cycle. These are problems that have a large impact
on customer satisfaction and loyalty, where solutions would
lead to superior financial rewards and competitive advantage;
• Evaluate whether—and what kind of—CRM data can fix those
pain points. Calculate the value that such information would
bring the company;
• Select the appropriate technology platform, and calculate the cost
of implementing it and training employees to use it. Assess
whether the benefits of the CRM information outweigh
the expense involved;
• Design incentive programs to ensure that personnel are encour-
aged to participate in the CRM program. Many companies
have discovered that realigning the organization away from
product groups and toward a customer-centered structure
improves the success of CRM;
• Measure CRM progress and impact. Aggressively monitor partici-
pation by key personnel in the CRM program. In addition,
put measurement systems in place to track the improvement

in customer profitability with the use of CRM. Once the data
are collected, share the information widely with employees to
further encourage participation in the program.

Common Companies can wield CRM to:

• Gather market research on customers, in real time if necessary;
• Generate more reliable sales forecasts;
• Coordinate information quickly between sales staff and
customer support reps, increasing their effectiveness;
• Enable sales reps to see the financial impact of different
product configurations before they set prices;
• Accurately gauge the return on individual promotional
programs and the effect of integrated marketing activities,
and redirect spending accordingly;
• Feed data on customer preferences and problems to
product designers;
• Increase sales by systematically identifying and managing
sales leads;
• Improve customer retention;
• Design effective customer service programs.

Selected Day, George S. “Which Way Should You Grow?” Harvard

references Business Review, July/August 2004, pp. 24-26.
Dyche, Jill. The CRM Handbook: A Business Guide to Customer
Relationship Management. Addison-Wesley Publishing
Company, 2001.
Kumar, V., and Werner Reinartz. Customer Relationship
Management: A Databased Approach. John Wiley & Sons, 2005.
Reichheld, Frederick F. Loyalty Rules! How Leaders Build Lasting
Relationships in the Digital Age. Harvard Business School
Press, 2001.
Reichheld, Frederick F., with Thomas Teal. The Loyalty Effect:
The Hidden Force Behind Growth, Profits, and Lasting Value.
Harvard Business School Press, 1996.
Rigby, Darrell K., and Dianne Ledingham. “CRM Done Right.”
Harvard Business Review, November 2004, pp. 118-129.
Rigby, Darrell, Frederick F. Reichheld, and Phil Schefter.
“Avoid the Four Perils of CRM.” Harvard Business Review,
February 2002, pp. 101-109.

Customer Segmentation
Related • Customer Surveys
topics • Factor/Cluster Analysis
• Market Segmentation
• One-to-One Marketing

Description Customer Segmentation is the subdivision of a market into

discrete customer groups that share similar characteristics.
Customer Segmentation can be a powerful means to identify
unmet customer needs. Companies that identify underserved
segments can then outperform the competition by developing
uniquely appealing products and services. Customer Segmentation
is most effective when a company tailors offerings to segments
that are the most profitable and serves them with distinct
competitive advantages. This prioritization can help companies
develop marketing campaigns and pricing strategies to extract
maximum value from both high- and low-profit customers.
A company can use Customer Segmentation as the principal
basis for allocating resources to product development, marketing,
service and delivery programs.

Methodology Customer Segmentation requires managers to:

• Divide the market into meaningful and measurable

segments according to customers’ needs, their past
behaviors or their demographic profiles;
• Determine the profit potential of each segment by
analyzing the revenue and cost impacts of serving
each segment;
• Target segments according to their profit potential and
the company’s ability to serve them in a proprietary way;
• Invest resources to tailor product, service, marketing
and distribution programs to match the needs of each
target segment;
• Measure performance of each segment and adjust the
segmentation approach over time as market conditions
change decision making throughout the organization.

Common Companies can use Customer Segmentation to:
• Prioritize new product development efforts;
• Develop customized marketing programs;
• Choose specific product features;
• Establish appropriate service options;
• Design an optimal distribution strategy;
• Determine appropriate product pricing.

Selected Gale, Bradley T. Managing Customer Value: Creating Quality and

references Service that Customers Can See. Free Press, 1994.
Godin, Seth. Permission Marketing: Turning Strangers into
Friends, and Friends into Customers. Simon & Schuster, 1999.
Kotler, Philip. Marketing Management: Analysis, Planning,
Implementation and Control. Prentice Hall Press, 1996.
Levitt, Theodore. The Marketing Imagination. Free Press, 1986.
McDonald, Malcolm, and Ian Dunbar. Market Segmentation: How
to do it, how to profit from it. Butterworth-Heinemann, 2004.
Myers, James H. Segmentation and Positioning for Strategic
Marketing Decisions. American Marketing Association, 1996.
Peppers, Don, and Martha Rogers. The One to One Future:
Building Relationships One Customer at a Time.
Currency/Doubleday, 1997.
Peppers, Don, Martha Rogers, and Bob Dorf. The One to One
Fieldbook: The Complete Toolkit for Implementing a 1 to 1
Marketing Program. Currency/Doubleday, 1999.
Rubio, Janet, and Patrick Laughlin. Planting Flowers, Pulling
Weeds: Identifying Your Most Profitable Customers. John Wiley
& Sons, 2002.
Yankelovich, Daniel, and David Meer. “Rediscovering Market
Segmentation.” Harvard Business Review, February 2006,
pp. 122-131.

Growth Strategy Tools
Related • Adjacency Expansion
topics • Managing Innovation
• Market-Migration Analysis

Description Growth Strategy Tools focus resources on seizing oppor-

tunities for profitable growth. Evidence suggests that profit
grown through increasing revenues can boost stock price 25
to 100 percent higher than profit grown by reducing costs.
Growth Strategy Tools assert that profitable growth is the
result of more than good luck—it can be actively targeted
and managed. Growth Strategy Tools alter a company’s goals
and business processes to challenge conventional wisdom,
identify emerging trends, and build or acquire profitable new
businesses adjacent to the core business. In some cases these
strategies involve redefining the core. They typically require
increased R&D investments, reallocation of resources, greater
emphasis on recruiting and retaining extraordinary employees,
additional incentives for innovation, and greater risk tolerance.

Methodology Growth Strategy Tools search for expansion opportunities


Internal (“organic”) growth, including:

• Greater share of the profit pool for existing products and
services in existing markets and channels;
• New products and services;
• New markets and channels;
• Increased customer retention.

External growth (through alliances and acquisitions):

• In existing products, services, markets and channels;
• In adjacent businesses surrounding the core;
• In noncore businesses.

Successful implementation of Growth Strategy Tools requires

managers to:

• Communicate the importance of growth;

• Strengthen the creation and circulation of new ideas;
• Screen and nurture profitable ventures effectively;
• Create capabilities that will differentiate the company in the
marketplace of the future.

Common Managers employ Growth Strategy Tools to improve both
uses the strategic and financial performance of a business. By
strengthening and expanding the company’s market position,
Growth Strategy Tools improve both top-line and bottom-line
results. Growth Strategy Tools also may be used to counteract
(or avoid) the adverse effects of repeated downsizing and cost-
cutting programs.

Selected Amram, Martha. Value Sweep: Mapping Corporate Growth

references Opportunities. Harvard Business School Press, 2002.
Anthony, Scott D., Matt Eyring, and Lib Gibson. “Mapping Your
Innovation Strategy.” Harvard Business Review, May 2006,
pp. 104-113.
Charan, Ram, and Noel M. Tichy. Every Business Is a Growth
Business. Times Books, 1998.
Christensen, Clayton M. The Innovator’s Dilemma: When New
Technologies Cause Great Firms to Fail. HarperBusiness, 2000.
Immelt, Jeffrey R., and Thomas A. Stewart. “Growth as a Process:
The HBR Interview.” Harvard Business Review, June 2006,
pp. 60-70.
Kim, W. Chan, and Renée Mauborgne. Blue Ocean Strategy: How
to Create Uncontested Market Space and Make Competition
Irrelevant. Harvard Business School Press, 2005.
McGrath, Rita Gunther, and Ian C. MacMillan. MarketBusters:
40 Strategic Moves That Drive Exceptional Business Growth.
Harvard Business School Press, 2005.
Slywotzsky, Adrian J., and David J. Morrison, with Bob
Andelman. The Profit Zone: How Strategic Business Design
Will Lead You to Tomorrow’s Profits. Times Business, 1997.
Tomasko, Robert M. Bigger Isn’t Always Better: The New Mindset
for Real Business Growth. AMACOM, 2006.
Zook, Chris. Beyond the Core: Expand Your Market Without
Abandoning Your Roots. Harvard Business School Press, 2004.
Zook, Chris. Unstoppable: Tapping Hidden Assets to Renew Your
Core and Fuel Profitable Growth. Harvard Business School
Press, May 2007.
Zook, Chris, with James Allen. Profit from the Core: Growth Strategy
in an Era of Turbulence. Harvard Business School Press, 2001.
Knowledge Management
Related • Groupware
topics • Intellectual Capital Management
• Learning Organization
• Managing Innovation

Description Knowledge Management develops systems and processes to

acquire and share intellectual assets. It increases the generation
of useful, actionable and meaningful information and seeks
to increase both individual and team learning. In addition, it
can maximize the value of an organization’s intellectual base
across diverse functions and disparate locations. Knowledge
Management maintains that successful businesses are a
collection not of products but of distinctive knowledge bases.
This intellectual capital is the key that will give the company a
competitive advantage with its targeted customers. Knowledge
Management seeks to accumulate intellectual capital that will
create unique core competencies and lead to superior results.

