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Cogn Process (2006) 7:245267 DOI 10.



Articial consciousness, articial emotions, and autonomous robots

Alain Cardon

Received: 21 January 2006 / Revised: 24 August 2006 / Accepted: 8 September 2006 / Published online: 3 October 2006 Marta Olivetti Belardinelli and Springer-Verlag 2006

Abstract Nowadays for robots, the notion of behavior is reduced to a simple factual concept at the level of the movements. On another hand, consciousness is a very cultural concept, founding the main property of human beings, according to themselves. We propose to develop a computable transposition of the consciousness concepts into articial brains, able to express emotions and consciousness facts. The production of such articial brains allows the intentional and really adaptive behavior for the autonomous robots. Such a system managing the robots behavior will be made of two parts: the rst one computes and generates, in a constructivist manner, a representation for the robot moving in its environment, and using symbols and concepts. The other part achieves the representation of the previous one using morphologies in a dynamic geometrical way. The robots body will be seen for itself as the morphologic apprehension of its material substrata. The model goes strictly by the notion of massive multi-agents organizations with a morphologic control. Keywords Articial consciousness Intentionality Representation Organizational memory Articial emotions Embodiment Multi-agent systems Morphology

Introduction We deal with the notion of articial consciousness facts, i.e., the facts that living beings endowed with brain are able to generate in their mind about the things of the world they can conceive. The problem is neither about the performance nor the qualities of the faculty to thought about things, but it is about the fundamental ability to make here and now a representation about the things we manipulate in an abstract but intelligible manner in mind. By analogy with the notion of consciousness for a long time invested by philosophers, psychologists and neurobiologists, we will pose the question of the articial consciousness strictly in a constructivist way: how can one transpose the fact of thinking to something into the computable eld, so that an articial system, founded on computer processes, would be able to generate consciousness facts, in a viewable manner for us, the interested observers. The problem is to nd the good approach and the good level for the production of a realistic model. On the reality of the life we have, on one hand, a neural network made of very numerous cells. We have, on the other hand, our mind and the impression we can have about this component of ourselves as generating sophisticated representations about things of the world. How to transpose into the computable eld? The fact it is possible, for the brains, to think about things, in what way an articial system can generate an intelligible representation of things and facts, that will be the state of this system considered as having intentions, emotions, ideas by the way of things and events concerning itself? This system necessarily must be linked to a body that it directs, but whose constraints must it respect? But it also must have

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A. Cardon (&) LIP6, Laboratoire dinformatique de Paris VI, UPMC Case 169, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05, France e-mail: Alain.Cardon@lip6.fr



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articial real life experiences, intentions to act and to think, and must have knowledge and notably a knowledge using words of language, it must have emotions and intentions, and nally it must be conscious of itself. We shall call such a system, by analogy with brain, an articial brain but we shall see that its architecture is strong moved away of the one of the brains: it is going to transpose effects, movements, and not replicates, the brain constituents like the neurons or gliale cells. We will keep in mind principally one characteristic of the process of thinking unfolding in the brain: there is a complex neural, biochemical, and electrical activation movement. This movement is coupled, but with a different period, a similar one in the body nervous system. This very complex movement generates, by selective emergence reaching a particular conguration, what we call a thought about something. This thought rapidly leads to actuators or language activity and descends then in the next thought, which can be similar or different. This is the very complex phenomenon that we have to transpose in the computable domain. Hence, we will approach the sudden appearance of thoughts in brains at the level of the complex dynamics of a system building and recongure recurrent and temporized ux. We transpose this into computer processes architectures containing symbolic meaning and we will make it geometrically self-controlled. Two reasonable hypotheses are made for this transposition: Analogy between the geometrical dynamics of the real brain and the one of the articial brain: in the rst case, ows are complex continuous forms and for the other they are dynamic graphs whose deformations are evaluated in a topological manner, Combinatory complexity reduction of the real brain in the computable domain by using symbolic and pre-language level for this approach. The basic elements are completely different; they are not of the same scale.

the question, considered a formidable one, of freedom to think (Ricur 1990). One thinks indeed about everything according to our memory and our intuition of the moment, but only if it can be expressed as a thought by the thought producing system. We develop in this article the main points of a software architecture allowing a robot to produce facts of consciousness and we show the results of a prototype on autonomous robot. The system presented is generic and can be applied to all computerized process of continuous data streams, without material body.

Concepts and general architecture We consider an autonomous robot where the material body is viewed as a physical substratum, and we consider a software system generating possible representations of behaviors, that anticipate these behaviors before doing the actual actions (Brooks 1991). We want the robot to be able to develop an adaptive and purposeful behavior in the environment it is running. The substratum, the material part, the controlcommand part with the physical components indeed, contains the sensors and their memories, representing information only at the numerical level. The robots behavior is dependent on its actuators capabilities. We will say that its behavior is adaptive if it is not irrational, not chaotic, and not strictly determined, but is necessarily, for itself, an adequate situation in its current environment (Mataric 1995). The question is how to dene a system that produces the reasons and the deep incentives for such a behavior. Functionality of the system generating articial representations We consider the robot as having the capacity to hold information in real time from its sensors taking into account the things of its environment, and to access a specic internal memory about things and facts. This general information will be interpreted and continuously generates the current states of a specic system (Fig. 1). Lets specify the general functionalities this system must have, with three functional subsystems: 1. The system has a subsystem taking external and internal information. The external capture can be achieved using multiple specic neuron networks for form recognition. It has a subsystem of action that allows the manipulation of its different motor organs in reactive or original planned ways.

However, once these hypotheses made, one should not start to develop an architecture that will operate its own control from the aspects of its changing geometry. One needs to ask the proper question about consciousness fact generation. This question was asked by a philosopher a couple of decades ago, by M. Heidegger (Heidegger 1959): what brings us to think about this thing right here right now? The answer, quite elaborate, to this question will lead to a system architecture choice that will take us away from reactive or deductive systems. The system will generate intentionally its consciousness facts, as P. Ricur understood it (Ricur 1990). There is no generation of consciousness facts without intention to think about something. This settles



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The central process and the two main questions

Physical action System

Central Process
Input System

System of Representation Generation of the current situation

The three subsystems: input, action, and generation of the current representation, are always in coactivity in a continuous process called the central process, that coordinates their activation and expresses the system global organizational activity, according to its embodiment. This is a distributed process. The main questions are why is the system running and why it stabilized into the current state expressing something pertinent. Without elements of answers to these two main questions, there is nothing constructivist to say about articial consciousness.

Fig. 1 The three subsystems for the generation of representations in a current situation

The notion of generated representation We are interested a system representing, on its own, its situation in the environment, to achieve actions there. That is the so-called representation system . The representation system That is strictly a software system allowing production, from information picked up at the substratum level, a purposeful internal representation leading to a behavioral action or the generation of another internal representation. This system is based on an innite process achieving a strong link between the substratum that can feel and act physically on the environment, and an internal memory allowing the generation of the pertinent current representation. This software system will be the computable transposition of a brain working. We can propose a constructivist hypothesis about the representation system architecture. The basic components For the representation system, all the used basic components will be specic proactive processes that are like oscillators in an organization managing its control in a distributed way. This system, according to a real mind, must have several characteristics and numerous parts, like an episodic memory, a deep memory, a meso-limbic sub-


It must possess a specic subrepresentation system, with an architecture made of numerous linked evolving parts, allowing to continuously and deliberately construct a state of the robots situation in its environment, taking into account the capacities of its body, and its security.

