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Our Lady of the Rosary of Manaoag (Filipino: Ang Aming Ina Ng Manaoag; Spanish: Nuestra Seora del Santsimo

Rosario de Manaoag (Our Lady of the Most Holy Rosary of Manaoag); is a 17th-century Roman Catholic ivory image of the Blessed Virgin Mary placed in the high altar of a shrine in Manaoag, Pangasinan Philippines. Under that invocation, Mary the mother of Jesus is locally venerated as the patroness of the town and is often referred to in both the Pangasinense and Ilocano dialect as Apo Baket (English: "Venerable Madam")[1]. The image is one of the most venerated Marian images in the country, and held by believers to possess healing powers as patroness of the sick, the helpless and the needy. The Manaoag Shrine is located approximately 200 kilometres north of Manila, and is administered by the Dominican Order under the Archdiocese of LingayenDagupan. Today, it is an active parish serving Manaoag and the surrounding towns. Tradition holds the town itself was born from the Virgin Marys call or "taoag" to the young man. The term manaoag was derived from this, and means "She Calls". The original image was brought to the area by Augustinian friars who spiritually administered Manaoag from 1590-1613 in accordance with Royal Spanish decree. In 1614, the Dominicans assumed spiritual leadership under the patronage of Saint Monica.[2] In the early 17th century, the ivory image was brought to the Philippines by Padre Juan de San Jacinto from Spain via Acapulco.[2] Documents dating back to 1610 attest that a native man walking home heard a mysterious female voice. He looked around and saw on a cloud-veiled treetop an apparition of the Blessed Virgin Mary, holding a Rosary in her right hand and the Child Jesus in her left. The man fell on his knees and later told others of the miracle. On the spot where St Mary appeared to the man, a chapel was built, and the present-day town quickly grew around it.[2] A huge crowd attended the canonical coronation of the image on 21 April 1926 by the then-Papal Nuncio, as authorised by Pope Pius XI. After surviving Japanese bombing during World War II, the church was rebuilt, and it celebrated the Diamond Jubilee of the image's coronation on 1 January 2000. Cardinal Bernard Francis Law, Archpriest of the Papal Basilica of Saint Mary Major in Rome, with permission of Pope Benedict XVI granted a plenary indulgence[3] to visitors equal to that received when visiting a papal basilica in Rome. This was confirmed by the prelate (now Archbishop) of the Lingayen-Dagupan Diocese, Socrates B. Villegas, in a circular dated 13 June 2011. Within the country, only the Manaoag Shrine currently holds this status. Pope Benedict XVI canonically approved the grant of the plenary indulgence on 21 June 2011. The official document and a shrine official who was among the priests who went to Rome confirmed the plenary indulgence may be obtained on each visit to the shrine subject to three conditions for each occasion: (1) going to confession immediately before or after the pilgrimage; (2) receiving the Eucharist during the pilgrimage; and (3) praying for the intentions of the Pope; each done in a spirit of detachment from the attraction of sin. On 22 July 2011, a special mass was held to affirm the spiritual bond of affinity between Manaoag Shrine and the Papal Basilica of Saint Mary Major in Rome. On August 24, 2012, a three-foot copy of the statue was donated and travelled to Guam[4] where it was hosted at Saint Anthony and Victor's Catholic Church. Our Lady of Manaoag has a long history of renowned miraculous and pious events, with some of the earliest are replicated in the murals within the church, These include the miraculous sparing of the town from a wildfire, the origin of the basilica and the parish, and the original apparition. Devotees visiting the shrine usually pray for good health or cure for diseases, among other intentions. One story recounts how in the early days of Spanish colonisation, animist mountain tribes burnt down newly-converted Christian villages. The town of Manaoag was among the settlements set afire, and the initial thatch-roofed church was the locals' last refuge. The leader of the pillagers climbed over the compound's crude fence and shot flaming arrows into all parts of the church, but the building miraculously did not ignite. The statue's miraculous powers became famous in the 1940s. During World War II, the Japanese dropped several bombs within the church's vicinity, with the structure itself suffering moderate damage. Four bombs were released above the church, with three landing on the plaza and the faade, destroying both. The last bomb fell in the church sanctuary, but it remained intact and did not explode. The original icon of Our Lady of Manaoag is considered priceless, as is its bejewelled crown. There have been several attempts to burglarise the Manaoag Shrine due to the jewels sewn into the icon's dress and regalia. Several golden crowns and haloes are deposited at the shrine's museum, which were donated by both Filipino and foreign devotees. An expensive collection of liturgical vestments that have been used by the image

and the Dominican priests are also on display. A large array of lavishly elegant perfumes is likewise showcased; these were donated by devotees and pilgrims from around the world as ex votos or presents to the image. The image of is fully secured with bulletproof glass panels enclosing it on three sides above the old high altar. The archdiocese, reckoning the Filipino custom of touching a venerated image or its clothing, constructed a staircase that rises to the second floor behind the altar. This touching gallery has pews, and people queue to kneel at the alcove behind the image's shrine. Supplicants place their hands through bars and touch the lower part of the image's mantle, and may deposit prayers in a small box on the kneeler's surface. After touching the mantle and praying, devotees pass through the religious souvenir shop on their way out. The feast of Our Lady of Manaoag is on the third Wednesday after Easter. It also celebrates the universal feast day of Our Lady of the Holy Rosary every first Sunday of October. Every year, thousands of pilgrims continue to flock to the Manaoag Shrine. The 4 a.m. procession and dawn rosary every first Saturday before the 5 a.m. Mass is well-attended by pilgrims mostly from Metro Manila and from Regions I (Ilocos), II (Cagayan Valley), and III (Central Luzon). There are staunch devotees coming from Metro Manila who remarkably hear Mass every week. The blessing of religious articles and vehicles is performed at the back of the church grounds after every Mass. Holy water is dispensed free to those with receptacles ready. Masses for petitions and thanksgiving may be offered during the regular schedule, while Masses for the dead may be offered on any Friday. One of Chicago's Polish cathedrals, St Hedwig's Roman Catholic Church has a shrine of Our Lady of Manaoag in a side altar. In April 2008, a fire from the basement burnt a 15 by 3-foot hole under the altar, destroying the statue brought by devotees. A replacement statue has been sent in its place. [5]

Our Lady of Mediatrix of All Graces is an alleged Marian apparition that took place in the Carmelite Monastery of Batangas, Philippines, to a religious postulant, Teresita Castillo.[1] The apparition is known in the Philippines for the rose petals which showered within the vicinity of the monastery, some bearing religious Catholic imagery which believers hold to be miraculous. Initially declared by a local bishop as non-supernatural in 1951, the case was reopened in 1991 and is pending investigation by the Holy See while the Metropolitan Archbishop Ramon Arguelles of Archdiocese of Lipa find "no objection in the veneration of Mary and its doctrine" under this title.[2] Presently, the Marian veneration is tolerated and endorsed by the Archdiocese of Lipa and the Archdiocese of Manila.[3][4] On March 3, 2011, Pope Benedict XVI was presented a Mediatrix statue by Bishop Guillermo Afable during the Catholic Bishops' Conference of the Philippines Ad Limina visit, to which the pontiff was photographed and exclaimed ''La Madonna!" in a surprised happy gesture. On March 9, 2011, a life-sized Mediatrix statue brought by Filipino bishops was publicly displayed in the general Wednesday papal audience at Pope Paul VI Audience Hall.[5] According to the account, on September 12, 1948, Sr. Teresita Castillo noticed a vine shaking without the presence of wind. Then she heard a woman's voice who had told her to visit the garden for 19 consecutive days, to kiss the earth. The next day, September 13 at 5pm, Teresita came to the spot, knelt down and intended to say the Hail Mary prayer. In the middle of the prayer, wind came and the garden vine moved when a beautiful lady appeared. On September 14, rose petals began to shower within the monastery. Some of the religious sisters living in the convent began to notice rose petals outside their hallways. Again at 5:00 pm, the lady appeared once more at the vine and said "I wish this place to be blessed tomorrow." "At what time, Mother?" asked Teresita. "Anytime your Mother Prioress wants, my child. I forbid you to forget the incidents of these fifteen days." Then the lady vanished. On the other hand, Mother Mary Cecilia of Jesus, the Mother Prioress, decided to consult His Excellency, the Most Reverend Alfredo Obviar, the auxiliary bishop of Lipa and spiritual director of Carmel, on what to do on the alleged apparition of the Blessed Virgin Mary. The bishop instructed the Mother Prioress to demand from the ady a proof that she is from Heaven. Days after the first shower of rose petals, total blindness affected the Teresita. The Mother Prioress heard a woman's voice telling her to kiss the postulant's eyes will recover her sight. One day, in the presence of Bishop Obviar, the mother prioress lifted the veil of the postulant and imparted a kiss to Teresita's eyes. Immediately, the girl recovered her sight. Bishop Obviar no longer doubted the claims of her apparition. According to an interview with the Prioress of the Carmelite Monastery, Mother Mary of the Sacred Heart and Sister Mary Balthazar were ordered to burn several boxes containing leaflefts, novena booklets, rose petals, and any religious paraphernalia pertaining to the apparition. The sisters were also ordered by their bishop to