Methodology Knowledge Management requires managers to:

• Catalog and evaluate the organization’s current

knowledge base;
• Determine which competencies will be key to future
success and what base of knowledge is needed to
build a sustainable leadership position therein;
• Invest in systems and processes to accelerate the
accumulation of knowledge;
• Assess the impact of such systems on leadership,
culture, and hiring practices;
• Codify new knowledge and turn it into tools and
information that will improve both product innovation
and overall profitability.

Common Companies use Knowledge Management to:

• Improve the cost and quality of existing products or services;
• Strengthen and extend current competencies through
intellectual asset management;
• Improve and accelerate the dissemination of knowledge
throughout the organization;
• Apply new knowledge to improve behaviors;
• Encourage faster and even more profitable innovation
32 of new products.
Selected Collison, Chris, and Geoff Parcell. Learning to Fly: Practical
references Lessons from One of the World’s Leading Knowledge Companies.
Capstone Publishing, 2001.
Cortada, James W., and John A. Woods. The Knowledge Management
Yearbook, 2000-2001. Butterworth-Heinemann, 2000.
Dalkir, Kamiz. Knowledge Management in Theory and Practice.
Butterworth-Heinemann, 2005.
Davenport, Thomas H., and Laurence Prusak. Working
Knowledge: How Organizations Manage What They Know.
Harvard Business School Press, 1998.
Desouza, Kevin C., and Yukika Awazu. Engaged Knowledge
Management: Engagement with New Realities. Palgrave
Macmillan, 2005.
Firestone, Joseph M., and Mark W. McElroy. Key Issues in the
New Knowledge Management. Butterworth-Heinemann, 2003.
Groff, Todd R., and Thomas P. Jones. Introduction to Knowledge
Management: KM in Business. Butterworth-Heinemann, 2003.
Malone, Thomas W., Kevin Crowston, and George A. Herman,
eds. Organizing Business Knowledge: The MIT Process
Handbook. MIT Press, 2003.
Quinn, James Brian. Intelligent Enterprise. Free Press, 1992.
Renzl, Birgit, Kurt Matzler, and Hans Hinterhuber, eds. The
Future of Knowledge Management. Palgrave Macmillan, 2006.
Senge, Peter M. The Fifth Discipline: The Art and Practice of the
Learning Organization, revised. Currency, 2006.
Stewart, Thomas A. Intellectual Capital: The New Wealth of
Organizations. Currency/Doubleday, 1997.
Wenger, Etienne, Richard McDermott, and William M. Snyder.
Cultivating Communities of Practice. Harvard Business
School Press, 2002.

Lean Operations
Related • Lean Consumption
topics • Lean Manufacturing
• Lean Six Sigma

Description Lean Operations is both a methodology and philosophy that

focuses on eliminating waste and reducing the time between a
customer’s order and delivery. By trimming waste, companies—
manufacturers of goods and providers of services alike—can
achieve higher quality, increased productivity, improved customer
interactions and speed. The goal of Lean Operations is to get the
right things to the right place, at the right time, in the right
quantities, while minimizing waste. The Lean concept was
pioneered by Toyota founder, Taiichi Ohno, as a much faster,
better and less-expensive way of producing vehicles. Lean
Operations redefines waste as anything the customer won’t pay
for—everything from clerical errors to idle machine operators.
The process identifies seven types of waste:

• Waiting—for products, personnel, parts, the availability

of machines;
• Transportation time—for equipment and parts needed
for repairs;
• Processes—duplicate data entry, inefficient stocking;
• Excessive inventory;
• Unnecessary motion by people and machines;
• Overproduction;
• Correction of defects or service errors.

Methodology There are three key elements in Lean Operations: ensuring that
the product flows through production without interruption;
systems that replenish supplies and products in response to
customer demand; and a culture that strives for both excellence
and continuous improvement. Five basic steps are used to
improve the process flow:

• Identify activities that create value;

• Determine the major steps to deliver that value;
• Eliminate activities that do not add value;
• Ensure that products are available when consumers
want them;
• Continuously improve processes.

Common While the Lean approach originally was designed for manufac-
uses turers, a broad range of industries now use the Lean concept to
improve both operations and customers’ experience by:

• Spending less on equipment;

• Redesigning factories, stores and processes to increase
efficiency of workers and machines;
• Reducing the number of workers needed to accomplish a
• Increasing efficiency of inventory stocking and replenishing;
• Improving customer service;
• Creating varied store formats;
• Developing branding—win customers by having cheaper
prices, faster service or wider product selection.

Selected Burton, Terence T., and Steven M. Boeder. The Lean Extended
references Enterprise: Moving Beyond the Four Walls to Value Stream
Excellence. J. Ross Publishing, 2003.
Gilpatrick, Keith, and Brian Furlong. The Elusive Lean
Enterprise. Trafford, 2004.
Henderson, Bruce A., Jorge L. Larco, and Stephen H. Martin,
(ed.). Lean Transformation: How to Change Your Business into
a Lean Enterprise. Oaklea Press, 1999.
Liker, Jeffrey. The Toyota Way: 14 Management Principles from the
World’s Greatest Manufacturer. McGraw-Hill, 2004.
Mann, David. Creating a Lean Culture: Tools to Sustain Lean
Conversions. Productivity Press, 2005.
Rich, Nick, Nicola Bateman, Ann Esain, Lynn Massey, and
Donna Samuel. Lean Evolution: Lessons from the Workplace.
Cambridge University Press, 2006.
Swank, Cynthia Karen. “The Lean Service Machine.” Harvard
Business Review, October 2003, pp. 123-129.
Womack, James P., and Daniel T. Jones. “Lean Consumption.”
Harvard Business Review, March 2005, pp. 58-68.
Womack, James P., Daniel T. Jones, and Daniel Roos. The
Machine That Changed the World: The Story of Lean
Production. Rawson Associates, a division of Macmillan
Publishing Company, 1990.

Loyalty Management Tools
Related • Customer and Employee Surveys
topics • Customer Loyalty and Retention
• Customer Relationship Management
• Net Promoter® Scores
• Revenue Enhancement

Description Loyalty Management Tools grow a business’s revenues and

profits by improving retention among its customers, employees
and investors. Loyalty programs measure and track the loyalty of
those groups, diagnose the root causes of defection among them,
and develop ways not only to boost their allegiance but turn them
into advocates for the company. Loyalty Management quantifiably
links financial results to changes in retention rates, maintaining
that even small shifts in retention can yield significant changes
in company profit performance and growth.

Methodology A comprehensive Loyalty Management program requires

companies to:

• Regularly assess current loyalty levels through surveys and

behavioral data. The most effective approaches distinguish
mere satisfaction from true loyalty; they ask current customers
how likely they would be to recommend the company to a
friend or a colleague, and frontline employees whether they
believe the organization deserves their loyalty;
• Benchmark current loyalty levels against those of competitors;
• Identify the few dimensions of performance that matter most
to customers and employees, and track them rigorously;
• Systematically communicate survey feedback throughout
the organization;
• Build loyalty and retention targets into the company’s
incentive, planning and budgeting systems;
• Develop new programs to reduce customer and employee
churn rates;
• Revise policies that drive short-term results at the expense
of long-term loyalty, such as high service fees and discounts
given only to new customers;
• Reach out to investors and suppliers to learn what drives
their loyalty.

Net Promoter® is a registered trademark of Bain & Company, Inc., Fred Reichheld and Satmetrix Systems, Inc.

Common Well-executed Loyalty Management programs enable companies to:
• Build lasting relationships with customers who contribute
the most to profitability, and capture a larger share of
their business;
• Generate sales growth by increasing referrals from customers
and employees;
• Attract and retain employees whose skills, knowledge
and relationships are essential to superior performance;
• Improve productivity, and decrease recruitment and
training costs;
• Strategically align the interests and energies of employees,
customers, suppliers and investors, in a self-reinforcing cycle;
• Improve long-term financial performance and shareholder value.

Selected CIO Insight Editors. “Expert Voices: C.K. Prahalad & Venkat
references Ramaswamy on CRM.” CIO Insight, December 1, 2003,
pp. 32-37.
Day, George S. “Why Some Companies Succeed at CRM (and
Many Fail).” Knowledge@Wharton, January 2003.
Dinsdale, J. Scott, and Dr. Jim Taylor. “The Value of Loyalty.”
Optimize, April 2003, pp. 32-42.
Reichheld, Frederick F. Loyalty Rules: How Today’s Leaders Build
Lasting Relationships. Harvard Business School Press, 2003.
Reichheld, Fred. “The Microeconomics of Customer
Relationships.” MIT Sloan Management Review, Winter
2006, pp. 73-78.
Reichheld, Frederick F. “The One Number You Need to Grow.”
Harvard Business Review, December 2003, pp. 46-54.
Reichheld, Fred. “The Ultimate Question.” Harvard Business
School Press, 2006.
Reichheld, Fred. “The top 10 reasons you don’t understand
your customer.” Harvard Management Update, May 2006.
Reinartz, Werner, and V. Kumar. “The Mismanagement of
Customer Loyalty.” Harvard Business Review, July 2002,
pp. 4-12.
Thompson, Harvey. Who Stole My Customer?? Winning
Strategies for Creating and Sustaining Customer Loyalty.
Financial Times Prentice Hall, 2004.
Mergers and Acquisitions
Related • Merger Integration Teams
topics • Strategic Alliances

Description Over the past decade, Mergers and Acquisitions (M&As) have
reached unprecedented levels as companies use corporate
financing strategies to maximize shareholder value and create
a competitive advantage. Acquisitions occur when a larger com-
pany takes over a smaller one; a merger typically involves two
relative equals joining forces and creating a new company. Most
mergers and acquisitions are friendly, but a hostile takeover
occurs when the acquirer bypasses the board of the targeted
company and purchases a majority of the company’s stock on
the open market. A merger is considered a success if it increases
shareholder value faster than if the companies had remained
separate. Because corporate takeovers and mergers can reduce
competition, they are heavily regulated, often requiring gov-
ernment approval. To increase chances of the deal’s success,
acquirers need to perform rigorous due diligence—a review
of the targeted company’s assets and performance history—
before the purchase to verify the company’s stand-alone value
and unmask problems that could jeopardize the outcome.

