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4-1

, ECOLEPOLYTECHNIQUEDEMONTRAL DPARTEMENT DES GNIES CIVIL, GOLOGIQUE ET DES MINES COURS CIV 6508 _ ANALYSE DYNAMIQUE DES STRUCTURES
Prof. P. Lger
Session

4-1

Hiver 2006 (RVISION 2009)


Rfrences

AKC (1)
Chap4-5 Chap 6

PIan de cours
o Rponses aux

soilicitations harnoniques et priodiques - Isolation de la vibration - Traitement de signaux - Analyse dans le domaine des frquences

Chap.3 (3.1- 3.2) J (.).J - r. /J


3 (3.12 - 3.13)

Chap

(Arnexe A ) * Rfrences (Lectures) (1) Dl,namics of Structures, Theory ard Application to Eafihquake Engineering, A.K. Chopra, rd Edition, 2007 Prentice-ttall. 2'd Edition.2001, 2OOIr33\d ,1 zo\.
:

(2) Dynamique des structures, application aux ouvrges de gnie civil, p.paultre, Lavoisier, 2005. Notes de cours

HARMONIOUE

4.I

Systmes non-mortis

4.2 Systmes amortis 4.3 Mesure de la flaction d'amorlissement par essais de rsonance 4.4 Rponse frquentielle complexe sous chargement harmonique 4.4.1 Rappel - nonbres complexes 4.4.2 Rponse structurale un chargement harmonique 4.5 Instruments sismiques 4.5.I Acclromtres 4.5.2 Jauges de dplacements 4.6 Applications 4.7 Isoiation de la vibration 4.7.1 Isolation des fondations d'une lorce applique 4.7.2 Isolation contre les mouvements sismiques 4.7.3 Applications

5.1 Introduction - Mthodes directes vs mthodes de supeosition 5.2 Rponse sous charges priodiques - domaine des frquences (sries de Fourier) 5.2.1 Nombres re1s 5.2.2 Nombres complexes 5.3 Rponse sous charges priodiques domaine du temps 5.4 Traitement de signaux et dynamique exprimentale 5.4.1 Contenu frquentiel (FFT, spectre de Fourier) 5.4.2 Filtres 5.4.3 Taux d'acquisition des donnes er contenu frquentiel

ANNEXE A - Nombres Complexes (P. Paultre 2005) ANNEXE B - Vibrations des plalLchers cause s par l'ctivit hun.raine.

4-1

4-1

4-1

4-2

CROSS SECTION OF HYDROELECTRIC

4-2

POWER STATION
COLI'E D'UNE CFNI RALE IYDROTLCTRIQLT CRO55 SECIION OF HYDROELECTRIC POWER STATION
dlsjoncteur" circuit breaker

portiquer
gantry crane

traver5e' de lransformatetrr^'

bushlng

lransforrner

: ,,'

oarafot)C,te" ightninq arrester

pont'1ro! anl
travellng crane;

travelling.rone

saller des machlnes' machine hall

galerie'de visite'
access gallery

portiquev

9antry crane

bche'spirale
Scroll case

va

nne; gate

bief" d'aval" afterbay

cana'de fuite'
tailrace

groupe'turbo
allernateur" generator unlt

g.i e'
scTeen

barre'b inde
busbar

rservoir"

conduite'force
penstock

4-2

4-2

4-2

4-3

4-3

Figure 5.21 - C|A:Stiqation des vibrations mesures sur l'arbre

ta loJ
,o)

300

200

.v

o
q.,

150

o" .o 100 -

100

150

Frquence (cycles par minute)


Lgende

Vibrations tolrables Vibrations mineures

ffi

4-3

Figure 5.21 - Classification des vibrations mesures sur l'arbre 4-3

4-3

4-4

tt"l^ 14 f&Pf"t)a
Sl4;

r/l'

- t'rt'tt't

uil

f, crqe

Sfrtu,rlt-y

4-4

cil

606

Ta'4

nl

l---+irf

.frr)

+
N(t) y'&),tt

ftt)

=fo

si,"f

Mt)M,

trsol"Ito

Irt'li,

Iruth'iu

,,td* d-t)

ry"o1;

t,,
t[7,*T'n
4a-t vt.*x-

/or^al;*

*P/4 Wf-r"
o)

a /a fl*

f d:

r Solurr*r

"

,c"-+t'ry@ s
=

= So/*'1,ns olr /|'Ffr'n

= ga@itvl l-- (v'/tt"'fio"'a

t@tat')h'tn'

/fc rt)
t' ,,rl_>

A1*wt + bSn-cw7 fat-r- u:-- ,tr|^-t

ortt-'w)'r'in* :-:
G

/W'/rt r"r^
'

J*

1tn*r":

g,1

/'f fu' //"

*)-,
Ot-

f*,t

C^?t+

U4rrrl^tlla- ,tl,t't /4M


/twtL'/^
W

M?

As?"dr'd'
Q'uI

N t p ht p auu, Pnt k
(.ruJnlr'In Nptrl

/k

'*cpt',+t*

, ot
4-4

/4^,4/|'fuf',u' //lr'ratfti//*
4-4 4-4

q>

4-5

6 (k - n*
6(r-

ls'1'= 7" ,,'u t) =' 4"/1

,it[ .1o /,tC. = /"/^^f


gtz,a-t

4-5

rl"rtC U=./77

7'

r/

U'-/e
-tt) t t

,l=

--'p

e,
/L

--

L trllL

6(r- ') = h
./a

o=97
jllt

.t4.1 / -A,
Aip(.Di'p.

Or.^.

F 4*t, uialoia-d^lt. d4a44L l; t4 Ttatr*,L /' I't sru"h

e'/""t*r[rr"1''P M' U'

,rf ts /^I pll',6t*ulu 4 /1,uLn oLa c") f,.t il+v l,rto)v 7',i /<bdr l^'rt^"t'rr,t /^'*^"t'rnt f,,t'il*u 7'rtolv' ^ ' 1i
4o.rlr"
J

trfct)

,lt

Ua

Pr*

/,rro)

=e
l

,r.T

ito) 'o
B=o

A'-l:t'-l--13 r -F,
hL
soy'u-f,'a,..r

Wf,L:'
I

,W
,^^,6r

[ ;r]

-pe^,.'r

M or"St
4-5,{C

-1--sfollg'*

4-5

4-5

4-6

',fur'*

" Prf- P J^t'-J ( +,)' "t*',^rnt'r

f*' /^r

yvt,t) X o t'ro) y'Wu^t

4-6

N'f t*o ?''


eT/L

/4 //du/ ' +*lu'llt- dl'n^lri r-bst' u


)

f* /'uflu
'A

hJ,

*"

'

Euh^.o/tuL

r^@1^N,1,:ry4,-.. tz
rfu'la'ut'r7ffi" V.ln,
?att^ fu'/nnurh,

dt' 'rriu dtL ilt'Putat '{*'''";f 4qfu

7o V-z^-Xn s I t,/Lt*-n'l*-f,$* )

/#:ilfr
lr &)'
4
d13

(t)

kdu^)
V

!, f* Nlltfu y'* f"'f e

'=t;

+'* Tvtt)

'; = a

*/,4,. /yh,?T a*V 'to, -'f ,';,r"".1

htn't^'-'i^arat':)
c ot*'*o*^''1a'Tuw)

l*

#cr-"ar-n*tl

fr''- t')
-7'*',wf

,+'lL

it./lt 0lir4 lt *l'l1hlInn


tt)=

F|

rJo

f wt wflwt
wl I
*t/-rf

f''
l
1

---- zp
jout

,=t

.ho

wt Ct'twl -

0u,

iluJ

Nlt^'"

h ll4"t- a *AF,"f'zt 1:ry* f* : a*)

*l^
4-6
'

{t

*i

Z'il,|'/^^;d pll pilwruuliq c/'t t't'vf^o{a,"'tt ol'/' /'r'//' L s'ry'r e I ,'/" l' fi ^' ot'+ ,t'" tt'/'""*4-6 y't1ut , 'r^'f"tJ' ,r' 4-6

4-7

ilt*. ?^ ,/^

d"+ /f4/a{/^

4-7

*,rl u@
/,]st

Jy

dJ^"^-f'r.,
y't-

6) -,

L .t^rr^' /'WuJt>"'
-frr ) = |
t
a

at o tuo tdtg

ryz@
o
, -t)--

/"^ r

nft) = ptt) -- --l- (ru^ ).-/L /-aL I


not

ttf -rr^t wf
- Jwtssntc. Lrqrtu'rff 4tqql -6 t.''-.'.C J^3 -.^
dr.B,.tr'Ba6{

- C ' ?*(is

'm.r.rra'lt:

lfc tt)

. '*^(A

{*uig^rur);,tt',
! dlt :

,Jt-V

-.----1

t S,tht,'fuL r a ria"L, / i'yatfi

'

o^- d^Jh iu^I t'ilL,0't

{a'

o 4r5rfl'- 6, U.,^)t'.,:A"p"^a f c 7,ii rr) = - io' ct, Fr - ' , m,l

tair

+r,rr^r =

bp;Af

(
+

/'q'a'-6,u) () + g, d)L|\af
=
ful tu,;,t /rrtr,'
--

[-6"o'+6,t(z/a)+,ut]at

4,=

fu,

/4

C,-t') +t{lf)z

-t

ir= lg -z k
4-7

4-7 4-7

,/g

4-7

4-8

4-8

--

e' 2'

(l l^

u)x

+3

qoaor)

+ 6, ?+"^uJf,

+ t

Cnf

^r)

lu| n
ut'ot-t,

dn uult'

r,at'r i dtlo,

,- a.{.r'r"n-or'"- ctl} ,h' N'M //wHuf/*d' N"f l"a- phu.^*. ,'i'* fno-o

, 9'&, e,4^tudr'/Lp&^^f ,h Ntt)= P (r-tfl'+(z/ LIt


lt)'

z{

f uoarf

lrT) , 6, St"i[ t t en@f

fr* otlhry,"

f=/.tu;' 1o=ot"'ry)
A

t
4-8

ft'+E *
(q

--^/_r

0t , aL'ulau,t

. ht/l

tot*

wry
4-8

f^pft.r

,;,t""

r//ar,-,
4-8

4-9

4-9

21F)'

J
o

=/fuuf' ____+Lt A /

-r'

Nttl=

tFnut
-

t,-f")'*GtP"
t'

Z (2-., ( prt)=

iotUi*f

[ .it). f"p,f tI
U

= *o 't

/) 1*,"y''t |uoLt d^ /s' =J uho*rt k'Ujt-"t* (zllr' tltt-rt") v- | i^.,r,tot ,l-(


I

). ,1-

r'//-/
,[f{

t*
2=oof" Z. /t"/o

P -1-

L'zs'/'

T-4-9 4-9 56 4-9 4-9

4-10 4-10

4-10 4-10

;F
{

i$

MTIO CF

FORCING FREQUENCY TO

||ATUML FREqUENCY, B

6/u

Figure 15. flg5ponse factor foi a one.story structurc subiected to harmonic forcc

D'f

'r,) ,,

4-10

4-10

4-10

4-11

4-11

tiy'J Fru'+= q"qte n r.t /zn Pu ''o i <<ur

/*,W^y're
k- &

/4.,.^t' rrt"l, t"u , tbl'/h"r/k),ta- l'< 1,,:u-

/*/*

(i;) 5r' O--t M

=j

*I

,t','t

2. o,to D'-S

/,0,a1

D=5O

--

D"<

ll'

|Bfu"e4Piw-:
D=M
flk
t p* /";^f rrulr'rtvtt*t /* /lf Il
.t,I /. Lfu,l hrt-r/-

-(-y'-t-

/^^,1' ol =o

,fft t"*' ,b /r*t &rn


=

rL[1.
t

4'
h

,lcuts

/,:
b=t

r't

Sr'&
A,r*

Clr.o^:rr,+

(w x

a)
fru
"

sw
L

D-rra,+

, '*t-rt n.lrtul'a^t( t- rhtfu pr'L m,l tq ,*,t/rr ,"*'U:ri^ I un fo r^'rfAr WJ/te[uk'r a ot ft^wu1 rval o,t', bLl ruw1

rt

y 4,4t^ 1!r'X11**-r ry f, f .fatn (a-aat'u fr


xurs

Ai
4-11 4-11 5t

P&f /.ov.'tt,- /)^L nut^'a


4-11

dl- Z.
4-11

4-12

4-12

-6S-

.,&c"

:t'

Figrrre

5.2

Aerial view of Morrow point D;rm anrl rescrvoir. Taken lrom reference
134

].

4-12

4-12

4-12

jI

4-13
tat
0e

4-13

o
t9

i:

o'
t

:'
0q

o o

o
@

|, o
EI

4t

z
4-13

{
F

o
et

4-13

4-13

4-14

-83-

4-14

o
I
o-

o
I
-

rt u L'
LJ

rt
L)

(J
LJ ID

(t)

all

to

(l

FREO (HZ)

FREO (HZ)

,tl
LrJ

U)

t!

trJ

IJJ

cc

u)

o
(!

