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Media & Entertainment The Indian media and entertainment (M&E) industry is one of the fastest growing industries in the country. Its various segmentsfilm, television, advertising, print and digital among othershave witnessed tremendous growth in the last few years. According to a 2009 report jointly published by the Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI) and KPMG, the media and entertainment industry in India is likely to grow at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 12.5 per cent per annum over the period between 2009-13 and touch US$ 20.09 billion by 2013. With a majority of the population below the age of 35, and increasing disposable income in Indian households, the average spend on media and entertainment is likely to grow in India, Television According to the PwC report, the television advertising industry is expected to account for a share of 41.0 per cent of the advertising industry in 2013, up from the present share of 39.0 per cent. Advertising The number of brands advertised on television witnessed an 82 per cent increase during 2008 compared to 1999, according to a survey by AdEx India, a division of Tam Media Research. The television advertising industry is expected to reach US$ 3.12 billion in 2013 from the estimated size of US$ 1.75 billion in 2008, which translates into a growth of 12.2 per cent on a cumulative basis, over the period. Going forward, digital media advertising (internet, mobile and digital signage) is expected to emerge as the medium of choice for advertisers. According to a FICCI-PwC report, online advertising is expected to touch US$ 212.03 million in 2011. Digital advertising on newspaper web sites will increase at a 6.8 percent compound annual rate to US$ 8.3 billion in 2013 from US$ 6 billion in 2008, increasing its share of total newspaper advertising to 9.1 per cent from 5.4 per cent in 2008, as per the 2009 PwC report on the Indian media and entertainment industry. According to a PwC report, Internet advertising is projected to expand by 32 per cent over the next five years to reach US$ 411.74 million in 2013 from US$ 102.94 million in 2008. Also, the share of online advertising is projected to grow from 2.3 per cent in 2008 to 5.5 per cent in 2013. The report estimates the size of the Out of home (OOH) advertising spend to be US$ 308.8 million in 2008. This figure is projected to almost double in 2013 to US$ 514.67 million.

Animation Sector
The global animation industry largely lies in Europe, the U.S., Japan and South Korea wherein US is the leader. Japan is a larger exporter of animation content with a structured industry chain and mature operating mechanism. South Korea is second to the U.S. and Japan with respect the output value of the animation industry.

Indian market
The animation industry in India was estimated to be at USD 460 million in 2008 as per a report by NASSCOM. The Indian animation sector is expected to increase to USD 950 million in 2009. Currently, activities at the production stage form a major portion of outsourcing, with post production accounting for a small share. The share of post production activities is expected to increase in future.

Estimated growth of Animation Sector

The Indian market is increasingly being sought by North American and European firms. The major driver behind this shift is the availability of low animation platforms and much lower labour rates as compared to North America and Europe. Technology has made computer animation available to the common person and hence the animation industry is one of the fastest growing industries. Globally, the animation industry can be classified as: Outsourcing and Content Ownership. Many Indian animation companies are working on outsourced projects from the west, mainly North America. The jobs mainly include production jobs such as key framing, in-betweening etc. Indian companies have realised the potential of content development and ownership of Intellectual Property Rights of the animation. Outsourcing companies in India will, therefore, eventually have to shift to this model to be able to move up the value chain.

Vertical constituents of Animation Industry

Client - Gives the brief comprising the concept, storyline and script. Production house Comprises of the Creative team and the IT division. The creative team draws each scene, sketches each character and then animates them on the computer. The IT division has to convert the story board to models, backgrounds, texture. The models are then pictured, clothed, animated and composited. The company must have sufficient IT set up and creative competence. IT infrastructure includes software as well as hardware. One of the main challenges is optimization of CPU power of servers and infrastructure. The entire team, including the producer, the animation director, the backgrounds director, department heads, production coordinator, animators, etc, work in synchronization with each other. The producer may also be the distributor of the film.

As per the business models that animation studios operate on, they have different requirements and seek different services.

Model I:
The animation studio will outsource the labour intensive production work to smaller studios. Such outsourced projects are done mainly in the Asian countries such as Korea, Philippine, Taipei and India. The work involves a lot of ink, paint, compositing and scanning work i.e. the post-production process of animation. The main driver of this model are low labour rates which makes these small studios an attractive destination for animation outsourcing. Some bigger animation studios winning large scale projects in turn outsource a part of the project to a smaller studio elsewhere. Such partnership can exist between Animation studios in India and abroad Indian animation studios and advertising firms Indian animation studios and foreign TV channels/ film producers

Model II:
Modularization of animation is done, wherein experts from multiple animation companies situated in India and abroad come together to execute specific function in the production value chain. Such partnership can be seen between animation studios in India and abroad.

Model III:
The animation studio owns the intellectual property rights to the content and generates revenues from the content itself or by means of ancillary revenues.

Television advertisers Animated characters are becoming increasingly popular for advertising and brand promotions. Animated ads cost about the same as live action commercials. Example, Amul girl, Chintamani for ICICI.

Establishing Business Activities

A few companies have entered into IP creation (concept creation stage of value chain) and distribution of animation films as well.

Market Potential
Various revenue generation opportunities are now available to ICT solution providers in the domestic market. The need for animation and special effects related work in the growing Indian television sector has also provided a boost to this segment. Numerous software companies are now trying to exploit this opportunity. Animation studios have also grown in number along with several training houses for building skilled manpower to serve this market. Thus, the animation production industry in India has the potential to grow into a major exporting industry for the country. Indian design studios have established their credentials abroad, gaining valuable experience and improving their skill sets in this high potential global industry. India benefits from the familiarity of Indian animators with the English language when the work is outsourced from overseas. Besides, a number of initiatives are underway in the country targeted at creating skill manpower for the animation market to match up to global standards. Indian content developers also have exposure and access to rich heritage of traditional literature. This would offer the potential for content-based partnerships. This gives Indian

animation studios another reason to move up the value chain and increase revenues by focusing on IP ownership instead of merely concentrating on outsourced projects.

Major Players and their Brief Profiles

Investment and ROI

Investment Companies need to invest in video studios, digital cinema facilities, animation and special effect studios, DVD and CD replication service providers, teleport facilities and outdoor shooting facilities. Studios also have to invest time and resources to train new animation graduates before they become skilled enough to be productive. This adds to their cost even as there is the risk after training that the worker may be poached by another studio. A major investment in the value chain goes towards animation software licenses. Since a majority of the studios in India are small, they can only afford a limited number of licenses which again limits their capacity. Up gradation may be required to more advanced software versions which further add to the studios cost. There has been an increase in complexity of the process due to bigger projects and a need for more sophisticated visual effects. This requires an up gradation of studio storage infrastructure.