Methodology Successful integration requires understanding how to make

trade-offs between speed and careful planning and involves:

• Setting integration priorities based on the merger’s strategic

rationale and goals;
• Articulating and communicating the deal’s vision by
merger leaders;
• Designing the new organization and operating plan;
• Customizing the integration plan to address specific chal-
lenges: Act quickly to capture economies of scale; redefine a
business model and sacrifice speed to get the model right,
such as understanding brand positioning and product
growth opportunities;
• Aggressively implement the integration plan: by Day 100, the
merged company should be operating and contributing value.

Common Mergers are used to increase shareholder value by:
uses • Reducing costs by combining departments, operations, and
trimming the workforce;
• Increasing revenue by absorbing a major competitor and
winning more market share;
• Cross-selling products or services;
• Creating tax savings when a profitable company buys a
• Diversifying to stabilize earning results and boost investor

Selected Ashkenas, Ronald N., and Suzanne C. Francis. “Integration

references Mergers: Special Leaders for Special Times.” Harvard
Business Review, November 2000, pp. 108-116.
Bruner, Robert F. Deals from Hell: M&A Lessons that Rise Above
the Ashes. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2005.
Bruner, Robert F., and Joseph R. Perella. Applied Mergers and
Acquisitions. Wiley Finance, 2004.
Cooper, Cary L., and Sydney Finkelstein (eds.). Advances in
Mergers and Acquisitions, Volume 5. Elsevier JAI Press, 2006.
Frankel, Michael E.S. Mergers and Acquisitions Basics: The Key
Steps of Acquisitions, Divestitures, and Investments. John Wiley
& Sons, Inc., 2005.
Gaughan, Patrick A. Mergers: What Can Go Wrong and How to
Prevent It. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2005.
Harding, David, and Sam Rovit. Mastering the Merger: Four
Critical Decisions That Make or Break the Deal. Harvard
Business School Publishing Corporation, 2004.
Harding, David, Sam Rovit, and Alistair Corbett. “Avoid Merger
Meltdown: Lessons from Mergers and Acquisitions Leaders.”
Strategy & Innovation, September 15, 2004, pp. 3-5.
Lajoux, Alexandra Reed, and Charles M. Elson. The Art of M&A
Due Diligence. McGraw-Hill, 2000.
Schweiger, David M. M&A Integration: A Framework for
Executives and Managers. McGraw-Hill, 2002.

Mission and Vision Statements
Related • Corporate Values Statements
topics • Cultural Transformation
• Strategic Planning

Description A Mission Statement defines the company’s business, its

objectives and its approach to reach those objectives. A Vision
Statement describes the desired future position of the company.
Elements of Mission and Vision Statements are often combined to
provide a statement of the company’s purposes, goals and values.
However, sometimes the two terms are used interchangeably.

Methodology Typically, senior managers will write the company’s overall

Mission and Vision Statements. Other managers at different
levels may write statements for their particular divisions or
business units. The development process requires managers to:

• Clearly identify the corporate culture, values, strategy and

view of the future by interviewing employees, suppliers
and customers;
• Address the commitment the firm has to its key stakeholders,
including customers, employees, shareholders and
• Ensure that the objectives are measurable, the approach is
actionable, and the vision is achievable;
• Communicate the message in clear, simple and precise language;
• Develop buy-in and support throughout the organization.

Common Mission and Vision Statements are commonly used to:

• Guide management’s thinking on strategic issues,
especially during times of significant change;
• Help define performance standards;
• Inspire employees to work more productively
by providing focus and common goals;
• Guide employee decision making;
• Help establish a framework for ethical behavior.
• Enlist external support;
• Create closer linkages and better communication
with customers, suppliers and alliance partners;
• Serve as a public relations tool.
Selected Abrahams, Jeffrey. The Mission Statement Book: 301
references Corporate Mission Statements from America’s Top Companies.
Ten Speed Press, 1999.
Collins, James C., and Jerry I. Porras. “Building Your
Company’s Vision.” Harvard Business Review, September/October
1996, pp. 65-77.
Collins, James C., and Jerry I. Porras. Built to Last: Successful
Habits of Visionary Companies. HarperBusiness, 1997.
Horan, James T. The One Page Business Plan: Start with a Vision,
Build a Company! One Page Business Plan Company, 1998.
Jones, Patricia, and Larry Kahaner. Say It and Live It:
The 50 Corporate Mission Statements That Hit the Mark.
Currency/Doubleday, 1995.
Kotter, John P. “Leading Change: Why Transformation Efforts
Fail.” Harvard Business Review, March/April 1995, pp. 59-67.
Kotter, John P., and James L. Heskett. Corporate Culture
and Performance. Free Press, 1992.
Krattenmaker, Tom. Write a Mission Statement That Your
Company Is Willing to Live. Harvard Business School
Publishing, 2002.
Nanus, Burt. Visionary Leadership. Jossey-Bass, 1995.
O’Hallaron, Richard, and David O’Hallaron. The Mission
Primer: Four Steps to an Effective Mission Statement.
Mission Incorporated, 2000.
Raynor, Michael E. “That Vision Thing: Do We Need It?”
Long Range Planning, June 1998, pp. 368-376.
Wall, Bob, Mark R. Sobol and Robert S. Solum. The Mission-
Driven Organization. Prima Publishing, 1999.
Zimmerman, John, with Benjamin Tregoe. The Culture
of Success: Building a Sustained Competitive Advantage
by Living Your Corporate Beliefs. McGraw-Hill, 1997.

Related • Core Competencies
topics • Cost Migration
• Outsourcing

Description Offshoring is the relocation of some of a company’s operations

to another country. Typically, the new location offers markedly
lower labor costs, but more recently other factors have influenced
companies’ decisions to move offshore. For example, proximity
to large, emerging end markets and access to growing pools of
highly skilled talent may also lure companies overseas. Offshoring
presents a public relations risk, because it eliminates jobs in a
company’s home country. Firms must carefully weigh all the risks
in Offshoring: the offshore location’s political climate and infra-
structure; the stability of its currency; its capital controls; its
trade barriers; and the need to safeguard intellectual property.

There are two types of Offshoring: Captive Offshoring occurs

when a company maintains a function or process in-house, and
just moves it to a company facility in a different country. (If the
country is on the same continent, this can be referred to as
“Near-shoring.”) Offshore Outsourcing, by contrast, occurs
when a company outsources a function or process to another
country through a third-party vendor. Both are part of a spec-
trum of strategic sourcing options companies can pursue,
including Domestic Outsourcing and Insourcing.

Methodology A company that pursues Offshoring should:

• Quantify the costs and benefits of moving process steps off-

shore—especially business processes that are standard,
routine and mature. Concentrate Offshoring analyses on
functions that are major cost centers but not core competencies;
• Determine which processes should be conducted internally at
offshore locations and which processes should be outsourced to
more efficient partners by considering not only the all-in costs
of each process but also the quality of performance improve-
ments that need to be made;
• Create a short list of locations to be considered for Offshoring,
considering financial implications but also political stability,
security and intellectual property enforcement;
• Research characteristics of the labor force in each country
being considered for Offshoring, including information
technology skills, educational levels, language skills and the
willingness of workers to work flexible hours;
• Consider transportation and other supply chain costs. In
extreme cases, a lack of necessary infrastructure (roads,
rails, Internet service) could disqualify an otherwise
excellent location;
• Conduct final negotiations and select preferred locations
and partners;
• Prepare migration and contingency plans;
• Work to address any issues around cultural and infrastructure
dissimilarity between the company’s country of origin and
the countries that are selected for Offshoring.

Common Companies use Offshoring to:

• Gain access to human capital—not just low-cost labor but
also highly skilled technical talent;
• Gain entry to customers in emerging, high-growth
regional markets;
• Secure a global presence;
• Shorten the time to market by distributing workloads globally
and enabling operations to continue 24 hours a day;
• Create low-cost offerings to meet the needs of low-end markets;
• Achieve quality and performance improvements.

