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LAVINA NAIR A/P MADAWAN NAIR

M20131000369

SUMMARY OF ARTICLE APPLICATION OF LINEAR PROGRAMMING TECHIQUES IN THE EFFECTIVE USE OF RESOURCES FOR STAFF TRAINING

1.0

Introduction The success and failure that an individual or organisation experiences, depends to a large

extent on the ability of making appropriate decision. Making of a decision requires an enumeration of feasible and viable alternatives (course of action or strategies). To embark on the developments/application of specific operations research techniques to determine the optimal choice among several courses of action, which will include numerical values (if required), linear programming as a tool of operations research may be employed where there is a need to formulate a mathematical model to represent the problem at hand allocate the scarce/limited resources to several competing activity for optimality. This piece of work has employed the application of linear programming in the area of personnel management in minimizing the cost of staff training.

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Objective Function

In business the main is to minimize the cost. In this study, it is a minimization problem because the cost of training of staff to the establishment has to be minimized. Therefore, the objective function is given by Minimize: Where and are average costs associated to training of junior and senior staff for academic

and non-academic staff in the polytechnic; for this study, the cost units are unity in both cases. The junior and senior staffs from the polytechnic are represented by and respectively.

LAVINA NAIR A/P MADAWAN NAIR

M20131000369

3.0

Variables

The model formulated is of two types : Let = Junior Staff and = Senior Staff in both the academic and non-academic sections of the

institution. 4.0 4.1 Constraints Models:Non-Academics The Non- Academic department requires at least 96 staffs junior and senior staffs. Nonacademic departments consist of Rectory, Bursary, Library, Registry and Service Department. There are 37 junior staffs and 19 senior staffs in Rectory Department. In Bursary Department there are 8 junior staffs and 31 senior staffs. While, there are 24 junior staffs and 16 senior staffs in Library Department. For Registry Department, there are 17 junior staffs and 106 senior staffs. Lastly, in Service Department there are 49 junior staffs and 60 senior staffs. 37 8 24 17 49 + + 19 96 Rectory Department

+ 31 96 Bursary Department + 16 + 106 + 60 0 96 Library Department 96 Registry Department 96 Service Department

4.2

Models:Academics

Academic departments consist of School of Management, School of Applied Science, School of Environmental Studies, School of Engineering, and School of Environmental Studies and other School of Environmental Studies. 4.2.1 School of Management

LAVINA NAIR A/P MADAWAN NAIR

M20131000369

The School of Management consists of Business Admistration Department, Accountancy Department, Marketing Department, and Banking and Finance Department. Each of the department requires at least 4 staffs junior and senior staffs. In Business Administration Department, there are 8 senior staffs. There are 1 junior staff and 13 senior staffs in Accountancy Department. While, there are 1 junior staff and 7 senior staffs in Marketing Department. In Banking and Finance Department, there are 1 junior staff and 9 senior staffs. 8 4 Business Administration Department + 13 +7 +9 + 4 Accountancy Department 4 Marketing Department 4 Banking and Finance Department 0

4.2.2 School of Applied Science The School of Applied Science consists of Food Technology Department, Science Lab. Technology Department, Hotel and Catering Department, Secretariat Studies Department, Computer Science Department, School Office and Mathematics and Statistics Department. Each of the department requires at least 4 staffs junior and senior staffs. In Food Technology Department, there are 3 junior staffs and 13 senior staffs. There are 5 junior staff and 23 senior staffs in Science Lab. Technology Department. While, there are 2 junior staffs and 9 senior staffs in Hotel and Catering Department. In Secretariat Studies Department, Computer Science Department, there are 3 junior staffs and 9 senior staffs. Whereas, there are 5 senior staffs in Computer Science Department and 2 junior staffs in School Office. In Mathematics and Statistics Department, there are1 junior staff and 7 senior staffs 3 5 2 3 + 13 + 23 +9 +9 4 Food Technology Department 4 Science Lab. Technology Department 4 Hotel and Catering Department 4 Secretariat Studies Department

LAVINA NAIR A/P MADAWAN NAIR

M20131000369

5 2

4 Computer Science Department 4 School Office +7 + 4 Mathematics and Statistics 0

4.2.3 School of Environmental Studies The School of Applied Science consists of Town & Regional Planning Department, Building Technology Department, Estate Management Department, Quantity Survey Department, Architecture Department and Surveying and Geo-informatics and School Office. Each of the department requires at least 4 staffs junior and senior staffs In Town & Regional Planning Department, there are 2 junior staffs and 8 senior staffs. There are 11 senior staffs in Building Technology Department. While, there are 9 senior staffs in Estate Management Department and 6 senior staffs in Quantity Survey Department. Whereas, there are 2 junior staffs and 6 senior staffs in Architecture Department. In Surveying and Geoinformatics, there are 1 junior staff and 3 senior staffs. There is 1 junior staff in School Office. 2 11 7 6 2 +8 4 Town & Regional Planning Department

