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CHESS

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Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation icense, !ersion "#$ or any later %ersion published by the Free &oft'are Foundation( 'ith no )n%ariant &ections, no Front-*o%er +exts, and no ,ack-*o%er +exts# - copy of the license is included in the section entitled .GNU Free Documentation icense.# )mage licenses are listed in the section entitled .)mage *redits#. Principal authors/ 0arren0ilkinson 1*2 3 Dysprosia 1*2 3 Dar%ian 1*2 3 +m chk 1*2 3 ,ill -lexander 1*2 *o%er/ *hess pieces 4 Photo taken by -lan ight# left to right/ king, rook, 5ueen, pa'n, knight and bishop#

+he current %ersion of this 0ikibook may be found at/ http///en#'ikibooks#org/'iki/*hess

Contents
*hapter 6"/ Playing the Game##############################################################################################################7 *hapter 6$/ Notating the Game########################################################################################################## "7 *hapter 68/ +actics#############################################################################################################################"9 *hapter 67/ &trategy########################################################################################################################### $: *hapter 6;/ ,asic <penings############################################################################################################### 8: *hapter 6:/ +he =ndgame################################################################################################################## :" -bout the book################################################################################################################################### >: ?istory @ Document Notes########################################################################################################### >: -uthors @ )mage *redits###############################################################################################################>> GNU Free Documentation icense################################################################################################>A

*hapter "

1 P LAYING T HE G AME
li%e %ersion B discussion B edit lesson B comment B report an error B ask a 5uestion

Overview
*hess, unlike many other games, does not in%ol%e chance# )t does not hinge on the roll of dice or 'hich card is dra'n# +he outcome completely depends on the decisions of both the players# ?o'e%er, because of its %ast complexity, the far-reaching conse5uences of some decisions are practically unforeseeable# <ne player 1.0hite.2 has the 'hite pieces 'hile the other 1.,lack.2 has the black pieces# )n friendly games the choice of colors can be made by any method, such as flipping a coin - if there is no coin at hand, another typical 'ay of deciding 'ould be to conceal a black piece in one hand and a 'hite piece in the other and ask oneCs opponent to select a hand, the colored piece selected 'ill be the opponentCs color# )n competiti%e games the players are assigned their colors#

Order of play
<nce all the pieces ha%e been arranged, 0hite makes the first mo%e# 0hite always makes the first mo%e( this is important for notation, and any chess player 'ill insist upon it# -fter 0hite has made their mo%e, ,lack 'ill then make a mo%e# +he gameplay 'ill continue in alternating fashion, 0hite making a mo%e, follo'ed by ,lack#

General movemen r!les


- mo%e consists of mo%ing a single piece, in accordance 'ith its rules of mo%ement, to a s5uare that is unoccupied or occupied by an enemy piece# )f a piece is mo%ed onto a s5uare occupied by an enemy piece, the latter piece is remo%ed from play and the first piece replaces it# +he remo%ed piece is said to ha%e been captured or taken# 0ith the exception of the knight, no piece may make a mo%e to a non-adDacent s5uare unless all the inter%ening s5uares are %acant 1pieces may not CDump o%erC other pieces2# No player may make a mo%e that lea%es their king in check 1see belo'2#

+here are some exceptions to these rules, 'here a playerCs turn can consist of t'o pieces mo%ing 1castling2, 'here a piece mo%es to an unoccupied s5uare but still captures 1en passant capture2, or 'here a piece mo%es to a s5uare and becomes a different unit 1promotion2, all of 'hich are co%ered belo'#

" E *hess

Playing +he Game

The board
+raditionally, the game is played on a board of :7 alternating black and 'hite s5uares turned 'ith a 'hite s5uare to each playerCs far right# .0hite on right. is a helpful saying to remember this con%ention# +he light and dark s5uares on the chessboard and the light and dark chess pieces are traditionally referred to as .'hite. and .black. respecti%ely, although in modern chess sets almost any colors may be used# +he horiFontal ro's of s5uares are called ranks and are numbered "-A( the %ertical ro's of s5uares are called files and gi%en the letters a-h#

The pieces
+he mo%ement of the indi%idual pieces is described belo'# )n all the board diagrams sho'n, the s5uares to 'hich the piece in 5uestion can mo%e are indicated 'ith xCs#

#in$

+he king can mo%e one s5uare at a time in any direction, 'ith certain restrictions# +he king is the most important piece belonging to each player, though not the most po'erful# )f a player mo%es a piece such that it threatens to capture his opponentCs king, that king is said to be in check# )f a playerCs king is in check, he must immediately remo%e the check by mo%ing the king, blocking the check 'ith another piece, or capturing the checking piece# -s mentioned abo%e, players may not place their o'n king in check( ho'e%er, they may check their opponentCs king# +'o kings may ne%er occupy adDacent s5uares, since they 'ould ha%e put themsel%es in check by mo%ing there# )f the king is placed in check and cannot escape, it is said to ha%e been checkmated 1or .mated. for short2# +he first player to checkmate the opponentCs king 'ins the game# Note that the king is ne%er actually captured, since it is obliged to mo%e out of check 'hene%er possible 1and the game ends 'hen it is impossible2# +he 0hite king in the follo'ing diagram cannot mo%e up'ards or to the left since it 'ould be in check from the bishop, or diagonally do'n'ards 'hich 'ould lea%e it adDacent to the ,lack king#