(J ll'l (9

-J
lrJ
a.l
ea .-

lrl

UI

q-

z. uu

FBEO (HZ)

{.00

8.00

6. 00 {. 00 FBEo (HZl

Figtre

5.16

Measured and computed frequency lespoDse cuwes obtaiaed for the aotisymmetric sha.ke at Blocks 15 and 13 ou tbe dam crest. Shown are the radial coraponents of acceleration aod phase. The solid culr/es replesent the experimental data and the dashed curves denote the computed respoure. a incompressible water model was used ia the analysis.

4-14

4-14

4-14

4-15

4-15

ilarto"

anfal* tn' 'du'ui ^4oe\dfl ,y'*oea'=


F

Il'-

d
F
I'

ci * li 7n;Z e' lua, f.


^ tL )-"rtJ_-_

o,lo,h

IJry

U:e.XtmL
, Dfl: hdtwtJ.ttL ,/tt4'l ilr, v)
.-o

N
-b

NIL

f)
l

, dt",J,h'Ultt' 1'all,ttg"{;ar,u ok k ' ,!*,,y. st"t^ {}"t (tit-o)

-tlb+-

-.,A't

$tzn'pe. ft^ 4 @ /'t"ut' qy" ryy pw a!/,, ft d-r I u,r 4lfuU'r7,,at1,t' vr^uJ*

Lu-,,Jt l,|rt".tu-),

tr -o"u*1, /r*l)tT.^t J'f lrLt1L l'arn'aV4+r,t^tf

yfu- z /u'q,uJ-

, P/r 'sSa^* Jtt cta /4 rrJ*t/- t"f //'rwx'lt't'ou- k'- lk!so^z'- /n'A,t/lt"t-b)4.,,
4-15 4-15

!t

4-15

4-15

4-16

4-16

St'w'.

pttt'alIr*
t

b rl*

r--

7 = Tz--

lrr ') a
c.
E

f,

/z'

(t't')',
L''

(zt

f)'''/f^t,u' /3'

L)d,rr

13r=r-1+12 = 6,lw

t= t +2'

6'/us

2' 'lt (f". - '


?,?, (to1)
aafiu'+t tl;-

'Wv*t/rf-taulf

'.i) /V's?'rruJ

i
:'

=:=-

t /fu*4 / .@, 9* pt*awulU plt


.^./'bttTt'w

-l
'

/ flufu,t/

tr'i)

Sl/urtr^A.L

@tlp^i

6t'e,0",

lT dr* fl'/t+y.'r

/t /a,,1,+ rwaltiul'u *f b tJ,,'t Puft'w y't rl-*rAr'/**-f,'o'

^r:

q lotn uU,lt"* rt+,(t'n /oz.l't


16=,,X

*.b!ryr4, lrWry =) zy'ltrt Ll


1i
fr,

f /l

",r "tJ4bsg_

rt-,tgltL

(iLi) AtuvL,

M!8, /Jl.'q'L.L U44i /** A nu'ttl-,uf ,utu* 1xt^/"tt* l,r'tr'l't*- el* t* jnt '1p= rutw'il* ) rl@@ l,), 1t,ts' tM'
,l

t"/n\t*/t ,wi f^W. rrt-Ca/Ya ,li


t4-16 4-16 t2 4-16

\A

)'tuh/al',t'

4'r-, Vi* *,

iulr" da\'n^

cl'ti^rt^5,'t "'Vlt

' ' 'f rtan-obr' <t'n' /n'f^t^*


4-16

4-17

ooo;

: a ; c:ti,

;.!

u c

sl

z C,c I Y t t rr- I r i d:.

i2=-

I
<
.:=*
--i+-.
.al

,,'2 Z='-.i!: ^a
?,

.
v .'

ll!i;:
.l

E;JP

@-1C

:.-4.
r;siir;rj-l+ij
,o . c9

d t:i ::,P,
o- o- 1 1
r-

.l .l .1

!ir^

+- !1

2 9

t1 -a

l{1

\ \)
4-17 4-17

6b'b

4-17

4-17
a

4-17

4-18

4-18

122

Dynamique,:iessfuctures

5.3 Dans J.expiricnce

tremre libre de ta zoeJe!iqJe. Les re.ul,rr"

r"*..,#.'r il

de l,exelcrce 5

nrde de5 J( celerrrions ng'rre 5 S Traccrl:rn t;' u'norrrssement er Je "";;:;;":::p':.entc' d0",,..", pour chdquc poLure sr les cir.creri.,iqLes ot,"n"tn., J ."";;".n'i], ::*:ue urs olrlercntes polrrre. ." modle d rmortis.eme", ,u, "onlorn,"n, "i:;"r;"'"'
0,09

1". accetirarron\ a I e\Id l1:'l :'",'" I irroc Lrn perrl ,rccelerornerre pii. obie;;;:.:i".' la

r""ji,]l:l"hq*".ir,.^iil;'; ;::ll;

- 0,09

0,0045

-0,015

0,05

-0,05

-0,01

Figrc 5.3. ar.r1]r., r

r.,r,,r,.

.\rrr r, ./ji r

4-18

4-18

4-18

4-19

4-19

sn(wo
Chapter
XXIY

Frequencv-domain analysis is based upon the dynamical response ofthe struclure to harnonically varying load. Two types of fiequency-domain analysis cases re

crrently available: deterministic Steady-State analysis and probabalislic


Power-Specrral-Densily irnllysis.
Advanced Topics

Ovewielv

reclu

Frequency Steps Sleady-State nalysis

Power-Spectral-Density Analysis

359

4-19

4-19

4-19

4-20

4-20

Overview
Frequency-domain analysis is based upon the dynatnical response ofthe structure to hamronically varying Loacl. 'fhc analysis is pcrformed at onc or more frequcncies

of vibration. At each fieqr.tency, the loading varies with time as sine and cosine functions. "hvo types of frequency-domain analysis cascs are currently availablc:
steady-stte analvsis and pou,er-spectral-density anaiysis.

Stedy-state analysis computes the deterministic response at each requested frequency. The loacling may have components a1 acting different phase angles. The pbase angles ofthe response re computed and may be displayecl. Power-spectral-density analysis is bascd on aprobablistic spcctrum ofloading Thc anal.vsis computes a probablistic spectrum fbr cach resporse component. In adclition, a singlc pr obablistic expecrcd value for each responsc compncnt is prcsented that is thc root-mean-square (Rlr4S) olithe probablistic spectmm. The loading may have components at acting different phase anglcs, but the phase information is not presewed for the probabiistic response. Hysteretic anclviscous clamping rn:Ly be speciiied. Frequency-depenclent properties lbr Link and Support elcmcnts, i1'dehned. ale colsidered in the analyscs. All analyses are perfollecl in the complex domain.

Harmonic Motion
Harnonic loadirrg is olthe ibrm r( l) -- p0 cos(cttt) + p90 sin(rlr ), rvhere rrr is the circular frequency ol'the e.\citation. This loading is assumed to exisl lor ail time, so thal transient components of the response irave vanished. 1n other rvords, stedyrstaTe conditions have been achieved.
The spatial loading consists offivo pafis: the in-ptrase componentpr, ancl the 90" out-of-phase component p9. The spatial distributions do not varv as a function ol time. The equilibrium eqr.rations fbr the structural system are ofthe lbllowing form:

K u(t'1 +C ti(t)+PI

ii(.t)-r(t)=p0

cos(or) +p90

sin(r_,rr)

lvhere 1( is tlie stilfiress matrix, C is the vlscous damping matrix. ,&1is the diagoiLal rr.nss matrix, and u. ti, and il are the joint displacetnents, velocities. and accelera-

tions, respectively.

360

0yerview

4-20

4-20

4-20

4-21

4-21

Chapter)0(lV Frequency-DomainAnalyses

trequency Domain
It is rnore convenient to re-write the eqaations in complex lbrm. The loading is then givcn by

/( r)

exp(lo/) = I (cos(orr)

-1.

lsin(cr))

r,vhere the overbar tdicates a comp)ex

quantity. The rcal cosine tenn represeltls the in-phase component, and tlie imaginary sine telm represents the 90' out-of-phase comp0nent.

The stedy-stte soiution olthis equation rcquires that thejoint displacements be tire same fbrm:

of

r.(r) = t exp(t(/)

-t

(cos(r/) +

lsin(o/))

SrLbstituting these into tbe eqrLation of motion yields:


I

K +i(r,c -ot'I 1n = p
malrix

\Ve can dehne a comp

K =K - <t' M + iosC
where The real pafi represents stifJiess and inertial ef.1ects, and the inraginary pafi represcts damping effccts. Note that the rcal part may bc zcro or negative. The eqr.rations ofnrotion can be w-ritten:

-.(ul) = P((,, =, ,l (t,)) lI

(Eqn.

))

where herc we emphasize that the impedance matrix, the loading, and the displacements re all functions of lrecluency.

-a

x@)=r&r-azM+it>c1tY

Please see Topic "1. requency- Dependent Link/Support Propetties" lpage 227) in Chapter "The Link/SLrpporl Element-Aclvanced" for more inibrn.ration.

Frequency Domain

36t

4-21

4-21

4-21

4-22

4-22

CSI

Analysis Reference Manual

Steady-State Analysis
Steady-state analysis seeks the response ofthe strucnrre at one or more fieqrencies

to Ioading of thc form:

pto .ls,t it
See

,tr,.:t

pr",0,' -1.',

,\u.r)

p;i,us0, , 'sinU,

Topic "Loading" (page 363) in this Chapter for more rlbrmation about this

type of )oading. The frequency functron, ./, (o), is given clirectly by a stcady-state lunction that you definc. 11 represonls the magnitude of thc load bcfore scaling by "rr. See Topic "Functions" (pagc 263 ) in Chapter: "Analysis Cases" fbl nore infirrmation.

Ifyou are interestecl in the response characteristics ofthe stnrctLrre itself'. a constant funclion could be used, i.e., l 7 (rc) - 1. l or loaclir.rg that is caused by rotating machinery, / , (o) = o' might be Lrsed.

Example
Suppose we havc a machine rvith a spinning flywhcel that has an ccucntric ntrrss. Thc uass is rr and the center of mass is eccentric by an anrount e. Thc 11yx'heel spils abor"rt an axis parallcl 10 thc gLobal Y axis. This urachinc is mountcd on a structure, and lve arc intcrcsteci in thc stcady-state iesponse of the structurc to thc macirii1e running at any specd in thc rangc lrom 0 to 3OHz (i800 R"M).

The magnitLrde ofthe tbrce from the eccentLic mass that acts on the center
need the following:

oflota-

tion is givenby emr,:2. This tbrce rotates in the X-Z plane. To cle{i:re the loaciing. we

. . . .

A Load Case, say "ECCX". ur rvl.rich a unit load il the '1'X dircction is assigned to the joint that represents tire center of the flyrvheel.
Anotl.rer Load Casc, say "CCZ". in which a unit load in thc +Z direction is signed to the sarne joint.
a.s-

A Stcady-stte I'unction, say *I"SQUARITD'', u,hich varies

as

/;

(o) = ro2

A klodal Analysis Case, say "N{ODAL", which calculates all natural Trequencies in the range ftom 0 to 3 0-l''lz. Tl.ris can be for cigen or Ritz vectors: if Ritz, r.rse the t$,o Load Cases "EClCX" and "ECCZ" as the strting load \.,ectors.

We then det'ine a Steadystate Analysis Ciase with the tbilou,ing features: 366
Steady-State Analysis

4-22

4-22

4-22

4-23

4-23

Leonharf, Eu[er
(ryoz-tzBE)

Leonhard Euler (1707 - 1783) was a Swiss mathematician who became a court math He produced many works in algebra and geometry and was interested in the geomelrical form of deflection curves in strength of materials. Euler's column buckling load is quite lamiliar tc mechanical and civil engineers, and Euler's constant and Euler's coordinate system are well known to mathematicians. He derived the equation of motion for the bending vibrations oT a rod (Euler-Bernoulli theory) and presented a series form of solution, as well as studying the dynamics of a vibrating ring. (By permission of Brown Brothers, Sterling, PA 18463.)
4-23

(ao nral

4-23

4-23

4-24

4-24

i:

(
ri
!-

':;

....

i',,
.:

!'

iri

i:

it
Tifi3e;ry.
_

-::

/
il

.ti
t:

4-24

4-24

4-24

4-25

'T

/o.

/{,1

,/t

't,,Xat :n / TooV r'f 'Dt)t).E + + P&I,lnA

"*-,f 4

4-25

' &+bc' ti

il

,tq[ l''.'il*
l',r,.r,r*

',

t-'

t Z=4*;l
r*vtfo'"'r":
I

h'^rru

lJ,-

,I t'.r.<ttlhal|* ,t, " 2OOS ap(,.t4=f coa,


4

u nt'rl 'b
o

0 I

f= /*'-1'

.'nS44O | ------'---c

p8

ft

=ll+1'4:
U

t'' /?

t-----

F( h-re t /'l^e)
/7JJJ

a4ll,rL
-

7 = A-,r'3

e'1 =hz,e+l'/t't?
e'tc -- b-70 ',r'1e

(, (or 6, +.t'yiat) "= (. (bto" +;V*io") 1,t,'-f,(. (W (o,tQ,) +i,no^ ro'*0"))


Z,
=

,ft, =
4,r'.
z

fr

, *- (0,-0,)

*i/

/0, -0,)

/lL

'/ur/f il-/a/- //*'r^'t"L Cn'lLu/L I

L d.rou
ar,L

ffi,'.' 'Lfr f/tu-"t nnttE{i


n/ru) f,
(-l

ti

+ c{,+ I

. ril

lo (a*" = lo (Cniot

,"P*ry*(fu*
T.,',1,, \,tp,v''tt't"t

rt l=

e'

t'{

^ trtt/=^ut6(
l4t),:),w,-

.- .tat

f-,rn '+ c r +,LJ


4-25

t{

(, t

-o

i:

-,,r,t

L +CiN +/t 4-25

N[th'(tw

t'^' rt

z4{N

wr.

y'=

/l*

F=6,1^
4-25

u.trnx

4-26

4-26

n,t cD"
ablJ U0 z

2t*us;t; * &l. "t"


/r{O!