There are computer-intensive applications that are used by digital content creators. Compromises have to be made on creativity when there is not enough infrastructure to support it. The script writer has to be very careful while writing script because if there are too many objects in the frame, there will be heavy animation required and budget might be overshot. Some animation studios are outsourcing the script writing work to US studios to get the exact emotions within the budget constraints. Currently in India, studios are small or medium in size in terms of infrastructure, equipment, and manpower. Salary paid to editor is around Rs 50,000 and increases to around a lakh. Master print costs Rs 50,000. Prints are copied and then released from the master print. Marketing expenditure is spent on TV and Internet. ROI A particular product brought once is used for other projects as well. RoI is based on the man hours used and the number of people involved. High revenue potential and return on investment in original property (IP) development. Animation content in the domestic market is growing as Indian studios develop their own IP. This helps build a revenue stream for the future and assists studios in moving up the value chain.

Resource Requirements
Finance: The investment required depends on the scale of operations of the studio. Depending on the size of the project and the technology to be used, the financial resources differ. For example, some of the products for online compositing cost from Rs.35 lakh to a few crores for a standalone workstation. Similarly, the software used also drives the cost in terms of cost of software licenses, employee skill development, server up gradation, etc. If the investment is large, it has to be amortised over a period of time. It is not economically viable to buy a product for a single transaction it must be utilised for many projects. Measurement of ROI boils down to man-hours used. Technical: In order to compete with the best global digital animation houses, it is necessary to deploy state-of-the-art hardware and software. Since animation primarily deals with software, security concerns from the data perspective are possible. There is a need for networks based on multi-firewall protection along with daily backups and external backups. Constant up gradation to advanced techniques for different animation value chain activities such as compositing must also be done to match up to global standards. Other software such as project tracking software may also be required depending on the level of operation of the studio. Another challenge is the huge and continuous capital requirements. Technology keeps changing, so there is a need to constantly update the hardware and software. Yet another challenge is the optimisation of the CPU power of the

servers and IT infrastructure. Plug-ins, proprietary software available with vendors, or inhouse software helps in resolving this issue. Processes such as rendering use a lot of CPU power.

Skill Set Requirements

There is a lack of quality resources, limited training institutions and high attrition rates amongst current skilled manpower. While there are 10,000-odd animators in the country presently, there is a demand for at least 50,000. About 1000-1,500 animators are churned out every year but animation studios feel that they need additional training to match international quality benchmarks. In India, majority of the animation companies are small in terms of number of employees. More than half of the companies are small with less than 40 artists. Some medium size companies employing from 40 to 100 artists are into high quality work and have started creating their own IP. A handful is large studios employing more than 140 artists and take up most of the outsourced projects. These are well established in the domestic and international markets and have been around for a longer period. A number of institutes have come up offering courses in animation training. Some known institutes are MAAC, Whistling Woods, Industrial Design Centre, IIT, Mumbai, National Institute of Design, Takshaa, Colour Chips Institute of Entertainment & Media Arts, etc. Out of these institutes, very few offer training in creative development, which is the need of the day. Studios also have to invest time and resources to train new animation graduates before they become skilled enough to be productive. This adds to their cost even as there is the risk after training that the worker may be poached by another studio. Animators must have excellent creative and artistic abilities - a flair for drawing, sketching or caricaturing (preferably a degree in graphic/applied/fine art), a good sense of humour and an eye for detail. Good knowledge of conventional 2-D animation and handling current animation and multimedia software i.e. ANIMO, MAYA, 3D Studio Max, Adobe After Effects, Tictactoon, Flash, Giff Animator, ULead and good compositing softwares like Adobe Photo Shop, Adobe Illustrator, etc. is required. While 2-D animation has almost stagnated globally, Flash and 3-D animation, being much more realistic are the upcoming trends. The skill-set required for 3D animation is far more intricate than for 2D and animation houses in the US, UK and Canada are on the lookout for alternate low cost production centres for 3D animation. For the Indian animation industry this is an excellent opportunity. While an animator can do an entire 2D frame on his own, an entire team of artists have to work in tandem to get the lighting, composition, modelling and rigging right to compose a frame in 3D.

Management Practices and Organizational System

Once the complexity of a particular project is determined, a project structure is planned. The core team includes a project head, creative director, technical director, animation supervisor,

background lead supervisor, animation lead and composing lead. Each one of them is responsible for their verticals including the modelling head or background head or composting head. They report to the project head. There is also an executive or line producer for each show. This is the typical hierarchy for a particular project, but it keeps changing depending on the complexity of the show or the project. The heads of departments report to the CEO. For any hardware or software issues they interact with the technology head. The IT team and resources are common to all projects. The animation team comprises of the following: A project has a Main/Lead Animator who draws the main character, its movements and expressions. The In-between or clean-up artist fills the gap in the drawings done by the lead Animator. There are also Junior Artists, Layout Artists, Background Artists and Character Designers. Typically, the complete pre-production package, including the blue print or storyboard, recorded dialogues and exposure sheets come from the client. Indian artists then work on line drawing, colour filling, motion and detailing and send them to the client via satellite. The basic organisation system of an animation studio is as follows:

Issues and Problems

1. Lack of quality training due to insufficient training institutions and courses offered in many institutions are outdated.

2. Attrition and poaching loss of experienced professionals to competing industries such as software. Poaching within the industry results from low availability of quality manpower. 3. There is also a loss of experienced professionals to other industries such as software. 4. Very little awareness of career in animation 5. Price undercutting Indian animation studios compete with each other to acquire outsourced projects thus offering services at lower costs leading to low quality output. 6. Lack of fine art status Traditional dominance of outsourcing work plus educational focus on technical aspects, rather than content creation 7. Minimal government support or incentives. 8. Government regulations are not very favourable for animation production. 9. Cheap cost cannot become competitive advantage. 10. Limited domestic demand for animation. The demand is restricted to a few animation feature films which have fared well at the box office.