We will make the systemic hypothesis that these three subsystems are dependent and co-active: no one is activated as a strict consequence of the activation of another, but they reinforce and compensate themselves. They are therefore at time competiting and cooperating between themselves. In addition, we will state that these three subsystems are always in activity, dening the running or the continuous robots articial life. The process (this term is here according to the common sense of mechanism) that activates and coordinates the three subsystems is always on. Subsystems exist therefore by their conjoined and corresponding activations: the central principle that drives their global behavior is a linking process that will be able to analyze itself. We call this process the central process (Fig. 1). The fact that the system is able to coordinate its three subsystems expresses its dynamic organization. According to the capacities of the two input and activity subsystems, the robot is immersed in the environment it will be able to discern as very rich or relatively poor. It is clear that the system of generation of representations will be conditioned by the quality of the production of these two functional subsystems. But why is the representation system is running in a no reactive but intentional way?



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system, a linguistic subsystem, and several knowledge bases.... We have stated that the system must include a specic representation system allowing the manipulation of internal objects to deliberately construct a current representation, leading to the robots current behavior. Each of the internal objects composing this representation will be a process, the whole forming synchronized distinct groups of processes and leading to the current representation as an emergence of specic linked processes. The current representation is an action of organization of processes leading to an emergence. For the realization of that special type of emergence, the representation system is constituted itself of three strongly linked parts (Fig. 2): A rst part, the aspectual organization that continuously constructs representations of something by activation of autonomous proactive elements. Each of the proactive elements has a semantic interpretation, like a characteristic about an intelligible knowledge. This system is the robots representation system going to expresses something having a signicance here and now. The aspectual organization is a representation of something, in the sense that this system expresses with permanence and pertinence some topic with some active elements representing in its entirety something semantic it is concerned with. It uses for that construction an organizational memory. That memory accumulates the past facts and events (the facts and events imposed as known at the construction level) on the form of entities having semantic features and ability to be proactive. This memory naturally feeds the aspectual organization and all the aspectual organization elements come from this memory. They are dynamic pro-active elements indeed. A third part, the morphological representation system, that values the aspectual organization in

progress, that controls on-line the construction generated by the aspectual organization and makes it appropriate to the environment constraints, according to some predened tendencies. We call the result of this morphological control of the aspectual organization, the generated representation, i.e., a state of emergence of the activity of the two part entities. Without this morphological component allowing a co-control of the movements of processes, the system could never have its own intentions and would be only a reactive one. General architecture of the representation system The representation system, strictly internal, will be composed of two distinct but strongly coupled parts: an aspectual organization generating the activity of some basic proactive entities, that constructs the current representation by aggregation of local aspectual features to form a dynamic organization and, on the other hand, a morphological assessment system operating on the previous one at the geometrical level. The pro-active aspectual elements generate by their activities a global sense, while representing an organization adapted to the robots state and behavior and according to its organizational memory. This current representation is constructed by aggregation of active basic elements that operate in a no-synchronous way. Initially, the system is in a state of observation of its inputs and has its organizational memory available (Fig. 2). According to the current context, this organizational memory frees some aspectual elements that are going, under some conditions, to contribute to form the new current representation. This aggregation expansion is controlled by the

Fig. 2 Architecture of the representation system

System managing input output information and actions Morphological representation expressing the geometrical movements

Deep link

Aspectual organization expressing the current situation

Strong link

Organizational memory


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morphological organization. The morphology is expressed in an abstract organizational space, a geometric space of shapes (Cardon 1999), that we will describe later. Lets specify what is a state of this system, what is the conguration of the representation system producing something of signicance. This notion of state takes into account two notions: a set of local semantic notions coming from the basic aspectual entities and a global notion coming from the morphology of active entity set: The system aspectual state An aspectual state is a construct composed of proactive elements that are adapted to for the things conceivable by the robot, where the proactive basic element organization is stabilized for one short moment under the morphological control. It will be the equivalent of an intelligible idea about something. The state is constructed like a specic dynamic set of entities, each of them representing very local characteristic features, the whole active forming a global structure which is coherent, taking in account some tendencies, some memorized facts and some specic conguration.

rent organization from initial tensions, internal and external tensions, to change its dynamic order of related parts, to stabilize it in a temporary state that the morphological system would be able to feel as such, and to take an immediate decision to act? Could such a state be seen as the production of meaning by means of the movements of the objects the system feels, and how to generate such a state? The solution to these problems requires answering the following questions: 1. 2. What is the necessary complexity degree to such a system? What are the architecture and the control characteristics that would permit the temporary stabilization into a state expressing the signicance according to something meaningful in the environment or in the memory? How to generate a reason to destabilize the system that is not an a priori pre-dened reason? How to dene the system stabilization process, which must be only temporary? How to dene the way the system is able to represent what it produces as a steady state one instant and that it can use thereafter?

3. 4. 5.

The representation system and the generation of meaning The problem of the generation of a representation with signicance can be expressed in the following way. The robot is in an environment where it can distinguish a lot of things, item by item. Its sensors are active, its organizational memory is available and it must decide its behavior here and now. This behavior will be the result of the current generated representation that will permit to take a meaningful action, that is: To represent something that is going to have a signicance, that is rationally and emotionally generated in itself, in consistency with its previous states to respect the continuity, To feel this representation with articial emotions, To act by its actuators, To know that the representation is its own, in the sense that it is possible to use it later to affect the next ones, that is to force the next states of generation.

The rst hypothesis concerns the very general characteristic of a system able to generate meaning. In reference to the typically complex brain structure, we make the hypothesis that only the systems whose organization is complex in an organizational way have the capacity to generate meaning (Cardon 2005). We will consider a system qualied of organizationally complex therefore, that is organized of large sets of interactive elements and that has a dynamic order of parts and processes in mutual interactions (Bertalanffy 1973; Clergue 1997). Such a system is formed of a very large number of elements, each of them having a behavioral autonomy. That will be software agents. Inter-relations between these elements will produce the current state as an alteration of some form. Then, the general system behavior will be essentially characterized by the reorganization of the local behavior of these basic elements, by the modication of their couplings and their internal modications themselves. Basic elements: the aspectual agents and the notion of morphology The basic entities used in the current representation construction are dynamic, proactive, rational and social. That will be software agents called aspectual agents (Cardon 1999). The general aspectual agents

So, what is the architecture and the capacity of reorganization of the representation system that would permit to have these properties, to destabilize its cur-



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structure will be expressed with four parts, more or less developed according to the agent specicity (Fig. 3): A A A A module module module module for for for for knowledge, communication, behavior, action.

The actuators aspectual agents: they propose an actual action of the robots organs.

We have specied an incremental method of construction for a massive multi-agent organization (Cardon 2004). Every agent will be considered like a simple enough software entity: it will be a weak agent that communicates with the others and whose behavior takes into account the result of these communications. Aspectual agents represent a lot of categories, derived from ontology, that refer to: The space and its different possible description modes (the permanent and regular shapes)... The time and its modes (the notion of time that is passing out)... The designation of well-identied things (the detachment of something from a set of shapes) ... The denition of a concept, a relation, a word, a form, a thing ... The situation of an object (the appreciation, the utility, the worry...)... The possibility to manage the organization itself (the proto-self component elements) ...