( -/s') *;11,
r*-'.

(,-fal)-zi{

_,r- t

J,

(,-r,)-r,'tf
+
t./ ,tt., ,-',-1-

2 Lt,fTtl=
i" tr)
+
=

4,

')'+ (rtp)'
llJ

k'-t.-)- (ztfl

4o

2l

't' - r)

(Co4y *1Vai'i,r)

E
h
4o -J-

')'*(rt
I

fs)

,] l, -(,')w,r +z7Pe;r

t'L nt-'/)Jt lt /tL' nd,.4;n


'rJr;t

(t -p')'+ Gt)'

w,-u,

,^f 'ztf

e4?

t l Qo"It't'r: f ';)

WrrW,"t

Jl la

Lg,!fup (t@, t "'a\|t'W"/)) r'o"t a4/*1) i'qilL,*t^I, ,-il*r,* C,4 , / t'.ntr'.h rtu'lt)
oln'+

, Lnfwiut,*"
I

, h nz/i*- rulJk

44J

p- d/a/* au[ ltt),'o { !,,,^ c.lw.U".* r'|k^ft*../tt@ ,Urtf -i!vt-"^


U-l,rt"hrqot
'fv

\, .F

:\ iX
\! .\ \, /\ ')(.

/|uJI + cl/

+,1r = /o/ai aif


t4. '. t'1"1)

L, ,'6' (
+d

#.

p;r

tr tl) -- /n ^ ei'4 f rrl . - fr 's i'

ttrt)zie"d --

N- (-4il'!'Q;M-

'
fo"triL
+

@z eivJt. urlal

t'Mi-f"/t.^a

itf

tl

+ ustlt-

= P^*u^, *f

(
4-26 4-26

- t aTif a +r)') { = F^^,n


4-26

/-pI,/'/o,, P = ^/,
l;'t-+

It

Soluiarrrr LL

r,r

4-26

4-27

4-27

.-

fr=

Jo

nt.(p'((t-,)

+zt2p)
'

ft)
.

--7tr a

|*r

vj = L-------= 17 r-t) c-/


<

7nrw.f 1,-f')'*

rz2f)'i'1"

. e':
(QoO

rt'1tu't)
)

=f""
x
I/ trul ,
t--.-|

(t-tt)+itCf

t---. t/7t lZ=

/tLt) = f/n

S,ut (
{r

6t 't)
S

ot'@1/at'0 /,-

^1r-/o ^ t'tr-o)

I
-!9L

t, - 1t')' *

1t')' }

/'

ort,.,5f-e/_, \-2

\ o/y!'ttuir L

n^r lt^-

+ ,i r ,A- = hrtl " 7o 1''d


ol- /ul.r,A

/f
ft--

fta"rt;*,.
l+

frPfrru P/l4L

lr ttl .
l .-

fu et'T

J
4-27 4-27

4-27 4-27 >b

4-28

4-28

,5 /^JS fu4

ts

us

Vibraring
machine or
strUCture

ransducer o

Display unir.

Figure

10.1

Bsic vibration measurement scheme

ztssra')
'F:(-\

'y'olfrt-

r
.l

4t

s ffi1l
PtEZOEtCTAIC

-c=

(b)
Flgre

Figure 10.12 Accelerometers. (Coudesy ol Bruel & Kjaer lnskumenls. lnc., Marlborough, Mass.)

l0.5

piezoeleckic accelerometer.

({lAo
tb,3
4-28

fifo).
4-28 4-28

4-29

4-29

IE

Amplitier

\Hor"ing

\
Figure

stud

3.4A.

Type Accelerorfleter

llear}4oOe

Low-Noise Electronics

Faraday Housing

Ground Isolation

ligute 3.48,

Sheat Accelerotfleter

^cctLEeTror

Housrxc

Figure

3.4C. Capacitioe Accelerofieter

4-29

4-29

4-29

4-30

4-30

ia{ru;.,/nfs * S{r et 6 g

ttqlc oodrL of pdrlnr rlnryTf. lrcoldlq wdcrt ud tro blsord d&r.dor of 3urd Ao. thc prndulua nurt bc,t-rpcd b b r.D.||a r.tEic pba. [Froo inoe !ol( fldrrr Erp bd.,|, ad W. H. FnrDl rod Coqoy. Cryyrirbr O fgl!.l
rr 4lorcud ls Flanrt 2. Vcrtlcrl odoo cra bc rrcorrdcd by tr atr b r r9rl4 hodlj roo tc &ran rod ttc bobbin3 of thc mrr, r :ir r oa rcJc,-rtll lucribo r t f* -* -J. ir u1llly l!1t-oqt of r ddc*11 oodon of thc gooD{ tb. orr o ta Ftlu to gcodulum, r hctzontrl vhich I rviagr liLi $b{, q of r nourc out iL fi".. uy o Uutd 1;i'nC616trgnph. by eochtaj r oor o thc y-* ldof r rplnl rpriry c nbtor od ud rh.firs your hra{ you rill :!d r.t lr ngr otbln b adlLb rar tc hrad hrr bocn iro,rtt o r.nt- ftir f-" AU p..a.fLlU, ,"Utc .bo* -tgorrld lh*tns ud nurt ttcrcforc bc deopcd by rooc mcceai. .a ct -.t""cfcef -. to UiJ-v, t rclevc moo bctwcca tc r.. ltd . h. b r nru of go..d too. Evoa ro, io mt rondh3l th& rrldvs don tr mt-tc tlr. Dooa of thc ua{ ro qr-r raboanDr {r D6t .; lcraolnrDr o plcu ol do Dc Dd tlw of rbat tbet tbc thc gloud ti! r! .ct ptcturt alound q! goud od dor orut bc cdcuLbd by tlia3 iato . i:a
3

or lt phyricr of thc pcadulun'r ndoa. I la odcra rcirnolnphr, tc rclrvc doo bctcco tf,c pco ahn ^ :!d lac arodrnr ra clcctic r[nd rr..t ir -..|r rGcd ;lcc. lhicdtv trr.nir."a *ir."a-ar oi tlo,ueadr -r bcbrc

:n !c{ .d.ttd rgr.t' "--;-;r;;ph .a"- -" .r-r"-a"a (g .3 ..4.4. pcoadcd


to

b drlw rn clcotc rytru


trpc
ncondrr).

prodrn ttc reirmogno. Thc

!trtpr

rond rwr.r rlr by r nicropbooc h tht rry, tc Fo."d -do;-;bc p-rercn cd

*ffi,ffiS*

lh.t

tr

r&r* rttr bor u

4-30

4-30

4-30

4-31

4-31

SMA-I
Strong Motion Accelerogrcph

The SMA-1 Strong Motion Accelerograph is a reliable, low cost, battery operated earthquake recorder specifically designed to measure ground acceleration and structural response from strong local earthquakes. Triaxial photographic recording is provided by the SMA-1 when triggered by Iocal earthquakes and their aftershocks. Over 6,000 SMA-1 accelerographs have,been installed in more than 70 countries.

Applications include use at free-field locations and on structures such as dams, buildings and bridges. The SMA-1 is used in regional seismicity networks to determine relative soil response characteristics. Three SMA-1 units interconnected for common starting and timing fulfill the requirements of the ICBO and Uniform Building Code for instrumentation of buildings in Seismic Zones 3 and 4.

4-31

KINEMETRICS i SYSTEMS, 222 VISTA AVENUE; PASADENA, CA 91107

4-31

(818) 795-2220;TELEX 67-5402 Kl\4ETRICS PSD

4-31

4-32
GENERAL DESCRIPTION The seismic trigger snss th yrtlcl component ol th6 initial earthquak ground rnotion (wave) and actuates the SMA-1 to lull opratlon in lss than 0.05 s6cond.
S.bltrb tlggt

IGH
0.5 to 0.05 9).

4-32

Br.

\hixl
1

accalc.rti'r.$ard\r| (rt.ndaro. Omi-horizontat displacrml-sariti\G (optixr.D.


to 10 Hz.

&dwith
Sct

ftint
0 lo

0.01 9 .E

Hokloo

rn

inll (.djust.bL

a squonco

Sacoar ]lunablr by 3oli'stata cootrot circurt.

as 25 minutes, on a full roll of fllm. Additional de scrlptlv6 information is availabl in Kinmtrlcs' Applicatlon Note3 #13 (Dotermining lnstrumnt Ch8r. cteristics trom Manufacturerl Data), t15 (Characterlstics of Elctromagntic Startent for Strong Motion Acc,slrographs), 118 (Earthquake lnstrurnnts .nd Building Sef6ty), f, (Strong Motlon AccolorcOreph Selection), and in the Buildlng St Commissioning Nots, all ayailablc from Klncrneics.
TECHNICAL SPECIF|CANOilS

Porar

Faqulctrittr
\oI
1

Brnara3
Tr 6

8.tt..y ClrCng
Erta.nal
1

intrnral .cchlrg.lbL blnrrica.


0

Por. Co.ltl,npab 0.15 mA nrny;

Vtc o, 2 \hd1 2V&.

S.ori

tGly 1 Anp racordng.

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISCS
t{a.dg
RJ$ad catl

FEllteq't|ri
Raco.d.E

lradul 7 n &tlr ba..


ot

plDto

ltn
tita

Qr.the tmprntur. - ' b 35' C (0' to lO'F).


l+rrty tnc.. b.

Pk htct tor tac!.iv lhri ct t.at m ba...

rlutinq wttarlighl b.l|. md cov"r

acordng tracas

btd

ql.d Sp..d
1

Itrilro Marls lvo mrrks p.r


0

tlnirlg tr6. lrld

sfi

trGs: thraa

tr

Gart trr. tF
ratafara.

tO. rtaroht tuidng. lnta.cdllctbl


EnaflU cqlotion lor cqnrm.l ttrrting rd timing in rccal.rgrpfr r.tva.la, b.ncry t6tin9, arart alirm lignlt Mcj.nit9

firad
(

soco.n

0.2.).

rrt ana l li.rr.


(

flrvracoatd

Strl{.9

aco.ctne 1r 25 mirulc

Oi.taiona
50

Sitt bli lEb


N.t

v. iEh). A

'. I 3' trud

is proviJGd.

ftIl

C.l. tal.2 x r
9itl*19 3i:.

Full

Mr$zinaa

a.rtin witt*

nacgfih fl|.e|:tr[
wilh

SlFhg l.ight fih srpdy

nen

355 lYm(8' x 1a'). 270 r 270 r 4 rnm (10%' r 107,' x 16') t 1 kg 4 lb..)
13 k9

r8'

( lbc.)

i.tlqto(
aOdB to

l(lrlticrl trilr.p
60dg

and s.Fdy

Dynrnic Rnga Opardbo CycL

g.filno Lfn.l rl,lllo'l

ol th. (tgnizn.

ORDERINO INFORrANON, STA.1

Sclf.tueting to.

vifJ.lly

dsdlts Itrrt accabroor llla triefr,ad"

nti'|

ol

.lnq,rta. Evfit *lctor

$l!ne Iodo FIn A..Lrgnpfi

l(h..!b
Ogtbo

P..l t{un.c

lcl

Cd

Stlnnt mol

trar \ranixl trirgar rnd tg tull-sr srnsitity Fu{-3crb s.rBitMty 129. 1/. or 29

rrlrr
Ttpa

Oth
(L V

w gsr
e!8.
Mirroas

th,!. tbrurlt!4r caL.rian


t,rtngrmatfli.

!l

o.ttEgsd

Om.*lnlcii,.r.l tE(td d trirglt

60!t

crni!
.
,.

Jp".* u)"r
9, %
18.5

t
(

ld.fnl tirr

harnal

till

co

ga

rllo.,

b.oadcrst rac6.ar. WWVB or oCF.n

lldl

TCGI

ah
7rn
Filn

tcrb dallactioo o.r fiLn I -r19tulllcrb(t


Fir3l

gt.29airl|tylr,at U).FI
trm.

mala!fl.nd transpo.t c.!o, Pt t1268 6 V.h8rgr!. ben.s (p.io. Pen t10316


Tra

ih,

50

bl

rol, P.d

t8m4

!d!.

qrartr coatad

O*car

ditmld

kn. Perl tl33a pk, P.rt l7ma9

Calb.rtio.r
Rotary

cabrdrrlrf mturd kaq,..Ey rtd .4trg.

s|ilch p.oritla

srr*rlEata

ro,rttg

oa

ilhritd

4-32

KindY'ptrics Jun 1986

4-32

4-32

4-33

Sa

4-33

: lrr'i

t,1.7

=y'rt) = -p-V):2
=

t)
r

st(.tcharc 0L .4 /f
a- e'
I /,ra fl : 1V4 ),avJ L ^,, Y'!-!-4- "
f

-rr" i'ro lr'i

'-ry

Lu

rqoq*

,/"

trr),7 st-tar'e)

' ,

7wfprn*fpgfu M-J@ I atl,t'"t ulJWl'gt'{t"''qut dn "'"-'/n"^f


3lr'tt;.i ^\!,
/1','

;\ u
2='lz

't'k|

ba-cuil,L

".1

ft

af't

ol"r*- fl= o
P=

Itc h
.F

owgbu:
fouat
4,5.