MASCOT CONCEPT Brand mascots represent a special type of signs, particularly important in the childrens segment, because they allow children to establish an emotional relationship with the brand, and simultaneously they favour their memorisation. According to Keller, mascots are useful to create awareness, because being rich in images and colour, they catch the consumers attention. Beyond that, brand mascots may help the communication of key attributes of the product / organisation. In Aakers perspective, if the consumers have strong feelings over a mascot, they will probably create favourable perceptions of the products or organisations associated to that mascot. Bre & Cegarra differentiate two types of mascots, the advertising mascots and the brand mascots. The first ones promote the products valorization through the association with the mascots they use, or they can promote the creation of the product concept, when the mascot is a user of the brand. These mascots are mainly used in the teenager / adult segments, where the symbolic function of the brand is very present. As far as the brand mascots are concerned, these can have several functions: to be the main visual expression of the brand (through a representation more or less anthropomorphic); to represent an iconic complement of the brand; and in both cases to establish the affect connection to the brand. Generally, mascots are drawn to be memorised, allowing the passage of the producers message, rendering favourable effects in the attitude formation and at the level of the product identification. The mascots can also impersonate the consumers enemy or symbolise a problem with consumption, which will be solved by the product owning the mascot. Concerning the mascots typology, it is very diverse, but the systematisation of typologies is still very incipient. According to Kirkpatrick, the selection of a mascot can be done based in three options; one has to do with the analysis of animated beings and the selection of one with the intended associations; another one, concerning the objects that can suggest some personality or animation; finally, to establish a real human mascot. Each one of these options replicates in feminine mascots, masculine, asexual, expressing action, static, with humour, without humour, etc. Pecheaux & Derbaix, identify two types of mascot representations: human representations very used in products like candies, whose symbolic foundations of the brand are supported by the adventures of the mascots and their imagination; and animal representations, usually used in products with important nutritional qualities, like breakfast cereals, given the spontaneous associations of vitality and dynamism conveyed by certain animals. Mizerski says that mascot typology is very important, considering that its influence in children can be significantly different. However, he doesnt suggest any characterisation. There are some studies that analyse childrens capacities to discriminate human mascots from animated ones. According to Raju, children under five years old show some difficulties in that differentiation. Nevertheless, this categorisation human / animated is very general and tenuously delimited in order to establish clear indications about its conception. Mascots, being a created character, have several advantages towards celebrities. First, when a character is created, marketeers have the autonomy of creating its individual characteristics, whereas celebrities already include certain features, which do not allow manipulation.

Second, marketeers may specifically draw features with various attributes for the created characters. Third, whereas celebrities often represent more than one brand, the created characters are conceived to represent only one single brand or even one single product. One of the principles of efficiency of the characters depends on its consistency with the product(s) represented. This consistency is commonly superior when the mascot is created. Brand mascots represent a special type of signals, particularly important in the children segment, as they allow children to establish an emotional bond with the brand, and because, simultaneously, they enhance its memorization. Concerning the mascots and the imaginary, they might be humanoids, animals or products. This taxonomy is represented in figure 1




Animals Products

The following are some of the toon mascots which have been success in Indian Advertising Industry. Some of them are still going strong while some have been replaced or killed by the companies for different reasons. Amul Utterly Butterly Girl The utterly, butterly delicious Amul girl in polka dots was born in 1967 from the marker pen of Eustace Fernandes. She may soon enter into the Guinness Book of World Records as the oldest campaign to survive in the Indian market. This goes on to prove that the mascots are more appropriate brand ambassadors. Pillsbury - Dough Boy Dough Boy, the popular mascot for Pillsbury globally, created in the US 30 years back, still commands an effective brand recall among consumers. Launched in 1996, no one knew about the brand that was aspiring to enter the Indian kitchen. So it was imperative for the company to develop a culture for the brand in India. Pillsbury decided to celebrate chakki tradition in India instead of talking about modern milling technology. The Indian Dough Boy, helped moms live up to her traditional image using modern means. Onida The Devil In the 1980s when owning a television set was considered a luxury, Onida launched its advertising campaign on the platform of envy, to promote its television range. A green-horned devil with a long pointed tail, it became a symbol of ownership of everything from the latest car, house or boyfriend qualified for the phrase, neighbours envy, owners pride. In 1990s, the Devil helped Onida gain substantial market share and brand recall among the customers and become one of the top three television brands in the country. When Mirc Electronics was convinced he needed a new agency, it was also convinced by the agency that the Devil had no more place in the communication strategy. This would rank as the greatest disservice an agency did to a client. Many years and sluggish sales later, the client decided to re-launch the Devil. Better late than never! Asian Paints - Gattu Gattu, the mascot of Asian Paints till 2006, was created by cartoonist R K Laxman in 1954. In an interview he had said, the company was not clear about what it wanted and all they could say was the trademark should be dynamic, noticeable, attractive, adaptable and unique. Gattu was dressed in shirtsleeves and half pants with braces. In one hand he had the bristling paintbrush and a dripping can of paint in the other. In 2006, however, this face of Asian Paints was given a quiet burial as the company wanted to have a corporate identity. Its brand ambassador was Akshay Khanna and currently their brand ambassador is Saif Ali Khan.

Nerolac Goody the Tiger Goodlass Nerolac followed in the footsteps of Asian Paints and retired Goody the lovable tiger who was its trusted mascot for many years. It currently has Amitabh Bachchan has its brand ambassador. Cheetos Chester Cheetah Cheetos did not have a mascot until 1986, when a cartoon cheetah named Chester Cheetah was introduced. Since his commercial was successful the cheetah soon starred in another commercial and eventually, he became Cheetos' official mascot. Air India Maharaja Perhaps the most loved and recognized mascot in India, the Maharaj was launched in 1946. With ageing aircrafts, aged staff, shrinking routes and a rather poor performance record, the Maharaja tried hard to lift the sagging image of the airline. It was briefly removed as the mascot of Air India for many years till AI decided to retain it to save its image. Global Mascots The following are some of the famous toon brands that have been successful globally: Kelloggs - Tony the Tiger MGM - Lion 78 years Walt Disney Mickey Mouse, Bugs Bunny Camel Cigarettes Joe Camel McDonalds - Ronald McDonald StarKist Tuna - Charlie the Tuna P&G - Mr. Clean Betty Crocker Betty Kraft Foods - Mr. Peanut MetLife Insurance Snoopy Pepsi Fido Dido, Tropic-ana Energizer, Duracell Bunny (Both had the same kind of pink bunny) Mortein Louie the Mosquito Hansaplast Band-aid Boy Wrigleys Bubbaloo Felix the cat

Present Status:
After the success of toon brands which led to greater brand recall and associations, many companies have started using cartoons as their mascots. Here are some of the toon mascots currently used in Indian Advertising Industry:

Indian Railways - Bholu On the occasion of IR's 150th year, a mascot in the form of a cartoon elephant, 'Bholu', was adopted. A real elephant was used in some of the celebrations. ICICI Chintamani When ICICI Prudential came up with Chintamani, the icon for its insurance services, it enjoyed a brand recall of 92 per cent next to LICs 97 per cent, according to AC Nielsen survey. Chintamani, a hapless middle-aged man, worried about where to invest his monies, was initially meant to be just a radio spot. Over time, however, Chintamani got famous and then it was used in the TV commercials as well. What boosted the brand recall was this clay animation character that broke away from the clutter at a time when there were far too many insurance companies wooing potential customers Parle Agro Appy Fizz & Grappo Fizz Appy was launched in 1986 as an apple drink in tetra pack after the mega success of Frooti. But Appy was not thatsuccessful then. Parle re-launched it as a cool drink to hang out with and became hugely popular with the youngsters as it was the only soft-drink bottle that communicated with them directly. Based on the success of Appy Fizz, Parle Agro launched Grappo Fizz. WagonR Mr. Wizer WagonR has introduced Mr. WizeR, a toon mascot that stands for everything that the brand WagonR stands for i.e. Smartness and Leadership. The launch of this character is just a step towards the long term aggressive plans of Maruti Suzuki WagonR to dominate the digital space. Depending upon the response, Maruti Suzuki aims to take this character to all media domains and plans to have Mr. WizeR as the face of future campaigns. The mascot was initially launched and supported through periodic strip in The Times of India - Business Page as well as other PR activities starting July 17, 2009. The personality of WizeR is someone who is smart, intelligent, and thoughtful and knows how to get the things done. He stands apart from the crowd and has prominent individuality. He evaluates and takes his own smart decisions. He is friendly, informed and reliable. He can find smart solutions to tough problems with ease.

Kolkata Knight Riders Hoog Lee An new Lee in Indian Premier League and this time he is even better than the other Lees. Hoog Lee is neither Bruce Lee nor Bret Lee.This was the Mascot for the King Khan and Prince of Kolkatas team Kolkata Knight Riders. Vodafone Zoozoos The Indian Premier League's Season 2 will be forever remembered as the year of the ZooZoos. "Zoozoos have given something interesting to the Indian ad industry which has been seeing the same ideas dished out time and again. The zoozoo concept has immediately connected with the audiences and any creative that can create an emotional connect with an audience has hit the right spot." said Mr. Prasoon Joshi. Zoozoos have been very popular with the youngsters and they are a huge success as the revenue rose to 10.7 billion pounds ($17.7 billion), up 19 per cent and fixed line revenue 7 per cent higher as compared to revenues in 2008. Amaron batteries Claymation Models The iconic claymation advertisements with the catchy slogan of Lasts Long Really Long...Ting Tong captured the imagination of the public and acted as clutter busters in 2002. The Hare and Tortoise ad and the Kumbhakarna ad were aired on Doordarshan and other satellite channels and brought in tremendous brand awareness for Amaron batteries. This was followed by the Pandu Mangal ad. This ad consolidated Amaron as a powerful brand and was a platform for their explosive growth post-2006. This ad campaign won many awards for the agency and Amaron grabbed 6% market share in a short span of 4 years. The Amaron Campaign Pandu Mangal has been well received by the public and research shows that Amaron has a top of the mind brand recall . The ads coupled with claymation and hyperbole effectively communicates the positioning of " lasting long".

Future Trends:
Following the success of the zoozoos and other toon mascots, many companies have decided to take the plunge in the toon branding. Following are few examples of companies: Berger Paints are reportedly in talks with Cartoon Network Ltd. to use their cartoon characters for their new ad campaigns for Berger Kids, a product launched specifically for kids. To counter the tremendous success of ICICI Chintamani, Tata AIG Life Insurance has unveiled a campaign that uses animated characters to grab attention. The first two ads of a multiple film campaign that released recently have two new animated brand ambassadors, Sukhi and Dukhi, taking centre stage. The campaign will start from January 2010 and the remaining films will sequentially air over the next five months as and when each product gets launched. Tata Sky has also recently started an ad campaign which will continue in the coming months featuring a moppet used as its mascot alongside with Aamir Khan in promoting Tata Sky Active. Mattel Toys India, is in talks with Kittens to license its Barbie collection for developing kiddie shoes in India. Raymonds is now planning to use Superman to attract young customers especially kids. The company has an exclusive tie-up with Warner for Superman apparel and other merchandise.

Literature Review:
#1 Indian animation: Realising its true potential
The Indian animation industry today stands at Rs 12 billion, and is projected to grow to Rs 42 billion by 2009. Animation in India is currently riding on two key factors - a large base of highly skilled labour, and low cost of production. While the industry is gaining prominence steadily, several important factors such as the government's role in supporting the animation industry, producing original content locally, and the importance of training, will steer the industry to greater heights. . Being in its nascent stage, the animation industry in India has not been very stable. However, it is stepping into the next era of development. Chakravorti said that though countries like South Korea and China were far ahead of India in this space, India had the potential to be recognised as an animation hub, if certain factors like education facilities, funds, infrastructure and constant development of original content were stressed upon. It was also important to develop original content that appealed to audiences in America, UK, and Europe, he said. . International exposure limited to the business of non-creative executives and lack of financial backing from the government were the major deterrents to India being recognised as an animation hub. . Competitive advantage is not possible if India continues to be a low-cost animation production country." He said that the early players in Indian animation did not stress on training and investment, and this had stunted the industry's growth. However, he reasoned, that India had an advantage over global players in that there was not much by way of government regulations, and this kept the industry free of several complexities. . Master Class in Making of Animated Movie' had David Sproxton, CEO, Aardman Animations, UK, and creator of 'Chicken Run' reconstructing 'Wallace & Gromit' - from preproduction and production to post production. The animation series based on the simple but adventurous premise of highly inventive Wallace and his faithful dog, Gromit, has won several awards. Sproxton said, "To create a successful movie, it needs to have a story with a heart and be driven by passion." . Wallace & Gromit's success formula is the relationship between the two lead characters that moves from Gromit barely tolerating Wallace to getting Wallace out of trouble every time he gets into his highly inventive mode, and then back to Gromit tolerating Wallace. Several characters were added over the years to make the movies engaging and timeless. The recent movie 'Wallace & Gromit: Curse of the Were-Rabbit' has Helena Bonham Carter and Ralph Fiennes lend their voices to the characters Lady Tottington and Lord Victor Quatermaine, respectively. .

India definitely has some advantages and potential to develop the animation industry. Training, investing heavily in the industry, and providing original and compelling content, will be critical to its growth. The encouraging news is that while the primary work coming to India is through animation outsourcing, the industry is moving up to the next level, with some co-production assignments also trickling in slowly, but surely.