All these general and abstract characteristics should be turned into different groups of aspectual agents that are active according to some cases and where the group characteristics are variable. This process will be activated according to the information provided by the linked sensors aspectual agents. One kind of aspectual agent is bound to the robot input and output. While preserving the robotic terminology, these agents are of two types: The sensor aspectual agents: they interpret the information coming from the environment,


Communications Behavior


Fig. 3 The general structure of an aspectual agent

All the numerous other aspectual agents are strictly internal agents. They dene concepts and very local actions and plans: the numeric synthesis of their past actions, the proposed current action, the possible values of their future actions. Lets notice that this notion of plan is strictly local to agent and only dened by the values of internal variables, allowing memorizing the details of the local actions. Agent organization is therefore a system whose behavior is based on the variable interactions between the agents (Fig. 4). We will choose at times a ner granularity in regard to functionalities, and typically plurivoc ones, that is to say based on the redundancy and the plurality of the characteristics. We state that the system will have its functionalities distributed in no steady and no consistent agents: for every precise functionality we will associate groups of agents whose cooperative actions should permit to achieve the function in question, but also its opposite, inverse, contrary, near and similar functions... The agentication method leads to a certain redundancy and large diversity with regard to faculties of agents. That will be necessary to permit a complex behavior in an organizational way and also to make the system operate strictly by emergence. Groups of agents will not be in any way functional but rather versatile, ambiguous and they will be able to create emerging groups using communications between them, reifying some specic roles. A generated aspectual state expresses some signs according to the semiotic sense of the term (Peirce 1984), the signs being correlated to characteristics of real world objects. These basic elements come from ontology representing the knowledge of the world for the robot, and are located in its organizational memory. But the basic dynamic elements associate themselves to form the new current emergent state: that is not a static ontology but a dynamic one. And it is therefore necessary to proceed to an in-line control of their activity to force the set of active agents to reach a coherent and adapted global state. It is not about forcing the organization so that it reaches a predened state, but to force it locally, in some movements of its dynamic entities, so that it reaches an admissible state according to what it contains and also to its geometrical form. The control will be achieved according to the morphological characteristics of the aspectual organization, according to shapes that this organization takes while activating its entities. It is about dening an articial mental map (Fig. 4) by the aspectual organization movements, controlling its expansion.


Cogn Process (2006) 7:245267 Fig. 4 Communications between aspectual agents in the prototype: the mental map at the organizational level


It is common, in articial intelligence, to select concepts using some mechanisms with meta-rules. That is not the case with the system we develop. There are some available agents, named and qualied with their semantic roles and coming from the organizational memory, by the way of ontology of many domains using the language and the psychology of robots behaviors. Some of these agents tempt to spread out in a group, and there is the emergence of structured coherent ones, meaningful of a mental and physical state of the global system, that is going to make the current point of attention in the representation. All these system agents will notbe simultaneously active and most of them remain xed, but may be solicited while activating some others by their accountancies (Ferber 1995).

Each generated current representation describes itself therefore in two ways: At the aspectual agents level that clearly expresses by the way of their local semantics expressed in their states and behavior, the things to which they are going to make allusion, With some shapes that are the geometric conformations of the aspectual agents activities, in a specic space we describe further.

The concept of shape is strictly a geometric one: a shape will be seen like some geometric gures (Fig. 5, 6) as graphs or polyhedrons having some specic geometrical characteristics (Cardon 2004). Our notion of representation corresponds to the one of history for the autobiographic agents of K. Dautenhahn

Fig. 5 The morphology expressing the form of the aspectual agents organization






252 Fig. 6 The emergence of aspectual groups of aspectual agents linked as graphs on the screen of the prototype

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(1997), but where the concept of agent rather means a robot. The characteristics of a system generating the current representations According to the previous general presentation, we now focus on the characteristics of the representation system. The organizational memory The generated representation is a construct indeed, each time formed with an organization of aspectual agents whose behavior expresses a set tailored to the current aimed situation, the situation that has been wanted by organizational tendencies: There are interface agents interpreting information coming from sensors, interpreting them while transforming the numeric indications in semantic features, There is a current memory of the previous generations, in order to respect the continuity of the produced states, the articial thought produced.

This construction is allowed by the existence of two fundamental and original structures: An organizational memory, A system of specic in-line control of the representation acting during its generation.

The robots articial brain must have so-called cu concept articial real life experience, i.e., ve according to P. Ricoeur (1990). It has an event-driven memory, a memory of events, introduced element by element with the numerous links at the construction stage of the system, but dynamically enlarged by its actions and behavior. This memory retraces facts, situations, events, knowledge, cases, doctrines.... It is based on ontology giving the system the elements of a specic knowledge and culture. That is not a factual memory but an event-driven one, under a very particular shape allowing the soft impairing of each extracted and used element and putting it in the specic current context adapting it indeed. That is a memory delivering some past facts into the current context for each recall. This memory is structured to be modiable by change as consequence of each present state. Especially, its structure must permit that each extracted fact is systematically cast into a form corresponding to the context of the call, and to inect also the memorized structure: each call of a fact is a modication of it. A memorized fact is only a sign that spreads out and recomposes itself in the new context of generation of the representation, with some specic shape. This memory will evidently be based on the aspectual agents organization, but will be structured into another level. Its original architecture makes the object of a patent deposit into USA (US Overt Trademark and Ofce n2059, 2005).


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Pattern for emotions Current Representation

Pattern for logic deduction

Pattern for management of memory

Others patterns...

is necessary to specify the notion of fundamental tendency. A fundamental tendency will be the constructivist transposition of the impulse concept in the sense of S. Freud (Freud 1966). Then, we will have to represent such a concept in the computable way. Fundamental tendency Adaptive systems are designed so that they must satisfy the general needs that presides over their behaviors and their representations of things in a decisive manner. These general, multiple and contradictory needs will be called the fundamental tendencies of the robot. These tendencies reside in the representation system as major modier elements, operating at the level of the morphology of the representation system. These tendencies are the reasons driving the behavior of the robot, rst while reorganizing its current representation and secondly allowing the action in an adapted manner in its environment. With the necessity to act imposed by these fundamental tendencies, the robot will led to solve some various types of problems and to solve them in an interested manner. Fundamental tendency, organizational denition A fundamental tendency is an organizational slant inecting the construction of the aspectual state, while giving it some specic characteristics about the real context appreciation. This slant will operate, via the morphology, on the set of entities constituting the aspectual state. It is therefore a promoter tendency of the generated representation. We consider the fundamental tendencies as numerous and contradictory. In the case where the system would only have one fundamental tendency each time, or where all the active tendencies would be strongly in agreement as a hierarchy with a permanent dominant one, the system would look like a reactive one with an explicit goal operating with multi criteria choice. The system must adjust its tendencies while conforming the plastic structure producing its aspectual state with some constraints on the organizational liberty degrees, allowed with its basic elements. The behavioral consequence of the generation of such a representation will be itself qualied of adaptive (Meyer and Wilson 1990).