-a-

p=-'/a -> D:: !r-

I $
:

r'u"i2,
C

4ht- t.(,o7"
(^4nf,'o".'rl')

ft

<t

d1o'r/2 vrr.dtt

P .l.j)'

Io.ttt;- olt A7/r<A-"anT

---

rWrufuU /ilc [r'r)'fl"f^Ar L t**?*'*&


r

_ t.:'a:ry

la^ -b*l* : f = T"


4-33

rtd=-6'ftao/r;t , I ,/ '/
rl":Fr,.
I

A=,*'
tr I,

>t'\'{'t"}!!t

>r

,,:'u 4-33 nrtr.'rr.', Ptl

f"fr,r \'D/i.
=

(.i/

4-33

4-34

uJ,J

dL

q^"dAt/to

/dtJJ',l tt* fr

: fi'bx' I
I

4-34

r :l" : L, nirru t''r-/'i*"*j N i I^,rtr,t,rrt' /a+t- /**,+tdpt"' h i u,u- ioJr7 dt *'1t^e-Uf


f---

rz' -z=";o

>

ala

D t 44/1"tuL I trnfl,tt'uf ruho- -> "/41 /t u ,tt-J u/',)t'f .. 't

A2llto-u'a-

@/
,

,,)/)
'64-

?*c,l.ur,,^-

1f to) = a , ---/1r rt/

irq
l,r)

5obfr'ot,

6t
at*u

lrt) = /,

,tah*ntv lhrr) '


c,y'./z
'/

k,

lt

:[/*t

.4c= / lu

Y*{y''tL'-"6 -

a4z

/niu), - zqccat
=./^
4-34

a4,tc
4-34 4-34

tbz'/,"t

"rf

4-35

L)-

4 -i:.,* ,h'A

=--4o/ t

E'"7.)
Co" al

4-35

1tltr)
=

LiL

) 3o/*l;r,r"
j;ur.,,,;ro

t ,roi +.4r =o

nr4to

zJf + E cca dd

ltcc)

hlJL;

ffi,"7,tQn,r,i Y.*- (lal'*'a


/ ) $+ 4o-.bo/ E ,.F,/
a-(c ,

,/nt,t,.J

U,-ic,-."|

T E

=(J

-4o n ' 4" /-J-l

Z TL rvtt

^-l_

4o L

y': + /z /3' ctrc,rr-h/ ' )u"T, 9+''t^4' lr,trt), /"' T T(7rt,1 7r7:f:/--J

t}

ryXfilJ'l* d" f/,y


..-/<a tn<-c,c< -l
n

Vplt'a-^/cL /0( kr/A'l"


u"'=

/ tr+r.paua" 2i' /?,u4e2' il, @Z@io; tw r@ YulsVz"(fu^

f'/'p,aaruc

,e P4 fu'fu/'/

/.&,iu.,i, 4:,fHi '/ b/,J U,uL,*az<'ortu-/tT f :/: o,t(t* 4*ly^ /nAti ,.1)
---

Ltu?.- /^ /./'f<.&^//-// t4a /af,i"r'7 *,f M-44*

"

l-

m4,
4-35

4-35

4-35

4-36

4-36

(bt

si

-+/r)

l"Pf

f
[rn4= *,
rr,o4t

D--

0(,t)
bH/.
or,.-

, ,o/( A: o,oS = o.o/ -

t.o,/c,u.

/,o.t

t. (/uaxot<x), * ) ru.**, i"r* '' |[l=_ =r -> )= zt /-

;o,rfr,t
Z

o!

o,oS o"o"/.

= o,os,

/= 6,o5.4,o/

D*r 1'1#fu't Ikt ttrti'! 19 = o,q,e qnq t./z

t. s, 4= = 1=t '(6t

2Z

/J'nt-att

: 29 J-

'4 Z

o,

/ t

zft'|

.= O,{

ea,,r-

|
I I I

lI, t,"
'4-36

u,A- cad/vL

y'il'f i/,,t /*t<'rc 7t*l@A f.-' /'r,4 y'b bu,t,"t QuaTrft /-o,* d't t n (?y /-- ,t-tu/Uq^'/trrl, ,u* /uYbt+ /A / /rf'n f .* .1"* /_s"

^n ft/:o_* 5f^fftry:'/T y' 4a t\T44rd* rftu"; X,pY,44!.? 'hUt* ?^ t** #f


,ioo,'<ts.

1o"r

lo"
I I
L

4-36

4-36

4-37

,1,, a,/u;"r 6h r:r'/r^,iun "7* y''Vna|rTut-.t"'f c P'fo zA'n<t'4tttt-t rt' /*, 'til*r, / /- f"kr"l 22^""r'/"rL*.'"'r: "V"'!"'r47'/"; '.{ '+ e ' ' r4 /J =',,t* t zt 'r* l/ilt /^ f / i*" ,k, f'*
.

4-37

pi;4^
?*f)A^.

/i4, /r/r4rr-f/oua /t't/'r'alu

/'N 7ol',aa."tftru.t*td pa fo/tvtta /^ k fhar'{r'7d'n7"'t+ *^'f1tu;tz"'r //: lrA J/t adr ///' Nt ,lt'- Y-truiI,^' yrt- /,X = '2'7.^l^l-' (h', c 4/.0// ///- ,t "/4'los-/a?)
^

,tt- /n/ta-tu/ ,** 4l"t ly.r"'o, tu

t AO), o't/ Vr,,o zn lt f* (al. "/= // 11 !/-t/arsci.) "/ (ic) 7_'2.o,ry


+drJil: /)*7A;A"U'

,'/

*lA PL /"*

7t:taa

4/"*

/"fu
ab^Q

!! )r
$r

r+l
IZ

?= |o.o"ar'r/t

'/a

Valrr'nA

4oot
{

4-

/')=o'32V.zrf

"/"Lry
4-37 4-37

=1,/t'Xm 4.
IJJ

rtu, /Bol^sf 6 - tasYs,6r,L ,/r=


-D t = Ztl

Ir

= 21t n7z t ll
4-37

- sobt/*,
4-37

4-38

4-38

/ uq*f*Lj
t.0.otJ
dnotts

&Jt:-?

!lL:'f-:"-:9 4'/":) c --Gz) (/8tls,oz) ('{n/ ('or)

jT:L

c.(/r.e.4a.!

' +ci +.4,/r =


76

fofJ = trt) t /4 ,I'/

g II':Lr,*dYIr) atL rol/t'


*cr-'

-:3.r'*' c'ndr)
(

for^ l= .tj p'lauzltj/Uvpelo.lt' cotut) ,lytta /?*O ^, /-zr e.l4 u /* ( /.to 4'/v/Y /,,'/z/",r' I - ztlu';rJ lrtr)= 4 -I. [f,-p')p-ur' -.1 7 (rV,),+('t7)"1

"'i )'

!ff=,'
)ar.to =

.,'

E t+j,(-,t'La4
u
5{.4A
-o,tttnqtr{

T
oP

j.z,

= - ;f:

,L

utl-

fo.0'3fro.u=

fi.!"t.

o,(oz u'1'

qii' -

4, erB r<,,.*

4r.{ = tt/+1}r*)
4/

/*

t6
4-38 4-38 QL

! = /. 7 / ^- F,lk,fu- /ow"t' -uf"uf k /j= 6 = r,r/r" o,8s Sau'x h,'v^L /'@A'[r"lt' t


r^+,t 'd(

X:: l:r.t)

d. At"i

l7t, tt,-F,), *6rypt,J /' = 0.0( I +ut f= -r zt/9 o'o1/6raoL {ut1--ft^(r-e) 0-- /(-tu'L -:'L' 4-38 /'fr" tt) 1,rrt/ tft,t ) tt f
=
.

4-38

4-39

*{

a
<

\ ;\ \I
.!
I

tl

s
,3
.F

! tlt

It
.

t-!e I

lf .l): l

-&ls
a.-.-_
_L-

o_
+---\
N
N "

,t

N
F

.G-

Ti 5-iE4!;EE
-..,t."'i-q";*9?g

c6[iK--.:.9 Be::jE
q <.' .? oo
cp
II

h.r;33K':9

E;;;g
ol

EE$':E d F P(L y=
to
<;

g "(.1 2 " !: " o- r, 9q" e?E d ;=

."li -lr .li ;l,r l* l:


o o

'

-s

EF

;.
$
Ecr13H
oo=

'rE r R E Eo.,.=o,'H .9 H qu -3
?

"cR
-r ll

i5;;E

Lc"_.ri-t\L L , =

\\
cL:

x
oi

oD rJ

.!

*JGa*

."EE;

x tx o c..r -! + --{m . lr ll il !a-s\6

-
r
ll

,,
o

ll

lt

4-39 4-39

blk

4-39

4-39

4-39

4-40

4-40

fuo

rtr4

t S,tllu7r fa' ftf=


5kN cos 10t
est

et relches,. considrez le systme un DDL ci-dessous. I-orsque ia masse est dplace. est de 3'0 1'8"' la priode de vibration est de 0.5 sec et le ratio de deux amp'iitudes conscutives

Dterminez l,amplitude et la phase de la rponse lorsqu'une force P(t) appliquee sur ia structure.

PrtJ---*

-r

tirr'J

4-40 LLb

4-40

4-40

4-41

4-41

,1 fsoh'h'r^) L4 y'tBaafiUr)
ir.srtt h'!*

MdAt\

..r

i.c*ru
.

+b4J"
,r|

IQz ::-'

.,r t4x

Aryul*.

Transmissibility for harmonlc excitation


3,t

lQ't ,la..'7,-'

rP(0 = Po sin

'//144 (" t't.-

I
'S',

,5
a_

k,Lc

lml
llr
4'

{}r; t4 / 4t ,

+(,'(.f,i._

t-

lt

1tg,.t.\,*ti4.

F ;
!

-a

(E

o.1
Figure 3.5.r llom

0.5

1 =
a

5
.3

.t0

Frequencyratio6/rn
or4tic. ol Structu.es: rhery anc!
apptications to Eadbquka Engiheetir,g. by

K. Chop.a. p.nrEe.Halt, 1995.

z9ol

, frO,ttt-ttt^ s($e'6t (ff 7


LeTin. 7r: s 4,Ss 8r7-r7,,
4-41 4-41

At{ inz^'fio/'
4-41

tuun rkzt*l;'

4-42

4-42

98

/ ISOLTOR DEVTCF.S t*

AND SYSTFMS

Stol laminaon

Figure 3.16

(a) Lead-rubber bearin& which cqns.i$rof a lead pl,,g in+ed i.gto {ulcanT!dlfrinated-rubber hc,.i"g The- fo sbod!-ergis cuirahle for pplications where lhere is no applied tn<in. (b, I-ead-rubber bea-ring for Wiin Cfayton Buildi4g (see Chapter 6). Nore the 300 rnm rule placed on
the bering. Load capacity 3 MN, srroke *100 mm. (c) Lead-rubber bearing under static test. (d) Lead-rubber beadng for \ry' liam Clayron Building under dynamic test (1979). The motive force was supplied from the drive of a converted caterpillar tractor: venical load up to 4 MN, freqency 0.9 Hz, maxunum power 100 kW, maximum shear force 400 kN, stroke +90 mm.

4-42

4-42

4-42

4-43

STAIE OF CAIIFORNIA-IHE

RESOURCES AGENCY

'orvrsrol( oF

DEPAR]MENT OF CONSERVATION

GEOROE oEUKMEJtAN, Gov,o.

4-43

30 8icur oRtvE sacRA^lNrO, CA 95814-0t89 (PHON 916-322,3t05)

OFFICE OF STRONG MOTION sluDts

MtNEs AND GEOTOGY

,.. 1:';.

r. :-,i

'.:9.
CSI{IP DATA RXI.EASE May

8,

19

90

PROCESSED STRONG.MOTION DATA FROM

1I

California Strong l,lotion Instnrnentation progra&

(CSUIp)

Lli"i,:i:.,illi:::ii:r,'. che basemenr (above che rsolarors) r... .r+"! and-'.08 g, ,.";";;i;;iy. ac che roof was 0.16 q. The The peak norion rron tf, i;-:;;;;;;'i" the 3 free-field sensJrs have.been rhe ""c.i.r"iion'r""i.a" buirding an. i;i;i;;i;; processed.. Ttre proessed. dara are no' available on a g-rack nagnecic c"p" . t*t- r--"orp"aib le f10ppy dlsks. To place an order, please call or wrlie co ct.' aaai"s "-'.iJl," .
Ctcr-=(, //:4

ri"-""i,"ii-p;-'::::::::::i.':"1.i::'.:':r:'i::$::,::

::;:::,"*5:::""::::,ro"o

in the base-isolaed san Bernardino counry Law and Jusrice

i"i

,tx r 0.03 t

-IS0LATOR T<

+-{>

\\\t'//. 1,,,,1,,,,t,,,,t,,,,t,, 051ol5,zo


lIrE StcoNo

k;lqs

--.-...."lat

roor (."ns.6) 2nd (sc.ro. 7) 3.ir (rc.3o. t) os.drr r,'n ( r.r,;., t!.d.ipinB

Acceleration records

4-43

N
PtRr00 (sEc)

obtained a he roof, 2nd floor, basement, and foundation Levels in the transverse direction, nd he corresponding 5t damping response specra.