0ikibooks E %

*hapter "

&ap !rin$ Pie'es +he king may capture any opponentCs piece adDacent to it, as long as doing so does not place himself in check#

#ni$(

+he knight has a uni5ue -shaped mo%e( t'o s5uares in one direction either horiFontally or %ertically, and one s5uare in another direction perpendicular to the first# +he knight is the only piece that may Dump o%er other pieces#

) E *hess

Playing +he Game &ap !rin$ Pie'es +he knight captures any opponentCs piece that it lands on during its -shaped mo%e#

*is(op

+he bishop can mo%e any number of s5uares diagonally# =ach side starts the game 'ith one light-s5uared bishop and one dark-s5uared bishop# Note that the bishop is restricted to the color of s5uares on 'hich it began# For example, the bishop in the follo'ing diagram stands on a light s5uare, and can only mo%e to other light s5uares#

&ap !rin$ Pie'es +he bishop may not Dump o%er any piece of either color# )t captures any opponentCs piece that it encounters during the mo%ement described abo%e, and then occupies the captured pieceCs s5uare#

+ook

+he rook can be mo%ed any number of s5uares horiFontally or %ertically, but not diagonally#

0ikibooks E ,

*hapter "

-!een

+he 5ueen is the most po'erful piece, being able to mo%e any number of s5uares in any lateral or diagonal direction# )t is best described as the combination of a rookCs and bishopCs mo%ement capabilities#

Pa.n

/ E *hess

Playing +he Game Pa'ns can mo%e one s5uare straight for'ard, or optionally and on their first mo%e only, t'o s5uares straight for'ard# +he pa'n can mo%e one s5uare diagonally for'ard to capture a piece, but cannot capture a piece by mo%ing straight for'ard# For this reason, t'o opposing pa'ns on a file may become blocked by each other# )f a pa'n makes it to one of the eight s5uares along the far edge of the board from their initial position, the pa'n is promoted# - promoted pa'n is replaced, as part of the same mo%e 'hich brought it to the promotion s5uare, 'ith a knight, bishop, rook or 5ueen of the same color 'hich need not be a pre%iously captured piece# +hus a player can ac5uire t'o 5ueens 1or up to nine, if he so desires, since there are eight pa'ns to promote2# )n the diagram belo' the 0hite pa'n is pre%ented from mo%ing for'ards by the ,lack pa'n immediately in front of it 'hich it cannot capture, but it captures the other ,lack pa'n by mo%ing diagonally for'ards#

0pe'ial moves

Gingside castling/ <-<

0ikibooks E 1

*hapter "

Hueenside castling/ <-<-< &as lin$ *astling is a mo%e in%ol%ing the king and either of the rooks# *astling performed 'ith the kingCs rook is kingside castling, performed 'ith the 5ueenCs rook it is 5ueenside castling# &ubDect to restrictions detailed belo', a player may mo%e his king t'o s5uares to'ards the rook, and subse5uently, on the same turn, mo%e the rook to the s5uare o%er 'hich the king has Dust passed# +he king must be the first piece mo%ed( not the rook# )f the rook is mo%ed first, then the king must stay 'here it is# +his mainly applies in .strict rules of chess. 'here if a piece is touched, it must be mo%ed# +he restrictions specific to castling are/ "# Neither the king nor the participating rook may ha%e mo%ed pre%iously $# +he king must not be in check at the start of the mo%e, though it may ha%e been in check pre%iously in the game 8# +he s5uare o%er 'hich the king passes must not be under attack 1Cin checkC2 from an enemy piece 7# +he s5uares bet'een the king and rook must be %acant -nd as 'ith any mo%e, the king may not place itself in check# En passant 'ap !re +his is French for .in passing.( basically, you capture an enemy pa'n as it is passing you# 0hen a pa'n ad%ances t'o s5uares onto the same rank as an opposing pa'n on an adDacent file, this opposing pa'n may, on that playerCs next mo%e only, capture the ad%ancing pa'n as though it had only mo%ed one s5uare 1pro%ided the mo%e is other'ise legal2# +he pa'nCs ability to mo%e t'o s5uares on their first mo%e 'as a relati%ely late addition to the game of chess# =n Passant 'as introduced to pre%ent abuses of the ne' rule#