4 Building Technology Department 4 Estate Management Department 4 Quantity Survey Department +6 +3 4 Architecture Department 4 Surveying and Geo-informatics

4 School Office + 0

LAVINA NAIR A/P MADAWAN NAIR

M20131000369

4.2.4 School of Engineering Each of the department in School of Engineering requires at least 4 staffs junior and senior staffs. The School of Engineering consists of Mechanical Engineering Department,

Electric and Electrical Engineering Department, Computer Engineering Department and Civil Engineering Department. There are 7 junior staffs and 15 senior staffs in Mechanical Engineering Department. While, there are 2 junior staffs and 17 senior staffs in Electric and Electrical Engineering Department. In Computer Engineering Department, there are 1 junior staff and 9 senior staffs. Whereas, there are 1 junior staffs and 12 senior staffs in Civil Engineering Department. 7 2 + 15 + 17 +9 + 12 , 0 4 Mechanical Engineering Dept. 4 Electric and Electrical Engineering Dept. 4 Computer Engineering Department 4 Civil Engineering Department

4.2.5 Others : School of Environmental Studies Other than all the departments mentioned, there are also School of Part-Time Studies, General Stuides, Polytechnic Nursery and Primary and Polytechnic College. There are 2 junior staffs and 1 senior staff in School of part-time studies. While, there are 1 junior staffs and 21 senior staffs in General studies. In Polytechnic Nursery and Primary, there are 3 junior staff and 15 senior staffs. Whereas, there are 1 junior staffs and 5 senior staffs in Polytechnic College. 2 + + 21 3 + 15 +5 , 4 School of part-time studies 4 General studies 4 Polytechnic Nursery and Primary 4 Polytechnic College 0

LAVINA NAIR A/P MADAWAN NAIR

M20131000369

5.0

Data Analysis Method

The models were analyzed using computer software. The computer software used is Mathematica 6 (Wolfram). It gives two solutions the optimum solution and the integer Solution. 6.0 6.1 Results NON - ACADEMIC

From the solution to the model for non-academic staff using integer optimum solution, the minimized objective function is given as Z = 5, (junior staff) is 2 and (senior staff) is 3

which implies that 2 of the junior staff and 3 senior staff from the non-academic staff should be send for training programme which will cost 2 multiply by the cost of training junior staff plus 3 multiply by the cost of training senior staff. Optimum: Z = 4.83, = 2.34, = 2, = 2.49 =3

Integer Optimum: Z = 5, 6.2 ACADEMIC

6.2.1 ACADEMICS SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT From the solution of the model for academic staff (school of management) using integer optimum solution, there is no feasible solution for the model that was formulated with the given data. The reformulated model given a feasible solution with minimized objective function Z = 1, (junior staff = 0) and (senior staff) n =1, which implies that only one senior staff from the

school of management should be send for training programme which will cost 1 multiply by the cost of training one participant. Optimum: Z = 0.51, =0.00, =0, = 0.58 =1

Integer Optimum: Z =1,

6.2.2 SCHOOL OF APPLIED SCIENCE From the solution of the model of academic staff (School of Applied Science) using integer optimum solution, the minimized objective function Z = 3, (junior staff) is 2 and (senior

LAVINA NAIR A/P MADAWAN NAIR

M20131000369

staff) is 1, which implies that 2 junior staff and 1 senior staff from the school of applied science should be send for training programme which cost 2 multiply by the cost of training junior staff plus 1 multiply by the cost of training senior staff. Optimum: Z = 2.8, =2, =0.8 =2, =1

Integer Optimum: Z =3, 6.2.3 OTHERS

From the solution of the model for others which comprises of the departments that are not under the four schools, using the integer optimum solution, the minimized objective function Z = 3, (junior staff) is 2 and (senior staff) is 1, which implies that 2 junior staff and 1 senior staff

should be send for training programme which cost 2 multiply by the cost of training junior staff plus 1 multiply by the cost of training senior staff. Optimum: Z = 2.22, Integer Optimum: Z =3, =1.78, =2, = 0.44 =1

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CONCLUSION

The results from these models shows that the number of junior and senior staff from each unit (Non-Academic and Academic) that should be send for training program can be reduced compare to the numbers that has attended training program in the past for effective management and control of resources.