4-43 4-43

4-44

Le pont sur la rivire la Grand-Dcharge Alma

4-44

[se pr$e sus Ie sEme I'sE*m sesmique


Clienl: lsolaleurc sismiques: Surveillanl de chantier: Entrepreneur gnral:
Producteur de bton:

de

Ministre des Transports du Oubeo Groupe ConseilGenivar Z-.tech Consodium CEM cenivar HmelConstrucon Hmel Cnsblrciin

=t=

Une nouuelle technique... vieille de plus d'un sicle!


Bien qu'elle n'ait t utilise en Amrique du Nord qu' partir du milieu des annes 1 980, la technique d'isolation sismique n'esl pas waiment nouvelle.

.Les premiers concepts ont w le jour ily un sicle, mais les premires applications rnodernes de cette technique remontent aux annes 1970, affr'rme M. Lofti Guizani, ing,enieur chez Z-Tech. t a premire a t ralise en ltalie, en 1974. En Amrique du Nord, on a recouru cette technique pour la pre,
mire fois en 1 985, dans le cadre de la

construction d'un dilice vocation


judiciaire, dans la gion de Los Angetes, aux tals-Unis. Enfin, le premier pont

isol en sot canadien a t rig en Colombie-Britannique en 1 990..


Z-Th

Ue nos jours, la technique d'isolation sismique est frquemment utilise, un peu partout dans le monde. Dans un contexte o les sismes semblent frapper de plus en plus souvent, on peut s'attendre ce qu'elle connaisse normment de succs.

Les lecteurs qLi soLha te-.nt en savoir pjus sur b technique d .solaon sismque so.t .nljls conmu-iqJer avrc tvL t _otf cri?rj. irgn eJ. chez Z.Tch, par couiela <tguizani@ztech-inc.com, o,.r. pdr llphone, au 800 361.3510, poste 334.

4-44

(t
'"

4-44

4-44

4-45

4-45

4-45

4-45

4-45

4-46

4-46

riltyt q;ld )

'tss4t.Ztft Te:.

cri*/rr=

'

"A
<---->
No t11

:'_

vrsl

..

U ttra)
t [ (t) mt*r- . rtl mu'y lt a
Arfous{ 5rzqut (fu/,t) "l-.

a/tc /P= 4
z)

- Poua Zj.ii tly 4,1.r Tsabl'a," u{S fo,t

LffLr

0{

:l-5

Dt 0 //4rifid^)

Q)a .

7Vj:*{0

4-46 4-46

4-46

4-46

4-47

4-47

:tLfrtp nt

/,,-

@1

4-47 4-47

4-47

4-47

4-48

4-48

6 ' /pfr;e
Tyr*1

/,rt

/'^ ar
(

y'tlvt'.-t1

= fatu(
/n=
'

7a

'

I rrrt
c'V;

l ] *qom's4eoT1

G't*tfi'q,u61

fr' r/")

'//.= [rrratt

ti-

a /r* rz1l),

o a

5i

a n'Mir ft@ N-ir* Pt6^


ot- l< huf eu"

/' rl/"'( -ry


fu /.+*'*
fotl/.' l+ u eft'
A

/^ f'ru,t"""

fr*

t,?2"
tl
"
1,0,2

lr+,,.' uut- )a.

+ )w{ffi#,!:*ry-f"
4-48

t^

IH
4-48 4-48 b.l 4-48

4-49

4-49

> E ot- lAtf /'eapufrfut^uuf tg lt^ F.'f rp4*ry,,q1'r

P/*.b

/]

fu't'
'
tu- R fflt,d* /'r^r"rlhat

qos^./r @*oL / IJA^Lv-

P ryrotnto,/^ W

7t7t;r"t"

,oL,/Wafuft'*'

$rtl =7,rjs4)c6,F

t"t^l) atr'rrI)

ftt,r)= p6)

+ /Qrtl

'.1)

'//z'-4 = Ldfu**a*7oL =D/t*z7p'


r.-'

/)o

"

lo /L

f"

sr,r,y.,

4-49 4-49 b

4-49

4-49

4-50

4-50

Rgime forc

hamodque

97

4,0

i=
3,5

I
3,0

l5
2,5

It
2,0

1,0

I r n ,z
\
I

f= ),25

0,5

Ns
O,N

-f=0 747

\
5,0

0 0,5 1,0 1,5 2,a 2,5 3,0 3,5 4,0 4,5


F=/a
en

Figure 4.21. Cottbe de trunsmissibilit

fonction de P et du taLt

d'amoftissement

d'o

.
ut-^
ugo

u'tt)

un.r/Tl (zW

rla sin(.ut

9)

(4.rt2)

Si on dfinit la rarumissibilit comme

TR = uk^lug", on obtient
(4.1i3)

\+OW \frrow: ,,rc=WWWF

4-50

4-50

4-50

4-51

4-51

98
o
1a

DYnaeique des structes

;;;;;i"

de rnanire que l'quation (4 114) donne racine ngative de (4.113) a t utilise donc applicable que ;;rmissibilit positive Lquation (4 114) I'est vz donc Pour p obtient une isolalron' dans la plage des frquences oit l on

Le tau.x de rduction

des

vibrations lransmises

est dtnie conme : 1 - ?R

R:L_TR:
d'o I'on tire

0"
A2

-z -t
R

(4.115)

,-"

1+ ? TR

2-

L-R

(4.1 16)

Si on considre que

"
et

(4.1\'7)
21r

^ 'W -2A A"=7:a"T:,','ks=u s

t)2

.m

(4.118)

oir

estle dplaeement : 9.81rr/S2 est l.acclIation de la gravit et : Wlk de tigidit totale ressofis les sur ,* "itt, t. t. poiJ, w at ru -u"hinJreposant k, l quation r4.l16r peut s'crire

f = 15,76
ou

(mm, Hz)

(4.119)

;;;;;;-;"te ;;;"ti;;;;'

est en mm et la ftquence de l,excitation,

ts)). oruraissant i:jo"u""i4, ""

leut la fr^quence / de I'excitation' unrcertain d'obtenir an a requis suppofi i.22, 1e dplacemeoidu p"JJ" modrs' fis peu iuu"f i otutiio O"t vibrations, supposant que les isolateurs sont

^1- f, est en Hz' La figuI.e 4,22 dorlne 1 en unit plus couramment utiLise dans I'industne (RPM) dans devient 945'81 t-, auec -R "ommt parame 0e facteu 15'76on dtenninr'

iJnil"

que les condirins de tenlprature ambiante dterminet 1e matffi;;*-;;is ", .onaiaont oe mpratures leves' des ressorts mtal::li ;,' ;lis5-, Toutefois' ces isolaiili"ii".tt"rr"ialr*otti*tu* friction sont prfrables leves t les perd'amiques lroutamtt sous des charges ;Hffi;;;es d'assemblage Ceci explique que

varit de. matriaux et de confiLes isolateurs sont fabriqus avec une grande dynamiques sous lesquelles il *or^lri"t-i" type d'isolateur dpend des nditions

io..uil"l,

.oo, oe, variables

""1ir"r","r*

,"",

Aujourd'hui, la .arement utiliss dans des applications dlicates.

cause des to1rances

4-51

4-51

4-51

4-52

4-52

Rgime forc

harmonique 99

10000 ?000 5000 4000 3000

2000
1500 1000 700 500

400
300

200 r50

t00
0,05
0,1

0,2

0,3 0,5

2 3 5
(mm)

10

20 30

50

Figure 4.22. Taur de rduction des tibrations eft fonction de la frquence d'excitation et du dplacement des ressrts d'isolation sous le poids de la machine

Exemple 4,1 : Une machine allernative, dont la masse totale est de 200 kg, est supporte pr qatre isolateurs reposant sur un plancher. La rigidit totale des isolateurs est 1000 x 103 N/m. En oprtion, la machine gnre une force harrrodque verlicale dont I'amplitude est de 450 N ue vitesse de 50 Hz. En supposart un amortissement ( 0,20, on demande de vrifier qe I'amplitude du mouvement due la force harronique e dpasse pas I'amplinrde admissible de 0,03 rnm et que la force transmise au plancher ne dpasse p l force admissible de 50 N.

Soludon

L pulsation du systme est

, : \/W :
La pulsatiol relative vaut

vlooo

"

lo1roo

7o,7rtudts

p:

50x2xn
70,7r

= 4,44 >

1,47

4-52

4-52

4-52

4-53

4-53

,4""fr

n4m.
.:T t"'t'"d'

f"'
,u2" ra'r'7A'c'-"-f7tt rl.',.
,rr,t=

'/^4

(ca"--)

-^lJ--

4\,'t

{, * f3 u [,= /ti*-ry?l(r-tr t4l'pr'^.'un "t'T)


'/Arttar

i,

t''*'i ,n,t =F) ,t''6r , li'';; t'sz ,t e'*n


'-

=E e'
'

'f,

/q; b: /

Et,fr-i-.

)
I

lS
c '-2

- 6t.,rr Lr = - c f is C L, -tsz) -14(*,-xr) - o2L, a -z f.iwtc*, -x"1 - ()rt(tLr - Xc)

rwr,t=-ei,-y'n

0^/l{

"** rr':'.4/'xt

(-"o'+zTutai+,o')*, = (z/"oi

-;oD') Kt

Xz

t'

=(3J

; lt/.', /0"*(- r + Zt +az )

r.ti:-')

I
_

l-t*',./

/t!: )'t cztdL/

/*
It
wn
4-53 4-53 [gb
pa1,

f= E
z

r't
r"ln
)t/t
2
",

(t 4 : t

t')
u'tr

t'/

(, #) ; l;,uF
, 4-53

* z; t

(^/,)

+2,/( e*)

('a
f\.....\ \ - r/.-

llils\,,
4-53

r; r-::.ftno
1y4..tft'ntt

ftt -f')'nz1p)'I

''

q)*,

4-54

IUC'rrt
( ADalr"

t .ca<-rlzooo)

fun:Ao7^*

/?tt

lazoa Allaaqt L

4-54

1. Types de sollicitation et frquences usuelles .f,--ooatJ,-r->:f"^.' +_-*-

2.

Principes de base de la conception

(a) Rgles de base

s'assurer d'une transmission scuritaire des sollicitations dynamiques de la source au sol ou la structure du btiment (qilglgg-gligdgggx) fournir une;igifit suffisante afin d'viter des dformalions inec_ce_p]ables pour la machine (crjtges_gg_pl9d.Wlgn) ou des v1blali-on-q_q'gg!&rtglles pour les humains (cllIgg.pltySjgisghues)

(b) Dpueqleiuqes

',-

du fabricant.de la machine du orooritaire du qotechnicien les paramtres de calcul : l" fgary_pgg1-. dominante de l'ensemble

ains les frquences Ao1frlntes des


d'opration) et leurs harmoniQues
9,9

dilg *tg:lgfe q_ syppgrt


e

forces 'dynamiques (frquences

(c)

Ey33_9.lggpls

base pour troi: !yp9:_d9

l"9n'1"."

fnchines rotativeF) (moteurs lectiiques, ventilateurs, turbo-gnrateurs et turbines)


oscillatoires/alternatives (pompes pression/succion, _cer.npresseursSt conca-sseurs)

J-J]Pf z t l L- tr-r

modulation par basse frquence

machines

J<

L,.l--t -= F- \^.^,

, lj-1_Lr_ -\c ,-l

moailuttion par haute frquence

machines impacts (cisailles, perforeilJei, retineuses et marteaux)

rJ,g..!:qe{r9s!g1," !
Eytet la rsonance (ratio
/r,:n

= 1,0) en contrlant la frquence propre de la

fondation ou la transmissibilit de la rponse une sollicitation harmonique Rappel I'amplitude d'amplitude F et de pulsationd) agissant sur un systme un degr de libert x =CF de masse m et de rigidit k = mo: est donne

par

k
4-54 b? 4-54

*= LF{ti"
4-54

- r- fFat.rtu rt I'ft4 /h'ctf ,'',nl4-54 J l|fa+''t,aue = 6

4-55
41,

4-55

? M^('

tNIR\,-tNt)lt(.t:t) vIl1t{^

t.r()N.\

>

Frcqucncy rngo ot mjrChin0 oxcilltons

69

o3
= g!

to
.;e
.s 'b

* E.s

EiJP

Subsoil3 oc!
< Gravel >

is delermined by lhe suppo.linA lo!ndtion area ol lh mchine

The lrequency ol subsoil/ loundalion

T;l
l.-E

l'L

I
|

Frequency range ol suosort / toundar,on I ad v;bralion iaolalion malerial

md ntlryorts on tlilfctcttr sul*oils ontl sprittll4ttntlxr. clcnrcnts

a)
- Base

i
\I:iwuc2.(t: Printi
)

Structural mlember (ttoor stab)

-5$J

tr

r--i:r_
*-_J(

lMounling
)

c.t ln. lor.-rtr uing of nm(hit(ry *ith t ottiot,(rl rt oscillarorl.norion l;r<t nojtit,!,: on o stt (tflru! Dt.ntltcr l)) rul)lr on spn!<lenjl(r.lctnctrts c.) ttrtrtrttirry ott o ilrolion-i.1oht.l lrar.