Selected Aron, Ravi, and Jitendra V. Singh. “Getting Offshoring Right.”

references Harvard Business Review, December 2005, pp. 135-143.
Berry, John. Offshoring Opportunities: Strategies and Tactics for
Global Competitiveness. John Wiley & Sons, 2005.
Farrell, Diana. “Smarter Offshoring.” Harvard Business Review,
June 2006, pp. 84-92.
Kalakota, Ravi, and Marcia Robinson. Offshore Outsourcing:
Business Models, ROI and Best Practices. Mivar Press, 2004.
Vashistha, Atul, and Avinash Vashistha. The Offshore Nation:
Strategies for Success in Global Outsourcing and Offshoring.
McGraw-Hill, 2006.
Venkatraman, N. Venkat. “Offshoring Without Guilt.” Sloan
Management Review, Spring 2004, pp. 14-16.

Related • Collaborative Commerce
topics • Core Capabilities
• Strategic Alliances
• Value-Chain Analysis

Description When Outsourcing, a company uses third parties to perform

noncore business activities. Contracting third parties enables
a company to focus its efforts on its core competencies. Many
companies find that Outsourcing reduces cost and improves
performance of the activity. Third parties that specialize in an
activity are likely to be lower cost and more effective, given
their focus and scale. Through Outsourcing, a company can
access the state of the art in all of its business activities without
having to master each one internally.

Methodology When Outsourcing, take the following steps:

• Determine whether the activity to outsource is a core competency.

In most cases, it is unwise to outsource something that
creates unique competitive advantage;
• Evaluate the financial impact of Outsourcing. Outsourcing
likely offers cost advantages if a vendor can realize economies
of scale. A complete financial analysis should include the
impact of increased flexibility and productivity or decreased
time to market;
• Assess the non-financial costs and advantages of Outsourcing.
Managers will also want to qualitatively assess the benefits
and risks of Outsourcing. Benefits include the ability to
leverage the outside expertise of a specialized outsourcer
and the freeing up of resources devoted to noncore business
activities. A key risk is the growing dependence a company
might place on an outsourcer, thus limiting future flexibility;
• Choose an Outsourcing partner and contract the relationship.
Candidates should be qualified and selected according to
both their demonstrated effectiveness and their ability to
work collaboratively. The contract should include clearly
established performance guidelines and measures.

Common Companies use Outsourcing to:
• Reduce operating costs;
• Instill operational discipline;
• Increase manufacturing productivity and flexibility;
• Leverage the expertise and innovation of specialized firms;
• Encourage use of best demonstrated practices for
internal activities;
• Avoid capital investment, particularly under uncertainty;
• Release resources—people, capital and time—to focus
on core competencies.

Selected Brown, Douglas, and Scott Wilson. The Black Book of Outsourcing:
references How to Manage the Changes, Challenges, and Opportunities. John
Wiley & Sons, 2005.
Cohen, Linda, and Allie Young. Multisourcing: Moving Beyond
Outsourcing to Achieve Growth andAgility. Harvard Business
School Press, 2005.
Gottfredson, Mark, Rudy Puryear, and Stephen Phillips. “Strategic
Sourcing: From Periphery to the Core.” Harvard Business
Review, February 2005, pp. 132-139.
Greaver, Maurice. Strategic Outsourcing: A Structured Approach to
Outsourcing Decisions and Initiatives. AMACOM, 1999.
Klepper, Robert, and Wendell O. Jones. Outsourcing Information
Technology, Systems and Services. Prentice Hall Press, 1997.
Koulopoulos, Thomas M., and Tom Roloff. Smartsourcing: Driving
Innovation and Growth Through Outsourcing. Platinum Press,
Inc., 2006.
Milgate, Michael. Alliances, Outsourcing, and the Lean Organization.
Quorum Books, 2001.
Moran, Nuala. “Looking for Savings on Distant Horizons.”
Financial Times IT Review, July 2003.
The Outsourcing Institute. www.outsourcing.com.
Power, Mark J., Kevin Desouza, and Carlo Bonifazi. The
Outsourcing Handbook: How to Implement a Successful
Outsourcing Process. Kogan Page, 2006.
Quinn, James Brian. “Outsourcing Innovation: The New Engine of
Growth.” Sloan Management Review, Summer 2000, pp. 13-28.
Related • Automatic Identification
topics • Electronic Article Surveillance
• Electronic Product Codes
• Supply Chain Management

Description Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is a technology that

uses radio waves to identify objects and read data. Windshield
tags that pay tolls, security tags for apparel and identity cards that
permit access to restricted areas are three common applications.
RFID tags consist of an electronic device—no larger than a
pinhead—containing an antenna and a chip. Like their precursor,
bar codes, they’re often employed to track and manage inventory
and works in progress. But not only are RFID tags smaller,
hardier, and cheaper, they can carry far richer amounts of data.
Wireless scanners can read them at a distance, without a direct
line of sight, and download detailed information on entire pallets
of products from them instantaneously. Paired with sensors,
these so-called smart tags can even be used to automatically
monitor items’ temperature, pressure and other conditions.

Methodology Implementing RFID involves these steps:

• Determine which products or processes are suited for this

technology. Factors to consider include the type of data to be
encoded, required read range, frequency of measurements,
and environmental constraints. RFID is particularly compelling
if read and write capabilities are required, the tag is hidden,
surface contamination is likely, or reading multiple tags
simultaneously is necessary;
• Choose the timing and pace for RFID adoption, given the
costs, benefits and customer mandates. Also evaluate the
cost of not adopting RFID;
• Select the appropriate RFID standard and the level of integration
desired with the supply chain management software;
• Roll out a pilot program, starting with the highest-value
products first. Expand implementation of RFID based on
customer mandates, and as cost and benefits warrant
expanding the program.

Common RFID can be used to:

• Streamline the flow of products through the supply chain,
thus reducing overall inventory levels and working capital;

• Decrease the time and expense of managing inventory,
while improving the efficiency of shipping, receiving
and order processing;
• Reduce labor costs, product tampering and theft;
• Improve forecasting and invoicing accuracy;
• Track parts, finished goods, and reusable containers
through manufacturing and assembly processes;
• Ensure that production procedures are followed and
pinpoint the source of production issues;
• Remotely monitor the conditions of components,
products and equipment;
• Increase security and control access when placed on
personnel badges.

Selected Finkenzeller, Klaus. RFID Handbook: Fundamentals and

references Applications in Contactless Smart Cards and Identification.
John Wiley & Sons, 2003.
Garfinkel, Simson, and Beth Rosenberg. RFID: Applications,
Security, and Privacy. Addison-Wesley Professional, 2005.
Glover, Bill, and Himanshu Bhatt. RFID Essentials. O’Reilly
Media, 2006.
Kleist, Robert A., Theodore A. Chapman, David A. Sakai and
Brad S. Jarvis. RFID Labeling: Smart Labeling Concepts and
Applications for the Consumer Packaged Goods Supply Chain.
Banta Book Group, 2004.
Lahiri, Sandip. RFID Sourcebook. IBM Press, 2005.
Poirier, Charles, and Duncan McCollum. RFID Strategic
Implementation and ROI: A Practical Roadmap to Success.
J. Ross Publishing, 2006.
“RFID: Powering the Supply Chain: Questions Every User
Needs to Answer Before Implementing RFID.” Logistics
Management, August 2004, pp. 3-16.
Shepard, Steven. RFID. McGraw-Hill Professional, 2004.
Wyld, David C. “RFID 101: the next big thing for manage-
ment.” Management Research News, Vol. 29, Issue 4, 2006,
pp. 154-173.

Scenario and Contingency Planning
Related • Crisis Management
topics • Disaster Recovery
• Groupthink
• Real-Options Analysis
• Simulation Models

Description Scenario Planning allows executives to explore and prepare for

several alternative futures. It examines the outcomes a company
might expect under a variety of operating strategies and economic
conditions. Contingency Planning assesses what effect sudden
market changes or business disruptions might have on a company
and devises strategies to deal with them. Scenario and contingency
plans avoid the dangers of simplistic, one-dimensional, or linear
thinking. By raising and testing various “what-if” scenarios,
managers can brainstorm together and challenge their assumptions
in a non-threatening, hypothetical environment before they
decide on a certain course of action. Scenario and Contingency
Planning allows management to pressure-test plans and forecasts
and equips the company to handle the unexpected.

Methodology Key steps in Scenario and Contingency Planning process are:

• Choose a time frame to explore;
• Identify the current assumptions and thought processes
of key decision makers;
• Create varied, yet plausible, scenarios;
• Test the impact of key variables in each scenario;
• Develop action plans based on either the most promising
solutions or the most desirable outcome the company seeks;
• Monitor events as they unfold to test the company’s
strategic direction;
• Be prepared to change course if necessary.

Common By using Scenario and Contingency Planning, a company can:

uses • Achieve a higher degree of organizational learning;
• Raise and challenge both implicit and widely held beliefs and
assumptions about the business and its strategic direction;
• Identify key levers that can influence the company’s
future course;
• Turn long-range planning into a vital, shared experience;
• Develop a clearer view of the future;
• Incorporate globalization and change management into
strategic analysis.