destroy the statue of the Virgin Mary but instead hid it out of religious devotion. The personal diary of Castillo was also consumed in the fire. According to an interview with Teresita Castillo, she had met Cardinal Egidio Vagnozzi in 1951 and expressed to him that she had left the Carmelite monastery to seek medical treatment. The papal nuncio strongly disapproved, called her the Devil and asked her to leave his presence and tried to shove her out the door. Castillo cried tears and begged for his blessing, which he refused[6]. According to the Archbishop of Lipa, Ramon Arguelles, two of the bishops in the commission were forced to leave the investigation due to their lack of jurisdiction of Lipa, Bishop Versoza and Bishop Obviar. In a televised interview with ABS-CBN network communications, Arguelles noted that not a great deal of documents reached the Holy See in 1951, causing its immediate rejection[7]. A current petition to approve the apparition once again is currently going underaway in Rome. Former Philippine president Corazon Aquino had a close religious affinity with the Carmelite Monastery in Lipa and visited often, as well as former president Gloria Macapagal Arroyo. According to Castillo, Mary's hands clasped on her breast, a golden rosary hanging in her right hand, slightly stooping, her dress was simple and pure white held in the waist by a narrow cloth belt. Her feet were bare and resting on clouds about two feet above ground. Her face, indescribably beautiful, was radiant. An initial investigation report in 1951 was signed by six Roman Catholic bishops and declared the Lipa apparitions as a fraud and "non-supernatural". However, one bishop later recanted on his deathbed, and a new investigation was opened in 1991. The apparitions have to this date have not received approval from the Holy See and are still pending under investigation.[8] On April 17, 2005, Filipino Archbishop Ramon Arguelles issued a circular finding no objection to the devotion under this Marian title.[9] The Archdiocese of Lipa, Batangas endorse Marian veneration under this title and are not expressly prohibited by the archdiocese in the Philippines as long as it does not counter the doctrines of the Roman Catholic Church. Local bishops often tolerate the veneration of Mary under this title in Batangas province, at times even with the participation of local Filipino celebrities and politicians. The religious image described and sculpted according to the vision of Teresita Castillo is licensed and approved by the Archdiocese of Manila for public veneration in various Filipino religious communities. The title "Mediatrix" is used in Roman Catholic Mariology to refer to the intercessory role of the Blessed Virgin Mary as a mediator in the salvific redemption by Jesus Christ and that her son bestows graces through her.[2]

Our Lady of Guadalupe (Spanish: Nuestra Seora de Guadalupe), also known as the Virgin of Guadalupe (Spanish: Virgen de Guadalupe) is a celebrated Roman Catholic icon of the Virgin Mary. Two accounts, published in the 1640s, one in Spanish, one in Nahuatl, tell how, while walking from his village to Mexico City in the early morning of December 9, 1531 (then the Feast of the Immaculate Conception in the Spanish Empire),[1] the peasant Juan Diego saw on the slopes of the Hill of Tepeyac a vision of a girl of fifteen or sixteen years of age, surrounded by light. Speaking to him in Nahuatl, the local language, she asked that a church be built at that site, in her honor; from her words, Juan Diego recognized the Lady as the Virgin Mary. Diego told his story to the Spanish Archbishop, Fray Juan de Zumrraga, who instructed him to return to Tepeyac Hill, and ask the lady for a miraculous sign to prove her identity. The Virgin told Juan Diego to gather flowers from the top of Tepeyac Hill. Although December was very late in the growing season for flowers to bloom, Juan Diego found at the usually barren hilltop Castilian roses, not native to Mexico, which the Virgin arranged in his peasant tilma cloak. When Juan Diego opened the cloak before Bishop Zumrraga on December 12, the flowers fell to the floor, and in their place was the image of the Virgin of Guadalupe, miraculously imprinted on the fabric.[2] The icon is now displayed in the Basilica of Our Lady of Guadalupe, one of the most visited Marian shrines.[3] The icon is Mexicos most popular religious and cultural image, bearing the titles: the Queen of Mexico,[4] and was once proclaimed Patroness of the Philippines (but later revised) by Pope Pius XI in 1935. In 1999, Pope John Paul II proclaimed the Virgin Mary Patroness of the Americas, Empress of Latin America, and Protectress of Unborn Children[5][6][7] under this Marian title. There is much debate over the original name given to the apparition. According to the earliest account of the apparition, the Nican Mopohua, which was written in the Nahuatl language around 1556,[8] the Virgin Mary told Juan Bernadino, the uncle of Juan Diego, that the image left on the tilma was to be known by the name "the Perfect Virgin, Holy Mary of Guadalupe."[9] In 1675, more than a hundred years later, Luis Becerra Tanco

suggested in his work Felicidad de Mexico that the panish must ha e misunderstood uan ernardino and uan iego, and proposed two alternati es in ahuatl that sound similar to " uadalupe", Tecuatlanopeuh [te ata'nope], "she whose origins were in the roc y summit", and Tecuantlaxopeuh [te anta'ope], "she who banishes those who devoured us."[10] Becerra Tanco based his argument on the fact that the "g" and "d" sounds do not exist in Nahuatl.[10] Three reasons in favor of the original name "Guadalupe" include the fact that Juan Diego and Juan Bernardino would have had to be familiar with the "g" and "d" sounds to pronounce their baptismal names, there is no evidence to show that the Virgin was called anything else before Becerra Tanco's proposal, and the number of documents written by contemporary Spaniards and Franciscan Friars arguing for the name of the Virgin to be changed to "Tepeaca" or "Tepeaquilla," which indicate that indeed the original name was "Guadalupe" and not a native name otherwise there would have been no controversy.[11] There i s a general consensus among ahuatl specialists and historical anthropologists that the word does not ha e an indigenous origin. t has also been suggested that the name is a ispani ed ahuatl term that the Virgin used for herself, o tlaxopeuh [ oa ta'ope], meaning the one who crushes the serpent and that it may be referring to the feathered serpent Quetzacoatl. Following the Spanish Conquest in 151921, a temple of the mother-goddess Tonantzin at Tepeyac outside Mexico City, was destroyed and a chapel dedicated to the Virgin built on the site. Newly converted Indians continued to come from afar to worship there. The object of their worship, however, was equivocal, as they continued to address the Virgin Mary as Tonantzin.[13] The first record of the painting's existence was in 1556, when Archbishop Alonso de Montufar, a Dominican, preached a sermon commending popular devotion to Our Lady of Guadalupe, in regards to a painting in the chapel at Tepeyac, where certain miracles had lately been performed. Days later he was answered by Francisco de Bustamante, head of the Colony's Franciscans and guardians of the chapel at Tepeyac, who delivered a sermon before the Viceroy expressing his concern that the Archbishop was promoting a superstitious regard for a painting by a native artist, Marcos Cipac de Aquino: The devotion that has been growing in a chapel dedicated to Our Lady, called of Guadalupe, in this city is greatly harmful for the natives, because it makes them believe that the image painted by Marcos the Indian is in any way miraculous.[14] The next day Archbishop Montufar opened an inquiry. The Franciscans repeated their claim that the image encouraged idolatry and superstition, and testified that it was painted by "Marcos the Indian."[14] Appearing before the Dominicans, who favored allowing the Aztecs to venerate the Guadalupe, was the Archbishop himself. The matter ended with the Franciscans deprived of custody of the shrine[15] and the tilma mounted and displayed within a much enlarged church.[16] The first extended account of the image and the apparition is in Imagen de la Virgen Maria, Madre de Dios de Guadalupe, a guide to the cult for Spanish-speakers published in 1648 by Miguel Sanchez, a diocesan priest of Mexico City.[17] A 36-page tract in Nahuatl language, Huei tlamahuioltica ("The Great Event"), was published in 1649 by Luis Lasso de la Vega, which has close affinity with Snchez's narrative. This tract contains Nican mopohua ("Here it is recounted"), a text about the Virgin which contains the story of the apparition and the supernatural origin of the image, plus two other sections, Nican motecpana ("Here is an ordered account"), describing fourteen miracles connected with Our Lady of Guadalupe, and Nican tlantica ("Here ends"), an account of the Virgin in New Spain. The growing fame of the image led to a parallel interest in Juan Diego. In 1666 the Church, with the aim of establishing a feast day in his name, began gathering information from people who reported having known him, and in 1723 a formal investigation into his life was ordered, and much information was gathered. In 1987, under Pope John Paul II, who took a special interest in saints and in non-European Catholics, the Congregation for the Causes of Saints declared him "venerable", and on May 6, 1990, he was beatified by the Pope himself during Mass at the asilica of Our Lady of uadalupe in Mexico ity, being declared protector and ad ocate of the indigenous peoples," with December 9 as his feast day. At this point historians and theologians began to question the quality of the evidence regarding Juan Diego. There is no mention of him or his miraculous vision in the writings of bishop Zumrraga, into whose hands he delivered the miraculous image, nor in the record of the ecclesiastical inquiry of 1556, which omits him entirely, nor anywhere else before the mid-17th century. Doubts as to his reality were not new: in 1883 Joaqun Garca Icazbalceta, historian and biographer of Zumrraga, in a confidential report on the Lady of Guadalupe for Bishop Labastida, was very hesitant to support the story of the apparition and stated his conclusion that there was never