Pattern for recognition

Pattern for ask the questions

Fig. 7 The pattern of control of the representation system

The representation system is going to call therefore, or to undergo by necessity, on the memorized events and facts of the organizational memory, whose ultimate components will be some proactive aspectual agents. These awakened agents will tend then, because that is their nature of agent, to join groups forming the core of the current representation and inecting it according to their roles. This mechanism we develop is a kind of work of processes by tendencies (Campagne 2005). This mechanism of aggregation of aspectual agent activation operating socially according to their roles cannot be left without any control. A miraculous emergence does not exist. There will be in the conduct of the representation system, in the semi-liberty left to the aspectual agents, a strong morphological control on the agents aggregations. This control will be carried out according to semantic agents indications with their roles, using organizational patterns of control (Fig. 7). These patterns control the morphologic development of the aspectual aggregations, using components coactivity and specic semantic notions of values, truth, rights, relevance.... The robots articial brain will be constructed to generate some articial classes of concepts, according to its organizational memory but with limitations introduced at the construction stage. This specic system of control is also the object of a patent deposit into USA (2005). But the robot, in accordance with its body, must have an equivalent of the mammalian meso-limbic system: it will feel emotions corresponding to releases of impulses systematically and solving the embodiment problem. It will generate articial thought always in accordance with emotions. Fundamental tendencies and aspectual state The current representation generation is not an automated reaction to some input. To address the incentive of the current aspectual state construction, it



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The fundamental tendency notion will be seen like a change in the generation of each current aspectual state. It will be necessary to get away from the functional specications for the current state emergence, to feel the notion of leeway and quantiable subjectivity.

Architecture of the representation system We are going to specify the architecture of the system generating the representations. The co-active components This system is composed of specic subsystems organically bounded by another processing their strong coupling (Fig. 8). All these subsystems have the multiagent architecture. 1. The organizational memory. It is an event-driven, structured, dynamic memory, representing the robots articial real lived. This system must organize facts, events, phenomena, cases... that it can use to go to the current generation, which is its current articial thought. It will modify its memorized traces while using them and it is clear that the extracted knowledge will always be presented according to the context and is never merely symbolic. Yet, knowledge about facts and events will be entered in the system under objective shape, but in an adapted structure allowing dynamicity, The system of construction of the current state, composed of the aspectual agent organizations, expressing the aspects of the different things of the world represented. These agents are rational and proactive entities that alter themselves while





Anticipation morphology

Aspectual organization

Organizational memory

Central Process

Emotional system

Morphologic Control for description


Fig. 8 The representation system and its components linked by the central process

functioning. Each of them produces results that are inputs to others. This system is therefore a network of processes in re-conformation, endowed with semantics, which tampers itself while functioning, according to the sense of Atlan (1995). It builds features about the perceived current situation structuring these agents towards some specic shapes during their activation, The system of morphological control of the construction of the current state view as a geometric aggregation of processes, expressing in a strictly geometric manner the way the results of computations and the computations themselves are done by the agents and what precisely they form in the whole, in the organizational sense. This system expresses the conformation produced by computations and communications: it represents activities in a dynamic graphs space (Campagne 2005). This system will be able, according to the conformation, to really globally act on the actions of the aspectual agents, to control the behavior of the agents organizations, The central process, linking in an organic relation the system of construction of the aspectual state with the morphological system, dragging the two systems in an continuous dialogic action we called the mirror action (Cardon 2004), where a modication in one of the systems immediately drags a modication in the other one, and so forth, until reaching a stable state in the co-activity of the two systems, The system of commitment, leading to the generation of a new aspectual state, able to make active the aspectual organization and the morphological system without predened goal as in the reactive systems. This system expresses the intentionality and the liberty therefore to organizationally act. It expresses the intentionality and essentially operates at the morphological level. An assessment and spatiotemporal change of the central process that allows, according to the rhythm of entities activity, to detect and to achieve modications, either brutal as organizational ruptures, either slow and periodic, as pulsations, and that will be the mental shape of the articial emotions leading to representations and subjective behaviors. The emotional system, external to the representation system, operating as the meso-limbic one, altering the current representation construction in the representation system with the introduction of impulses. It strongly uses the morphologic and the commitment systems, disrupting them.


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Such a system that evolves to represent and to analyze the conformations of all the active basic entities can have three types of functioning: 1. The morphological control system only selects the most active and most applicable entities, according to metrics it can use (Campagne 2005). Then we are in the case of a system producing some states adapted to the current situation, using some selector operating at the meta level. The morphological control system radically drives the active basic entities in whole, their global structure is xed, but the control allows the basic entities the maximum of liberty. The system is then similar to a neural network operating by reex on an autonomous entity substratum. The morphological control system is co-active with the aspectual entity organization, the basic entities organization continuously evolves. The system of commitment allows a free-will, because the representation can develop its action as it wishes. We are in the very delicate case of the co-activity that is the foundation of the adaptive systems generating articial thoughts. That is the case of our system.


We set, as a realistic hypothesis, that the consideration of symbolic elementary entities endowed of some signicance at the knowledge level, will permit the acquisition of a constructible and intelligible current representation. We state entities endowed with their own tendencies to the signicance and not entities reifying structural concepts and managed with metarules. The existence of such a basic pro-active entity having minimal signicance characteristics was the central hypothesis of L.S. Vygotski about the emergence of the thought in the brain (Vygotski 1985). We follow this hypothesis. The system will be composed therefore of six agents organizations (Fig. 9): The interface agents, bound to sensors and actuators, The agents of the representation system: The aspectual agents for the construction of current state, The morphology agents, The analysis agents, analyzing the morphology and intervening on the aspectual agents about the construction of the current aspectual state, The organizational memory agents. The emotional system agents.


The different organizations of the agent system In the representation system, basic entities are strictly rational weak agents: the aspectual agents. These agents have to compose, by their activities and their communications, in fact by their aggregations, the characteristics of the current state. The choice to use agents is reasonable, leaving behind the rather reactive level of the formal neurons architectures.

The analysis agents are going to provide a cognitive view of what has been expressed by the geometric and semantic information coming from the morphology agents, above the aspectual agent landscape, that is an interpretation of dynamic graphs indeed. Lets note that this agent level will have a complex structure because it will be a co-active set of agent organizationsaspectual, morphology, analyzed as

Fig. 9 The ve organizations of agents of the system

System of Representation

Interface System Aspectual sensors agents Aspectual effectors agents

Aspectual Agents system

Morphology Agents system

Emotional Agent system

Analysis Agents system

Agents of the organizational memory



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indicated in Fig. 9. In fact, it will not be sufcient to represent the generation of a representation with emotional constraint using only these rational agents and we should use other very sophisticated techniques of modication of the construction of the emergent form in the aspectual organization, by the diffusion of hecklers, i.e., no-deterministic messengers, in the aspectual agents. The stability of the system will be more difcult. Vectorial expression of the agent behavior: the morphology To control the aspectual organization, we represent actions, aspectual agents movements, with some type of active forms that are essentially the geometric characteristics representing the dynamic signicance of theirs activations. This interpretation brings us closer to morphogenetic spaces of R. Thom (1972), with their characteristics of regular or hard modication. The specic type of forms we have to use on the dynamic graphs is the key to the problem of signicant emergence, linking geometric forms to semantic and is an important patent deposit in USA (2005). The main problem in the manipulation of a large set of agents is the representation and the control of the behavior of its organization. We have proposed a solution for the control that will be the foundation of our morphological hypothesis. One considers that the global signicance of activities achieved in the aspectual organization can also be determined in a geometric way, by shapes spreading out in a dynamic space whose measures represent the results of computations, the speed of computations, the interactions between computations, the possible collisions of competitors computations, the modications of the functions, their relative importance and their cooperation. We represent the behavior of a set of agents independently of the problems they solve therefore, out of the specic semantics. We are going to associate to the notion of behavior of agents group the notion of geometric shape. Shape A shape is an element of Rn with a Euclidian metric, associated to a semantic space as a space of words. Lets notice that the aspectual agents being some rational entities, it is possible to associate with them a precise notion of organizational state.