#2 Ad spend to grow 10-13 per cent in 2010: industry

With the economy showing signs of a revival, the advertising industry in India is expecting advertising spend to show a growth of 10-13 per cent next financial year. Even sectors like print and outdoor advertising, which saw a decline last year, are expected to make a comeback, say advertising professionals. Companies were cautious in 2009 with the economic slowdown. However, the caution is leading to an optimism in 2010. With ad spends expected to rise, the industry could register a double-digit growth, said Srinivasan K Swamy, chairman of R K Swamy BBDO. Industry estimates that the total ad spend in 2009 was roughly around Rs 20,000 crore, of which print and television advertising occupied the major chunk with nearly Rs 16,000 crore and the rest was distributed among outdoor, internet and radio-based advertising. While television advertising continued to register a 6-8 per cent growth, outdoor and print advertising is estimated to have declined 15-20 per cent. Sectors, said Swamy, that contributed majorly to the ad spend in 2009 included auto, telecom, FMCG and financial services. Real estate, stock market-related businesses, capital goods, textiles and cement recorded negative ad spend. Despite a prediction of growth in ad spends, industry insiders say it would be difficult to predict growth in business for advertising agencies. Ad spend will go up in 2010, but it could well be because of cost inflation and fragmentation of media. I am not sure how much of that ad spend will translate into business for an advertising agency, said a senior officIal at Brand-Comm. Advertising agencies say that for 2010, companies would be looking at ways to connect with customers at a time when a young consumer born between 1982 and 2000 receives over 3,000 distinct advertising messages everyday. Calling it an age of disruption, Swamy said the industry would have to build its brand and stay relevant against the backdrop of constantly changing consumer profile and evolving media mix. To address this, the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) is organising Brand Summit 2010 in its fifth edition, a two-day international conference on brand building, with the theme of Marketing Disruption: How Will Brands Woo Consumers in the Age of Discontinuity? at Bangalore on February 19 and 20, 2010.

#3 Cause and VFX

Can you imagine anyone but a banker or investment professional telling you how to invest your hard-earned money? Discount celebrities who endorse almost anything under the sun, does Chintamani ring a bell? This claymation character (clay animation) representing ICICI Prudential was a makeover for the insurance sector, which until then used emotional ads showing how a dead spouses insurance cover helped the family tide over financial crises. Those must have been early days, but today Chintamani has company Pandu Mangal of Amaron Batteries, Boomer Man, Cheetos Cheetah and the Kelloggs team of animated characters, to name a few. Why are advertising agencies today liberally using visual effects (VFX) and animation in television commercials (TVCs)? Because new technologies are available, accessible, affordable and obtain the desired results faster than what was possible a few years ago. An advertising creative can be created on many media real life (shoot), animation, computer graphics and claymation. You use what is best to bring to life the story idea. It could be a real-life shoot or animation or graphics or a combination of them all, says Madhukar Sabnavis, Regional Director - Thought Leadership and Country Head - Discovery & Planning, Ogilvy & Mather (O&M). His agency created the Amaron claymation campaign as well as the relatively-low-on-VFX ad for Cadburys Dairy Milk. For Cadburys Dairy Milk, O&M used two ad formats a real-life shoot with actor Amitabh Bachchan for the Kuch meetha ho jaye campaign and an animated film for kids for the Kitna ma zaa aye re campaign. Why? Because the ads targeted different consumer groups. For Hutch too, O&M used different formats. The boy and pug campaign focused on network coverage, the boy-girl animation promoted value-added services and claymation was used to sell the mobile TV concept. The Amaron campaign was fully animated because the idea was based on lesser-known folk stories and we felt claymation was the best way to deliver this idea, says Sabnavis. RK Swamy BBDO used animation to describe the working of client Hawkins Ventura pressure cooker because it could not be captured through live action, The agency has used technology to demonstrate products such as ICI Dulux, Brylcreem, Gillette Vector Plus and Orient Fans. The use of VFX and animation in these cases is clearly to communicate a specific message, otherwise impossible through direct shooting. In 1998, Fountainhead Communications used animation for client CavinKares Nyle shampoo, where a wood nymph with silky shiny hair was created to prance around the shampoo bottle. More recently, it created an ad for client Fairever fairness cream, where a model going through a milkfall (waterfall made of milk) would become fairer as she came out on the other side.

Today technology is no longer a means to save costs because companies are willing to pay more to get the right look and feel for the ad, . Has this dependence on technology resulted in roles shifting from the ad agency to the post-production houses as in who calls the shots while making.

#4 What does a commercial cost?

Costs for commercial time are controlled by many different factors: the network, the length of the spot, time of day in which the commercial is aired, supply and demand and size of the zone in which it is aired. Most advertisers run for 30 second-commercials, although some opts for 60-second spots. And a few clients choose 15-second "book ends" in their 15-second ad opens a break; another spot(s) run in the middle; and their 15-second ad is the last in the commercial break. A book-end commercial comes at a premium - up to 30 percent over regular costs. Special events and sporting events command separate rates. To place a commercial on a local cable station, you'll only need to pay about $50 per spot, although that depends on the time of day the ad runs, the length of the ad, and the programs being shown when the ad runs, among other things. To create a TV commercial, be prepared to spend a bit more money.

#5.Match between celebrity and brand / product

Research has shown that not only the classification of the product, source credibility and source attractiveness can influence the effectiveness of the celebrity endorser but also the match between the brand and or product with the celebrity. There should be congruence between the celebrity and the product in terms of characteristics such as image, expertise (Till and Busler, 1998; 2000) or attractiveness (Baker and Churchill, 1977; Kahle and Homer, 1985). The celebrity-product match model states that attractive endorsers are more effective when promoting products used to enhance one's attractiveness (Kamins, 1990) and that the impact will be not significant in the case of a product that is unrelated to attractiveness. Kahle and Homer (1985) found that in the case of attractiveness related products the use of physically attractive celebrities increased message recall; product attributes, and purchase intention. In 1998, Till and Busler have examined attractiveness versus expertise as a match up factor and found a general attractiveness effect on brand attitude and purchase intention but no match-up effect was found based on attractiveness. They proposed that expertise is more appropriate for matching products with celebrity endorsers than attractiveness. Walker et al. (1992) concluded that meanings and images are transferred from the celebrity endorsers to the product.

McCracken (1989) has addressed the endorsement process from a cultural perspective. According to meaning transfer model, the symbolic properties of the celebrity endorser serve the endorsement process by taking on the meanings that then carry from ad to ad. The source models (attractive and credibility) do not explain why a celebrity fails as an endorser for one brand while being successful for another brand. McCracken (1986) explains cultural meanings as something inherent and resident in the culturally constituted, psychical, and social world and then move through a conventional path to individual consumers where it is transferred through the efforts of the consumer. This model conveys the celebrity is a persuasive communicator with a set of fictional roles and when consumers respond to celebrity specific characteristics they are responding to the particular set of meanings of the celebrity. The effectiveness of the celebrity depends upon the meanings the celebrity brings to the endorsement process. He also suggests that the role of the celebrity is not only being attractive or credible but also the celebrity has to make up certain meanings the consumer finds compelling and useful.