12 E *hess

Playing +he Game )n the follo'ing example, the ,lack pa'n ad%ances t'o s5uares, and is captured by the 0hite pa'n 'hich mo%es diagonally for'ards and to the right 1as if the ,lack pa'n had been there2# +his mo%e is only allo'ed on the turn in 'hich the option is presented#

Initial position

)n the initial position each side has eight pa'ns, t'o rooks, t'o knights, t'o bishops, a 5ueen and a king arranged as sho'n in the diagram belo'# Note that the only pieces on either side 'hich can initially mo%e are the pa'ns and knights# ,eginners usually set up the board incorrectly( it is a complex position to remember# +he follo'ing anectotes may help you remember 'here the pieces go#

W(i e on (e +i$( )t is important that the bottom-right-hand s5uare is light-colored# #ni$( s live in 'as les <ne knight is placed next to each rook 1rooks look like the 0ikibooks E 11

*hapter " to'ers of a castle#2 -!eens on (eir 'olor +he 0hite Hueen goes on a 0hite &5uare, ,lack Hueen goes on a ,lack &5uare *is(ops are advisers o (e +oyal y ,ishops surround the Ging and Hueen# W(i e #in$ on (e +i$( From the 0hite PlayerCs perspecti%e, both Gings are on the right, and from the ,lack PlayerCs perspecti%e, the Gings are on the left#

Conclusion of the game


Play continues to alternate bet'een 0hite and ,lack until one of the follo'ing outcomes is reached/ <ne playerCs king is checkmated# +he game is lost by that player# )n a competiti%e game, one player runs out of time# +he game is lost by that player# <ne player resigns, 'hich is e5ui%alent to 5uitting the game# - player may resign on either his or his opponentCs turn# Iesignation is often symboliFed by the resigning player knocking do'n his king# +he player 'hose turn it is is in stalemate, meaning that he has no legal mo%e and is not in check# +he game is a dra'# +he players agree to dra' the game# =ither player may offer a dra' to his opponent upon completion of his mo%e# )f the offer is accepted, the game is dra'n# Dra' offers cannot be rescinded# - player successfully claims that the game is a dra' under one of the follo'ing criteria/ ?is opponent does not ha%e sufficient pieces to checkmate him by any legal se5uence of mo%es# ;6 mo%es ha%e been played by each player since a piece 'as captured or a pa'n mo%ed# +he current position has occurred t'ice before 'ith the same player to mo%e#

Chess Etiquette
Generally, chess games at tournaments are conducted under the follo'ing rules/ To!'( move - )f a player touches a piece he must mo%e it# )f he places a piece on a s5uare, he must mo%e it to that s5uare# )f you need to center a piece on its s5uare, it is traditional to say j'adoube 1) adDust2# *e silen .(en yo!r opponen is on (e move - Jou can only adDust pieces, offer a dra', or claim a dra' 'hen it is your turn to mo%e#

- friendly game may be played any 'ay that is mutually agreeable# Generally it is considerate to a%oid distracting your opponent#

13 E *hess

Playing +he Game

Glossary
&ap !re - +o mo%e oneCs piece into the same s5uare as one of oneCs opponentCs pieces# &(e'k - +he king is Cin checkC 'hen it is being attacked by an enemy piece# &(e'kma e - +he player 'hose turn it is can make no legal mo%e and the king is in check# 0 alema e - +he player 'hose turn it is can make no legal mo%e, but the king is not in check#

0ikibooks E 14

*hapter $

3 N OTATING T HE G AME
li%e %ersion B discussion B edit lesson B comment B report an error B ask a 5uestion 0riting the game do'n is of importance to the chess student, as it allo's re%ie' of game strategy of the student as 'ell as othersC play#

lgebraic notation
+here are many older systems of 'riting do'n chess games, but the current standard, 'hich 'ill be introduced here, is al$ebrai' no a ion# etCs look at a sample game in progress to get a feel for this system# &ay 'e ha%e the follo'ing game 1'hich has proceeded for a 'hile2

&imple Game =ach s5uare is uni5uely identified in algebraic notation by a coordinate comprising a letter and a number# +hese letters and numbers are displayed along the borders of the abo%e diagram# For example, the s5uare in the bottom left corner of the board is a", and the s5uare in the top right hA# +he 0hite king is on e" and the ,lack king on f># )t is 0hiteCs turn to mo%e# 0hite decides to mo%e the d8 bishop to c7 in order to check ,lackCs king# etCs suppose this is 0hiteCs 86th mo%e# &o 'e can 'rite 425 *'"6 1Note that in some books you may see instead of the letter , a styliFed icon of a bishop - the notations ho'e%er are e5ui%alent2 +his means that on 0hiteCs 86th mo%e, a bishop has been mo%ed to the s5uare c7# ,ecause there is only one bishop that could mo%e to c7, 'e donCt need to 'rite 1" E *hess

Notating +he Game 'here that bishop came from# +he K signifies the check# - L signifies checkmate# )n older 'orks, a KK signified checkmate#