Organizational state An aspectual agents organizational state is the meaningful general characteristics allowing the description and interpretation of its current situation at each moment in the time and permitting to predict its behavior. It is clear that one should always bring back each of this meaningful characteristics to an element of R. So, an agents state will be a point of Rm if there are m characteristics dening the agents state. The problem is to determine these characteristics. Activity map (Lesage 2000) The activity map of an aspectual agent organization is a representation of the complete set of meaningful characteristics of the agent behavior for a time. The activity map will correspond of the mental map of a cerebral activity. To use the notion of shape, i.e., to represent an activity map by geometric shapes, it is necessary to rst represent each agent by a vector of state. The characteristics of the agents movement can be dened from the three following categories: 1. The agents appearance, view from the outside, i.e., by the other agents. This category characterizes the agents situation in relation to its environment, The agents internal appearance in front of its goal to reach. It is about its state in relation to goals that it must imperatively reach again and in relation with the roles that it must necessarily assure, The agents state at the level of its own working, i.e., its internal dynamic. That is the measure of the quality of its same organization and its variation in time.



Then we are going to dene the measure of an organizational space with six characteristics deducted from these three categories: (1) According to the agents appearance in its immediate environment that is according to its own situation in relation to its acquaintances and its environment one keeps the three following notions: Supremacy: that is the measure of the fact the agent is either located in position by force in the relation to its acquaintances, that it has or not many allies and if its enemies are or not powerful.


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Independence: that is the measure of the actions agents autonomy, specifying if it is necessary for it to nd allies to reach its goals. Persistence: that is the measure of the agents longevity, its life that can be brief or long.

(2) According to the appearance of the agents internal structure, that is its state in relation to its assigned goals, one keeps the notions of: Easiness: it is the measure of the fact the agent reached its current state with ease or not. For example if an automaton expresses the agents behavior, this characteristic measures the ease of transition, the possibility to go back. This indicator species also the support or the resistance met by agents team to other agents team to reach its goals. Speed: it is the speed the agent has to reach its assigned goals. It is for example the speed of getting over the states of its behavioral automaton when the agent possesses one.

Supremacy Independence Persistence Facilitated Speed Intensity of the internal activation flux Complexification Organizational gap
Fig. 10 Organizational characteristics of the aspectual agents behavior

With the clear notion of specic organizational shapes, we can interpret them matching in semantic space, nally linking geometry and semantic: Semantic interpretation of the shapes According to the specic characteristics of the organizational shapes we can match the geometric specicities of the forms in a semantic space, using the semantic contained in the agents as roles and knowledge rules. The notion of commitment: why the current representation must emerge? At this stage, we have an agent representation for semantic and geometric forms, this agentication coming from ontology. We have a dynamic system with a morphological control. Then, it is necessary to specify what triggers the central process and what makes this process stop one moment, in a specic conguration of the aspectual organization rather than in another one. Taking into account these constraints will noticeably complicate the representation system schema. It will be necessary to dene some structural and organizational extensions. The difcult questions about the construction of the system are the following: what leads the system to start for a new representation? What is the reason behind getting the system into action and allowing the stabilization of its conformation one moment? What is this quasi-stable reached state? It is not about dening a mechanism of automaton type, that would get the system in action upon reception of a well-known stimulus and that would produce a compliant answer in a good manner. It is not even to dene a system that would create action by chance, while based on a stochastic mode. One must remember the deep answer to the main question why do we think?, given by M. Heidegger in a philosophical setting a long time ago (Heidegger 1959).

(3) According to the appearance of its internal organization, that is its working view as a process of communication between its modules and according to its structure, one keeps the following notions: Intensity of the internal activation ux: it is the measure of the quantity of information exchanged between its internal components and allowing to lead to a visible activation, Complexication: it is the measure of its structural transformation generated by some dysfunctions and having required transforming of some elements of its structure. This measure determines if evolution is a simplication or a complexication of the agents structure. Organizational gap: it is an assessment taking into account the ability of the agents structure to achieve some actions and lead the agent to have an appreciation of the distance between its internal state and the global state that it distinguishes in its environment. It is the appreciation of the adequacy of the agents situation in its world.

These eight characteristics can be represented therefore in R8 and permit to associate to every agent what one calls its vector of aspect as element of R8, which is an organizational shape (Fig. 10). These aspects are represented, while regrouping the agents according to their activities and communications using some appropriate metrics, by dynamic graphs where we study the conformation and the change of conformation (Campagne 2005).



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What leads the representation system to hire its central process will be rst an internal necessity at the morphologic level? The system will not be stable in the sense that it must constantly activate its central process to reach a state of consistency. The notion of state will be a generalized one, unifying calculation and representation of this calculation. The state of quasi-stability, the stability far from the equilibrium state, is only temporary and it immediately leads to the production of another state, quasi-stable a short moment, and so forth. The consistency will be insured by the introduction of a rational structure forcing the aspectual activity, according to its shape and its semantic. There will be components operating a control at the semantic level therefore: projection of the morphology of the aspectual organization on semantic spaces with in-line analysis. With these characteristics, the system will be continually active, constantly producing states of ephemeral stability with different rhythms (awake and sleep periods for example). We dont choose to represent the reason to activate the central process with an ad hoc structure, of which we would not know what or why it would be activated. We choose to place the reason of the run into a specic activity in the morphological representation system itself. What is going to commit the system to run its central process towards some current state it does not know at this instant, is the fact that this commitment is a latent indication present in the morphology, in the presence of the present of the system, using a phenomenological formulation (Heidegger), and therefore a reason that will be out of the semantics at this time. Very concretely, it means that the shutter release activating the central process in a direction of activity will be a specic anticipatory system situated in the morphological one. The morphological system describes the current representation of the aspectual organization and must also generate the commitment at a time to operate towards a new representation. The commitment towards an activity is expressed as a general form the representation system can have. This anticipatory system constraints the aspectual organization, it has a temporal step of advance on the global aspectual activity that the central process is going to reduce. Then the central process can run its systemic loop driving a commitment towards its efcient realization, putting into concordance the aspectual organization, whose form is destabilized by this commitment coming from the anticipation, with the morphological system. The representation system contains therefore, besides the morphological representation, a system expressing a commitment like a shape that orients the

aspectual organization and therefore modies its active organization in some direction given by the tendency of the commitment. That will be the morphological anticipation system. The most signicant in the representation system and in the organizational memory, the most important in the inputs, the most important among its latent geometric traces, the more in tension in the organization, bring on the representation of what would be actually computed by the aspectual organization, in the dialogic loop of the central process. And to be coherent with a non-reactive architecture, the anticipation system will be complex, containing always several commitments that will be possible to serve as initiators for the central process. These commitments will be produced by the fundamental tendencies evoked before, according to the organizational memory. The architecture of the morphological system is therefore the following: 1. A morphological system of description of the aspectual representation, that geometrically expresses the current state of the aspectual organization, A morphological anticipatory system, generating some shapes allowing the anticipation of the aspectual organization with specic geometrical conformations.