such a person.[19] Neither were they welcome: as recently as 1996 the 83 year old abbot of the Basilica of Guadalupe, Guillermo Schulenburg, was forced to resign following an interview with the Catholic magazine Ixthus, when he said that Juan Diego was "a symbol, not a reality."[20] In 1995, with progress towards sanctification at a stand-still, Father Xavier Escalada, a Jesuit writing an encyclopedia of the Guadalupan legend, produced a deer skin codex, (Codex Escalada), illustrating the apparition and the life and death of Juan Diego. Although the very existence of this important document had been previously unknown, it bore the date 1548, placing it within the lifetime of those who had known Juan Diego, and bore the signatures of two trustworthy 16th century scholar-priests, Antonio Valeriano and Bernardino de Sahagn, thus verifying its contents.[21] Some scholars remained unconvinced, describing the discovery of the Codex as "rather like finding a picture of St. Paul's vision of Christ on the road to Damascus, drawn by St. Luke and signed by St. Peter",[22] but Diego was declared a saint, with the name of Saint Juan Diego Cuauhtlatoatzin, in 2002. Neither the fabric ("the support") nor the image (together, "the tilma") has ever been analyzed using the full range of scientific resources available to museum conservationists. Nevertheless, four technical studies were conducted between 17512 and 1982. Of these, the findings of three have been published. All were commissioned by the authorized custodians of the tilma in the Basilica, and in every case the investigators had direct and unobstructed access to it. Studies conducted between 17512 and 1982 MC in 1756 a prominent artist, Miguel Cabrera, published a report entitled "Maravilla Americana" containing the findings made by himself and six other painters in 1751 and 1752 from ocular and manual inspection.[23] G Jos Antonio Flores Gmez, an art restorer, discussed in a 2002 interview with the Mexican journal Proceso (magazine) certain technical issues relative to the tilma, on which he had worked in 1947 and 1973.[24] PC in 1979 Philip Callahan, biophysicist and USDA entomologist, specializing in Infrared imaging, took numerous infrared photographs of the front of the tilma. His findings, with photographs, were published in 1981.[25] R "Proceso" also published in 2002 an interview with Jos Sol Rosales, formerly director of the Center for the Conservation and Listing of Heritage Artifacts (Patrimonio Artstico Mueble) of the National Institute of Fine Arts (INBA) in Mxico City. This interview was interspersed with extracts from a report R had written in 1982 of the findings he had made during his inspection of the tilma that year using raking and UV light, and at low magnification a stereo microscope of the type used for surgery.[26] Summary conclusions ("contra" indicates a contrary finding) (1) Support: The material of the support is soft to the touch (almost silken: MC; something like cotton: G) but to the eye it suggested a coarse weave of palm threads called "pita" or the rough fiber called "cotense" (MC), or a hemp and linen mixture (R); the traditional understanding is that it is ixtle, an agave fiber. (2) Ground, or Primer: R asserted (MC and PC contra) by ocular examination that the tilma was primed, though with primer "applied irregularly." R does not clarify whether his observed "irregular" application entails that majorly the entire tilma was primed, or just certain areas such as those areas of the tilma extrinsic to the image where PC agrees had later additions. MC, alternatively, observed that the image had soaked through to the reverse of the tilma.[27] (3) Under-drawing: PC asserted there was no under-drawing. (4) Brush-work: R suggested (PC contra) there was some visible brushwork on the original image, but at best in only one minute area of the image ("her eyes, including the irises, have outlines, apparently applied by a brush"). (5) Condition of the surface layer: The three most recent inspections agree (i) that significant additions have been made to the image, some of which were subsequently removed, and (ii) that the original image has been abraded and re-touched in places. Some flaking is visible (mostly along the line of the vertical seam, or at passages considered to be later additions). (6) Varnish: The tilma has never been varnished. (7) Binding Medium: R provisionally identified the pigments and binding medium (distemper) as consistent with 16th c. methods of painting sargas (MC, PC contra for different reasons), but the color values and luminosity are exceptional. The technique of painting on fabric with water-soluble pigments (with or without primer or ground) is well-attested, although such a survival from the 16th c. is unprecedented. The binding medium is generally animal

glue or gum arabic (see: Distemper). Such an artifact is variously discussed in the literature as a tchlein or sarga.[28] The tilma, considered as a type of sarga, is by no means unique, but its state of preservation is remarkable. The iconography of the Virgin is impeccably Catholic:[29] Miguel Sanchez, the author of the 1648 tract Imagen de la Virgen Mara, described her as the Woman of the Apocalypse from the New Testament's Revelation 12:1, "clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars,"[22][30] and she is also described as a representation of the Immaculate Conception.[22] Yet despite this orthodoxy the image also had a hidden layer of coded messages for the indigenous people of Mexico which goes a considerable way towards explaining her popularity.[31] Her blue-green mantle was the color reserved for the divine couple Ometecuhtli and Omecihuatl;[32] her belt is interpreted as a sign of pregnancy; and a cross-shaped image symbolizing the cosmos and called nahui-ollin is inscribed beneath the image's sash.[33] She was called "mother of maguey,"[34] the source of the sacred beverage pulque,[35] "the milk of the Virgin",[36] and the rays of light surrounding her doubled as maguey spines.[34] Roman Catholic sources claim many miraculous and supernatural properties for the image such as that the tilma has maintained its structural integrity over nearly 500 years, while replicas normally last only about 15 years before suffering degradation;[50] that it repaired itself with no external help after a 1791 ammonia spill that did considerable damage, and that on 14 November 1921 a bomb damaged the altar, but left the icon unharmed.[51] That in 1929 and 1951 photographers found a figure reflected in the Virgin's eyes; upon inspection they said that the reflection was tripled in what is called the Purkinje effect, commonly found in human eyes.[52] An ophthalmologist, Dr. Jose Aste Tonsmann, later enlarged an image of the Virgin's eyes by 2500x and claimed to have found not only the aforementioned single figure, but images of all the witnesses present when the tilma was first revealed before Zumrraga in 1531, plus a small family group of mother, father, and a group of children, in the center of the Virgin's eyes, fourteen people in all.[53] Numerous Catholic websites repeat an unsourced claim[54] that in 1936 biochemist Richard Kuhn analyzed a sample of the fabric and announced that the pigments used were from no known source, whether animal, mineral or vegetable.[53] Dr. Philip Serna Callahan, who photographed the icon under infrared light, declared from his photographs that portions of the face, hands, robe, and mantle had been painted in one step, with no sketches or corrections and no visible brush strokes. With the Papal Brief Non Est Equidem of May 25, 1754, Pope Benedict XIV declared Our Lady of Guadalupe patron of what was then called New Spain, corresponding to Spanish Central and Northern America, and approved liturgical texts for the Holy Mass and the Breviary in her honor. Pope Leo XIII granted new texts in 1891 and authorized coronation of the image in 1895. Pope Pius X proclaimed her patron of Latin America in 1910. Pope Pius XII declared the Virgin of Guadalupe "Queen of Mexico and Empress of the Americas" in 1945, and "Patroness of the Americas" in 1946. Pope John XXIII invoked her as "Mother of the Americas" in 1961, referring to her as Mother and Teacher of the Faith of All American populations, and in 1966 Pope Paul VI sent a Golden Rose to the shrine.[56] In July 16, 1935, Pope Pius XI declared Our Lady of Guadalupe to be the Heavenly Patroness of the Philippines and was signed and attested by Vatican Secretary of State, Cardinal Eugenio Pacelli (later Pope Pius XII).[5][57][58] This was revised in September 12, 1942, when Guadalupe became the secondary "Patroness of the Philippines" when Pope Pius XII installed the Immaculate Conception as the Principal Patroness of the Filipino people through the Papal Bull Impositi Nobis, though her feast day is still widely celebrated in the archipelago. Today, the Blessed Virgin Mary under this title of Our Lady of Guadalupe is especially invoked by the Catholic bishops and laypeople who oppose the legalization of abortion and the passage of the Reproductive Health Bill. Pope John Paul II visited the shrine in the course of his first journey outside Italy as Pope from January 26 31, 1979, and again when he beatified Juan Diego there on May 6, 1990. In 1992 he dedicated to Our Lady of Guadalupe a chapel within St. Peter's Basilica in the Vatican. At the request of the Special Assembly for the Americas of the Synod of Bishops, he named Our Lady of Guadalupe patron of the Americas on January 22, 1999 (with the result that her liturgical celebration had, throughout the Americas, the rank of solemnity), and visited the shrine again on the following day. On July 31, 2002, the Pope canonized Juan Diego before a crowd of 12 million, and later that year included in the General Calendar of the Roman Rite, as optional memorials, the liturgical celebrations of Saint Juan Diego Cuauhtlatoatzin (December 9) and Our Lady of Guadalupe (December 12).