&imple Game 0hiteCs bishop is no', unfortunately, in the HueenCs line of fire# ,lack decides to capture it# &o for the ,lackCs 86th mo%e, 'e can 'rite 42555 -7'" +his means that on ,lackCs 86th mo%e, a 5ueen has been mo%ed and captured 1'hich the x signifies2 the piece at c7# 0hen ,lackCs mo%e is 'ritten separately from 0hiteCs, three dots are placed bet'een the number and the mo%e thus/ 42555-7'"# &ometimes, the capture is designated 'ith a / instead, thus/ -8'", or e%en rarer/ -'"8 1Jou may see in some chess books symbols such as MM, M, N or NN# +hese are like side comments - 5uestion marks signify potentially poor mo%es, and exclamation marks signify good ones# NM may signify an unclear mo%e# &ince 0hiteCs mo%e 'as rather poor, 'e could 'rite 86# ,c7KM Hxc7 to say that 0hiteCs mo%e 'as poor#2

0ikibooks E 1%

*hapter $ No' the board looks like this#

&imple Game 0hite is in trouble no', and decides to start to flee to f$# 0e can 'rite 415 #f3 for such a mo%e# )f ,lackCs 5ueen decides to check 0hiteCs king at this point, by mo%ing the 5ueen to c$, 'e 'rite 41555 -'36

Anno a ion s(or (and


)f a mo%e is follo'ed by a N then this indicates that the mo%e 'as surprisingly good at times# )f follo'ed by a M then this indicates that a mo%e 'as 5uestionable or of poor strategy# NN and MM mean the same, 'ith greater emphasis# - NM marks an interesting mo%e that may be sub-optimal, and a MN marks a dubious mo%e that may not be possible to refute# "-6 signifies a 'in for 'hite, 6-" a 'in for black, and "/$ a dra'# O indicates positional e5uality bet'een the players, K/4 means that 'hite is considered to ha%e the ad%antage, and 4/K indicates an ad%antage to black# &ometimes mo%es can be ambiguous - that is, t'o pieces of the same designation can mo%e to one s5uare# )n that case, it is customary to specify 'hich piece mo%ed there by designating the file alone if it identifies 'hich piece is used# )f the file is not enough to identify the piece, then the file and rank are both 'ritten in# +his can be done 'ith parentheses or 'ithout#

1) E *hess

Notating +he Game

0pe'ial moves
*astling is designated by either 6-6 or 6-6-6, depending on 'hether castling occurred kingside or 5ueenside, respecti%ely# =n passant capture is designated by the suffix e.p. if there is ambiguity# Promotion of a pa'n is denoted by the original mo%e, 'ith the designation of the piece the pa'n became at the end# *heck or N/M designations are placed after the name of the ne' piece#

!esignations
+he designations for each of the pieces are/ I for rook 1castle2 N for knight , for bishop H for 5ueen G for king No capital letter for pa'n#

9es'rip ive No a ion


-n older form of notation you 'ill run into 5uite fre5uently is the descripti%e notation# )t is useful to kno' because older books use it# )n this form, instead of the files being a, b, c etc#, they are Hueen rook 1HI2, Hueen Gnight 1HN2, Hueen ,ishop 1H,2, Hueen 1H2, Ging 1G2, Ging ,ishop 1G,2, Ging Gnight 1GN2 and Ging Iook 1GI2# +he ranks are labeled from your point of %ie' so that the s5uare e7 1in algebraic2 is 0hiteCs G7 and ,lackCs G;# +o record the mo%ing of a piece, you 'rite the piece, and to 'here it mo%es# "# P-G7 means mo%e a pa'n to the 7th rank in the GingCs file# N-H,8 means mo%e your Gnight to the third rank in the HueenCs ,ishop file# +o take you specify the piece taking, and the piece to be taken# HIPxN means pa'n in the Hueen Iook file takes Gnight# =xcessi%e notation is left out so that if only one pa'n could legally take a Gnight the mo%e is recorded as PxN# )n order to compare the t'o systems letCs look at the same game in both algebraic and descripti%e notation Al$ebrai' "# e7 e: $# d7 d; 8# Nc8 ,b7 7# ,b;K ,d> ;# ,xd>K Hxd> 0ikibooks E 1,

*hapter $ :# N1g2e$ dxe7 ># 6-6 9es'rip ive "# P-G7 P-G8 $# P-H7 P-H7 8# N-H,8 ,-N; 1Note here that only one bishop can go to a HN; so it is unnecessary to specify the Hueen Gnight file rather than the Ging Gnight file2 7# ,-N;ch ,-H$ 1check is gi%en by ch2 ;# ,x,ch Hx, :# GN-G$ PxP ># 6-6