These two morphologic systems, that are multiagent systems, oppose themselves, alter and coordinate themselves until they constitute only one coherent and compliant geometrical representation of the aspectual organization. The anticipatory system, as its name indicates, hires the central process into a direction, according to certain aim P. Ricoeur (Ricoeur 1990) would say and this process, in its organizational backward and forward motion between aspectual and morphological systems, reinforces the commitment, tampers it and, maybe, transforms it. Now that we know that the representation system ineluctably must destabilize itself to function according to internal latent tendencies, what makes it stabilized? The answer will be clear. When there is conformity between the destabilized morphological space by its commitment and the aspectual organization, when these two systems are coherent at the point of view of the central process, when the central process leads to an organizational stationary point, the central process stabilizes organizations one instant. But this state of relative stability must be memorized into the organizational memory. This memory is a complex system in the way that it is a system sensitive to its initial conditions and the introduction of a new object is itself a destabilization. This insertion immediately


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leads to the explicit construction of a new current state, since the reduction of this destabilization is the running of the systems main principle. The fact that the system generates a quasi-stable state that will be a new internal object in the active organizational memory, ineluctably leads to the destabilization of the representation system by the fact that its central process is always in activity. No state of equilibrium exists, the fundamental tendencies are multiple and are immediately active on each observable state. The anticipatory morphology leads the representation system in a new reorganization, according to the insertion of a new object into its memory, and the system continues its successive organizational transformations. Generation of articial thoughts is a process like a fall without end. So, we can set a precise denition of a system generating articial thoughts:

The system has always some relations between each of the emerging object it generates and the other semantically or emotionally close objects of its organizational memory. All the generated and manipulated objects are linked ones. The system can observe, manipulate, and play indeed with the internal objects it has produced at each time and, by this on-line process on its own inner objects, it can have the sensation of thinking itself about these objects, in a morphologic and very dynamic space. The system has a complex dynamic organization having, in its process of generation of emergent forms, the complexity of the number of parts of a set.

The articial emotions Denition of system generating articial thoughts Such a system is a software system binding an unceasing informational stream produced by a body or by many bodies. The system is composed of a lot of computable entities, each of them having a cognitive foundation upon a semantic level, having the property of proactivity, of autonomy and structural evolution and each entity can be systematically recombined with some others. These entities form a very structured organization like a set of articial real life experiences, i.e., a cu, that is an organizational memory comve posed of strongly linked forms that can continuously increase themselves by re-combination, The system has a distributed control level on its organizational memory, expressing multiple fundamental tendencies that are impulse controls, at the rational and emotional meaning. These controls have the form of morphological constraints on the aggregations of the basic entities. The system, at the level of the morphology of its entities, can construct, of its own and according to its current global state and tendencies, emergences of internal forms. The generated emergences are geometrical objects composed of many proactive structured entities, linked to the objects of the real world, in the way of a relation type of formtype of signicance. An emerging form always produces the activation of other objects in relation with this one, allowing the continuity of the articial thought generation. We are going to dene the architecture of a specic agent organization managing the production of emotions like pleasure or pain. The fundamental tendencies, to be able to nely modify the current representation, will be expressed as the characteristics of some organizations of specic agents on the representation system, modifying the geometrical shape of this organization. Self-adaptive component That is a software component whose actions are in the way of its own satisfaction and where the results of these actions modify its internal organization: the component evolves under its own tendencies. Articial emotion An articial emotion will be essentially seen as the rhythm of some self-adaptive components functioning in an emerging way in the aspectual agent organization, functioning by synchronized loops whereas the system undertakes some external typical action. In this way, the system and the robot adopt a specic behavior.

Emotion and dynamic of the agents groups The fundamental tendencies will be global characteristics leading to the re-organization of the aspectual agents organization. It is a strong organizational



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hypothesis, since we will represent tendencies by types of shapes on the movements of the agents organizations. The geometrical hypothesis about tendencies The geometrical hypothesis, with regard to the fundamental tendencies expression, states that the tendencies can be represented by some kinds of deformations of geometric shapes in the dynamic space expressing the movements of aspectual agents organization. In fact, we have to deform the aspectual organization indeed, giving a specic rhythm to this re-conformation. According to this point of view, an emotion is a geometric alteration of the aspectual activity pertaining to specic behavior of the robot. The architecture of a system generating emotions is radically different of an inputoutput one, running through some predened steps. We have to dene the specic notion of control of its own, i.e., a control managed by the continuous feedback of the action of control itself. We use such a control for a system producing fuzzy states like the emotional ones, composed of proactive agents, generating internal cycles of activities with specic rhythms, according to the actually observed process of emotions in the brain and corresponding to different types of actual actions or behaviors. This architecture will be founded on the aggregation and the breaking of aspectual agents groups. Expression of an agents group Because they are proactive, organizations of aspectual agents can be represented in an organizational way, where the form of the activities and the links between agents directly lead to an actual activity of the system, in a continuously adaptive action and reaction with the environment.

feedback loops, positive, negative and additive loops. We precise the basic architectural elements of the system with the following component: the computable oscillator, a computable interpretation of the wellknown WilsonCowan oscillator (Wilson and Cowan 1972). Computable oscillator A computable oscillator is an organization of aspectual agents whose activation quickly forms and by its own functioning, many cycles of activity with specic intensity and speed. It has a shutter release on the form of specic emotional agents. Such an oscillator is an organization of weak software agents coordinating them, modifying their links, synchronizing with some others and acting on the aspectual organization. The oscillator leads to the emergence of an aspectual agent structure, distinct of the other aspectual agents of the organization. Such a group must emerge to control itself and the other groups. The organization passes from a state to another where a looped process transforms a group of agents into an oscillator. Mathematically, this group is an emergent sub-graph in the coupled activation graph of the agents organization. Such an emergent oscillator leads to a specic adaptive activity of the robot and must control other attempts of emergent loops. Its shutter release is composed of specic emotional agents. The aspectual agent organization will be formed of a structured set of such computable oscillators, allowing a global and local backing and the process inhibition or stop. There is no central controller in this system that is distributed among the emerging components and in their synchronization using negotiations. The system will function, after the action of the shutter releases, by a control of its own and a regulation of its own also, of its oscillators with local limits cycles and with a more or less conservative faculty. The system state allowing articial emotion

Basic computable component producing the emotion: the computable oscillator The biologic presentation of the emotional activity describes the existence of neuron domains speeding up in some loops, working each others for the propagation of ux of activation. We must build a system where the form of activity is made of emergent

To raise an emotional process, i.e., a particular activity of the agents organization with a typical corresponding behavior of the body, it is necessary to start from a state that is clearly a neutral one. We will call low state the state without any emotion or achieving an automatic behavior. In this state, only some specic aspectual agents are operational.


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Low state It is the state where the aspectual organization is in an automatic activity or achieves a preprogrammed automatic reactive action. In the low state, the inputs will not trigger anything emotional and will amount only to reex actions. We have to give the autonomy to the groups of aspectual agents, in the sense of a general functioning with internal loops. The system must adjust to consolidate for a while its structure: some groups of agents are in progress and will supplant some others according to a rhythm, launching some external actions according to a specic fashion. Others agents groups can work in the background, without orders sent to the interface aspectual agents, but they would be later in an emergent state (phenomenon of domination). The adequacy between the external ux of information and the complex activation of aspectual agents organization will allow the emergence of some self-adaptive components. The development of the emotion: from the signal to the incentive We set the hypothesis that each sensor that is not a strict alarm sensor corresponds, in a way, to an articial sense in the system. So we have: Sensors or routines of vision, temperature, touch or motion tracking...

during a time without tampering it too much and especially while valuing it. The incentive is therefore a meaningful modifying activation of the current low state with direct effect into the different organizations of agents leading the representation system towards a typical behavioral activity aiming at some goal. For example, this activity could be for the robot to take a pen for to make a fuss of it, to drag quickly on the right of the window for its satisfaction and pleasure. There is a commitment to an actual physical activity corresponding to the modication of the aspectual organization. This signal is going to release: According to the state of the system, According to the environment characteristics, According to the complexity of the emotional system, In an irrepressible manner, and not randomly.

