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56 Meseke 2011 Basal ganglia/Corpus striatum Objectives: A. Describe the development of the Corpus Striatum. B.

Describe the nomenclature issues regarding the corpus striatum. C. Compare and contrast the anatomical relationships of the various nuclei of the corpus striatum. D. Describe the afferent and efferent pathways of the corpus striatum. D. Describe the function of the extrapyramidal motor system including connectivity with other non-striatal, extrapyramidal nuclei. . Compare and contrast the ma!or pathologies of the corpus striatum, including "ar#inson$s disease and %untington$s disease. Resources: %aines Chpt &', (), (*, (+, Aminoff Chpt ', &-. .. /omenclature A. 0he basal ganglia is more correctly termed the corpus striatum, and may be defined as the telencephalic grey matter associated with the lateral ventricle &. 0he corpus striatum comprises the lenticular 1lentiform2 nucleus putamen and globus pallidus, and the caudate nucleus (. 0he older anatomical texts, basal ganglia may include caudate 3 lentiform nuclei, amygdala, and claustrum 4. .n physiological and clinical contexts, the basal ganglia includes corpus striatum, substantia nigra, and subthalamic nucleus a. receives excitatory afferents from Ce cortex b. DA from substantia nigra may excite some striatal neurons and inhibit others 1D& vs D( effects2 ... Anatomy A. mbryology &. 0he corpus striatum begins as a single telencephalic mass in early development, but becomes separated by the fibers of the internal capsule into the two distinct, separate cellular masses, the caudate and the lenticular nuclei B. 5unction &. Corpus striatum is concerned with somatic motor functions a. the term 6extrapyramidal motor system7 groups the corpus striatum

57 and related brainstem nuclei which subserve these somatic motor functions

b. may be the site in which instructions for parts of learned movements are remembered and from which they are transmitted to the motor cortex for assembly and eventual execution by corticospinal and reticulospinal pathways to the motor neurons i. when a movement is to be carried out, the instructions encoded by the corpus striatum are presumably transmitted from the pallidum thalamus 18la and 8A2 and then sent on to the supplementary motor area and premotor cortex ii. corticospinal, corticoreticular, and reticular pro!ections would then modulate the motor neurons C. /uclear anatomy &. 0he corpus striatum may be bro#en into the terms9 a. neostriatum caudate 3 putamen b. paleostriatum globus pallidus (. Caudate nucleus:three portions a. head forms lateral wall of the anterior horn of the lateral ventricle i. bulges into frontal horn of lv b. body overlies the lateral part of the dorsal thalamus c. tail located above the temporal horn of the lv d. two structures lie along the medial side of the tail i. stria terminalis:bundle of fibers from amygdala ii. thalamostriate vein:drains the caudate, thalamus, internal capsule 4. ;enticular 1lentiform2 nucleus:may be divided into ( portions by the lateral medullary lamina 1vertical plate of white matter2 a. no ventricular surface, buried deep in white matter of te b. internal capsule separates this area from thalamus c. "utamen 1shell2:most lateral portion i. extends beyond globus pallidus in all directions except base ii. underlies insular lobe

58 iii. continuous with caudate 1nuc. accumbens2 d. globus pallidus 1pale globe2:most medial portion i. between internal capsule and putamen .... 5unctional relationships A. corpus striatum interrupted by fibers of internal capsule &. rostrally:heads of caudate 3 putamen fused along ventromedial surface of the caudate 1nuc. accumbens2 (. caudally:caudate 3 lenticular nuclei are separated by the fiber bundles of the internal capsule B. .nternal capsule large complex fiber tract &. anterior limb:separates caudate and lenticular nuc a. thalamocortical 3 corticothalamic fibers connect laterall thalamus and frontal lobe b. frontopontine fibers frontal lobe to pontince nuclei c. caudate to putamen fibers (. "osterior limb separates the thalamus 3 lenticular nuclei a. lenticulothalamic portion i. corticobulbar 3 corticospinal fibers ii. corticorubral tracts:closely parallel corticospinal fibers b. retrolenticular portion lateral nuc of thalamus to post-central gyrus c. sublenticular portion i. parietotemporopontine fibers from parietal<temporal lobe to pons ii. auditory radiations from medial geniculate body to area )&<)( iii. optic fibers from lateral geniculate body to area &' .8. three ma!or inputs into B= A. cerebral cortex &. corticostriatal pathway a. ipsilateral, topographical organi>ation B. .ntralaminar thalamic nuclei