Our Lady of Peace, Mother of Peace, Queen of Peace or Our Lady Queen of Peace is a title of the Blessed Virgin Mary in the Roman Catholic Church. She is represented in art holding a dove and an olive branch, symbols of peace. Her official memorial feast is celebrated on January 24 each year in Hawaii and some churches in the United States. Elsewhere, the memorial feast is celebrated on July 9. Our Lady of Peace is the patroness of the Congregation of the Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary religious order, founded by Peter Coudrin in Paris during the French Revolution. When the Congregation of the Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary established the Catholic Church in Hawaii, they consecrated the Hawaiian Islands under the protection of Our Lady of Peace. They erected the first Roman Catholic church in Hawaii to her. Today, the Cathedral of Our Lady of Peace in Honolulu is the oldest Roman Catholic cathedral in continuous use in the United States. EDSA Shrine is a shrine dedicated to Our Lady of Peace. Located in the Philippines, near the highway that intersects major highways, EDSA, which meant Epifanio De Los Santos, also meant, the Gathering of the Saints. In that street, Filipinos have said that Our Lady of Peace appeared unto the tanks and the military personnel that would attack on the quiet protesters in 1986 (See EDSA Revolution), and stopped the attack. There are three famous statues of Our Lady of Peace located in Paris and Honolulu. The original is a wooden carving located at a convent of the Congregation of the Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary in France. A larger replica in bronze was hoisted above the altar and sanctuary at the Cathedral of Our Lady of Peace. A third stands outside the cathedral on a pedestal. The original statue of Our Lady of Peace was ceremonially crowned on July 9, 1906 by the Archbishop of Paris in the name of Pope Saint Pius X. Every July 9 since then, the Congregation of the Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary have celebrated the Feast of Our Lady of Peace. During the troubled years of World War I, Pope Benedict XV added Our Lady of Peace to the Litany of Loreto, a sacred prayer in liturgy. Pope John Paul II consecrated and dedicated the Basilica of Our Lady of Peace of Yamoussoukro to Our Lady of Peace. It is the largest place of worship in Africa. Elsewhere throughout the world, there are parish churches named in honor of Our Lady of Peace in various forms, especially in Ireland and the United States. A notable example is the Queen of Peace church in Bray, Co. Wicklow, Ireland. The Foujita chapel in Reims, France is dedicated to Our Lady, Queen of Peace, as a reaction to the horror and devastation caused by the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings. The chapel at St. Edward's University in Austin, Texas is also dedicated to Our Lady Queen of Peace.

Our Lady of Peace and Good Voyage (Spanish: Nuestra Seora de la Paz y Buen Viaje), informally or locally known as Virgin of Antipolo (Tagalog: Birhen ng Antipolo), is a 16th-century Roman Catholic celebrated dark wooden statue of the Blessed Virgin Mary venerated by Filipino Roman Catholics. Pious legends claim that it was once found on top of a Tipolo tree, but it is generally believed to have been originally brought by Don Juan Nino de Tabora from Mexico via the galleon El Almirante. The statue survived its burning ship and was given its present title due to this event. The statue is enshrined in the Cathedral of Antipolo, under the titular patronage of the Immaculate Conception of Mary in Antipolo, Rizal, Philippines.[1][2] The statue is reputedly famous for having crossed the Pacific Ocean six times[3] back in forth via Manila to Acapulco, Mexico without any damage or losses. The statue is one of the most celebrated images of the Blessed Virgin Mary in the Philippines, having been immortalized through several records during the Spanish era and folktale recollections taught in public elementary schools, most notably by Jose Rizal in his nationalistic writings. On March 25, 1626, the galleon trading ship "El Almirante" arrived from Acapulco, Mexico. On board was the Governor of the Philippines Don Juan Nio de Tabora, who brought with him the statue from Mexico. The statue was first taken to the Jesuit church in Intramuros called Saint Ignatius Church (Spanish: San Ignacio Church). When the Governor Tabora died in 1632, the statue was donated to the Jesuits for enshrinment in the present church of Antipolo. In 1639, the Chinese rose in revolt, burning the Antipolo town and church. In fear that the statue would be destroyed, Don Sebastian Hurtado de Corcuera ordered the statue be transferred back to Manila. Instead, a change of plans came and the statue was moved to Cavite where it was transiently venerated.

Don Sebastian ordered the statue removed in 1648, when it was transferred from its Cavite shrine and was shipped back to Mexico. At the time, having a statue of a saint on the ship served as a patroness or protector of the Acapulco trade. The statue boarded several Acapulco trade ships, namely the following Galleons: El Almirante (1626) San Luis (16481649) Encarnacion (1650) San Diego (16511653) San Francisco Javier (16591662) Nuestra Seora del Pilar (1663) San Jose (17461748) All routes taken by the statue were between Manila to Acapulco to Manila routes from 1648 to 1748. A royal decree from the King of Spain in May 19, 1864 ordered that the curias of San Nicolas de Tolentino be turned over to the Jesuits and in exchange, the curias of Antipolo, Taytay and Morong were tuned over to the Agustinian Recollects. The statue, by virtue of being under the jurisdiction of Antipolo became owned by the Augustinian recollect priests. On November 26, 1926, the statue was canonically crowned by the Archbishop of Manila, Rev. Michael J. O'Doherty. In 1944, the Japanese Imperial Army invaded the town and turned it into their garrisons, while the shrine was turned into an arsenal. Fearing for the statue, the head sacristan Procopio Angeles wrapped the image in a thick wool blanket and placed it in an empty gasoline drum. He then buried the statue under the kitchen. The altercation of the Japanese and the combined American and Filipino soldiers caused Procopio and other devotees to transfer the statue to a hill between Antipolo and Angono called Kulaiki. From this location, it was sent to Santolan then to Pasig city. The statue was then transferred to the Ocampos family compound at Quiapo, Manila and was later transferred to the Quiapo Church.[4] After the war from the Japanese and combined American-Filipino ground troops in the invaded and liberated in Antipolo, the statue was returned on October 15, 1945 to the present Antipolo shrine, where it resides today. The shrine itself is placed under the patronage of the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary.[5] According to the marker erected at the statue's cathedral shrine, the first missionaries of Antipolo city were the Franciscans. The Jesuits then followed and administered the church from 1591 to 1768. The church was greatly damaged during the Chinese uprising of 1639 and in the earthquakes of 1645, 1824 and 1883. Notable Filipino historians such as Pedro Chirino and Pedro Murillo Velarde ministered in the shrine. The diocese of Antipolo was created on January 24, 1983 and was canonically erected on June 25, 1983 at the Shrine Parish of the Immaculate Conception in Antipolo, Rizal.

Our Lady of Mount Carmel is the title given to the Blessed Virgin Mary in her role as patroness of the Carmelite Order. The first Carmelites were Christian hermits living on Mount Carmel in the Holy Land during the late 12th and early to mid 13th centuries. They built a chapel in the midst of their hermitages which they dedicated to the Blessed Virgin, whom they conceived of in chivalric terms as the "Lady of the place." Our Lady of Mt. Carmel is also the patron saint of Chile. Our Lady of Mount Carmel was seen in the apparitions at Fatima to Lucia dos Santos during the miracle of the sun and at Mount Carmel to Simon Stock.[1] Since the 15th century, popular devotion to Our Lady of Mount Carmel has centered on the Scapular of Our Lady of Mount Carmel also known as the Brown Scapular, a sacramental associated with promises of Mary's special aid for the salvation of the devoted wearer. Traditionally, Mary is said to have given the Scapular to an early Carmelite named Saint Simon Stock. The liturgical feast of Our Lady of Mount Carmel is celebrated on 16 July.[2] The solemn liturgical feast of Our Lady of Mount Carmel was probably first celebrated in England in the later part of the 14th century. Its object was thanksgiving to Mary, the patroness of the Carmelite Order, for the benefits she had accorded to it through its rocky early existence. The institution of the feast may have come in the wake of the vindication of their title "Brothers of the Blessed Virgin Mary" at Cambridge, England in 1374. The date chosen was 17 July; on the European mainland this date conflicted with the feast of St. Alexis, necessitating a shift