Selected Barnes, James C. A Guide to Business Continuity Planning. John
references Wiley & Sons, 2001.
Bazerman, Max H., and Michael D. Watkins. Predictable
Surprises: The Disasters You Should Have Seen Coming, and
How to Prevent Them. Harvard Business School Press, 2004.
Bood, Robert, and Theo Postma. “Strategic Learning with
Scenarios.” European Management Journal, December 1997,
pp. 633-647.
Elkins, Debra, Robert B. Handfield, Jennifer Blackhurst,
Christopher W. Craighead. “18 Ways to Guard Against
Disruption.” Supply Chain Management Review, January 1,
2005, pp. 46-53.
Fahey, Liam, and Robert M. Randall (eds.). Learning from
the Future: Competitive Foresight Scenarios. John Wiley &
Sons, 1997.
Fuld, Leonard. “Be Prepared.” Harvard Business Review,
November 2003, pp. 20-21.
Lindgren, Mats, and Hans Bandhold. Scenario Planning: The Link
Between Future and Strategy. Palgrave MacMillan, 2003.
Ringland, Gill. Scenario Planning: Managing for the Future,
2nd ed. John Wiley & Sons, 2006.
Schoemaker, Paul J.H. “Scenario Planning: A Tool for Strategic
Thinking.” Sloan Management Review, Winter 1995,
pp. 25-40.
Schriefer, Audrey. “Getting the Most Out of Scenarios: Advice
from the Experts.” Planning Review, September/October
1995, pp. 33-35.
Schwartz, Peter. The Art of the Long View: Paths to Strategic Insight
for Yourself and Your Company. Currency/Doubleday, 1996.
van der Heijden, Kees. Scenarios: The Art of Strategic Conversation,
2nd ed. John Wiley & Sons, 2005.
van der Heijden, Kees, Ron Bradfield, George Burt, George Cairns,
and George Wright. The Sixth Sense: Accelerating Organizational
Learning with Scenarios. John Wiley & Sons, 2002.
Wack, Pierre. “Scenarios: Shooting the Rapids.” Harvard
Business Review, November/December 1985, pp. 139-150.

Shared Service Centers
Related • Joint Ventures
topics • Offshoring
• Outsourcing
• Performance Improvement
• Strategic Partnerships

Description Shared Service Centers (SSCs) reduce costs by consolidating one

or more back-office operations used by multiple divisions of
the same company—such as finance, information technology,
customer service and human resources—into a shared operation.
By creating a stand-alone or semi-autonomous Shared Service
Center, companies can eliminate redundant activities and
improve efficiency, services and customer satisfaction. Because of
the need by every corporate department for finance and human
services, these functions offer a common opportunity for an SSC
model. Many of the savings come from standardizing technology
and processes on a national and regional basis, making it easier
to provide support for multiple business units, reduce personnel
and improve the speed and quality of service. Despite the success
of Shared Service Centers, some SSC pioneers are moving to
variations on the model: outsourcing back-office operations to
a third-party provider, and consolidating and moving SSCs to
countries with lower labor costs.

Methodology A successful move to a Shared Service Center model requires a

carefully planned and managed transition. The transition should:

• Standardize processes before the shift;

• Consolidate processes and people without losing key employees
and disrupting services;
• Reengineer systems: The first cost savings usually come
from reduced headcounts and redesigned processes;
• Communicate clear vision and early successes by
top management;
• Win buy-in from departments that will use SSC.

Common Shared Service Centers are used not only to improve cost savings;
uses they also help companies respond to the marketplace and pursue
rapid growth strategies by:

• Delivering higher quality service and improved

customer satisfaction;
• Capturing economies of scale;
• Increasing standardization and use of leading-edge technologies;
• Freeing up employees to spend more time and resources on
their core jobs;
• Providing flexibility to quickly add new business units and
expand geographically;
• Enabling rapid integration of new acquisitions.

Selected Bangemann, Tom Olavi. Shared Services In Finance and

references Accounting. Gower Publishing Limited, 2005.
Bergeron, Bryan. Essentials of Shared Services. John Wiley &
Sons, 2003.
Kris, Andrew, and Martin Fahy. Shared Service Centres: Delivering
Value From Effective Finance and Business Processes. Financial
Times Management, 2003.
Quinn, Barbara, Robert Cooke, and Andrew Kris. Shared Services:
Mining for Corporate Gold. Financial Times Prentice Hall, 2000.
Reilly, Peter A., and Tony Williams. How to Get Best Value from HR:
The Shared Services Option. Gower Publishing Limited, 2003.
Schulman, Donniel S., Martin J. Harmer, John R. Dunleavy, and
James S. Lusk. Shared Services: Adding Value to the Business
Units. John Wiley & Sons, 2001.
Tham, Irene. “Shared services: Getting it right.” MIS Magazine,
February 2005, http://www.misweb.com.

Six Sigma
Related • Lean Manufacturing
topics • Lean Six Sigma
• Statistical Process Control
• Total Quality Management

Description “Sigma” is a measure of statistical variation. Six Sigma indicates

near perfection and is a rigorous operating methodology aimed
to ensure complete customer satisfaction by ingraining a culture
of excellence, responsiveness and accountability within an
organization. Specifically, it requires the delivery of defect-free
products or services 99.9997 percent of the time. That means
that out of a million products or service experiences, only 3
would fail to meet the customer’s expectations. (The average
company runs at around Three Sigma, or 66,800 errors per
million.) To raise operations and product designs to the highest
benchmark, Six Sigma programs constantly measure and analyze
data on the variables in any process, then use statistical techniques
to understand what improvements will drive down defects.
Such programs also incorporate a strong system for gathering
customer feedback. Companies have applied Six Sigma to functions
ranging from manufacturing to call centers to collections.
Some companies estimate that the Six Sigma methodology
has helped them realize savings upwards of $1 billion.

Methodology Six Sigma entails five key steps:

• Define. Identify the customer requirements, clarify

the problem and set goals;
• Measure. Select what needs to be measured, identify
information sources and gather data;
• Analyze. Develop hypotheses, identify the key variables
and root causes;
• Improve. Generate solutions and put them into action,
either modifying existing processes or developing new ones.
Quantify costs and benefits;
• Control. Develop monitoring processes for continued
high-quality performance.

Common Companies use Six Sigma to set performance goals for

uses the entire organization and mobilize teams and individuals
to achieve dramatic improvements in existing processes.
More specifically, Six Sigma can:

• Make processes more rigorous by using hard, timely data,

52 not opinions or gut feeling, to make operating decisions;
• Cultivate customer loyalty by delivering superior value;
• Strengthen and reward teamwork by aligning employees
around complex processes whose performance can still be
easily, clearly and empirically measured;
• Accustom managers to operating in a fast-moving internal
business environment that increasingly mirrors marketplace
conditions outside the company;
• Achieve quantum leaps in product performance;
• Reduce variation in service processes, such as the time
from order to delivery, or offering a consistent, high-quality
service experience;
• Improve financial performance, through cost savings
from projects, increased revenue from improved products
and expanded operating margins.

Selected Breyfogle, Forrest, III. Implementing Six Sigma: Smarter

references Solutions Using Statistical Methods, 2d ed. John Wiley &
Sons, 2003.
Dhirendra, Kumar. Six Sigma Best Practices: A Guide to Business
Process Excellence for Diverse Industries. J. Ross Publishing, 2006.
Eckes, George. The Six Sigma Revolution. John Wiley & Sons, 2001.
El-Haik, Basem, and David M. Roy. Service Design for Six Sigma:
A Roadmap for Excellence. Wiley-Interscience, 2005.
Hariharan, Arun. “CEO’s Guide to Six Sigma Success.” ASQ
Six Sigma Forum Magazine, May 2006, pp. 16-25.
Preis, Kim H. Six Sigma for the Next Millennium: A CSSBB
Guidebook. American Society for Quality, 2005.
Snee, Ronald D., and Roger W. Hoerl. Leading Six Sigma: A
Step-by-Step Guide Based on Experience with GE and Other Six
Sigma Companies. Financial Times Prentice Hall, 2002.
Snee, Ronald D., and Roger W. Hoerl. Six Sigma Beyond the Factory
Floor: Deployment Strategies for Financial Services, Health Care,
and the Rest of the Real Economy. Pearson/Prentice Hall, 2005.
Sodhi, ManMohan S., and Navdeep S. Sodhi. “Six Sigma
Pricing.” Harvard Business Review, May 2005, pp. 135-142.
Taghizadegan, Salman. Essentials of Lean Six Sigma.
Butterworth-Heinemann, 2006.

Strategic Alliances
Related • Corporate Venturing
topics • Joint Ventures
• Value-Managed Relationships
• Virtual Organizations

Description Strategic Alliances are agreements between firms in which

each commits resources to achieve a common set of objectives.
Companies may form Strategic Alliances with a wide variety
of players: customers, suppliers, competitors, universities or
divisions of government. Through Strategic Alliances, compa-
nies can improve competitive positioning, gain entry to new
markets, supplement critical skills and share the risk or cost
of major development projects.

Methodology To form a Strategic Alliance, companies should:

• Define their business vision and strategy in order

to understand how an alliance fits their objectives;
• Evaluate and select potential partners based on the level
of synergy and the ability of the firms to work together;
• Develop a working relationship and mutual recognition
of opportunities with the prospective partner;
• Negotiate and implement a formal agreement that
includes systems to monitor performance.

Common Strategic Alliances are formed to:

• Reduce costs through economies of scale or increased
• Increase access to new technology;
• Inhibit competitors;
• Enter new markets;
• Reduce cycle time;
• Improve research and development efforts;
• Improve quality.