Figure 1: The Meaning Transfer Model

Source: McCracken, 1989. In the initial stage of this model, the meanings generated through political campaigns, athletic achievements and performances and/or distant movie performances, reside in celebrities

themselves. In the second stage, meanings are transferred to the product through advertisement and the endorsement process. In the last stage, the meanings are transferred from the product to the consumer where the properties of the product become the properties of the consumer. Sandhir Sharma, professor at Punjab College of Technical Education, Ludhania carried out a survey in Ludhiana, taking sample size of 100 viewers. The study contained the sample size of 100, all the people of the age of 18 years and above. The demographic profile of the respondent included 23 Businessmen, 35 service class people, 30 students, 6 professionals, 4 housewives and 2 retired persons. Out of 100 respondents, 56 were males and 44 were females. The results showed that 54% of the respondents feel that celebrities cast an impact through the advertisements while 46% do not feel any impact of celebrities. Out of 54 respondents, 42 feel that celebrities attract attention towards an ad, 15 of them feel that they arouse interest in the product. 12 respondents are of the view that celebrities build a desire to have the product and only 6 respondents only feel that celebrities initiate an action to buy that product. The study also revealed that majority of the respondents i.e. 63% get attracted more towards Film Stars than any other celebrity. Majority of the respondents felt they would continue buying same goods from the market irrespective of the act of advertising the same product through any specific celebrity. The study found that very few respondents (37%) have bought product(s) under the influence of any celebrity which means that a consumer wants something more in an advertisement than a celebrity to be influenced enough to buy the product. Celebrity endorsement is always a two-edged sword and it has a number of positives if properly matched it can do wonders for the company, and if not it may produce a bad image of the company and its brand. Mukherjee (2009) has evaluated associated factors that contribute to the success or failure of the endorsement. Celebrity endorsement has been established as one of the most popular tools of advertising in recent time. It has become a trend and perceived as a winning formula for product marketing and brand building. It is easy to choose a celebrity but it is tough to establish a strong association between the product and the endorser. While the magnitude of the impact of celebrity endorsement remains under the purview of gray spectacles, this paper is an effort to analyze the Impact of celebrity endorsements on brands. The study aimed at examining the relationship between celebrity endorsements and brands, and the impact of celebrity endorsement on consumer's buying behaviour as well as how consumer makes brand preferences. The author proposes a 20 point model which can be used as blue-print criteria and can be used by brand managers for selecting celebrities and capitalizing the celebrity resource through 360 degree brand communication which, which he considers the foundation of the impact of celebrity endorsement. The major factors that are having maximum impacts of successful endorsement are a) Consistency and long-term commitment, b) Prerequisites to selecting celebrities, c) Celebritybrand match, d) Constant monitoring, e) Selecting unique endorsers, f) Timing, g) Myopic endorsement strategy, h) Brand over endorser i) Celebrity endorsement is just a channel, j) Over dependency on celebrity, k) The celebrity trap, l) Trademark and legal contracts, m) Overall Management, n) Investment, o) The Brand endorsement team, p) Feel Cultural Sensitivity and q) Celebrity ROI.

#5 Other ways of cross-marketing:

Kids clubs Several corporations have developed branded kids clubs as a way to communicate with and maintain an ongoing relationship with children. The name is a misnomer in that many kids clubs arent really clubs, but standard marketing programs with names that imply they are clubs. Kids clubs permit mass marketing on a personalized basis and club members may receive direct mailing such as membership cards, birthday cards, holiday greetings, and newsletters. In addition they can participate in contests, receive coupons and branded items such as posters, screensavers, and discounts for items with the clubs logo. Some examples of kids clubs from corporations include Burger King, Nickelodeon, Fox, Sega, and Disney. The Burger King Kids Club has more than 5 million members. Online media play an increasingly significant role in the lives of US children and teenagers. US Census data indicate that between 1998 and 2001 the proportion of US adolescents (ages 1417 years) using the Internet increased from 51% to 75% and the proportion of US children (ages 1013 years) online increased from 39% to 65%. Families with children represent one of the fastest growing segments of the population using the Internet. The websites often feature popular product spokes-characters and animated cartoon characters, such as Tony the Tiger, Chester Cheetah, Toucan Sam, and Snap! Crackle! And Pop! The integration of products into games is common place. The companys website is frequently featured on ads or product packaging. By 2012, the global market, which is currently $35 billion, would go up to $50 billion. India would command at least $1.5 billion worth of work from the animation industry. The number of jobs would go up from the current 4,500 to 20,000. But the truth remains that India, even with its quiver full of legendary characters and armed with the best IT education in the world, is yet to come up with an international animated character that has captured the child's imagination at a global level. There are two reasons for this. One is the cost, which is extremely prohibitive. The second is that we not yet culturally sensitive to international audiences." "It's a laborious process and the artists draw about 35-40 drawings a day. The computer is of no use to a purist," he emphasises.

Case Study: Pandu Mangal

The Script:
The script was co-written by O&M's Sagar Mahabaleshwarkar and Nilay Manjay. Says Sagar "The basic objective was to highlight the 48 month warranty and the tagline Amaron - Lasts Long, Really Long. The Amaron execution style, the clay, jingle, flemish was already there, we needed to write something keeping that in mind" Also we needed to create a passage of time, the chase begns at the Police Chowki and spans many days and nights over a distance of 1,20,000 km.We had come up with many good scripts of which Pandu Mangal which is a spoof on Bollywood was the best"" he adds.

Agency Briefing
"Initially the plan was to come up with 2 TVCs but due to the time and budgetary constraints we decided to come up with 1 very impressive commercial" says Vaibhav.The brief was to emphasise on the 48 month warranty and to make it as interesting as possible. "Since Amaron TVCs had already been in claymation, the new challenge put up to the team was to take claymation to the next level and come up with something like a Chicken Run. I think that Pandu Mangal can definitely be likened to it!" says Sagar

Treatment: The treatment refers to the medium of animation, the look and feel of the film. This phase also gives the cinematogapher, the set creators an idea of the look/ the colours/ the textures of the film. Most stop motion films in India have focused solely on characters. While Pandu Mangal too has very impressive characters, the film is made on a large canvas. The stunt scenes, the action, the pace is much more like a Bollywood bonanza. "Because the story was primarily a chase filled with lots of action, we had to build the story up to a climax and gradually pace it up before finally Mangal gets caught. The jingle too was designed in this way " says Vaibhav.

Concept Art: Concept art as the name suggests is a stage where the animation team and the artists start coming up with their illustrations for various characters and scenes as per their visualisation. The following 2 images are examples of concept art done for Pandu Mangal.

Character Creation:

Mangal is the burly dacoit, with his own comical behavior. Look at the hair on his arms, his belt, his Veerappan like moustache. Pandu on the other hand is the lean, careless cop a la Shikari Shambu. Note Pandu's lean frame and long face. Even for a clyamted shoot, the concept art and character creation is first done on Paper. The characteristics, the personality is first finalised on Paper before any model making commences.