to 16 July, which remains the Feast of Our Lady of Mount Carmel throughout the Catholic Church. The Latin poem Flos Carmeli (meaning "Flower of Carmel") first appears as the sequence for this Mass.[3] The Feast of Our Lady of Mount Carmel is known to many Catholic faithful as the "scapular feast," associated with the Brown Scapular of Our Lady of Mount Carmel, a devotional sacramental signifiying the wearer's consecration to Mary and affiliation with the Carmelite Order. A tradition first attested to in the late 14th century says that Saint Simon Stock, an early prior general of the Carmelite Order,[4] had a vision of the Blessed Virgin Mary in which she gave him the Brown Scapular which formed part of the Carmelite habit, promising that those who died wearing the scapular would be saved.[5] That there should be a connection in people's minds between the scapular, the widely popular devotion originating with the Carmelites, and this central Carmelite feast day, is surely not unnatural or unreasonable. But the liturgical feast of Our Lady of Mount Carmel did not originally have a specific association with the Brown Scapular or the tradition of a vision of the Blessed Virgin Mary. In 1642, a Carmelite named Fr. John Cheron, responding to scholarly criticism that Saint Simon Stock's vision may not have historically occurred (these doubts are echoed by historians today [6][7]), published a document which he said was a letter written in the 13th century by Saint Simon Stock's secretary, "Peter Swanington". Historians conclude that this letter was forged, likely by Cheron himself.[8][9][10] It was nevertheless uncritically embraced by many promoters of the scapular devotion. The forged document's claim of 16 July 1251 as the date of the vision (16 July being the date of the Feast of Our Lady of Mount Carmel) subsequently led to a strong association between this feast day, and the scapular devotion, and in the intervening years until the late 1970s, this association with the scapular was also reflected in the liturgy for that day. The Feast of Our Lady of Mount Carmel as well as that of Saint Simon Stock came under scrutiny after Vatican II due to historical uncertainties, and today neither of these liturgies, even in the Carmelite proper, make reference to the scapular.[11] The Carmelites see in the Blessed Virgin Mary a perfect model of the interior life of [prayer] and contemplation to which Carmelites aspire, a model of virtue, as well as the person who was closest in life to Jesus Christ. She is seen as the one who points Christians most surely to Christ, saying to all what she says to the servants at the wedding at Cana, "Do whatever he [Jesus] tells you." Carmelites look to the Virgin Mary as a Spiritual Mother.[12] The Stella Maris Monastery on Mount Carmel, named after a traditional title of the Blessed Virgin Mary, is considered the spiritual headquarters of the order. Fr. Gabriel of St. Mary Magdalene de' Pazzi, OCD, a revered authority on Carmelite spirituality, wrote that devotion to Our Lady of Mount Carmel means: a special call to the interior life, which is preeminently a Marian life. Our Lady wants us to resemble her not only in our outward vesture but, far more, in heart and spirit. If we gaze into Mary's soul, we shall see that grace in her has flowered into a spiritual life of incalcuable wealth: a life of recollection, prayer, uninterrupted oblation to God, continual contact, and intimate union with him. Mary's soul is a sanctuary reserved for God alone, where no human creature has ever left its trace, where love and zeal for the glory of God and the salvation of mankind reign supreme. [...] Those who want to live their devotion to Our Lady of Mt. Carmel to the full must follow Mary into the depths of her interior life. Carmel is the symbol of the contemplative life, the life wholly dedicated to the quest for God, wholly orientated towards intimacy with God; and the one who has best realized this highest of ideals is Our Lady herself, 'Queen and Splendor of Carmel'." [13] "Oh most beautiful flower of Mt. Carmel, fruitful vine, splendor of Heaven, Blessed Mother of the Son of God, Immaculate Virgin, assist me in my necessity. Oh Star of the Sea, help me and show me you are my Mother. Oh Holy Mary, Mother of God, Queen of Heaven and earth, I humbly beseech you from the bottom of my heart to succor me in necessity (make request). There are none that can withstand your power. Oh Mary, conceived without sin, pray for us who have recourse to thee (say three times). Holy Mary, I place this prayer in your hands (say three times). Amen."[14] A 1996 doctrinal statement approved by the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments states that "Devotion to Our Lady of Mount Carmel is bound to the history and spiritual values of the Order of the Brothers of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Mount Carmel and is expressed through the scapular. Thus, whoever receives the scapular becomes a member of the order and pledges him/herself to live according to its spirituality in accordance with the characteristics of his/her state in life." [15] According to the ways in which the Church has intervened at various times to clarify the meaning and privileges of the Brown Scapular: "The scapular is a Marian habit or garment. It is both a sign and pledge. A sign of belonging to Mary; a pledge of her motherly protection, not only in this life but after death. As a sign, it is a

conventional sign signifying three elements strictly joined: first, belonging to a religious family particularly devoted to Mary, especially dear to Mary, the Carmelite Order; second, consecration to Mary, devotion to and trust in her Immaculate Heart; third an incitement to become like Mary by imitating her virtues, above all her humility, chastity, and spirit of prayer." [16] Our Lady of Mount Carmel has been related with Purgatory from centuries ago. In some cases, she is shown accompanied with angels and souls wearing Brown Scapulars, who plead for her mediation. In 1613, the Church forbade images of Our Lady of Mt. Carmel descending into purgatory to be made, due to errors being preached about certain privileges ascoiated with the Brown Scapular ("the Sabbatine Privilege").[17] That privilege appears in mentioned Decree of the Holy Office (1613), and later was inserted in its entirety (except for the words forbidding the painting of the pictures) into the list of the indulgences and privileges of the Confraternity of the Scapular of Mount Carmel.[18] Today, the Carmelites, while encouraging a belief in Mary's general aid and prayerful assistance for their souls beyond death, especilly her aid to those who devoutly wear the Brown Scapular, and commending devotion to Mary especially on Saturdays which are dedicated to her, do not focus on the Sabbatine Privilege.

Our Lady of Ftima (Portuguese: ossa enhora de Ftima, European Portuguese: [ns s d fatim][1]) is a famous title given to the Blessed Virgin Mary as she reportedly appeared in apparitions to three shepherd children at Ftima, Portugal. These occurred on the 13th day of six consecutive months in 1917, starting on May 13. The three children were Lcia dos Santos and her cousins Jacinta and Francisco Marto. The title of Our Lady of the Rosary is also sometimes used to refer to the same apparition (although it was first used in 1208 for the reported apparition in the church of Prouille), because the children related that the apparition called herself "Lady of the Rosary". It is also common to see a combination of these titles, i.e. Our Lady of the Rosary of Ftima (Portuguese: Nossa Senhora do Rosrio de Ftima). The events at Ftima gained particular fame due to their elements of prophecy and eschatology, particularly with regard to possible world war and the conversion of Soviet Russia.[2] The reported apparitions at Ftima were officially declared "worthy of belief" by the Catholic Church. On May 13, 1917, ten year old Lcia dos Santos and her cousins Jacinta and Francisco Marto were herding sheep at a location known as the Cova da Iria near their home village of Ftima, Portugal. Lcia described seeing a woman "brighter than the sun, shedding rays of light clearer and stronger than a crystal ball filled with the most sparkling water and pierced by the burning rays of the sun."[3] Further appearances were reported to have taken place on the thirteenth day of the month in June and July. In these, the woman exhorted the children to do penance and Acts of Reparation, and to make sacrifices to save sinners. The children subsequently wore tight cords around their waists to cause themselves pain, performed self-flagellation using stinging nettles, abstained from drinking water on hot days, and performed other works of penance. According to Lcia's account, in the course of her appearances, the woman confided to the children three secrets, now known as the Three Secrets of Ftima. Thousands of people flocked to Ftima and Aljustrel in the following months, drawn by reports of visions and miracles. On August 19, 1917, the provincial administrator and anticlerical Freemason,[4] Artur Santos[5] (no relation to Lcia Santos), believing that the events were politically disruptive, intercepted and jailed the children before they could reach the Cova da Iria that day. Prisoners held with them in the provincial jail later testified that the children, while upset, were first consoled by the inmates, and later led them in praying the rosary. The administrator interrogated the children and tried unsuccessfully to get them to divulge the contents of the secrets. In the process, he threatened the children, saying he would boil them in a pot of oil, one by one unless they confessed. The children refused, but Lcia told him everything short of the secrets, and offered to ask the Lady for permission to tell the Administrator the secrets.[6] That month, instead of the usual apparition in the Cova da Iria on the 13th, the children reported that they saw the Virgin Mary on 15 August, the Feast of the Assumption, at nearby Valinhos.[3] As early as July 1917 it was claimed that the Virgin Mary had promised a miracle for the last of her apparitions on October 13, so that all would believe. What happened then became known as "Miracle of the Sun". A crowd believed to number approximately 70,000,[7] including newspaper reporters and photographers, gathered at the Cova da Iria. The incessant rain had finally ceased and a thin layer of clouds cloaked the silver disc of the sun. Witnesses said later it could be looked upon without hurting the eyes.[citation needed] Lcia, moved by what she said was an interior impulse, called out to the crowd to look at the sun. Witnesses later spoke of the sun