The system feels its environment by different means that we call it articial senses. For each sense will be associated, whatever it is, to a state of activity: Active or not active sense, with notion of intensity if the sense is active. Active sense in an admissible way (towards the pleasure) or a no regular way (towards the pain).

The signal would be generated by a specic organization of agents having no direct contact with the aspectual ones, but while taking into account their morphologies. In each case, the signal will be transmitted to aspectual and analysis agents to lead the system in its entirety towards a goal. We will represent the set up of this signal while using the fundamental organic tendency paradigm, like an emergence in a specic agent organization, taking only its information from the morphology agents (Fig. 11). Then the origin of the signal is considered as virtual. Once this signal is activated, the representation system has to generate a global behavior. The signal is sent therefore to the agent organization of analysis, activating a pattern of requisite typical behavior. This pattern of behavior, in fact a plan (ight, approach, seizure, restraint, gesture of a member...) is managed by the analysis agents, in a context according to the systems current possibilities, and taking information from the aspectual agents. That pattern leads to the

These sensory characteristics can be easily represented into the aspectual agents bound to some actuators agents, the interface agents. From some signal considered like a starting shape putting in action the inputs of the system, there is generation of an incentive, which is a general tendency towards action. This incentive will be the shutter releases on the aspectual organization. It makes this aspectual organization focus towards some goal, with a plan of action dened into the analysis agents, a global plan but with local indicators of sub-plans on different aspectual agents. The system has to maintain this plan

Fig. 11 The agent architecture of the system generating the emotions



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Aspectual agent Organizations


incentive is expressed as a morphological form, which is the form on want to reach here and now. Agents that generate this incentive, that causes it, are the incentive agents, strongly linked to morphology and aspectual agents of the representation system. These agents speed up from a particular recognition sign in the current morphological organization. In return, they force some self-adaptive components to manage the system towards some kind of functioning while rst soliciting analysis agents. They create a wanted form, i.e., the dened current goal, in the morphology that the aspectual organization will have to reach. This organization of incentive agents is always active in the representation system, but with more or less intensity. It constantly observes the state of the morphology of the aspectual agent organization and gives out, at the good time, a specic signal launching the process incentiveemotion. General algorithm Begin Continuous activation of the incentive agents Morphological survey of the aspectual agents Emergence of an incentive signal into the organization of incentive agents and of a specic form (the wanted form) into the aspectual morphology Activation of the analysis organization from this signal and from the wanted form and generation of a behavioral pattern into the analysis agents Development of the incentive

Agent organization of morphology

Agent analysis organization Physical expressed situation Agent organization of Satisfaction

Fig. 12 The general architecture of the system generating the emotions

generation of a new specic behavior taking into account the represented situation. This plan is initially not very precise but it becomes clearer in its progression. It explains: 1. 2. 3. The contexts of the past activities of the robot and the histories referring to that current case, The immediate undertaken action, The going forward possibilities if the plan either succeeds or fails.

This global plan of action is transmitted to aspectual agents and then generates a lot of specic plans (with their local parts) for the aspectual actuators agents. This generation is negotiated quickly between them and corresponds to a behavioral scheduling. There are therefore behavioral aims dened in a global manner, with indications driving the local injunctions to aspectual agents linked to actuators. One will say that there is setting up of an incentive: an objective splitting into operational sub-objectives, into a specic aspectual agents activity. This incentive will be expressed in the incentive agent organization and will lead to a specic form in the system morphology (Fig. 12). The articial incentive The articial incentive is a global tendency expressed by a specic agent organization, the incentive agents, activated from the observation of some characteristics in the morphology system. This tendency leads to a constraint on the aspectual organization, leads to a general plan of action distributed into different groups of aspectual agents. This plan brings about some specic plans with strong coefcient of intensity into all the aspectual agents. The

Generation of a typical behavior (form, goals and sub-goals) Injunction of activation to aspectual agents Corresponding activation of the aspectual agents End We have to dene in what manner the system is continuously maintaining the incentive during that time, notably dening a center of the articial pleasure (Fig. 12). That will be the realization of the emotions. From incentive to satisfaction: the articial pleasure center example We focus on the emotion of pleasure, as an example of emotion. From a signal produced by the incentive agents organization, the system generates an incentive altering the analysis agent organization. That leads the system towards some typical behavior. We have to dene a control system allowing a very exible behavior allowing its adaptation holding a general organizational


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state procuring the articial pleasure. It is not therefore to only reach a xed goal, but to develop a state in time, in an organizational way: the articial organizational process of pleasure. Such a state will be, in the system, an own controlled organizational one, i.e., some synchronized agents organizations functioning with loops and maintaining the system in the line of the committed action. We can easily generalize this organizational process of pleasure for all the emotions, according to some morphology and process specic for each of them (patent deposit in USA 2006). Commitment towards satisfaction: the pleasure From a signal generated by the incentive agent organization and indicating an opportunity, the representation system speeds up to reach the satisfaction: it follows a type of internal behavior, with an organizational goal xed by itself, and modies its rhythm of functioning, if the goal seems to become closer or not. It maintains for a while a behavioral internal typical state of its aspectual organization: the pleasure state, modifying the state of the representation system. The articial pleasure will be a specic state of activity of the representation system where the emergent states are specic and where the robots body has a specic behavior. The representation system is under the control of a specic agent organization: the agents of satisfaction (Fig. 12). All the emergent states are distorted by this emotion, with a specic rhythm. Articial pleasure and the agents of satisfaction A process of articial pleasure generation is a global particular process where the activity of agents organizations is under the control of the satisfaction organization. This organization leads all the aspectual agents to function in looped process with specic periods with oscillators. A group of aspectual agents linked to sensors and the satisfaction agents to the detriment of the others ones then control expressing the robots senses. The representation system is deeply changed. A satisfaction agent is a specic aspectual agent that has the following characteristics: It has the classical structure of an aspectual agent. It takes its information therefore in the organiza-

tion of incentive and analysis agents. Each agent is activated with a specic category of signal and it makes the choice of a category of the robots organs it must activate. So, it acts to launch the behavior of some organ having the role of sense generator. Its goal is to control the analysis agents, and then the system in its entirety, while it distorts the aspectual agents local plans. It has a specic temporal objective maintaining the system in this state for a while. It is social in this sense that the coalition of the satisfaction agents allows a coherent and ne control of the body of the robot, in a exible way.

Pleasure is therefore the characterization of the temporal activity of development of a general plan with assessment of two possible futures: a pleasant one or an unpleasant one. Lets note that the time controlling the internal activity rhythms is forced by the reality of the functioning of the robot, the reality of the inputs and context. When the satisfaction organization takes control of the representation system, there is a strong link between the four agents organizations: aspectual, morphological, analysis, and the organization of satisfaction (Fig. 12). Analysis and morphology agents are going to inform the satisfaction organization of the imposed action progression, inform if that action is according to a typical shape (Fig. 13). This one is going to maintain it for a while, and then repositions itself, showing that the quality of the satisfaction has changed. Satisfaction agents are going to systematically send messages to analysis agents, pointing about the evolution of the satisfaction state and level; altering the rhythm of the loops in aspectual organization. The emotion generation principle is then as follow. The input sensors, via the interface agents, speed up aspectual agents that speed up the corresponding morphology agents. The incentive organization generates a specic form in the anticipation morphology to be reached. The current morphology describing the aspectual activity has to transform itself into the incentive one. For that task, some aspectual agents have to go through some specic activities. The analysis agents control them in that way, via the morphology. The incentive and current morphology characteristics are the determinants for the emotion. If the current morphology has a complicated shape, far away from the anticipation morphology, the system expresses a state of tension that it will try to systematically decrease. This propensity to decrease the tension corresponds precisely to the energy discharge that S. Freud was making with reference to the


264 Fig. 13 The form of the representation system and the interpretation as an emotion of pleasure.

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Current morphology Morphology of incentive

Phenomena Inputs expressed by aspectual agentss

General morphologie

antagonistic action of impulses towards quiescent states (Freud 1966).