12.2]:

(8,tctt4*utJ r4st
4-55

)
4-55

bb

4-55 4-55

4-56

(Carr *?ooa)
(a) Tra n s m iss ibilit.et isqlatlo0 \ t---.r-_--_L- - \a- \-,r-uc__r--

c.. Ft-^.-r* ..(^/_).), \\ Lr'-- )

4-56

,6a

j tr_\^

3 bt)

tpe"

La transmissibilit est le rapport des amplitudes de la force transmise sur la force mise

(b) Basse modulation


roncramartats delastructure-esr nettemenl+tus-t"""e A. >) I 4.r.ut ,! t otc- , -G;;.""e d'cxcjLat njco* -.^<-6.qu.!gwlunlngpu undetuned zone) Ir ' y Ja ,|a,tad. 1.tt'( / @-ttgS!e! o oonne '- lt granos dplacements mars de oe grands oepracemenls lstructu?Jn.fU '. faibles mais (slruclure Ttextote ou ou ' e oes des enons efforts Tarores h -,. .. , .* =r,- -. - don ^ L+^-q'e-L '*vv -- [L';il* :'g::1",@'+a 6Hz \;;t^- J,-"..*^^^-&r* :li:i1i;"tH.io1:"'. h"-oniqu"" princip4lss de ra poricitation vs res '-t''- - ,1 '^f I a. ts t-5' r- t"o*o a '', l'Jo'-'L'l- L \ i-r,.ll-r modes supeneurs suprieurs - Y!L.>'q mooes a 4,4,.- ^. f4 ry AI"4iFJ - un rapport de frquence > 2 est prfrable (peu d'effet de ( ) - attention aux dmarrages/arrts * \ . .,,','. pa t.,.l-n *

fu"1-p^,''l

:l':nn.'oln -

'P'
,{

";i:1"":;:#':l:J".
par montage avec ressorts/amortisseurs par montage sur base d inertie isole

("rrcFmoduration,

( - ,'"oI," i;rl,:Jffi;H5.n $,H, nenement suprieure d'excitation ( c,r. tt6 ou high tuning ou over{uned zone) .{ la frquence \TW t,5.1 A;-,J D :t l': ';' .. I - efficace pour 6 .2o Hz "t fl 4 egU f ittl-{applicable lorsque le client requiert de limiter les vibrations de l'quipement \ ! "-t +ptr''lef; - 1 raon dy arrrver. parmontagedirectrigide rl {v,r, fu.|,^t - attention:

$*t:td",

ot

, L .,r.^{-;x$*--"J;ii*-t*

-[- , 6r^
q,

l-t:'rltff
r-^,-c

/*Sq-\ J-.Fih S:L.. \b. J\'.^.i


I

* i

\]a

r)'

a inclure un facteur de scurit ae a d.,..-J , ,.- >>) fo/o _ q"",-^i1i / compte dq s-ol dans.le de la rigidit tenir alcul tenir compte de la fissuration possible des structures de bton arm

loli

ln'.

(d) Machines impacts

,l

Le design de la fondation relve principalement de la relation charge-temps (rampe, dure de I'impulsion, F.*, etc.) Seule la basse modulation est efficace. la condition de oouvoir d'abord reprendre les charges statiques - u -Li .,-A-L,.^--.* Sr..o $^tAlternative (du fabricant) : contrecharge

rA \t\
4-56 4-56 4-56

4-57

4-57

2-l M^(:l Nli tjouNr)Al1()N)Typ of


foundltion

^Nt)

stjtr\)t

.\

4:r

Mlinly usctl
for:
punlPs

Sp:tcc nccrlcrl tttttlcr urachioc?

lirning
Irich or low :rccorclinr to sub-soilconditions

Unccrliintics in (lcsiSn and corslruclion na{unl frcqucDcics and rnoduli of clasticilY of rhe sub-soil arc usuallv
cstimarcd -" yalucs.only: calculations are mostly donc with cslimatcd valucs for uoocr and lower bounds celculatcd modr.rlus of

nol ncccssirry

vcntihlors
dicscl units

mills
conrPrcssors

Slab

vcolilalors grs lurbines


conlprcsSorS

Franre-su

turbo cngincs

nccessary for spccial

Jsgllgs^

comprcssors saw framcs

dcviccs, nlainlcnncc. ilcccss, ctc.

lorv or in somc spccific cascs

clasticity of rcinforccd
concrclc cannol bc oblaincd rcliably (valcs al conSlalrctlon

higlr

sllc

arc too high); unccnain

sub-soil conditions

Vibration
isolation

turbo cngines

nills
dicscl units

tcchnically possiblc for installing spccial


dcviccs. nliintc-

lorv

bcsl suitcd for calcula-

f94;corrcctions of
wrong inlcrprclstions simply by exchanging of vibration isolators

<--,

nancc,:rcccssibility of isolators (sllringclanrpcr clcnrcnts)


Ttrltlc 2.2: TlVcs ol lottndori,tn antl thnnoin

r'l4plicorion

Lo\v

tu ni ng

On the one hrncl low tuning reduccs thc rcaction forccs subslantially, while on the other the rcsulting soft support yiclds large displaccnrcnts cvcn unclcr stutic load. Ccrtain conditions must be fullillcd for low tuning to bc cffcctivc:

(l)
(2)

(l)
(4)

The machincshould be operatc(l atlrcqucncyof Inorc thn 4to 6 Hz. Highcr structural ntural frequencics nrust not coincide wilh the dominant hamronics of thc dynrmic forcc if lhcrc is a risk of ntodc cxcitalion. Thc sofl basc of thc nl:lc{ nc tlltlst llol clllsc nlanufitcltrring problcnls. No intolcrably lrrge dellcctions or Yibriltion vclocitics arc allowcd during slan-uP nd
shut-down of thc machinc.

Condition (l) rcflccts thc constructional linritrtiorr for thc dcgrcc ofsoltcning oflhe basc that can bc achieved. The limit is oftcn rcachcd with a stiflncss rcsulting in an isolation-systcm frequency of approxinratcly 1.5 to 3 Hz.: this rvill rcquirc a minintum oPeraling frcquency oI approximately 4 lo 6 Hz. The iclea is to achicve a tuning ralio of about 2. However, a tuning ratio bctwccn 2.5 and 4 is prclerrcd sincc a I:rrgcr ratio yiclds srnallcr rcaction forccs. Tuning bclow 2I'lz can lead to problcnrs if thc opcrrting frcqtrcncy of lhc machinc is rcduccd ldeally, thcopcraringfrcqucncyofamachincshouldbcabovc l2 Hz lor succcssful lowtuning'

4-57

4-57

? B*p,/,

/f8F

4-57

4-57

4-58

E
o_ a

z
*
o
u)

cn (,

*b:o 6, p.9 o fr-. 3sg5gb rtEc-oo P'. 9' 6.e '\ c v!_= cLE:?E?69. I : h3
E
c)

o tr a) --. >'. o)!---c(D== g :


(

=_^()_l-c-c Eir9:-.o-o

.9 i
o)

o?

99
E

cE!ot
-c
0)

td q) t!
o_

ou)

l< =o

9!s l E =553' H = o'EESQ 6 :b5S;fr


J
1

o e' --.rl c,

/ al
g

r Ef

*l

B :3 s X:o-!6c :eg o o
\ - ,lF59d:a

o
o
_o
Cg

o
q)

f,
Ll

#E'g'EE .(s:-ur=au;
fl
H

--=C--(I) g'FE6g

ee,3r

o a

E
(g

oarB.Doo bH9PbE Eo,iiE--

'9=b;93

r3 a) oE

3E ;.9 I c .So.ngE.p

!!(Or-(JOs:

po*la. > F F o;c o 9c I - !


@=Oco-Jo

f,

'.F

c:e '6 S q b-.eeS

ci


.nC>i-(5*c)

t r-n o u. gE '.e9igE=.oo (\
4-58

o,o_:Epj_93 9= o 5--= -

\J

$
ir
o)

4-58

?I

E* (i-c o (5 - l Fo_oFo-q.)Y

q)

4-58

.''- g -: ,.3; b;: e i.e pe;i

5'too>, '; > :t (t o(/)=

.E93.68 : e;' 4 3 U:cEe


(g

Y >,= !c)c'r
f

! o
E
E

o
(-)

-c

4-58

4-59

4-59

E.dhquakewve

tf (a)

\Z

tj'l\

\rdl

(cceleration) Displacement o{ gro,rnd surfce node

:r::r-.-,-*-'---'

stiffness of

tround

ic) Fig.

- III.52: Analytical (a)

modeling of

soil-structure interaction

syste-gL-'--.-.-'-

Soil-s!ructue system; (b) Finite element model; (c}?oint mass

model ')

4-59

4-59

4-59

4-60

@^*
4.

/ao)

4-60

Fondations riqides sur sol

(a) Six degrs de libert

(b) lnteraction sol-machine

fu'UUt'Wuu,^tf

lamt^tr-- 'l Vnul'6*tt gu,,V-r I

ans le regrme tapes de ta conception: tablir les sollicitations et leur nature obtenir les donnes gotechniqqes (module-dacisaillement G, cgnstante dejigidif, amgflssment, etc.) pour chaque couche distincte de sol procder un dimensionnement prliminaire de la fondation valuer les rponses dynamiques de l'ensemble, incluant le spectre de rporr,se flu sol vrifier I'acceptabilit deS rsultats et recommencer au besoin il es!,illusolre dejenter d'gqFnit unelponse uniquq celqen-dan !, ug spece Fvleurs acceptables peut tre obtenu eh utilisant les proprits limites du

I'amplitude des dformations cycliques acceptables ue le tassement diffrentiel permis, donc le sol est en

sol /-\-

.-.-'-

Rfrences

}
F
F F

F >

Arya, S., O'Neil, M., Pjncus, G., Design of structures and foundations for vibrating machines, 4 ed., GPC, 1984 Bachmann, H., Ammann, w., structural engineering documents - vibrations in structures induced by man and machines, AIPC, 1987 Buzdugan, G., Dynamique des fondations de machines, Ed. Eyrolles, 1972 Chopra, A. K., Dynamics of structures,2"d ed., Prentice Hall, 2001 Clough, R.W., Penzien, J., Dynamics of structures,2nd ed., McGraw-Hill, 1992 Goldman, 5., Vibration spectrum analysis,2"d ed., lndustrial press inc., 1999 Maguire, J.R., Wyatt, T.A., ICE design and practice guide Dynamics: an introduction for civil and structural engineers, T. T. Publishing, 1999

1b 4-60

4-60

4-60

4-61

4-61

\
l

1'l 4-61
4-61

icllsunllation block with its six degrees of freedom. ye /r84) around the same axes (Figure 15.9). In this section a general method is presented fcr computing each of these six dynamic displacements and rotations due to steady-state harmonic excitation (forces and moments). The chic e of harmonic oscillations is made not only because many machines usually produce unbalanced forces that indeed vary harmonically with time (rototary or reciprocating engines), but also because nonharmonic forces (such as those produced by punch presses and forging hammers) can be decomposed into a liargel number of sinusoids through Fourier analyiis. 4-61

Fis. 15.9

4-61

4-62
Design ol Structures and Foundations for Vibrating Machines
I

4-62

I F(r) t

H(r)

f-l---1

,.1 - --

-->1

.4
- -(-----t-r!;f | L-

.'/

'

(A) Vertical Excitation

(B) Horizontal Translation

r.y (t )

arY,,

J(-

"

Ts(f) Ke

(D) Torsional Excitation

-A-'-""-'",::*.\\+-..

r9 (l)

TBANSLAIoN

l"l

--.- /^l-i r-)-.-

rtY /

I | /-

ROCKTNG

-i-(-l / )\ -/-= l1--, rl

(E) Coupled Horizontal Translation & Flocking Oscillation

4-62

tt

Figure 6-2. Modes of oscillation.