appearing to change colors and rotate like a wheel. Not everyone saw the same things, and witnesses gave widely varying descriptions of the "sun's dance". The phenomenon is claimed to have been witnessed by most people in the crowd as well as people many miles away.[8] While the crowd was staring at the sun, Lucia, Francisco, and Jacinta said later they were seeing lovely images of the Holy Family, Our Lady of Sorrows with Jesus Christ, and then Our Lady of Mount Carmel. They said they saw Saint Joseph and Jesus bless the people.[9] The children were aged 10, 9, and 7 at the time. Columnist Avelino de Almeida of O Sculo (Portugal's most influential newspaper, which was progovernment in policy and avowedly anti-clerical),[3] reported the following: "Before the astonished eyes of the crowd, whose aspect was biblical as they stood bare-headed, eagerly searching the sky, the sun trembled, made sudden incredible movements outside all cosmic laws - the sun 'danced' according to the typical expression of the people."[10] Eye specialist Dr. Domingos Pinto Coelho, writing for the newspaper Ordem reported "The sun, at one moment surrounded with scarlet flame, at another aureoled in yellow and deep purple, seemed to be in an exceeding fast and whirling movement, at times appearing to be loosened from the sky and to be approaching the earth, strongly radiating heat".[11] The special reporter for the October 17, 1917 edition of the Lisbon daily, O Dia, reported the following, "...the silver sun, enveloped in the same gauzy purple light was seen to whirl and turn in the circle of broken clouds...The light turned a beautiful blue, as if it had come through the stained-glass windows of a cathedral, and spread itself over the people who knelt with outstretched hands...people wept and prayed with uncovered heads, in the presence of a miracle they had awaited. The seconds seemed like hours, so vivid were they." No movement or other phenomenon of the sun was registered by scientists at the time.[3] According to contemporary reports from poet Afonso Lopes Vieira and schoolteacher Delfina Lopes with her students and other witnesses in the town of Alburita, the solar phenomenon was visible from up to forty kilometers away. Not all witnesses reported seeing the sun "dance". Some people only saw the radiant colors, and others, including some believers, saw nothing at all.[13][14] Since no scientifically verifiable physical cause can be adduced to support the phenomenon of the sun, various explanations have been advanced to explain the descriptions given by numerous witnesses. A leading conjecture is a mass hallucination possibly stimulated by the religious fervor of the crowds expectantly waiting for a predicted sign. Another conjecture is a possible visual artifact caused by looking at the sun for a prolonged period. As noted by Professor Auguste Meessen of the Institute of Physics, Catholic University of Leuven, looking directly at the Sun can cause phosphene visual artifacts and temporary partial blindness. He has proposed that the reported observations were optical effects caused by prolonged staring at the sun. Meessen contends that retinal after-images produced after brief periods of sun gazing are a likely cause of the observed dancing effects. Similarly Meessen states that the colour changes witnessed were most likely caused by the bleaching of photosensitive retinal cells.[15] Meessen observes that solar miracles have been witnessed in many places where religiously charged pilgrims have been encouraged to stare at the sun. He cites the apparitions at Heroldsbach, Germany (1949) as an example, where exactly the same optical effects as at Fatima were witnessed by more than 10,000 people.[15] There is no evidence that people who came to Ftima, even those expecting a miracle, were staring at the sun before Lcia spoke. Most would have been focused on the tree where the children said the lady appeared. Some onlookers reported other phenomena, including luminous mist and the showers of flower petals seen around and above the tree during previous visitations. In addition to the Miracle of the Sun, the seers at Ftima indicated that the lady prophesied a great sign in the night sky which would precede a second great war.[16][17] On January 25, 1938, bright lights, an aurora borealis appeared all over the northern hemisphere, including in places as far south as North Africa, Bermuda and California.[16][17] It was the widest occurrence of the aurora since 1709[18] and people in Paris and elsewhere believed a great fire was burning and fire departments were called.[19] Lcia, the sole surviving seer at the time, indicated that it was the sign foretold and so apprised her superior and the bishop in letters the following day.[16][17] Just over a month later, Hitler seized Austria and eight months later invaded Czechoslovakia.[16][17] The first secret was a vision of hell, which Lcia describes in her Third Memoir, as follows: "Our Lady showed us a great sea of fire which seemed to be under the earth. Plunged in this fire were demons and souls in human form, like transparent burning embers, all blackened or burnished bronze, floating about in the conflagration, now raised into the air by the flames that issued from within themselves together with great clouds of smoke, now falling back on every side like sparks in a huge fire, without weight or equilibrium, and

amid shrieks and groans of pain and despair, which horrified us and made us tremble with fear. The demons could be distinguished by their terrifying and repulsive likeness to frightful and unknown animals, all black and transparent. This vision lasted but an instant. How can we ever be grateful enough to our kind heavenly Mother, who had already prepared us by promising, in the first Apparition, to take us to heaven. Otherwise, I think we would have died of fear and terror."[20] The second secret included Mary's instructions on how to save souls from hell and convert the world to the Christian faith, also revealed by Lcia in her Third Memoir: "It have seen hell where the souls of poor sinners go. To save them, God wishes to establish in the world devotion to my Immaculate Heart. If what I say to you is done, many souls will be saved and there will be peace. The war is going to end: but if people do not cease offending God, a worse one will break out during the Pontificate of Pius XI. When you see a night illuminated by an unknown light, know that this is the great sign given you by God that he is about to punish the world for its crimes, by means of war, famine, and persecutions of the Church and of the Holy Father. To prevent this, I shall come to ask for the consecration of Russia to my Immaculate Heart, and the Communion of reparation on the First Saturdays. If my requests are heeded, Russia will be converted, and there will be peace; if not, she [sic] will spread her errors throughout the world, causing wars and persecutions of the Church. The good will be martyred; the Holy Father will have much to suffer; various nations will be annihilated. In the end, my Immaculate Heart will triumph. The Holy Father will consecrate Russia to me, and she shall be converted, and a period of peace will be granted to the world." Sister Lcia reported seeing the Virgin Mary again in 1925 at the Dorothean convent at Pontevedra, Galicia (Spain). This time she said she was asked to convey the message of the First Saturday Devotions. By her account a subsequent vision of Christ as a child reiterated this request. Sister Lcia was transferred to another convent in Tui or Tuy, Galicia in 1928. In 1929, Sister Lcia reported that Mary returned and repeated her request for the Consecration of Russia to her Immaculate Heart. Sister Lcia reportedly saw Mary in private visions periodically throughout her life. Most significant was the apparition in Rianxo, Galicia, in 1931, in which she said that Jesus visited her, taught her two prayers and delivered a message to give to the church's hierarchy. In 1947, Sister Lcia left the Dorothean order and joined the Discalced Carmelite order in a monastery in Coimbra, Portugal. Lcia died on February 13, 2005, at the age of 97. After her death, the Vatican, specifically Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger (at that time, still head of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith), ordered her cell sealed off. It is believed this was because Sister Lcia had continued to receive more revelations and the evidence needed to be examined in the course of proceedings for her possible canonization.[22] Sister Lcia's cousins, the siblings Francisco (19081919) and Jacinta Marto (19101920), were both victims of the Great Spanish Flu Epidemic of 1918-20. Francisco and Jacinta were declared venerable by Pope John Paul II in a public ceremony at Fatima on May 13, 1989. Pope John Paul II returned there on May 13, 2000 to declare them 'blessed' (a title of veneration below that of sainthood; see Canonization). Jacinta is the youngest non-martyred child ever to be beatified. In 1936 and again in 1941, Sister Lcia claimed that the Virgin Mary had predicted the deaths of two of the children during the second apparition on June 13, 1917. Besides Lcia's account, the testimony of Olmpia Marto (mother of the two younger children) and several others state that her children did not keep this information secret and ecstatically predicted their own deaths many times to her and to curious pilgrims.[23] In fact, it was the first thing Jacinta told her mother when she spoke to her after the initial apparition.[24] According to the 1941 account, on 13 June, Lcia asked the Virgin if the three children would go to heaven when they died. She said that she heard Mary reply, "Yes, I shall take Francisco and Jacinta soon, but you will remain a little longer, since Jesus wishes you to make me known and loved on earth. He wishes also for you to establish devotion in the world to my Immaculate Heart."[25] Exhumed in 1935 and again in 1951, Jacinta's face was found incorrupt or immune from decay. "When both coffins were opened, nothing was found of Francisco but his bones, but Jacinta's face was intact and incorrupt, she seemed to be only asleep, waiting for the Resurrection, and the good odor of Paradise hung about her. Her mother was one of those who saw her." [26] Francisco's body, however, had decomposed. According to Sister Lcia, the Virgin Mary promised that the Consecration of Russia would lead to Russia's conversion and an era of peace.[3] Pope Pius XII, in his Apostolic Letter Sacro Vergente of 7 July 1952, consecrated Russia to the Blessed Virgin Mary. Pius XII wrote,