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&. centromedial nuc. putamen (. anterior nuclei caudate nucleus 4. nigrostriatal pathway pars compacta, topographical organi>ation 8. Connectivity of the corpus striatum A. Afferents &. most of connectivity to the neostriatum originates in the ce cortex a. rostral cortical areas pro!ect to the ipsalateral caudate head b. primary somatosensory areas pro!ect to tail of caudate (. other input pro!ects to caudate via thalamus a. centromedian nuc putamen b. intralaminar nuc caudate 4. Substantia nigra caudate 3 globus pallidus ). .nternally, caudate and putamen globus pallidus a. subthalamic nuc median potion of globus pallidus B. fferents &. globus pallidus:most of corpus striatal output comes out of =" a. lateral areas output to subthalamus b. medial areas i. lenticular fasciculus from dorsomedial globus pallidus, rostral to subthalamus, ventral to >ona incerta via %( ii. ansa lenticularis merges with lenticular fasciculus in %, pro!ects dorsolaterally as thalamic fasciculus iii. thalamic fasciculus 1%&2 contains pallidothalamic, rubrothalamic, dentatothalamic tracts, pro!ects to 8A, 8;, centromedian, intralaminar thalamic nuclei iv. the region where the thalamic fasciculus enters the thalamus may be one of the more important foci of the brain -input from corpus striatum 3 cb both enter the thalamus together here -fibers exit the thalamus here to pro!ect to motor 3 premotor cortical areas v. substantia nigraefferents to 8A 3 8; 1median portions2 the

60 thamalus 3 neostriatum 8.. Subthalamus:this are may be defined as the ventral thalamus, which lies between the tegmentum of the midbrain and the dorsal thalamus A. refer to previous section regarding ventral tier nuclei B. 0he subthalamus is located ventral to the thalamus and posterolateral to the hypothalamus. ;ateral to it lies the internal capsule. C. 0he subthalamus contains nuclei and pathways associated with the control circuits of the basal ganglia D. 0he red nucleus and substantia nigra extend into the subthalamus from the midbrain . 0he subthalamic nucleus 1Body of ;uys2 is the ma!or structure within the ventral thalamus. .t is a lens shaped mass of grey matter dorsolateral to the upper end of the substantia nigra 5. 0he fields of 5orel lie anterior to the red nucleus at this level and are formed by fibers from the globus pallidus &. 5ield % ventrolateral portion (. 5ield %& dorsomedial portion 4. 5ield %( 1fasciculus lenticularis2 is the ventrolateral portion which runs medially ). 0he ansa lenticularis !oins field %( as it bends acutely in field % *. 0he thalamic fasciculus 1%&2 extends thru field %& to reach the anterior ventral nucleus of the thalamus +. ?ona incerta is a thin grey >one 1reticular formation2 above the fasciculus lenticularis fxns similar to nearby lateral hypothalamus regulation of drin#ing behavior

8... "athological conditions signs of dysfunction of motor system &. "ar#inson$s disease lesions of DA areas of substantia nigra, degeneration of Ce cortex, globus pallidus, substantia nigra a. pill-rolling:resting tremor, diminished during voluntary movement b. dec. DA tone, results in inc B= activity 1D(2 activity c. cogwheel ratcheting movements d. fixed posture, difficulty moving e. un#nown etiology:encephalitis, C@ poisoning, manganese poisoning, A"0"

61 f. fetal tissue implants 3 pacema#er show treatment promise (. %untington$s chorea:lesions in striatum or loss of Ach from striatum, widespread destruction of Ce cortex and B= areas, destruction of caudate and putamen results in inc in si>e of lv a. moderate to severe choreiform movements b. chorea is random, brief, abrupt, !er#y movements c. general 3 progressive dementia d. normal reflexes and sensations 4. Athetosissna#e li#e writhing motions a. lesions of outer globus pallidus b. brea# in feedbac# loop ). %emiballisimus violent flinging of B of body a. lesions of contralateral subthalamic nucleus