(ftlA

tq94 )

4-62

4-62

4-63

4-63

Fr{t)

uz(t

+Fz(t)
m uz(t
)

Resulrnr ot

\gd

Pz(t

Pz(t)

\rl.+
/16()
..r t
4-63

p*"Jc

Fig. 1 5.10 Analysis of the dynamic equilibrium vibratins foundation btock. ( AIL\A

of a venica lly

fe

4-63

4-63

i
3
.Sur +T
{d.
ll

4-64

.*rS t :s
?
^-:(,
l:o
lt

S s s z 9 N /3 \*s \ sl a '31
<i "l
.e

-s. (ja-

a-

a.'^

:v/ '::'{N

^;ffll
ll
9

s .$j \) s F$l <Nl


"i; ll {.e
I
I

$oo
sv/
! la :

i.s
Y9 *5
?r

/-.
o

L;rr

l;

t-t:

tle

t:

lr

t!

l t:

A
(,l_

l t--l 3
o
I
\<'

-" \i
\a
ll

t. oir ".iili

l9 t;

l t:

_"6

.9 .9

:
-e

E .-l

t: i:
I

l=
;I

P3e
(/t - !!
I

51 Gr-j e;
+ .c c .P! ; I ! A l!

. ts
s
@9

sSFl s.i o= I

.:_
o
si

i?l
+
rr

*ll .lP
('ll l"r
.'J
ll

2----\ : lla ;5
io
I

d=o/_\

:"ra--

l: ': ls
146

l
+
OJI .. l--]Jll

tt: t:

l:

Ir

5sl ('ll
:-I

;ic (1

j6

lt
lt

E
ll

lr 5 \at

o
Y9_.Y'
lt

e
Y.

-l

3I
:

1
J lll F
LU

3o icsP

::-e !

.: o o'i
E
B

-i_e

-- x c;

r'

\
B.gE

4-64

4-64

??

4-64

4-64

4-65

Fo!!ndation Vibrtions 573

GRAPHS ACCOMPANYING TA BLE 15.1

(a+7a-rfs{)

4-65

L/s: l

r t

>

lvlqfl

ky

\
q

kr:;
"'=+
B
',J

\--F
jffilggj'y,
G and r',
and "

;J UX olt

loundatlon) foundation, Is is ltkely, engineer may use likely, the rhe englneer ur" his hir ju-dgmirt ro the (u values combine hysreretjc and radiation dampins), lrlfgrn$t to discount the cont.ibution of this parr. To inorporare such damping, simply add to the foregoine B-E9C-{- semi-width and semiJength of the circumscribed C value the corresponding mateiil dashpor coeffi"cieni reclangle_ 2<pol@:
Poisson's rario, Lyl&J.99.]a.Ktslocity. I he lasl rs the apparent propagation velocity ofcompression-

l^rlr*, it l.r- *,tA tt.. A'e*Jrfi+t


.
Torat

or 4 and 1L :-s!eJ-tr!!glus,

c=radiarion

c r'!po
o)

1,.

{rj.jcl

extensioo waves under a foundation and is related according to

to 4

.ld== 2nI 2n/ : rhe the circular frequency 1in (in radians/,;;;i;if,i radians/second \ tisrs of atl perrinenr geomerric. mareriat, and toad paramerers \@Iionolthemachine).|,lareincJudedinFigulel5.l4.ThecompUlalionsf;!IowinsI (dorc as well as ail tFe other rll1l1.l.1llhL,::llts.areaIsogiven'inEngIishunits{in ot parentheses). The excitation frequency is /: 30 Hz!4ble! grves:
.tThedynamicsriffners.s('lsp.ines"), K K(to).as a oroduct, lof t he staric stifin ess, K, rims rhi d yna mi. sriffn.., .o'.m.i.nr /

ofTable 15.1 and the auached graphs io computing rhe dynamic ,, : 3.4 ,, v( 15.54) stiffnesses (..springs.') and da-mping coefficients i..aashpors,.l. _L .<-.^forfourmodesofvibration.Asketchof1hefoundtionand "U

_ - ^, \ {\] LlrLi '-l II]-

ir{g4@!El4lopl" A /\ numerical numencat

example illusr.ates luustaates rhe the lse

: * \ l{ar):

vER]lcALMoDE Stalic stiffness: 2.0 x 192000 x '1 45 ',''"":_: '-K,:"-' [0.7] I 1.54(0.26)0.,51 I - 0.J3 5500 x l0r kN/m (l.g x los lbl[t) =

= The radiation damping ("dashpor") coefficienrs C- C(t)). Thcse coefficienrs d rrr'includ rheioil hysrereric dampini. /ro (the only exception is with Table 15.6 (for piles), where

\*----_*__

{ir,,)

K1ll<.,)

tl

4-65 4-65

4-65

4-65

4-66

lt)t;

DYNA|IQUE DEs I:ONDATIOh-S DE MACHINES

4-66

(&u5/l<5aa t?Vt-/

r/7 Da ns les prescripi ions'tech n iques sovitiques TU 60-49, pour des fondations 3vec S > l0 n'r e, on recommandc les modules de raction lastiques donns dans le tablcau 3-5. eJ Dans sa publication [33], Jelen remarque que les valeurs calcules des modr.rles de raction lastiques ne sont valables que dans le cas otr le sol garde son homognit jusqu' une assez grande profondeur. Si, sous la fondation, dont les dinrensions dans le plan sont a, b (fig.3.12), il y une couche d'paisseur ir et de nrodnle de raction lasiique Cn, et si, au-dessotis de celle-ci, i[ y a une couche non dfinie, dont le moqulq Aqeactions! C,o. le calcul sera laii.@@r/a/e . a" ,'rnrtrorr u,ot,t

ll ,,":
r
t,

'

(-zr.

-?(r \ *)*",r*,1
Tobleau 3.5

(3_2t)

Yalcu.s rcommrndics pour lcs modulcs dc raction Cz, C,

C-,

pour S

>

lO

m', sclon TU 60-49

Catgorie

du

sol

Nature du sol

Pression statique admissible

'

CZ

p"

105

N/mz

l0? N/m3

Sols faiblcs (argile l'tat plastique, sol sableux, sols dcs catgories II et III avec de la vase).
Sols
-

jusqu'
1,5

jusqu'
3

r'esistance. moyenne (argiles la limitc de plasticit, sabies)

1,5 3,5

35
5 l0

Sois rsistants (argile dure, gravier, sable avec gravier, lss, argile avec lcess) Sols rochcux
au-dessus

de5

de

au-dessus

l0

oir
:

oui les aires infrieurcs l0 me, les valeurs ci-dessus seioni multiplies par 3,2/lt'.L On considre C : 2 C,, C' -- 0,5 C..

:ll-'-Il

I C,o'

c^ l): ^

^lt "b
l. r

(3.22)

.f) En gnral, Ics rsultats cxprimentaux, en concordance stislaisante avec la thoric. ont permis dc conclure que, dans le cas des rapports ttsuels entre lcs cts de la semelle de la londatio n ('t- -- aib), on per-rt considrer, en moyenne :

C:2C"1 Cr:0.,5C2.
4-66 4-66 4-66

(3.23)
4-66

4-67

'E> qE
$. s. \.
v

o
s_Y oK

c
Lrl

-daaa't 14 I Q Lr) -c! lrt Ln a) .{

JJJJ JJJJ

3333 3K33

EE*H; ;Ete
_Y:'-!!!Y"=C-*

Th-=-Po

\ \
.\J

ql -:
ooooc)o rttclL/.rc,c|OrJ) r'.@@Ococara^---c.l---..1

0
o

flE o-T
c.t c.{ oodo
a..l a.l .{ .{

gd
ii _

dJ

orrrooc)oo -t c..l c! ..1 .': I 'r- \-

r3:: ::::
cidcio
c'l c.l ...1

ac..eZ F 8,eA g ;Hj3 rigr :;1 . -3.!; r i=i*s u= qEea3


L .i c! O_C (-|'w ! >

:3 !e !

i :;T -; U+*" E'EE 'sE= ys;E er-.


gE
.1

G'

2yA9 33:

";

a c
.2

aq

Hd f,
oL40AO..r!..1 --..1 -

-s i

Ol -ol

JJJ JJ;J
..1

oaoaooo rooLr4000

-:' c'.1 C'l (...i

Y -o F ; - ^,, = ll : >,r-

+
!.! t]= ,

^ c

q
rL

.^..,; ^5 -io g i,.! q 1J4 ,

= (J r.

.9
_

o-c

i:>
U
u-

ov)

f'-

a
qJ

o c
o>|

El r-at)

-t
o
th t 6l)

c ar :? @ () 6n 2 > : : (u t^7i'L.!pCL u}]-b4.!o_!'..\ -o-D-\ >-= !- 5

|)

a
o = d'j-ai,

"' Es:* =SiTE

c.r F

l-Hy, -E, .g c, j 6 (! g .9 b.3 3 c I F-:j':Y

FE?3

.- ii .j.9 k -#-ii -.:: !. c.: >= Yqqf

o.,.=

> c S :3i$
2 oJ 3-6 ": c..r r'. d---_ ulu

9' qJ J

g c s . :: - ] b 'o : or-a

, ;ET=p

X t

ro'=
l-

I- JJ

s
X

t- L .y > lvt

Hi i
.-

llJ

4-67

4-67

4-67

e.

: *:s ;9 " '-- F; -c

: F;*E E?tl^E ! *E': H-EFa r.lE53 rr .3''fr' : B -_" ',839 9ErE

F 5'=':'; r 3o\oi--.c- q; c -c "-_ F o 9l'o9q;-

: E .', 3g9!

_-

-g e. r- '-11

*q
-a L/

f.'-8.s i ".

4-67
J

..9 O : E=.T

.:
aI

n tS., .g97

R3.9q t SL

t5s;;E Z=ErF * : E EJ-es;a EEejbI' E

tr
il

4-68

4-68

y'.f Zto Ltfiat

d LA /,s/L*D,

Transmissibility for harmonic excitation


100

s0

,9
:5

dro
t"-

H" l;

^P(0

= Po sin orl

ffi"i,

(rJ F j
-E
.a E

ll

E1
0.5

0.1 t0.1

0.5

Frequency ratio ol / aln

Fieu. 3 5.1 rrom oy'am,cs ot

s'ctues: rhory aN azeticons to Eft{'U:lk

*r^",*I

f, jr"

ffj*,, ) ,

z,tls.r'rss,/rL,( no) 6touu) %rt *onau, rt+u,lts


7 s t 3,

rytiLf, z oral7 caL,


4-68

(!LU 4-68 4-68

4-68

4-69

4-69

rL) 64tsoffrtltt 6lftttafioiS t,t


Une machine qui pese 2.5 kN et qui opre des frequences de 1000 et 4000 rvlmin doit tre instali sur des isolateurs avec un coefficient d'amortissem ent de 10% de la valeur critique. machine a une masse totale non balancee de 0.01kg une excentricit de 100 mm.

I:

des ressorts de l'isolaleur si transmise au plancher aux frquences d'oprations doit tre duire de75%.

(A) Caiculez la force transmise et ia rigidit

la force maximale

d'opration de la machine est augmentee de 0 4000 rvimin.

(B) calcuiez aussi ja force vibratoe maximale transmise au plancher lorsque la

visse

44#:!

('),c.f f. ptto,llt Et-i(1.61 ) ; c4/ j-3

Es-z {p.ai) , Ctblntt J.nt 742aStal t ); rs-+ rl.t t .fZ (z) unlr naeh'at lrr;rd fn'Wru'l1o,h'c /-rr, fu F.4.,'

,?s

d7*tt7r,tltol,t/r'hfe dL 7oo //q,r; , u'v- lt^'rlt,t**et 't fr',Dd'r ltnt- /ota-ffurf^/*fruu dLsCoP /- A/Lu 4fi.,att v pt* zooo lnTtrun "fru' n"*"*ft' CPU), I'a'rutt.'7tt-"t'{''4r

).tfirw';, 7ol" 7ol.t &rrtlr^l^fi'?t* ,

DfTtn r*r;e,tot:

L'p4"4/rlut/tr

Q)

. (3) ?o"f f^, Loo 5


4-69 r 4-69

/e T7,z*t rwarruy', l/t' (q ,lo /au- fiia'tan^t'rt+

/u- rrrtura^"f

4-69

4-69

4-70

lrfr'"x, I F

,@boesooo'cll lEi h)"t

ff|r+1,
/1.=

--

at-t

++nawfttt)

4-70

t=zoT" /ootsf,u*, I

, Dz'4L.vtw .taItTt-L

A.
-*

'u//1
tJ)a

7*y'oo:/.2g

6v:

n fral'<ttu.ct ol+ f

/a-c,l

lTit=
t/
'

,t
--

=,fqlffi"t, tl
/. zao
=

t,Js 7,adf,zrc

3oooay)a
r.t0
1T'A'!'

ziT/c,ad*

Jt{,/6

fioptz/o*n

/ta4/&

= ^1"

" lt{'/6f sr'is '3'sf I

P" E
=

['''f''* "'f)'J''t'

(c//./.
e//"t

4.s?/
Fa
3. u, 'o

?CILr*
140,

7'.7tJn)-iut' e,A{, /, I =o,o/z6n** y -- lo,/roo St t- t,st')' t( z * s.2,, 3.tt)'i y . /t.ozs fto

l7"o

w-fus'*,hpJe=
f

/u{ = (,4"1d2'/'
[t,-ft + Prr)'J'/'
/z'ozs
=

72= (t * (z x :!o_l-_i.s /1,*,L/"-_ o,t{F


Lc)
4-70

6t''
o
4-70

e.r/t\1360

tz,/b, /,-r= 12.7'


4-70

y' r, y' la7r"o

sl,/y' r,'*"F,r,';
4-70

4-71

7B
F-==:
*l
53 5= 4-71

4-71

ai$r ls.:1ii r . X 3 6 ;'8 i 6


3

13

lgars=!?,0;3;E

l=.1
a

sir 3sit; i*?F1* i:*:"+ 4\ l!,39S+s+7{; siiiig lslXqIs; lr\ lSlI F;'' 9-,*3

l?