Just as a few years ago We consecrated the entire human race to the Immaculate Heart of the Virgin Mary, Mother of God, so today We consecrate and in a most special manner We entrust all the peoples of Russia to this Immaculate Heart...[27] In 1952 the Pope reminded the Russian people and the Stalinist regime that the Virgin Mary was always victorious. "The gates of hell will never prevail, where she offers her protection. She is the good mother, the mother of all, and it has never been heard, that those who seek her protection, will not receive it. With this certainty, the Pope dedicates all people of Russia to the immaculate heart of the Virgin. She will help! Error and atheism will be overcome with her assistance and divine grace." [28] Pope Pius XII and Pope John Paul II both had special relations to Our Lady of Ftima. Pope Benedict XV began Pacelli's church career, elevating him to archbishop in the Sistine Chapel on May 13, 1917, the date of the first reported apparition. Pius XII was laid to rest in the crypt of Saint Peter's Basilica on October 13, 1958, the Feast of Our Lady of Ftima. Our Lady of Ftima is credited by many faithful and by John Paul II himself,[citation needed] with saving his life during the assassination attempt, which took place on 13 May 1981. Pope John Paul II again consecrated the entire world to the Virgin Mary in 1984, without explicitly mentioning Russia. Some believe that Sister Lcia verified that this ceremony fulfilled the requests of the Virgin Mary.[29] However, in the Blue Army's Spanish magazine, Sol de Fatima, in the September 1985 issue, Sister Lcia said that the ceremony did not fulfill the Virgin Mary's request, as there was no specific mention of Russia, and "many bishops attached no importance to it." In 2001, Archbishop Tarcisio Bertone issued a statement, claiming that he had met with Sister Lcia, who reportedly told him, "I have already said that the consecration desired by Our Lady was made in 1984, and has been accepted in Heaven." Sister Lcia died on February 13, 2005, without making any public statement of her own to settle the issue. Some maintain that, according to Lcia and Ftima advocates such as Abbe Georges de Nantes, Fr. Paul Kramer and Nicholas Gruner, Russia has never been specifically consecrated to the Immaculate Heart of Mary by any Pope simultaneously with all the world's bishops, which is what Lcia in the 1985 interview had said Mary had asked for.[30][31][32] However, by letters of August 29, 1989 and July 3, 1990, she stated that the consecration had been completed; indeed in the 1990 letter in response to a question by Rev. Father Robert J. Fox, she confirmed: I come to answer your question, "If the consecration made by Pope John Paul II on March 25, 1984 in union with all the bishops of the world, accomplished the conditions for the consecration of Russia according to the request of Our Lady in Tuy on June 13 of 1929?" Yes, it was accomplished, and since then I have said that it was made. And I say that no other person responds for me, it is I who receive and open all letters and respond to them.[33] The third secret, a vision of the death of the Pope and other religious figures, was transcribed by the Bishop of Leiria and reads: "After the two parts which I have already explained, at the left of Our Lady and a little above, we saw an Angel with a flaming sword in his left hand; flashing, it gave out flames that looked as though they would set the world on fire; but they died out in contact with the splendour that Our Lady radiated towards him from her right hand: pointing to the earth with his right hand, the Angel cried out in a loud oice: Penance, Penance, Penance!' And we saw in an immense light that is od: something similar to how people appear in a mirror when they pass in front of it' a ishop dressed in White we had the impression that it was the oly Father'. Other ishops, Priests, Religious men and women going up a steep mountain, at the top of which there was a big Cross of rough-hewn trunks as of a cork-tree with the bark; before reaching there the Holy Father passed through a big city half in ruins and half trembling with halting step, afflicted with pain and sorrow, he prayed for the souls of the corpses he met on his way; having reached the top of the mountain, on his knees at the foot of the big Cross he was killed by a group of soldiers who fired bullets and arrows at him, and in the same way there died one after another the other Bishops, Priests, Religious men and women, and various lay people of different ranks and positions. Beneath the two arms of the Cross there were two Angels each with a crystal aspersorium in his hand, in which they gathered up the blood of the Martyrs and with it sprinkled the souls that were making their way to God."[34] The Vatican withheld the Third Secret until 26 June 2000, despite Lcia's declaration that it could be released to the public after 1960. Some sources, including Canon Barthas and Cardinal Ottaviani, said that Lcia insisted to them it must be released by 1960, saying that, "by that time, it will be more clearly understood", and, "because the Blessed Virgin wishes it so."[35][36] When 1960 arrived, rather than releasing the Third Secret, the Vatican published an official press release stating that it was "most probable the Secret would remain, forever,

under absolute seal."[37] After this announcement, immense speculation over the content of the secret materialized. According to the New York Times, speculation over the content of the secret ranged from "worldwide nuclear annihilation to deep rifts in the Roman Catholic Church that lead to rival papacies."[38] Some sources claim that the four-page, handwritten text[2] of the Third Secret released by the Vatican in the year 2000 is not the real secret, or at least not the full secret.[39][40][41][42] In particular, it is alleged that Cardinals Bertone, Ratzinger and Sodano engaged in a systematic deception to cover-up the existence of a onepage document containing the so-called words of the Blessed Virgin Mary, which some believe contains information about the Apocalypse and a great apostasy. These sources contend that the Third Secret actually comprises two texts, where one of these texts is the published four-page vision, and the other is a single-page letter allegedly containing the words of the Virgin Mary which has been concealed.[39][40][41] The content of two of these books, The Devil's Final Battle by Father Paul Kramer, and The Secret Still Hidden by Christopher Ferrara, are available online. The Vatican has maintained its position that the full text of the Third Secret was published in June 2000. According to a December 2001 Vatican press release (subsequently published in L'Osservatore Romano), Lcia told then Archbishop Tarcisio Bertone in an interview that the secret had been completely revealed and published that no secrets remained.[43][44][45] Bertone, along with Cardinal Ratzinger, co-authored The Message of Fatima,[2] the document published in June 2000 by the Vatican that allegedly contains a scanned copy of the original text of the Third Secret. During his apostolic visit to Portugal between May 11 and 14, 2010 on the occasion of the 10th anniversary of the beatification of Jacinta and Francisco Marto,[46] Pope Benedict XVI explained in a rare conversation with reporters that the interpretation of the third secret did not stop with the interpretation of a prediction of the attempted assassination of Pope John Paul II in Saint Peter's Square in 1981. The Third Secret of Ftima, said Benedict XVI, "has a permanent and ongoing significance" and that "its significance could even be extended to include the suffering the Church is going through today as a result of the recent reports of sexual abuse involving the clergy".[47] Many Roman Catholics recite prayers based on Our Lady of Ftima. Lcia later said that, in 1916, she and her cousins had several visions of an angel calling himself the "Angel of Portugal" and the "Angel of Peace" who taught them to bow with their heads to the ground and to say "O God, I believe, I adore, I hope, and I love you. I ask pardon for those who do not believe, do not adore, do not hope and do not love you." Lcia later set this prayer to music and a recording exists of her singing it.[48] It was also said that sometime later the angel returned and taught them a eucharistic devotion now known as the Angel Prayer.[49][50] Lcia said that the Lady emphasized Acts of Reparation and prayers to console Jesus for the sins of the world. Lcia said that Mary's words were "When you make some sacrifice, say 'O Jesus, it is for your love, for the conversion of sinners, and in reparation for sins committed against the Immaculate Heart of Mary.'" At the first apparition, Lcia wrote, the children were so moved by the radiance they perceived that they involuntarily said "Most Holy Trinity, I adore you! My God, my God, I love you in the Most Blessed Sacrament."[51] Lcia also said that she heard Mary ask for these words to be added to the Rosary after the Gloria Patri prayer: "O my Jesus, pardon us, save us from the fires of hell. Lead all souls to heaven, especially those in most need."[52] In the tradition of Marian visitations, the "conversion of sinners" is not necessarily religious conversion to the Roman Catholic Church, for that would be the "conversion of heretics or apostates who are 'outside the church and alien to the Christian Faith' according to Pope Leo XIII in his encyclical on the Unity of the Church, Satis Cognitum". Conversion of sinners refers to general repentance and attempt to amend one's life according to the teachings of Jesus for those True Catholics who do profess the faith truly, but are fallen into sins. Lcia wrote that she and her cousins defined "sinners" not as non-Catholics but as those who had fallen away from the church or, more specifically, willfully indulged in sinful activity, particularly "sins of the flesh"[53] and "acts of injustice and a lack of charity towards the poor, widows and orphans, the ignorant and the helpless" which she said were even worse than sins of impurity.[54] An estimated 70,000 people assembled to witness the last of the promised appearances of the Lady in the Cova da Iria on October 13, 1917. The widely reported miracle of the sun was a factor that led to Ftima quickly becoming a major centre of pilgrimage. Two million pilgrims visited the site in the decade following the events of 1917.[55] A small chapel - the Capelinha - was built by local people on the site of the apparitions. The construction was neither encouraged nor hindered by the Catholic Church authorities. On May 13, 1920, pilgrims defied government troops to install a statue of the Virgin Mary in the chapel,[56] and the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass was