Selected Armstrong, Arthur G., and John Hagel III. Net Gain:
references Expanding Markets Through Virtual Communities. Harvard
Business School Press, March 1997.
Badaracco, Joseph L., Jr. The Knowledge Link: How Firms
Compete Through Strategic Alliances. Harvard Business
School Press, 1991.
Chang, Wen-Long, and Jasmine Yi-Hsuan Hsin. “The Study of
the Motivation and Performance of the Incubators’ Strategic
Alliances: Strategic Groups Perspective.” Journal of American
Academy of Business, March 2006, pp. 126-133.
Doz, Yves L., and Gary Hamel. Alliance Advantage. Harvard
Business School Press, 1998.
Dyer, Jeffrey H., Prashant Kale, and Harbir Singh. “How to
Make Strategic Alliances Work.” Sloan Management Review,
Summer 2001, pp. 37-43.
Dyer, Jeffrey H., Prashant Kale, and Harbir Singh. “When to
Ally and When to Acquire.” Harvard Business Review, July
2004, pp. 108-115.
Kanter, Rosabeth M. “Collaborative Advantage: The Art of
Alliances.” Harvard Business Review, July/August 1994,
pp. 96-108.
Kuglin, Fred A., with Jeff Hook. Building, Leading and Managing
Strategic Alliances. AMACOM, 2002.
Lewis, Jordan D. Trusted Partners: How Companies Build Mutual
Trust and Win Together. Free Press, March 2000.
Rigby, Darrell K., and Robin W.T. Buchanan. “Putting More
Strategy into Strategic Alliances.”Directors and Boards,
Winter 1994, pp. 14-19.
Rigby, Darrell K., and Chris Zook. “Open-Market Innovation.”
Harvard Business Review, October 2002, pp. 80-89.
Segil, Larraine. Measuring the Value of Partnering: How to
Use Metrics to Plan, Develop, and Implement Successful
Alliances. American Management Association, 2004.
Shenkar. Oded, and Jeffrey J. Reuer (eds.). Handbook of Strategic
Alliances. Sage Publications, 2005.
Yoshino, Michael Y., and U. Srinivasa Rangan. Strategic Alliances:
An Entrepreneurial Approach to Globalization. Harvard Business
School Press, 1995.

Strategic Planning
Related • Core Competencies
topics • Mission and Vision Statements
• Scenario and Contingency Planning

Description Strategic Planning is a comprehensive process for determining

what a business should become and how it can best achieve
that goal. It appraises the full potential of a business and
explicitly links the business’s objectives to the actions and
resources required to achieve them. Strategic Planning offers
a systematic process to ask and answer the most critical
questions confronting a management team—especially large,
irrevocable resource commitment decisions.

Methodology A successful Strategic Planning process should:

• Describe the organization’s mission, vision and

fundamental values;
• Target potential business arenas and explore each
market for emerging threats and opportunities;
• Understand the current and future priorities of targeted
customer segments;
• Analyze the company’s strengths and weaknesses relative
to competitors and determine which elements of the
value chain the company should make versus buy;
• Identify and evaluate alternative strategies;
• Develop an advantageous business model that will profitably
differentiate the company from its competitors;
• Define stakeholder expectations and establish clear and
compelling objectives for the business;
• Prepare programs, policies, and plans to implement
the strategy;
• Establish supportive organizational structures, decision
processes, information and control systems, and hiring
and training systems;
• Allocate resources to develop critical capabilities;
• Plan for and respond to contingencies or environmental changes;
• Monitor performance.

Common Strategic Planning processes are often implemented to:
• Change the direction and performance of a business;
• Encourage fact-based discussions of politically
sensitive issues;
• Create a common framework for decision making
in the organization;
• Set a proper context for budget decisions and
performance evaluations;
• Train managers to develop better information to
make better decisions;
• Increase confidence in the business’s direction.

Selected Drucker, Peter F. Managing in a Time of Great Change. Plume, 1998.

references Eisenhardt, Kathleen M. “Has Strategy Changed?” Sloan
Management Review, Winter 2002, pp. 88-91.
Goold, Michael, Andrew Campbell, and Marcus Alexander.
Corporate-Level Strategy: Creating Value in the Multibusiness
Company. John Wiley & Sons, 1994.
Hamel, Gary, and C.K. Prahalad. Competing for the Future.
Harvard Business School Press, 1994.
Mankins, Michael C. “Stop Wasting Valuable Time.” Harvard
Business Review, September 2004, pp. 58-65.
Mintzberg, Henry. The Rise and Fall of Strategic Planning:
Reconceiving Roles for Planning, Plans, Planners.
Free Press, 1994.
Mintzberg, Henry, Joseph Lampel, and Bruce Ahlstrand.
Strategy Safari: A Guided Tour Through The Wilds of Strategic
Management. Free Press, 1998.
Ohmae, Kenichi. The Mind of the Strategist: The Art of Japanese
Business. McGraw-Hill, 1991.
Porter, Michael E. Competitive Strategy: Techniques for Analyzing
Industries and Competitors. Free Press, 1980.
Porter, Michael E. “What Is Strategy?” Harvard Business Review,
November/December 1996, pp. 61-78.

Supply Chain Management
Related • The Borderless Corporation
topics • Collaborative Commerce
• Value-Chain Analysis

Description Supply Chain Management synchronizes the efforts of all

parties—suppliers, manufacturers, distributors, dealers,
customers, and so on—involved in meeting a customer’s
needs. The approach often relies on technology to enable
seamless exchanges of information, goods and services across
organizational boundaries. It forges much closer relationships
among all links in the value chain in order to deliver the right
products to the right places at the right times for the right
costs. The goal is to establish such strong bonds of communi-
cation and trust among all parties that they can effectively
function as one unit, fully aligned to streamline business
processes and achieve total customer satisfaction.

Methodology Companies typically implement Supply Chain Management

in four stages:

• Stage I seeks to increase the level of trust among vital

links in the supply chain. Managers learn to treat former
adversaries as valuable partners. This stage often leads
to longer-term commitments with preferred partners;
• Stage II increases the exchange of information. It creates
more accurate, up-to-date knowledge of demand forecasts,
inventory levels, capacity utilization, production schedules,
delivery dates and other data that could help supply chain
partners to improve performance;
• Stage III expands efforts to manage the supply chain as one
overall process rather than dozens of independent functions.
It leverages the core competencies of each player, automates
information exchange, changes management processes and
incentive systems, eliminates unproductive activities, improves
forecasting, reduces inventory levels, cuts cycle times and
involves customers more deeply in the Supply Chain
Management process;
• Stage IV identifies and implements radical ideas to com-
pletely transform the supply chain and deliver customer
value in unprecedented ways.

Common Recognizing that value is leaking out of the supply chain, but
uses that only limited improvement can be achieved by any single
company, managers turn to Supply Chain Management to help
them deliver products and services faster, better and less expensively.

Supply Chain Management capitalizes on many trends that have

changed worldwide business practices, including just-in-time
(JIT) inventories, electronic data interchange (EDI), outsourcing
of noncore activities, supplier consolidation and globalization.

Selected Ayers, James B. Handbook of Supply Chain Management, 2d ed.

references Auerbach, 2006.
Boone, Tonya, and Ram Ganeshan. New Directions in Supply-
Chain Management: Technology, Strategy, and Implementation.
AMACOM, 2002.
Dell, Michael, with Catherine Fredman. Direct from Dell: Strategies
that Revolutionized the Industry. HarperBusiness, 2000.
Frazelle, Edward. Supply Chain Strategy. McGraw-Hill, 2001.
Harvard Business Review on Supply Chain Management. Harvard
Business School Press, 2006.
Hines, Peter, Richard Lamming, Daniel T. Jones, Paul Cousins,
and Nick Rich. Value Stream Management: Strategy and
Excellence in the Supply Chain. Financial Times Prentice
Hall, 2000.
Narayanan, V.G., and Ananth Raman. “Aligning Incentives in
Supply Chains.” Harvard Business Review, November 2004.
Slone, Reuben E. “Leading a Supply Chain Turnaround.”
Harvard Business Review, October 2004, pp. 114-121.

Total Quality Management
Related • Continuous Improvement
topics • Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award
• Quality Assurance
• Six Sigma

Description Total Quality Management (TQM) is a systematic approach

to quality improvement that marries product and service
specifications to customer performance. TQM then aims to
produce these specifications with zero defects. This creates
a virtuous cycle of continuous improvement that boosts
production, customer satisfaction and profits.

Methodology In order to succeed, TQM programs require managers to:

Assess customer requirements

• Understand present and future customer needs;
• Design products and services that cost-effectively
meet or exceed those needs.

Deliver quality
• Identify the key problem areas in the process and
work on them until they approach zero-defect levels;
• Train employees to use the new processes;
• Develop effective measures of product and service quality;
• Create incentives linked to quality goals;
• Promote a zero-defect philosophy across all activities;
• Encourage management to lead by example;
• Develop feedback mechanisms to ensure continuous

Common TQM improves profitability by focusing on quality improvement

uses and addressing associated challenges within an organization.
TQM can be used to:

• Increase productivity;
• Lower scrap and rework costs;
• Improve product reliability;
• Decrease time-to-market cycles;
• Decrease customer service problems;
• Increase competitive advantage.