Visual Scripting: The process involves storyboarding the entire script. We came up with many additional inputs at this stage as regards the screenplay and the interaction between characters and elements" says Vaibhav. "We had a lot of ideas about the way the horse reacts when Mangal lands on him, right from Mangal threatinging to shoot him to the horse getting flat on all four" he adds.

Following are the frames from the storyboard










































Soundtrack Recording: Even as all the pre production work was still under way, we recorded the jingle. The narrative by Chetan Shashitaal is in pure Kathiawadi style and has a very Indian folksy feel to it. The recording of the jingle helped us in terms of locking the story, since the story was now already narrated orally, we had to narrate the same with visuals. It also helped us in timing our screenplay. Animatics: Says Vaibhav, "Animatics is a very exciting part of animation film making. It is here that we test various performances and interactions. It also is a sort of a dry run which gives an idea of the overall feel/ story flow/tempo of the film. Even in Stop Motion where the actual models have to be made and shot frame by frame, the animatics which is done using 2d sketches is very important. It helps us make all the changes we want in advance before we start the actual production work. For Pandu Mangal, we had come up with a lot of variations for a number of shots, the animatics stage helped us review the film as a whole and we eliminated quite a lot of frames. Some of which were quite intesresting, yet had to be removed in order to maintain the pace of the film and also to tell the story best within the given time of 40sec.

Approvals/Feedback Once the animatics stage had been crossed, all the various departments met and gave their inputs to help improve the film. The same were incorporated into the storyboard which had by then become much tighter. The next step before we began with production was, formal meetings and approvals. Everyone right from the Agency, to the Amaron representatives were shown the final storyboard along with the animatics and we took in their inputs and suggestions. Any changes, whatsoever were possible and more convenient to make in the pre production stages. This was followed by a meeting in which we planned the production, where we shared the final storyboard with the entire crew (the cinematographer, miniature set creator, production controller, model-makers, animation director) to plan the production/budgets/timelines, etc.

Armature Construction & Model Making The modelling and armature work for Pandu Mangal has been done by the Husband Wife duo Arvind and Chandni Chaudasama. Arvind who has been creating models for Vaibhav since the past 5 years says,"While creating armatures, we bear in mind the movements required to be done by the character in every frame. While skin and the outer surface is mostly clay,the back of Mangal's head is made of thermacol" "If you notice the film carefully there are frames in which the lower edges of Mangal's jacket furl in the air, this was made possible only because of the alluminium wire we inserted in his jacket. Had it been only cloth, the unfurling wouldnt have been possible to capture" adds Chandini. A lot of ingenuity also went into fabricating the models, for instance the use of M seal for making bullets in Mangal's belt, or for his shoes. Mangal's gun is a modified ball pen refill.

The above image shows the various materials used to create different parts of Mangal Singh's anatomy.

The above diagram to the left shows how joints, muscles, skeleton and the eyeballs and mouth were created.

The above image shows the various materials used for the fabrication of Mangal Singh's model.

The above image is one of the model sheets for Pandu, various expressions of Pandu were taken into consideration before planning his armature. The adjoining image tells the model maker, that Pandu has a hinged jaw.

The above image is one of the model sheets for Mangal. A model chart shows a character in different angles so that one gets a 3dimensional idea of the character and its body-parts.

"The experience we have in making models for stop motion shoots has made us realise a lot of things we need to know much in advance of even beginning to start making the models" says Arvind One has to know one's materials very well. Some materials tend to get hard, some stay soft. The shooting process involves a lot of strong lights, the heat tends to melt some materials. One has to balance out the materials needed in terms of the flexibility of the character, look and the way the shooting is to be carried out" he adds. Miniature Set & Props: Creating Miniature sets is an art which requires you to have the mindset of an engineer, architect, mason, and film maker all combined into one. What's more it also requires you to be resourceful and innovative to the extent that you might have to end up splitting 5000 mustard seed, one at a time! Says Vaibhav, "Initially the plan was to do more of claymation with the characters and more of 2d and CG for the backgrounds and the environment, but as we all got involved and excited about the project, we took up the challenge of creating a complete miniature world with a lot of detailing for each prop. Shankar Chauahan, who is the miniature specialist was very enthusiastic and came up with a mind blowing set" Says Shankar, "The scale in wich we work is very small, you will never get ready materials avilable in market for this scale, you have to make and attach every thing. Thats one of the biggest challenges" "Yet another important thing is time line and the time alloted to come up with the sets is very less, where our team works 24 x 7 a week. The toughest shot for Pandu Mangal was the scene where mangal jumps into the train from horse. A repeated number of viewings of the clip will make you realise how tough the scene was' he adds.

"The detailing that we went for was very satisfying, I ended up splitting 5000 mustard seeds to get the ribbed joints in the goods trains' body. The details are present in every frame, be it the differently coloured pebbles in the rail tracks, or the dirt in the jeep at the end of the movie"

"The minature material selection depends upon the scale of the models. Sunboard, Plywood, Foamboards, P.O.P, Biofoam are some of the common materials which are used majorly. Of course, Feviquick too plays a very important role" he adds with a smile.

Production Management: Production Management involves creating a list of materials, props, equipment, required for the shoot. It involves scheduling of the shoot, dividing the time allloted into shots and keeping all involved in the loop. Shots that have to be composited using CG or 2d backgrounds need to be shot against chroma. The number of chroma shots therefore gives an idea of how much chroma cloth is required and so on. The better the planning, the lesser the hassles and more the time and mental space to innovate and improvise during the shoot. "In the case of Pandu Mangal, it took us around something more than 2 weeks of shooting. Some days we could manage just 2 seconds, on some we could manage more" says Vicky who managed the production.

StopMotion Shoot
Shoot Setup: Once all the pre production, models, props, minaitures are ready... its time for the actual shoot, with the tight final storyboard.The first process before shooting and animation actually commences is the shoot set up. During the setup, first the set is placed and sealed according to the camera angle. Then the characters are placed in their respective poses and positions. Here begins the cinematographer's role which is very crucial! He lights the miniature world which has now all come together on the shooting floor. He is the one who lights the miniature world to give the illusion of realism and heightens the mood of the scene.The bigger challenge in lighting up a miniature is the small size of the world! Animation: Now, for the animation. Finally! "The story and the way we had visualised the film offered immense possibilities and

challenges for the animation. The characters had to act well, emote well, and above all perform action-packed scenes. In a huge production like Amaron, I was happy to have Virender with me on the film as he is one of the few people in India to have reasonable experience in the unique medium of model/stopmotion/clay animation" Says Vaibhav. "Clay/ model/puppet animation, like other forms of animation is a very specialised medium. However compared to the other mediums of animation, stopmotion/model animation requires higher levels of concentration as it is a live performance. Going wrong might mean re-doing the entire sequence!" he adds. Planning the movements, the actions, the performances