first officially celebrated there in January 1924. A hostel for the sick was begun in that year. In 1927 the first rector of the sanctuary was appointed and a set of Stations of the Cross were erected on the mountain road. The foundation stone for the present basilica was laid the next year.[57] 1930 was the year both of official church recognition of the apparition events as "worthy of belief" and the granting of a papal indulgence to pilgrims visiting Ftima. In 1935 the bodies of the visionaries Jacinta and Francisco were reinterred in the basilica. The coronation of the statue of Our Lady of Ftima there in 1946 drew such large crowds that the entrance to the site had to be barred.[58] Today pilgrimage to the site goes on all year round and additional chapels, hospitals and other facilities have been constructed. The principal pilgrimage festivals take place on the thirteenth day of each month, from May to October, on the anniversaries of the original appearances. The largest crowds gather on 13 May and 13 October, when up to a million pilgrims have attended to pray and witness processions of the statue of Our Lady of Ftima, both during the day and by the light of tens of thousands of candles at night.[59] From the French Revolution onwards the Catholic Church had adopted an increasingly embattled world view and from the pontificate of Pius IX the Church had been waging war against the so-called twin enemies of liberalism and socialism. At the same time religion had become predominantly a female activity by the early twentieth century.[60] The numerical predominance of women within the Catholic Church went alongside a corresponding development of female divine symbols. Dramatic affirmations of feminine power were given in the apparitions of the Virgin Mary which occurred all over Western Europe from the 1840s. The Virgin, usually in the form of the Immaculate Conception, revealed herself to female seers, often children. When Our Lady appeared to Catherine Labour, Bernadette Soubirous, Lcia dos Santos at Ftima, or to the children at Beauraing later, in 1932, and Mariette Beco in 1933, these dramatic affirmations of divine power in an increasingly irreligious/secular age, a transformation more strongly felt in the Western world, offered 'proof' of the power of heaven against "the onslaughts of secularizing governments". "The Marian militancy of the Jesuit congregations divided the world into two camps, those who would defend the Virgin and those who would defile her. In the wake of the apparitions at Fatima in Portugal such a view of the world appeared to be shared by the Virgin herself. The 'secrets of Fatima' revealed periodically by the seer Lucia showed Mary's concern with the apostacy of Soviet Russia and the threat of communist anticlericalism. Our Lady of Fatima presented a vision of a world divided. Rome, and Mary, were ranged against the Soviet Union in a struggle between the redeemed and the fallen. With the advent of the Spanish Second Republic, the Virgin Mary [would be] seen on Spanish soil at Ezquioga. Ramona Olazabal insisted Mary had marked the palms of her hands with a sword. Seers gained much credence in Integrist and Carlist circles. The visions at Ezquioga were widely covered in the press, as were the sixteen other visitations of the Virgin to Spain in 1931. There was also the Fatima story, an officially sanctioned apparition, the cult of which, far from being condemned, was actively encouraged by the Church. As the forces of the Republic gathered strength in Spain, the Virgin Mary was to be found leading the armies of the faithful ranged against the Godless."[61] The Blue Army of Our Lady is made up of Catholics and non-Catholics who believe that by dedicating themselves to daily prayer (specifically, of the Rosary) they can help to achieve world peace and put an end to the error of communism. In 1952, a feature film, The Miracle of Our Lady of Fatima, was released. Critics[who?] held that the film overplayed the role of socialist and other leftist elements in Portuguese government as the "adversaries" of the visions. They state that since the government was controlled not by socialists but by Freemasons at the time[citation needed], most government opposition to the visions would have been motivated by concern for separation of church and state, not by atheistic, antitheistic or Communistic ideology. Other critics have stated that only the enemies of the message propose such a belief. Private revelations do not form part of the deposit of faith of the Catholic Church, and its members are not bound to believe in any of them. However, as a matter of prudence, assent would normally be expected of a Catholic based on the discernment of the Church and its judgment that an apparition is worthy of belief.[62][63] After a canonical enquiry, the visions of Fatima were officially declared "worthy of belief" in October 1930 by the Bishop of Leiria-Ftima.[64] Ecclesiastical approbation does not imply that the Church provides an infallible guarantee on the supernatural nature of the event. Theologians like Karl Rahner argued however, that Popes, by authoritatively fostering the Marian veneration in places as Ftima and Lourdes, motivate the faithful into an acceptance of divine faith.[65] Popes Pius XII, Paul VI, John Paul II and Benedict XVI all voiced their acceptance of the supernatural origin

of the Ftima events in unusually clear and strong terms. After the local bishop had declared that (1) the visions of the three children are credible and (2) the veneration of the Blessed Virgin is permitted, the Portuguese bishops approved and declared the genuine supernatural nature of the event. The Vatican responded with granting indulgences and permitting special Liturgies of the Mass to be celebrated in Ftima.[15] In 1939, Eugenio Pacelli, who was consecrated bishop on May 13, 1917the day of the first apparitionwas elected to the papacy as Pius XII, and became the Pope of Ftima.[66] One year after World War II had started, Sister Lcia asked Pope Pius XII to consecrate the world and Russia to the Immaculate Heart of Mary. She repeated this request on December 2, 1940, stating in the year 1929, the Blessed Lady requested in another apparition the consecration of Russia to her Immaculate Heart. She promised the conversion of Russia from its errors. On May 13, 1942, the 25th anniversary of the first apparition and the silver jubilee of the episcopal consecration of Pope Pius XII, the Vatican published the Message and Secret of Ftima. On October 31, 1942, Pope Pius XII, in a radio address, informed the people of Portugal about the apparitions of Ftima, consecrating the human race to the Immaculate Heart of the Virgin with specific mention of Russia. (See below)[67] On December 8, 1942, the Pontiff officially and solemnly declared this consecration in a ceremony in Saint Peter's Basilica in Rome. On May 13, 1946, Cardinal Masalla, the personal delegate of Pius XII, crowned in his name Our Lady of Ftima, as the Pope issued a second message about Fatima: "The faithful virgin never disappointed the trust, put on her. She will transform into a fountain of graces, physical and spiritual graces, over all of Portugal, and from there, breaking all frontiers, over the whole Church and the entire world".[68] On 1 May 1948, in Auspicia Quaedam, Pope Pius XII requested the consecration to the Immaculate Heart of every Catholic family, parish and diocese. "It is our wish, consequently, that wherever the opportunity suggests itself, this consecration be made in the various dioceses as well as in each of the parishes and families." [69][70] On May 18, 1950, the Pope again sent a message to the people of Portugal regarding Ftima: "May Portugal never forget the heavenly message of Ftima, which, before anybody else she was blessed to hear. To keep Ftima in your heart and to translate Ftima into deeds, is the best guarantee for ever more graces".[71] In numerous additional messages, and in his encyclicals Fulgens Corona (1953), and Ad Caeli Reginam (1954), Pius XII encouraged the veneration of the Virgin in Fatima. At the end of the Second Vatican Council Pope Paul VI renewed the consecration of Pius XII to the Immaculate Heart of Mary and, in an unusual gesture, announced his own pilgrimage to the sanctuary on the fiftieth anniversary of the first apparition. On May 13, 1967, he prayed at the shrine together with Sister Lcia. This historic gesture further cemented the official support for Ftima. Pope John Paul II credited Our Lady of Ftima with saving his life following the assassination attempt on Wednesday, May 13, the Feast of Our Lady of Ftima, in 1981.[citation needed] He followed the footsteps of Paul VI, on May 12, 1987, to express his gratitude to the Virgin Mary for saving his life. The following day, he renewed the consecration of Pius XII to the Immaculate Heart of the Virgin.[15] On May 12 and 13, 2010, Pope Benedict XVI had visited the Sanctuary of Our Lady of Ftima and strongly stated his acceptance about the supernatural origin of the Ftima apparitions. In the first day, the Pope arrived to the Chapel of Apparitions to pray and gave a Golden Rose to Our Lady of Ftima "as a homage of gratitude from the Pope for the marvels that the Almighty has worked through you in the hearts of so many who come as pilgrims to this your maternal home". The Pope also recalled the "invisible hand" that saved John Paul II and said in a prayer to the Blessed Virgin Mary that "it is a profound consolation to know that you are crowned not only with the silver and gold of our joys and hopes, but also with the 'bullet' of our anxieties and sufferings".[72] In the second day, Pope Benedict's homily had pronounced in front of more than 500,000 pilgrims a reference to the Ftima prophecy about the triumph of the Immaculate Heart of Mary and related it to the final "glory of the Most Holy Trinity".[73][74]