Selected Besterfield, Dale H., Carol Besterfield-Michna, Glen
references Besterfield, and Mary Besterfield-Sacre. Total Quality
Management, 3d ed. Prentice Hall, 2002.
Camison, Cesar. “Total Quality Management and Cultural
Change: A Model of Organizational Development.”
International Journal of Technology Management, Vol. 16,
No. 4/5/6, 1998, pp. 479-493.
Choi, Thomas Y., and Orlando C. Behling. “Top Managers and
TQM Success: One More Look After All These Years.”
Academy of Management Executive, February 1997, pp. 37-47.
Dahlgaard, Jens J., Kai Kristensen, and Ghopal K. Khanji.
Fundamentals of Total Quality Management. Routledge, 2005.
Deming, W. Edwards. Quality, Productivity, and Competitive
Position. MIT Press, 1982.
Feigenbaum, Armand V. Total Quality Control, 4th ed. McGraw-
Hill, 1991.
Gale, Bradley T. Managing Customer Value: Creating Quality and
Service That Customers Can See. Free Press, 1994.
Goetsch, David L., and Stanley B. Davis. Quality Management:
Introduction to Total Quality Management for Production,
Processing, and Services, 4th ed. Prentice Hall, 2002.
Grant, Robert M., Rami Shani and R. Krishnan. “TQM’s
Challenge to Management Theory and Practice.
Sloan Management Review, Winter 1994, pp. 25-35.
Imai, Masaaki. Kaizen: The Key to Japan’s Competitive Success.
McGraw-Hill, 1989.
Juran, J.M. Juran on Quality by Design: The Next Steps for
Planning Quality into Goods and Services. Free Press, 1992.
Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award, 2006 Award Criteria.
Walton, Mary. The Deming Management Method. Perigree, 1986.

Subject Index
A Corporate Venturing
See Strategic Alliances, 54
Adjacency Expansion
Cost Migration
See Growth Strategy Tools, 30
See Offshoring, 42
Automatic Identification
Crisis Management
See RFID, 46
See Scenario and Contingency Planning, 48
See Corporate Blogs, 24
Cultural Transformation
See Mission and Vision Statements, 40
Customer and Employee Surveys
B See Loyalty Management Tools, 36
Balanced Scorecard, 12 Customer Loyalty and Retention
Benchmarking, 14 See Loyalty Management Tools, 36
Best Demonstrated Practices Customer Relationship Management, 26
See Benchmarking, 14 See also Loyalty Management Tools, 36
Borderless Corporation Customer Retention
See Supply Chain Management, 58 See Customer Relationship Management, 26
Business Process Reengineering, 16 Customer Segmentation, 28
See also Customer Relationship Management, 26
C Customer Surveys
See Customer Relationship Management, 26
Collaborative Commerce
See Customer Relationship Management, 26 See Customer Segmentation, 28
See Outsourcing, 44 CycleTime Reduction
See Business Process Reengineering, 16
See Supply Chain Management, 58
Collaborative Innovation, 18
Competitor Profiles D
See Benchmarking, 14 DayintheLife Ethnographies
Consumer Ethnography, 20 See Consumer Ethnography, 20
Continuous Improvement Disaster Recovery
See Total Quality Management, 60 See Scenario and Contingency Planning, 48
Core Capabilities
See Core Competencies, 22
See Outsourcing, 44
Electronic Article Surveillance
Core Competencies, 22
See RFID, 46
See also Offshoring, 42
Electronic Product Codes
See also Strategic Planning, 56
See RFID, 46
Corporate Anthropology
See Consumer Ethnography, 20
Corporate Blogs, 24 F
Corporate Values Statements Factor/Cluster Analysis
See Mission and Vision Statements, 40 See Customer Segmentation, 28

Groupthink Malcolm Baldrige National Quality
See Scenario and Contingency Planning, 48 Award
Groupware See Total Quality Management, 60
See Knowledge Management, 32 Management by Objectives
Growth Strategy Tools, 30 See Balanced Scorecard, 12
Managing Innovation
H See Growth Strategy Tools, 30
See Knowledge Management, 32
Horizontal Organizations
MarketMigration Analysis
See Business Process Reengineering, 16
See Growth Strategy Tools, 30
Market Segmentation
I See Customer Segmentation, 28
Merger Integration Teams
Intellectual Capital Management
See Knowledge Management, 32 See Mergers and Acquisitions, 38
Mergers and Acquisitions, 38
Mission and Vision Statements, 40
J See also Balanced Scorecard, 12
Joint Ventures See also Strategic Planning, 56
See Shared Service Centers, 50
See Strategic Alliances, 54
Net Promoter® Scores
K See Loyalty Management Tools, 36
Key Success Factors New Product Development
See Core Competencies, 22 See Collaborative Innovation, 18
Knowledge Management, 32

Observational Research
Lean Consumption
See Consumer Ethnography, 20
See Lean Operations, 34
Offshoring, 42
Lean Manufacturing
See also Shared Service Centers, 50
See Six Sigma, 52
OnetoOne Marketing
See Lean Operations, 34
See Customer Segmentation, 28
Lean Operations, 34
Online Communities
Lean Six Sigma
See Corporate Blogs, 24
See Lean Operations, 34
Open Innovation
See Six Sigma, 52
See Collaborative Innovation, 18
Learning Organization
OpenMarket Innovation
See Knowledge Management, 32
See Collaborative Innovation, 18
Loyalty Management Tools, 36
See also Customer Relationship Management, 26
Subject Index continued
Outsourcing, 44 SliceofLife Research
See also Offshoring, 42 See Consumer Ethnography, 20
See also Shared Service Centers, 50 Statistical Process Control
OverheadValue Analysis See Six Sigma, 52
See Business Process Reengineering, 16 Strategic Alliances, 54
See also Mergers and Acquisitions, 38

See also Outsourcing, 44
Strategic Balance Sheet
Pay for Performance See Balanced Scorecard, 12
See Balanced Scorecard, 12 Strategic Partnerships
Performance Improvement See Shared Service Centers, 50
See Shared Service Centers, 50 Strategic Planning, 56
Podcasting See also Mission and Vision Statements, 40
See Corporate Blogs, 24 Supply Chain Management, 58
Process Redesign See RFID, 46
See Business Process Reengineering, 16

Q Total Quality Management, 60
Quality Assurance See Six Sigma, 52
See Total Quality Management, 60

R ValueChain Analysis
RealOptions Analysis See Outsourcing, 44
See Scenario and Contingency Planning, 48 See Supply Chain Management, 58
Revenue Enhancement ValueManaged Relationships
See Loyalty Management Tools, 36 See Strategic Alliances, 54
RFID, 46 Viral Marketing
See Corporate Blogs, 24

S Virtual Organizations
See Strategic Alliances, 54
Scenario and Contingency Planning, 48
Voice of the Customer
See also Strategic Planning, 56
See Consumer Ethnography, 20
Shared Service Centers, 50
Simulation Models
See Scenario and Contingency Planning, 48 W
Six Sigma, 52 Wikis
See also Total Quality Management, 60 See Corporate Blogs, 24

Author Index
A Bood, Robert, 49
Boone, Tonya, 59
Abrahams, Jeffrey, 41 Boxwell, Robert J., Jr., 15
Abrams, Bill, 21 Bradfield, Ron, 49
Adner, Ron, 19 Breyfogle, Forrest, III, 53
Ahlstrand, Bruce, 57 Brown, Douglas, 45
Alai, David, 23 Brown, John Seely, 19
Alexander, Marcus, 57 Bruner, Robert F., 39
Allen, James, 31 Buchanan, Robin W.T., 55
Al-Mashari, Majed, 17 Burt, George, 49
Amram, Martha, 31 Burton, Terence T., 35
Andelman, Bob, 31
Andrews, Kenneth, 23
Ante, Spencer E., 21
Anthony, Scott D., 31
Cairns, George, 49
Armstrong, Arthur G., 54 Camison, Cesar, 61
Aron, Ravi, 43 Camp, Robert C., 15
Ashkenas, Ronald N., 39 Campbell, Andrew, 23, 57
Awazu, Yukika, 33 Carr, David K., 17
Ayers, James B., 59 Carr, Nicholas, 25
Champy, James, 17

B Chang, Wen-Long, 55
Chapman, Theodore A., 47
Badaracco, Joseph L., Jr., 54 Charan, Ram, 31
Baker, Stephen, 25 Chen, Yu-fen, 23
Bandhold, Hans, 49 Chesbrough, Henry William, 19
Bangemann, Tom Olavi, 51 Choi, Thomas Y., 61
Barnes, James C., 49 Christensen, Clayton M., 19, 31
Bateman, Nicola, 35 Coers, Mardi, 15
Bazerman, Max H., 49 Cohen, Linda, 45
Bean, Roger, 19 Collins, James C., 41
Behling, Orlando C., 61 Collison, Chris, 33
Bergeron, Bryan, 51 Cooke, Robert, 51
Berry, John, 43 Cooper, Cary L., 39
Besterfield, Dale H., 61 Corbett, Alistair, 39
Besterfield, Glen, 61 Cortada, James W., 33
Besterfield-Michna, Carol, 61 Cousins, Paul, 59
Besterfield-Sacre, Mary, 61 Craighead, Christopher W., 49
Bhatt, Himanshu, 47 Critelli, Michael J., 23
Blackhurst, Jennifer, 49 Crowston, Kevin, 33
Boeder, Steven M., 35 Czarnecki, Mark T., 15
Bogan, Christopher E., 15
Bonifazi, Carlo, 45