P - a il " 3 ^

in =. '.5

'
q9.

)l'. -!l +

rl,_

* llgas ii
.) 7.-9.\=' l;l+ =d6: = lil.;=p:BeE,e l:la Pa 3^i F.e-t'5'E:i l;13:a +,s3 ts:.

+15
_c
I

tii l t{

l_

[ lHE: a?+i*

l;lr;*; ilie
'o
3

+l,;C;f
=

=fi+B ;

ttlianir; l:liF:q
l-= =. O(D-.
tl

F-l<

El+i{T; s$
\ \J

@J

6=6'1s. :1 (D ;-.. oi' o

4-71

v
ll

N\
\ \)

fi .
L-;o-

"-:: 436
\_).
"

\
ll

96

-.!t

:l

3+6
(!

! 3!

\-t"
\
\l

.oE cD<
:.(! o-i'

t\ l*' lx

.\ -.\

-t

L"

J rE i' 5d6 s. -

i)

ll

ooa

t ij
U

il_ esE @ arF cl '5Jo


o 4-o

ll

dil

. -15 .) -+1.
(b

r*
f\

6l*'

It

\\l
_15
t

!5@

ll o io

8l{l
+l
f\I
-- o+b

l "Or ct+

dr

\l f\l \
'J
I

= F=O-

e\\
ha1-' ui= =o i1!)

=li., I
J
o

tr3.
E

:r

I
--l

o!

Fe aro
-.t

(! .X

r-[
3

o
=

"

:'6
o=

'o

4-71

4-71

4-72

! t 2t=et:i -= y4!"a

."ti.,7i: i
'-

:
, c.oqdL !!= da ! q:

3 |''t2=iit
= I :
a=
a d": u n ! i:,=

:9.==!'

'$ :i

=t- L=".=-. "nt;z=.,-? :l 2=;==fi"j "+"271i


'a, =E

?"
5.9
qr ;:--

: ?==i='4zil z:.
iri
s,,8,.,??
-e;.!= tu=-:!9
= !a2?.{i a; -e

-z - 2,. -= - a
= :::
a

!.i;: -= "i f, 1=':g;'

! Z

\ \
r$
!4ct.".:.r=4 a=j;="!=

: Te=--=,..!= -.)7-.j=== = '.n,!=-;-::!ai=


u !=-l =!..:

i
c-.1=

r.!-=vE-i-J:i j --.3:.yo:

l,2i,LZ=!'e
-
-,

o t= to -.. . P-i

=-9=:;-==a--!_,, 1;,i:_.:+=_a=_,L.,r J = c I - | -= ^ ..9- o=-F4-=a a --==i:aa= \?, t:= c 9,'c


vl

= --:tr"-"2.':,-4-;-= = 1,tE5?=z e4:1- - ^^:< )-a


1i= L a = = :

- --: i.;:
c ? > - c\a
=

: |

a= i -. .
y
=.=: i7 >
-

JJ-:
O

.].>@c.-

i oL
E

:4:
-o!9
"
rdo-;;:jj Y=tF^.=L

-,

-.c+= 3 - l-: U\ i q :si ': F"a'== a':1 - L '* !1 i | = - -_ - =" ); i =: S - 3-9 :l ).a--=)

J'-a'-u . =-1 $ F j 'Y; o 5r;: a = l= = u = 1t;a. i A > Q i!:it.

:l
,

.r : :: :

9 :=E?.a-"_ o < u - i.= _ 9*aYa.aL j 2. = J '-.2;L.!)-:-=7 =a'= .:.YZ-=L=f .;

!i 5
i ,.r

:a:it!+i

;; =L - " -yi .r+4., ; a : - .-2 L = s L a -- ':' =-:"t

2..^--

-:i, tr )

ia;eE t'=
.-a

l--.lor_--:. c.=:: *=: '

.rte!-,.===9 --= :.i.< i< - ! t-:

'==a- =.':=:
. z) == t.'- = = i=a i, '

---;..^o;2

o i , .i: - =o4a = ai1=:a=: i..-!=a--:' ,= z n =: i't.t t: -tj

Q c-: 2

a ' i:.9, in-rr{:=,

'|

l J

4-72

8L

4-72

4-72

4-72

4-73

@D-9.'c

Gui& Serres

4-73

FloorV,brations
Due to Hun an Activity
Thomas M. MurraY, PhD' P.E. Montague-Betts Professor of Structural Steel Design The Charles E. Via, Jr. Department of Civil Engineering Virginia Polytechnic lnstitute and State University Blacksburg, Virginia, USA David E. Allen, PhD Senior Research Officer lnstitute for Research in Construction National Research Council Canada Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

Eric E. Ungar, ScD, P.E.


Chief Engineering Scientist Acentech lncorporated Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA

AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION CANADIAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION


4-73 4-73 4-73 4-73

4-74

4-74

Annexe A

der nom.bres compleres .rmpLifie grandemenr , ra reponse de sysrmes elenlentaires

L utilL..rtion

Les

equations e\primant

rier de fonctions priodiques et surrour de la transforme de'Fourie, d";;;;;;;. ,.,' priodiques. En particulier, la comprhension de la ansformation aiscrOte de iourler et de I'algorithme de calcul de la transforme de Fourier rapide fait upp"i a on" _ul trise de 1'algbre complexe. Son importalce est donc telle qu,elle justie la ordsenra_ tion d un breI resume de l agebre comple\e et de ionJJ^.nruu qr iont uttttses profusion dans plusieurs chapitres. ".rrrin.'Lt "or"ru.r

et est la base du dveloppement en sriee Fou_

4.1. Dfrnition
OB appelle nombre complexe

tolJle exptession de la foame

(4.1)
o o et sont des nombres rels et i2 = _1. On appelle o I a partie relle de z, note F(z) ou Re(z), et est ppet la panie imaginairie z, rctL SA

Sia:0,
nombre o

le nombre 0 + i esl dit purement imaginaire alors i0 a est un nomb.e prement rel. Deux nimb.".

i:

""1^a;.'

.o.pi"**

quesi ' = 0,le (4.2)

z-a+jb _

et

z*:a-\b : ! :

z:

sont dits corj&g&/r s'ils ne diffrent que par le signe de leur prtie imaginaire. On convient que deux nombres complexes z1 a1 ibl et 22 .r2 + i2 sont gaux, seulement si ler_rr partie relle et ier_,r partie imaginair. so"ieg" et b1 b2_. On convient, de plus, qu'un nombre

ib

0, seulement si a

et

complei"

0.

"r,

eg"f

".o,

.;"raa-Oir"

,'r'= ,

4-74

il+

4-74

4-74

4-75

n
9

!
l
:

+ 9-l ia + !-. -:l + +

G= a
E

-l-.
z

Y
i

.9

: i
'a<
-..r

)
4-75
l

-; d! 4 o

!2?
2

Z P 9.1 E z _O-.;i=E_i@
o- i,: = e:: o-:=-.:

- =at -9= qtj :': .: >:

e ll r l:
Y)

<

9:-:F;;:',. i t s z 3:,
o_ s ! ! = ro 5 ! i:9.<!> : ! i ;i ,,:: 'o:iuv-;: i -4e? K-c ! o = 6i?!-9r---a 4..:'=.Uc.'.J I . \.= t - 5 et-

?:!." " *-\ -- _9!: ". .. ;

:
I

o -r,, ='-s9' i
z
:i .. -

::
z c- x - 'o

* - u I

; .. =! 5;ci

4 -j-!==..at:=e , !. { - a; .o = ! - t o Y -^
Ei

' -J:::i!

o o

f ii

--, =o:F E=":?! cq:] ..".

".2 -;
L

'
-

.= z =_ ge._s.g ? eL.==i... "ls -i)


+.-a.i',6;: a a<!i!E=t q -.i.
a :-1= L =:.:

= ._

4-75

lt4

4-75

y c? F z =.= D! 6 = t= ^ .: - = x.Fi -'a.)

4-75

4-76

!
..1

I
E

z
l'

;
.F
^ :qlE

;g'T 7- :9{;^j =: : 'tl+ iu.i !

:i==-E-:

i i; E:.
;:

Ue- = : "

i l :E I
?
-:! x '_. : ; ?

. o o:.

- jr

I
1.3
rj

rl_^t

als
"?

tl

"-l.r 9
9o.i !=.qt ='-

E c'o .-;;.
q -'7

: lBE '2; E; iE i: .?. 4y;: ' : *- Eg ''=-- '-S ;6 q :s'F;;


-oeo69 -=?"8=E7 .::""^; " +a

I'!ii "?,2
s E :P *l i =EJt"51 ;3 3 3 : ;o
i '. s

: iEi: tii suE! ' ,.i E : i,: = iE ." .Ez;.-t ; r*tr ;"-;g;i E :;x. :: iE; E:.;l: i;P' 1rr1:"* l=;i)t: f r sirl ;ri l: ;{ ,;.'
e
--i aza

; : . * er
-:3

-^ I
-: : ?+ :I

":

En

lrSS

i ;-"t. a i.

2a

EF

?:

5-!

9 , L

=
4-76

4-76

ll{o

4-76

4-76

4-77

4-77

684

Dlnamique des structres

tr]6=-i

Figrre .3,

ks

&il rolutions de z3

u:(r+1rt

=Isont1,ttt.w2,

,w7,avec

des valeurs prcdentes car elles ne se distinguent que par url

multiple de 2?r On erl valerc diffrentes a n complexe qe d'n nombrc conclut la racine n-ime figurc A.3 montre les huit soltiots de z8

OnappeLlen-imetacinedel'unitlesracinesquisatisfontl'quatiqlTn=1l-a : I Si nous mettons l'unit sos forme

gonomtrique, nous obtenos

I:cos0+isi0
De l'quation (A.29), nous obtenons

(4.31)

*, rtdo
,nk

$osoTrsrno-"o"0 nn ,'o'+i",n

o*n
1

(A.32)

= cos2+ 1i.1n

LI,
k=

&: o,1,2,...,n 0,r,2,...,n 1,

(A.33)

que nous crivons sous Jorme exponentielle

wy: ei2k^/n,

(4.34)

4-77 4-77

il?

4-77

4-77

4-78

4-78

_ '

Chapter

XXIY

Frequency-Domlrjn Analyses

The loads appiied include the lollolving ti.vo contdbutions:


Loacl Clase "ECCX", Fur:rction "FSQIJARED", a scalc lactor equal to em. and a phase angle of 0'

Load Case ^ECCZ . Function "FSQUARED", a scale hctor equal to en, and a phase angLe o1'90'

. , .

Addrtlonal lreqrLencies feqrLencles Additional

1 a1

the nodal tiequencics trequencics of Analysis Case

"MODAL"

Additional ficquenctes at the lbllor.ving fractiot;al deviations Iiom tlic moclal iiequencies of A.nalysi,s Clase "MODAL": 0.0 l. -0.0I , , 0.02, 0.02. r0.0 j. ' -0.03. I0.05. ,0.05
Stilm<ss-1',rprrliorr:l lrt.r.ret'c rl..,mnin: rJrh r..uici(nl trl d -0rl-l ,:.rrIq.pnding to rnud.rl Ll:rrrrping ol2n^. rrhich mrJ Jr'Jplrolri.rLc Lor jDtsll \rbrations

Afl;r

.rrHI1
,.Ll

it'qiics

'rs. \\ ,. t iu I'lur licLli.r-iJs .lnLj

lhe J..fl-'. tir.i :L

illil\c
"ng:".

Jn\

rr

115.

1,ffi

['fcc

5lr. ss ruso,lr)\c ,rt Jl)v ul

d.L

angle 0' pliurar ilv reprcscllTs thc behavior clue to ltorizontal loading, plus a damping component dLre to vertical loading. We ca;r instead plot the lragnitude ofthe response al any r'.qr.rested fi'equcncy. rvhere the magnihrcle is given by lhe square-root ol the sum olthc squares oi'the rcal (0') and iuraginary (90") reponsc cc.r:.nponcnts. quar.rtity as a luncLion of .liequency, yieltling a li'ecluencv spectnrm. Tiris can be rlone fbr tlre co;Iponent a ny phase anglc. or 1'ol tl.re magnitude ol rhe responsc.

It is also possrbie to displey plots of any rcsponse

Power-Spectral-Density Analysis
Porver-speclr'a1-density (PSD) anaLysis js similar 1o Steady-stflte analysis in that it considers the hamronic behavior olthe structlre over range offtequencies. However', thc loading is consideled to be probablistic r.rver the Trequencv range of the analysis, anci so too is the response. This probablistic response can be integrted over lhe fi'cqucncy. range to detcnriue a single erpected valuc. 'l'his can bc useful, for example. lor fatigue design.

A PSD AnaLysis Case considers correlatet! Ioadinx ol ttrc fom:

pr',,-)c.7

tt)t

pt, t0,' -I.

'-,,,,' p.rcose; +i.irrr,

Power-Spectral-DensityAnlysis 367

4-78

4-78

4-78

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