Coordinate "otation
- different type of notation uses only the s5uares that the pieces 'ere on to denote mo%ements# For example, to denote the earlier > mo%es, the follo'ing notes are sho'n/ "# $# 8# 7# ;# :# ># e$-e7 e>-e: d$-d7 d>-d; b"-c8 fA-b7 f"-b;K cA-d> b;xd>K dAxd> g"-e$ d;xe7 6-6

ICC# numerical notation


+his notation is international because it does not depend on piece names or specific alphabets# - mo%e is denoted by the file, then rank, of its starting s5uare 1from "" at the 0hite 5ueenPs rook s5uare to AA at the ,lack kingPs rook s5uare2# "# e7 is denoted ;$;7# *astling is denoted by specifying the kingPs t'o-s5uare mo%e, and pa'n promotion 'ith a fifth number specifying the ne' piece 1"O5ueen, $Orook, 8Obishop, 7Oknight2#

1/ E *hess

+actics

4 T A&TI&0
li%e %ersion B discussion B edit lesson B comment B report an error B ask a 5uestion

Guarding
0hen one of your pieces is placed so that it attacks a s5uare occupied by another of your pieces, the first piece is said to be guarding the other# 0hen your opponent captures the guarded piece, you can recapture 'ith the guarding piece# Note that if you ha%e a piece that is pinned to your king by an opposing piece 1see belo' for a description of pins2, it cannot be said to be guarding anything, since it is unable to mo%e or capture#

$atteries
,atteries are formed 'hen t'o or more pieces 'ork together# +he most common kind of battery is the doubling of rooks on a file# <ther batteries can be formed by rook-5ueen or bishop5ueen# - triple battery can be constructed 'ith the 5ueen and both rooks# )t is often ad%antageous to place the 5ueen behind one or both rooks#

The E%change
)n pretty much any game, a player 'ill ha%e the opportunity to take one of his opponents pieces in exchange for one of his o'n pieces# +his should ho'e%er N<+ be done for its o'n sakeN )nitiate an exchange only 'hen it benefits you# ,enefits can include, but are not limited to/
Qaterial ad%antage - 5ueen for a minor piece, 5ueen for rook, rook for a minor piece, a piece for a pa'n or t'o, etc# Doubling pa'ns - +ake 'hen taking back means the doubling 1or tripling2 of your opponentCs pa'ns on the same file# <pening up the kingCs defenses - +ake 'hen taking back means mo%ing a pa'n that exposes the king# Iemo%ing a defender - +ake 'hen the piece being taken is pro%iding an essential ser%ice for the opponent# ,lunting an attack - 0hen you are being attacked, often a 'ell timed exchange 'ill lea%e your opponent 'ith too fe' pieces to keep up the attack# Gaining space - )n a cramped position, ha%ing more pieces can actually be a disad%antage because the pieces get in the 'ay of each other# )f your opponent has a space ad%antage, exchanging pieces can lessen the ad%antage and make the resultant less confining# )mpro%ing a material ad%antage - if you are ahead material, exchanging pieces 'ill usually benefit you 1note - pieces, N<+ pa'ns2# &imilarly, if you ha%e an extra pa'n, trade

0ikibooks E 11

*hapter 8 pieces that may other'ise be used as a sacrifice to pre%ent pa'n promotion#

#or&s

+he Ioyal Fork &ometimes a piece can be in position to attack t'o enemy pieces at once# +his is called a fork# -ll pieces can fork, e%en pa'ns, but knights ha%e a reputation for making especially %icious forks because they can Dump o%er other pieces#

:orkin$ .i ( '(e'k
Forks on unthreatened s5uares 'hich attack the king are the most po'erful# +he opponent must then mo%e his king to safety and the other piece in the fork has no chance of escape# T(e +oyal :ork - royal fork is one in%ol%ing both your opponentCs king and 5ueen# )n the example sho'n here, 'hiteCs knight on f> has engaged black in a Ioyal fork# ,lack 'ill be do'n the exchange of a 5ueen for a knight#

32 E *hess

+actics

'inned pieces

+he 'hite knight pinned by the black bishop - pinned piece is a piece that cannot mo%e because it 'ould expose an attack on an important piece by one of the opposing pieces, such that the capture of the important piece 'ould result in material gain by the opponent# - %ery useful de%ice is to pin the opponentCs pieces to his king( this is kno'n as an absolute pin# For example, imagine 'hiteCs king on e1, a 'hite knight on '4, and d3 empty# ,lack no' mo%es his dark-s5uared bishop to b"# +he 'hite knight is no' pinned and cannot mo%e# - pa'n on e" is no longer guarded by the knight, 'hich could not capture a black piece taking this pa'n# )n contrast to the absolute pin, a relative pin occurs 'hen one playerCs piece is pinned to one of lesser %alue than the king, such as a 5ueen or rook# )f the benefit of mo%ing the pinned piece out'eighs the loss of material occasioned by the capture of the exposed piece 1for example, if a forced mate may be achie%ed2, then the pin can be disregarded and the pinned piece mo%ed#