Author Index continued
Finkenzeller, Klaus, 47
D Firestone, Joseph M., 33
Dahlgaard, Jens J., 61 Frame, J. Davidson, 17
Dalkir, Kamiz, 33 Francis, Suzanne C., 39
Davenport, Thomas H., 17, 19, 33 Frankel, Michael E.S., 39
Davis, Stanley B., 61 Frazelle, Edward, 59
Day, George S., 27, 37 Fredman, Catherine, 59
Dell, Michael, 59 Fuld, Leonard, 49
Deming, W. Edwards, 61 Furlong, Brian, 35
Demopoulos, Ted, 25
Denrell, Jerker, 15
Desouza, Kevin C., 33, 45 G
Dhirendra, Kumar, 53 Gale, Bradley T., 29, 61
Dinsdale, J. Scott, 37 Ganeshan, Ram, 59
Dorf, Bob, 29 Gardner, Chris, 15
Doz, Yves L., 55 Garfinkel, Simson, 47
Drejer, Anders, 23 Gaughan, Patrick A., 39
Drucker, Peter F., 57 Gibson, Lib, 31
Dunbar, Ian, 29 Gilpatrick, Keith, 35
Dunleavy, John R., 51 Glover, Bill, 47
Dyche, Jill, 27 Godin, Seth, 29
Dyer, Jeffrey H., 55 Goetsch, David L., 61
Goold, Michael, 57
Gottfredson, Mark, 45
E Grant, Robert M., 61
Eckes, George, 53 Greaver, Maurice, 45
Edwards, Cliff, 21 Green, Heather, 25
Eisenhardt, Kathleen M., 57 Groff, Todd R., 33
El-Haik, Basem, 53 Grover, Varun, 17
Elkins, Debra, 49
Elson, Charles M., 39
English, Michael J., 15 H
Epstein, Marc, 13 Hagel, John, III, 19, 54
Esain, Ann, 35 Hall, Gene, 17
Eyring, Matt, 31 Hamel, Gary, 23, 55, 57
Hammer, Michael, 17
Handfield, Robert B., 49
F Harding, David, 39
Fahey, Liam, 49 Hariharan, Arun, 53
Fahy, Martin, 51 Harmer, Martin J., 51
Farrell, Diana, 43 Harrington, H. James, 15
Feigenbaum, Armand V., 61 Henderson, Bruce A., 35
Finkelstein, Sydney, 39 Herman, George A., 33

Heskett, James L., 41 Kotter, John P., 41
Higgins, Lisa, 15 Koulopoulos, Thomas M., 45
Hilmer, Frederick G., 23 Kramer, Diane, 23
Hines, Peter, 59 Krattenmaker, Tom, 41
Hinterhuber, Hans, 33 Kris, Andrew, 51
Hoerl, Roger W., 53 Krishnan, R., 61
Holtz, Shel, 25 Kristensen, Kai, 61
Hook, Jeff, 55 Kuglin, Fred A., 55
Horan, James T., 41 Kumar, V., 27, 37
Hsin, Jasmine Yi-Hsuan, 55
Huston, Larry, 19
Lahiri, Sandip, 47
I Lajoux, Alexandra Reed, 39
Iacobucci, Dawn, 15 Lamming, Richard, 59
Imai, Masaaki, 61 Lampel, Joseph, 57
Immelt, Jeffrey R., 31 Larco, Jorge L., 35
Irani, Zahir, 17 Laughlin, Patrick, 29
LeCompte, Margaret D., 21
Ledingham, Dianne, 27
J Levitt, Theodore, 29
Jarvenpaa, Sirkka, 19 Lewis, Jordan D., 55
Jarvis, Brad S., 47 Liker, Jeffrey, 35
Johansson, Henry J., 17 Linder, Jane C., 19
Jones, Daniel T., 35, 59 Lindgren, Mats, 49
Jones, Patricia, 41 Lusk, James S., 51
Jones, Thomas P., 33 Lyons, Daniel, 25
Jones, Wendell O., 45
Juran, J.M., 61
MacMillan, Ian C., 19, 31
K Malhotra, Manuj K., 17
Kahaner, Larry, 41 Malone, Thomas W., 33
Kalakota, Ravi, 43 Mankins, Michael C., 57
Kale, Prashant, 55 Mann, David, 35
Kanter, Rosabeth M., 55 Manzoni, Jean-François, 13
Kaplan, Robert S., 13 Mariampolski, Hy, 21
Keen, Peter G.W., 17 Martin, Stephen H., 35
Khanji, Ghopal K., 61 Massey, Lynn, 35
Kim, W. Chan, 31 Matzler, Kurt, 33
Kleist, Robert A., 47 Mauborgne, Renée, 31
Klepper, Robert, 45 McCollum, Duncan, 47
Kotler, Philip, 29 McDermott, Richard, 33

Author Index continued
McDonald, Malcolm, 29
McElroy, Mark W., 33
McFarland, Jennifer, 21 Quinn, Barbara, 51
McGrath, Rita Gunther, 31 Quinn, James Brian, 23, 33, 45
Meer, David, 29

Milgate, Michael, 45
Mintzberg, Henry, 57
Montier, Richard, 23 Rabe, Cynthia Barton, 19
Moran, Nuala, 45 Radford, Russell, 19
Morrison, David J., 31 Raman, Ananth, 59
Myers, James H., 29 Ramaswamy, Venkat, 19
Randall, Robert M., 49
Rangan, U. Srinivasa, 55
N Raybourn, Cynthia, 15
Nanus, Burt, 41 Raynor, Michael E., 19, 41
Narayanan, V.G., 59 Reichheld, Frederick F., 27, 37
Niven, Paul R., 13 Reider, Rob, 15
Nordhielm, Christie, 15 Reilly, Peter A., 51
Norton, David P., 13 Reinartz, Werner, 27, 37
Renzl, Birgit, 33
Reuer, Jeffrey J., 55
O Rich, Nick, 35, 59
O’Hallaron, David, 41 Rigby, Darrell K., 19, 27, 55
O’Hallaron, Richard, 41 Ringland, Gill, 49
Ohmae, Kenichi, 57 Robinson, Marcia, 43
Rogers, Martha, 29
Roloff, Tom, 45
P Roos, Daniel, 35
Parcell, Geoff, 33 Rosenberg, Beth, 47
Peppers, Don, 29 Rosenthal, Jim, 17
Perella, Joseph R., 39 Rovit, Sam, 39
Phillips, Stephen, 45 Roy, David M., 53
Poirier, Charles, 47 Rubio, Janet, 29
Porras, Jerry I., 41

Porter, Michael E., 57
Postma, Theo, 49
Power, Mark J., 45 Sakai, David A., 47
Prahalad, C.K., 19, 23, 57 Sakkab, Nabil, 19
Preis, Kim H., 53 Samuel, Donna, 35
Prusak, Laurence, 33 Sandberg, Kirsten D., 17
Puryear, Rudy, 45 Schefter, Phil, 27
Schensul, Stephen L., 21
Schensul, Jean J., 21

Schoemaker, Paul J.H., 23, 49
Schriefer, Audrey, 49
Schulman, Donniel S., 51 van der Heijden, Kees, 49
Schwartz, Peter, 49 Vanhaverbeke, Wim, 19
Schweiger, David M., 39 Vashistha, Atul, 43
Scoble, Robert, 25 Vashistha, Avinash, 43
Segil, Larraine, 55 Venkatraman, N. Venkat, 43
Selden, Larry, 19 von Stamm, Bettina, 19
Senge, Peter M., 33

Shani, Rami, 61
Shenkar, Oded, 55
Shepard, Steven, 47 Wack, Pierre, 49
Sherry, John F., 21 Wade, Judy, 17
Singh, Harbir, 55 Waite, Thomas J., 23
Singh, Jitendra V., 43 Wall, Bob, 41
Slone, Reuben E., 59 Walton, Mary, 61
Slywotzsky, Adrian J., 31 Watkins, Michael D., 49
Snee, Ronald D., 53 Wenger, Etienne, 33
Snyder, William M., 33 West, Joel, 19
Sobol, Mark R., 41 Williams, Tony, 51
Sodhi, ManMohan S., 53 Wilson, Scott, 45
Sodhi, Navdeep S., 53 Womack, James P., 35
Solum, Robert S., 41 Woods, John A., 33
Sommers-Luch, Kathleen, 23 Wright, George, 49
Spendolini, Michael J., 15 Wu, Tsui-chih, 23
Stauffer, David, 15 Wyld, David C., 47
Stewart, Thomas A., 31, 33

Swank, Cynthia Karen, 35

Yankelovich, Daniel, 29
T Yoshino, Michael Y., 55
Taghizadegan, Salman, 53 Young, Allie, 45
Taylor, Dr. Jim, 37

Teal, Thomas, 27
Tham, Irene, 51
Thompson, Harvey, 37 Zairi, Mohamed, 15, 17
Tichy, Noel M., 31 Zaltman, Gerald, 21
Tomasko, Robert M., 31 Zimmerman, John, 41
Tregoe, Benjamin, 41 Zook, Chris, 19, 31, 55

Underhill, Paco, 21

Management Tools 2007
An Executive’s Guide
Management Tools 2007
An Executive’s Guide

Darrell K. Rigby

www.bain.com ISBN 0965605973

$14.95 US