When you draw your animation, you play the drawings to check them. If there are any corrections, you can erase your drawings/ add extra in-betweens or remove some. Again, while animating a virtual model on a computer, the animator can animate the entire character, then make as many stages of corrections as he wants, as it is a non-linear process. However clay animation is a linear process. The animator has to first position the character in its key position. Then he/she has to sculpt/mould the character frame by frame through the inbetween poses to the next key pose. And, during all this, he has to ensure that this is done to every animated layer of the character! Hence the concentration! Once again the homework phase was very crucial. The animatics was done, and so was the shot breakdown. We knew what the durations of each shot were. We knew what emotion or meaning we had to convey in that shot. We used to discuss ways to do the shots, both creatively as well as technically and with the help of other members as well, we came up with a lot innovative ways. Documenting the data in dope sheets/exposure sheets

The actions that we planned for our characters would be documented on a dope sheet or an exposure chart. This helps in executing the planned action systematically and avoids the risk of memorising everything in your head!! Once this is done, the live performance begins!

Animating the characters The number of days that we had planned for the shoot turned out too less for the intesity of the production. There were at least twenty five different locations and setups for shoot and a lot of time went into the setup, lighting and animation of each shot. Much more than we had ever imagined! However every member of the crew performed like a superman. We were zombies by the end of it, but still we were highly charged and we loved it!I am extremely grateful to our entire team and without their energy, the film would not have come out the way it has. It would not have entertained people the way it has.

The mother of all claymation stunts! - Mangal jumps from Horseback to the running train.

Says CO director and co animator Virender Rathod "One of the biggest challenges was the stunt scene where Mangal jumps from Horseback onto the moving train. To do this we actually created a rig where the tracks were sliding below the engine and the coaches creating an illusion that the train and the horse were moving" "During the end of the sequence when Mangal is falling down after the Baloon has burst and Pandu is following Mangal with anticipation, rather than give Pandu's jeep a straight motion, we gave his Jeep a zig zag path to get the effect of a rugged terrain. Even if you observe the clouds, to create a sense of perspective, the clouds that are in the front are moving fast while the clouds behind are slow" he adds

Post Production
Chroma Keying out:

The shoot over and captured, the next step was to start the post. A lot of frames had characters and environments which were shot separately against blue and green screens. The chroma keyout involved removing the screens, leaving behind the subject.

Background Painting & Additional Animation: After the chroma keying, the next step was to paint backgrounds wherever needed and to add additional animation.

(Left) Mangal and the prison wall have been actually shot. The background which includes the moon and stars have been painted on. (Right) Arvind drawing some smoke and dust layers to composite with the chase scenes.

Composting: Once the chroma keying, background painting, additional animation is done, its time for compositing. Compositing means seamlessly integrating all the elements of each frame.

The above frame has more than 8 different layers. Each bogey of the train has been shot seperately against a blue screen. The size of the bogey is not as small in proportion to the cliff as it appears to be. The cliff has been shot separately, also the clouds, and the background. All this has been seamlessly integrated during compositing. Color Correction & Rendering: After compositing, all the frames are complete and ready, all they need is to be color corrected where needed.



The most significant source of information for this study will be individuals that have direct and long-term experience within the advertising industry and the customer. More specifically, the survey will be taken by individuals who have experience in the technology-specific aspect of advertising. The survey will incorporate both qualitative questions to understand the changing trends in advertising using technology or media. In addition, documented articles and books will be used for secondary research to document the trends of the advertising industry with regards to technology and media. This study will help advertising agencies and various companies to understand the power of cartoon brands and help them reach out to a greater audience at a relatively lower cost. A cartoon mascot is

the one thing that can help them stand out and separate them from the competition. In a diverse market like India where mass brands have not less than 16 language translations for their ads, mascots are a very powerful means to create a stronger connect with the consumers. It also helps minimizing surfing out of the channel during commercial breaks In this project various tools of Descriptive research are used.
Descriptive research, is used to describe characteristics of a population or phenomenon being studied. The characteristics used to describe the situation or population are usually some kind of categorical scheme also known as descriptive categories.

The procedures generally adopted to conduct a qualitative research are: In-Depth Interviews Secondary data analysis

Data Sources
Primary data Interview conducted with end consumers (i.e. people) across city. Secondary data Websites, literatures and other media sources

Questionnaire design
The questionnaire consists of predominantly option based question in order to provide some ease to the respondents. In order to make the questionnaire more effective following points are covered: Uniformity in questions and ease of tabulation and analysis. Reduce subjectivity Easier to receive response Less time consuming. The questions tried to cover all aspects required to analyze each and every aspect of the problem statement.

Sample plan and Sample techniques

The project was conducted for the geographical region of Delhi and Noida. The sample size is 240 1. Sample is done on the basis of quota Sampling. 2. Primary collection of data is done through questionnaires.

Data Sources
Primary data Interview conducted with end consumers (i.e. people) across city. Secondary data Websites, literatures and other media sources

Expected Contribution of the study

This study will help advertising agencies and various companies to understand the power of cartoon brands and help them reach out to a greater audience at a relatively lower cost. For the 99 percent of the businesses that have to fight through the average of 5,000 advertising messages people are exposed to on a daily basis, a cartoon mascot is the one thing that can help them stand out and separate them from the competition. Not only do the mascots create instant recognition for the brand, it also helps advertisers cut through the clutter. In a diverse market like India where mass brands have not less than 16 language translations for their ads, mascots are a very powerful means to create a stronger connect with the consumers. It also helps minimizing surfing out of the channel during commercial breaks. It appeals not only to the educated mass, but even an illiterate consumer, who instantly identifies the brand with help of the mascot. For e.g. ICICI Prudential came up with Chintamani, the icon for its insurance services, it enjoyed a brand recall of 92 per cent next to LICs 97 per cent, according to AC Nielsen survey.

Cartoon mascots can be highly effective in the following sectors: Advertising, Agriculture, Apparel, Appliances, Automotive, Banking, Beverages, Biology, Boating, Child Care, Communications, Computer Technology, Construction, Consulting, Counseling, Dentistry, Education,, Electronics, Energy, Engineering, Entertainment, Foodservice, Forestry, Furniture, Government, Health Care, Hospitality, Housing, Industrial Applications, Janitorial, Lending, Manufacturing, Medical, Mining, Parts, Pharmaceutical, Photography, Plastics, Plumbing, Publishing, Real Estate, Recreation, Repair, Restaurants, Retail, Sanitation, Security, Sports, Textiles, Toys, Training, Transportation, Utilities, and Wholesale.