0ikibooks E 31

*hapter 8

S&ewers

&ke'er about to happen - ske'er is similar to a pin, but it is in a sense more po'erful# ,lack has, in a blunderous moment, placed his king on d, in front of his 5ueen on d/# 0hite may no' triumphantly slide his rook 1either one2 to d1, ske'ering ,lackCs king and 5ueen# &ince ,lack cannot block the check, the king has to mo%e, exposing the black 5ueen to the attack of the 'hite rook#

!iscoveries
- disco%ery is an attack on an enemy piece 'hich is un%eiled by mo%ing one of your pieces# +he po'er of disco%eries is that t'o targets can be attacked simultaneously# )f combined 'ith a check they can be lethal#

(emoving the defender


,y first capturing, threatening, or pinning a piece that guards another, you might be able to capture the other piece for free#

33 E *hess

+actics

Sacrifices
- sacrifice is an exchange of a piece for a non material ad%antage/

-fter "# Gh"

-fter "# ### Hg"

-fter $# Ixg" 0ikibooks E 34

*hapter 8

-fter $# ### Nf$L )n the first diagram, 0hite Dust mo%ed 15 #(1 to get out of check# ,lack sacrifices his 5ueen 'ith 1555-$1 for a 'inning positional ad%antage - 0hite is in check and can not take 'ith his king because the knight guards the 5ueen# 35 +7$1 - forced - this smothers the king - he cannot mo%e because his o'n pieces are on e%ery s5uare he could go to - any check on an unguarded s5uare no' is mate# 3555Nf3; *heckmate# +his 5ueenCs sacrifice 'as also an example of a smothered mate#

In)between moves

,efore "### f$

3" E *hess

+actics

-fter $### ,b"N 1'hite resigned2 -n in-bet'een mo%e or Zwischenzug is one that is made unexpectedly in the midst of a se5uence of mo%es# ,ut not Dust any series of mo%es, one in 'hich the player falling for the R'ischenFug feels the se5uence is forced, 'hile his opponent demonstrates to him that it certainly isnCtN Qost commonly these fall in bet'een trades 'here a recapture seems to be the only proper means of play# &uch in-bet'een mo%es often ha%e a surprising and pleasing effect of increasing the potency of a combination beyond the opponentCs expectations# ,orisenko%-QeFene% 1diagram, ,lack to play2, 'ent 1555 f3, threatening to 5ueen, 'hich 0hite countered 'ith 35 +$/, intending 45 +f/6, and "5 +7f1# ,ut 0hite resigned after the F'ischenFug 3555 *b1< 'hich allo's ,lack to 5ueen 145 #7b1 f1-6 or 45 +f/6 *f%2#

0ikibooks E 3%

*hapter 7

" 0 T+ATEGY
li%e %ersion B discussion B edit lesson B comment B report an error B ask a 5uestion

*aterial
?a%ing more material on the board than your opponent means you ha%e more options a%ailable# Jou ha%e more opportunities to attack, more pieces to defend and 'ill usually control more of the board# Not all pieces ha%e the same material %alue, ho'e%er, so figuring out 'ho has a material ad%antage is not as easy as simply counting the 'hite and black pieces on the board# )n general, the kings do not count 'hen calculating a material ad%antage because your opponent is guaranteed to also ha%e a king and any attack on the king QU&+ be ans'ered# Jou canCt trade a king for a rook, for example# +here is a lot of discussion about exactly 'hat a piece is 'orth, but a reasonable place to start is as follo's/ etting the pa'n be the basic unit of %alue, you ha%e the follo'ing relati%e %alues/

Pa'n O " Gnight O 8 ,ishop O 8 Iook O ; Hueen O 9

0hile the kingCs true %alue is infinite, in terms of its strength as an attacking piece in the endgame it is generally reckoned to be stronger than a knight or bishop but 'eaker than a rook# *learly king acti%ity is %ital in an endgame# From this 'e can generaliFe that trading a bishop for a knight is not usually harmful, but trading a bishop for a rook is# 0e also see that trading a 5ueen for $ rooks is a good trade for the side gi%ing up the 5ueen# +hat being said, there are se%eral things to consider 'hen looking at the material strength of any particular game/ )n the end game, pa'ns gain strength as they ad%ance because they pose the threat of 5ueening, so a pa'n on the :th or >th rank is 'orth significantly more than a pa'n on the second rank - often as much as a piece# ?o'e%er, in the opening and middlegame, an ad%anced pa'n is less likely to 5ueen and more likely to be in need of being defended# )t is also unable to defend the center and often lea%es .holes. in your territory that can ser%e as outposts for your opponentCs pieces# -n o%erad%anced pa'n is then often a liability# )n the opening and middle game, pa'ns in the center of the board block paths and support outposts# &o they tend to be more %aluable than end pa'ns# ?o'e%er, in the end game, a 'ing pa'n 3) E *hess