Algorithm of organizational emergence or the representation system The general operation of the system is the competition between numerous processes aggregated into groups, expressing some specic actions and leading to the emergence of some specic aspectual agents groups, i.e., the articial current thought. The following

algorithm (Fig. 14) describes the generation of a new state in the representation system, using competition of processes and using the concept of emotion as a modication of the current emergence. The production of the representation system managed by these competitor processes is the global state of the aspectual agents organization, where the morphological system and the aspectual organization are in conformity, under an expressed commitment that allows putting them into conformity. Such a state, steady for a short time, will be called an organizational emergence. That is precisely the temporary xed point

Fig. 14 Algorithm of generation of meaning on the representation system

General Algorithm
[To activate the emotional system] [To activate the central process] General infinite loop Begin [If the current emotion is adapted to the situation] to preserve this emotion as much as possible to distort the aspectual organization activity according to this emotion [If a latent tension exists in the anticipatory system] to destabilize the representation system from this commitment, to distribute the structural modification across the entire representation system to modify the current emotion [If the system of morphology is active] to activate and to modify the aspectual organization using the central process organically linked to the morphological system [If the aspectual organization is active] to activate the description morphology system using the central process [If the central process is again in action of synchronization] to activate the aspectual organization and the morphologic system in a co-active way to reinforce the anticipation residing in the anticipatory morphology system to modify the emotional state as much as possible [If the central process doesn't distort the aspectual organization anymore] to express the emergent current state that is the best for the current artificial thought to memorize the current state as an internal mental object that the system can use later to destabilize the morphology system while allowing the development of a new commitment from the current state to look for a new current emotion End


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of the central process, the emergence of the meaning in the representation system, the concept of meaning being understood and interpreted in a strictly organizational way. Emergence of the meaning In the representation system, based on a central process coupling aspectual organization and morphological system, the emergence of the meaning is the organizational xed point of the central process leading towards a specic conformation. This state is memorized, as an internal object the system is able to manage further, insuring its continuous learning. It is obvious that the structure and the characteristics of the aspectual and morphologic systems are more complex in the actual implementation than the description we have presented. Particularly, the existence of latencies generating commitments into the representation system, is not so simple and brought us to introduce the concept of local attractors (Thom 1972), seen as elds that create the emergence of local agents aggregations in the different agents systems. The morphological system is not concretely represented as totally distinct of the aspectual one: the two systems, aspectual and morphological. They are intimately mingled in one vast agents organization allowing the evolution, the creation of new morphologic shapes and of next aspectual agent, without external intervention. The system will be composed of different types of evolving agents. The model presented distinguishes between them, to understand and to study them. The aspectual organization is an organization expressed by its morphology, and the morphology is another organization, rather virtual, allowing the aspectual one to have a specic behavior according to its activity. It is therefore, for the representation system, a strictly self-adaptive system, a sensitive observer of its own activity, as J. Pitrat species about the consciousness property (Pitrat 1993). Such a system allows the representation of the articial self-awareness notion. Its activity, very adaptive to its own conformations, appreciable to initial conditions constantly changing and coming from internal changing manageable objects, speeding up by commitment caused by the structure of its morphological system, permits to observe itself in its action of computation, in the generation of some explicit aspectual emergences from the morphology of the representation space. These explicit emergence states will be able to be distinguished later as internal objects,

and so, while following its tendencies, the system will be able to know itself, as the author of its reorganizations while causing them at will. The mechanism allowing this self-observation, if we insert it for each emergence, gives to the system some aptitude allowing to make a strict distinction between itself and the other things of the environment it interact and is co-active, i.e., to be conscious of itself (Ricoeur 1990). The notion of perceived own embodiment then will become clearer.

Results The model and the developed concepts were applied today to the behavior of an AibotTM robot (Camus and Cardon 2005). The generation of representations prototype, which is the rst implementation of the model, allows: To capture information from the robot sensors, To constitute an organizational memory and to enrich it while using ontology, using ManMachine Interface, To dene a set of parameters for the system generating emotions, To generate on-line current representations as organizational emergences, according to an organizational memory, with an always active emotional state and the perception of the things of the environment it can intentionally manipulate, To visualize this current state on a ManMachineInterface.

The system is experimented on Aibo ERS7 robot, using a wi connection between the system loaded on a classical computer for a good performance and the robots body. The robot can evolve cleverly in an unknown environment, in which it must be able to collect data, analyze, make-decisions, act according to its self-dened goals. The approach of the decision-making allows to divide these capacities in six crucial levels: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Represent a contextual situation. Direct the attention on particular elements (objects or actions on the environment). Feel emotions about these selected elements. Build behavior action plans. React on the focused object, on a systemic loop (adaptation of the current plans). Memorize the action when achieved.

These six levels are developed under the multiagent paradigm. The system is developed with the



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system Oz/Mozart. Oz is a multi-paradigm language: scripting programming, object programming, logic programming, constraints programming. It allows us to use different paradigms such as the concurrency, to develop a multiagent system with an asynchronous communication using the message passing, or the constraint programming to create different action plans. Some results are accessible on the web site: www.articial-brain-project.com. We are in the process to set up a new venture for the actual and complete implementation of the system, including now the Freud psychoanalytic theory.

commitment to act, and morphology is at the same time geometric and cognitive, it is the sign of an organizational semiotic, it summarizes the process of reorganization with its result. And the result of this constructive self-observation can be delivered by the system to each human observer. In this way, such a system can express itself as the author of its internal activities with its own intentions, rather than a gentle system displaying values merely to its human users. Then the difference between such a system expressing activities by itself according to its own intentions and another one that would proceed to displays predened information in a well rational adapted manner is considerable and makes a rupture in the eld, very vast todays, of the computer science.

Conclusion It is really necessary for the construction of an articial consciousness, to have a specic theory of the mind, and a really constructivist one. May be I shall write about my theory of the mind one day... The emergence of meaning in the behavior of an autonomous robot was presented like an ephemeral stabilization of a complex system in an organizational way, a system able to observe and feel itself using an articial brain. The meaning emerges like a re-conformation of multi-agent systems expressing them in an imperative manner, as a geometrical observation of large groups of agents. The fact that the behavior of a robot is capable of signicance is founded on a process of strong link between computation of multi-agent organizations and semantic interpretation of the morphologies of their computable activities. The importance of such a linking process, binding the parts to the whole, binding activities of groups of agents to their signicance expressed by morphology, is really important. It is the fundamental principle of activity of the self-adaptive systems. It generalizes the notion of feedback and systemic loop (Le Moigne 1990) and opens onto the autonomous system with the notion of generation of expressive states as constructivist emergence. A system that generates a meaningful behavior while using the capacities of its body, while proceeding an organizational emergence in massive multi-agent systems, has a complex structure, conceptually and at the level of the implementation, that satises the remarks of J. Searle on the notion of innite background (Searle 1992). But this organization can also produce a representation of itself, of its own morphology expressed as an internal managing complex object, while opening thus on the notion of its own internal objects. Then the system can use its morphology as References
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