&trategy is usually the hardest to get to and block or capture and is therefore more likely to 5ueen# &o in the endgame, the edge pa'ns are often more %aluable than the middle pa'ns 1Note/ this is not necessarily true in some basic pa'n and king endings, 'here a pa'n on the edge leads to only dra'ing options2# - passed pa'n has only pieces stopping it from 5ueening, so it is considered more %aluable especially if it is protected 'ith other pa'ns# Games are considered open, closed or semi closed based on 'hether the central pa'ns ha%e been captured or not# -n open game is one 'here the central pa'ns are gone lea%ing long paths from one side of the board to the other through the center# ,ishops need long paths to reach full strength, 'hereas knights shine 'hen the board is cluttered because they can .Dump. o%er pieces# &o in general, ,ishops are stronger in open games and knights are stronger in closed# Gnights are more po'erful if they ha%e a safe outpost in enemy territory - a knight on the :th rank that can not be attacked by opposing pa'ns can be as po'erful as a rook in the right circumstances# - bishop ne%er lea%es its o'n color, so if one of the bishops is captured, half the board is no' out of reach of a bishop# &o trading " bishop for a knight tends to fa%or the person losing the knight, 'ho is left 'ith t'o bishops# ?o'e%er, trading the second bishop isnCt 5uite so hurtful# &o trading a ,ishop for a ,ishop 'here one side has only " bishop to begin 'ith helps the side 'ith fe'er bishops# Gnights can not co%er both sides of the board at the same time, 'hile a bishop can, so in an endgame 'here there are pa'ns on both sides of the board, the bishop is stronger# ,ishops can not attack pa'ns that are on the opposite color, 'hile a knight can# Furthermore, in a game 'here there is a short pa'n chain, a knight can stand at the head of the chain and attack the pa'n supporting it, so a knight is often more effecti%e attacking pa'ns as long as they are limited to one side of the board# Usually more pieces are more %aluable -- t'o bishops beats a rook, t'o rooks beat a 5ueen -but this is conditioned on proper co-ordination bet'een the pieces# )t may be 'orth'hile to sacrifice t'o pieces for a rook if this results in long-term damage to the enemyCs piece co-ordination# Usually this means tying do'n the extra pieces to the defence of 'eak pa'ns, so that they cannot co-operate in attacking friendly pa'ns#

Tempo
+empo is the effecti%e number of mo%es re5uired to reach the position on the board# Qo%ing a piece t'ice to reach a position it could ha%e reached in one results in a net loss of one tempo mo%ing a piece back to its starting place usually results in a loss of all its tempo - unless other pieces mo%ed that could not ha%e mo%ed other'ise# -lso the capture of a piece means all of the tempo it gained is lost as 'ell#

0ikibooks E 3,

*hapter 7 =ssentially, tempo is one 'ay of sho'ing ho' many effecti%e mo%es you ha%e made# &o the gain of a tempo is basically like getting a mo%e for free# +hree tempi is usually considered e5ui%alent to a pa'n in terms of ad%antage# =xample/

)n the position abo%e there ha%e been $ tempi played on each side, play continues 'ith/ 45 '7d% N7d% "5 e" Nf)

No' 'hite still has $ +empi 1one for d7 and " for e72 'hile black only has "# +he captured pieces lost the tempo they had gained in mo%ing and the knight lost the tempo it had 'hen it captured#

3/ E *hess

&trategy For argumentCs sake, lets assume play 'ent as follo's/ %5 e% Nd% )5 *'" Nb) ,5 -d4 Na" /5 N'4 N7'4 15 -7'4 e)

No' black still has only " tempo 1e:2 'hile 'hite has : 1$ 5ueen mo%es, 8 pa'n mo%es and a bishop mo%e2# +his has let 'hite de%elop $ pieces, control the center and gi%e black a cramped position# -lso, 'hile both sides can castle kingside in the same number of mo%es, 0hite can connect his rooks 1position them so there is nothing bet'een them on the back rank2 $ mo%es sooner than black# *hances are, 'hite 'ill complete de%elopment and launch an attack before black is able to# +his means 'hite 'ill ha%e an ad%antage 'hen the middlegame is reached#

+uality
Pa.n 0 r!' !re
Pa'n structure is often the backbone upon 'hich the strategy in a game rests# +here are se%eral things that need to be looked at 'hen e%aluating the pa'n structure of a game# +hese include 'hether the game is open or closed, open files, open diagonals, %ulnerable potential outposts, pa'n islands, pa'n chains, doubled pa'ns, back'ard pa'ns, passed pa'ns, protected passed pa'ns, o%erall maDorities, and local maDorities# - game is considered open if the center pa'ns 1the ones on the d and e files2 ha%e been captured# - 'losed game is 'here they ha%e not been captured# )n general, an open game means pieces are able to mo%e more easily through the center of the board, 'hich leads to a more acti%e and generally tactical game# - closed game means that positional considerations are more important# +he players generally ha%e more time to build a plan and the game, 'hile often lasting longer in general, often hinges on subtleties that are less likely to be noticed by no%ice players# 0ikibooks E 31

*hapter 7 Usually beginners are encouraged to stri%e for open games to impro%e their tactical ability and only play closed games after they de%elop more of a feel for the game# -n open file is one 'ith no pa'ns on it# +his is basically a path for rooks to mo%e on# +his is usually their most po'erful position# <ften play can focus on 'ho gains control of a file because this gi%es the person controlling it an ad%antage# - half open file is one 'here only the opponentCs pa'n is on the file# +his is often a good second choice for a rook because it attacks the pa'n in 5uestion and often opens up the rest of the 'ay# -n open dia$onal is again a diagonal 'ith no pa'ns blocking it# +his is one that a bishop can tra%erse# Usually an open diagonal that tra%els through the center of the board is preferable because it allo's the bishop to mo%e to the greatest degree 1see also good %s# bad bishop2# - %ulnerable potential o! pos is a s5uare in the opponentCs territory that can not be defended by an opponentCs pa'n# +his is usually the result of a pa'n that has been ad%anced too far or a 'eakened pa'n structure# Placing a knight on an outpost gi%es the knight attacking potential and makes it a relati%ely stronger piece# <ther pieces may also be placed on outposts as 'ell# - pa.n island is any pa'n or group of connected pa'ns separated from any other pa'ns by an open or half open file# ?a%ing t'o or three pa'n islands is usually necessary to acti%ate your rooks, but more than that indicates a 'eak pa'n structure# +he endpoints of pa'n islands are typically potential 'eaknesses and a large number of breaks in your pa'n structure means there are more places your opponent can penetrate into your territory# - pa.n '(ain is a set of pa'ns linked so each one is protected by a pa'n behind it# Pa'n chains form on diagonals# Pa'n chains often contribute to determining 'hich side of the board a player 'ill try to open play up on 1pa'n chains point to'ard the direction that typically are attacked because a bishop can be on the diagonal behind it# +his allo's the bishop to attack the opponents side of the board 'ithout 'orrying about their pa'ns getting in the 'ay and 'ith relati%e safety from opposing pieces that ha%e to get around the pa'n chain to attack the bishop# - pa'n chain is most effecti%ely attacked at its base 1the pa'n that has no other pa'ns protecting it2# 9o!bled pa.ns are pa'ns on the same file# +his happens 'hen a pa'n captures# Doubled pa'ns often are seen as 'eaknesses because the lo'er pa'n can not ad%ance beyond the top one and doubling pa'ns usually leads to openings into your o'n territory for the opponent to attack# ?o'e%er, doubled pa'ns do ha%e some ad%antages# For instance, a doubled pa'n can ad%ance 'ithout lea%ing undefended outposts or back'ard pa'ns# +ripled pa'ns are al'ays 'eaknesses# - ba'k.ard pa.n is one 'ith no adDacent pa'ns behind it or on the same rank# )t often needs to be defended 'ith a piece and can not pre%ent an opposing piece from parking in front of it and using that s5uare as an outpost 'hile pre%enting the pa'n from being able to ad%ance# - passed pa.n is a pa'n that has no opposing pa'n in front of it and is past any adDacent opposing pa'ns# +his pa'n has the potential to ad%ance to the Ath rank and 5ueen# )t can only be stopped by an opposing piece or the king# - protected passed pa'n is a passed pa'n guarded by another pa'n# capturing the pa'n still lea%es you 'ith a passed pa'n on recapture# )f the only opposing piece is the king, neither pa'n can safely be captured because that 'ould put the king behind the passed pa'n# +he passed pa'n can then ad%ance and the king 'ill ne%er be able to 42 E *hess

&trategy .catch up. to capture the pa'n# +he pa'n 'ill then safely promote# )f you ha%e a passed pa'n, you may 'ant to trade off pieces to protect it# - pa.n ma=ori y is 'here one person has more pa'ns than the other# )t is an ad%antage because it is likely to lead to a passed pa'n# - player 'ho is ahead a pa'n or t'o may try to trade off pieces and then get a passed pa'n# - player 'ith fe'er pa'ns 'ill try to hold onto his pieces in case he needs to sacrifice one to pre%ent a pa'n promotion# - lo'al pa.n ma=ori y is a maDority in one section of the board# )f a player has a local pa'n maDority, he may focus play on that side to get a passed pa'n# )f players ha%e opposing pa'n maDorities 1e#g# one has a 5ueenside pa'n maDority 'hile the other has a kingside maDority2, each side 'ill try to restrict the otherCs play on their maDority side 'hile attempting to focus play on their side in an attempt to get a passed pa'n#

A' ive and passive pie'es


-n acti%e piece is one that has the potential to make a threat# - passi%e one is usually relegated to defending a piece 1or 'orse - a pa'n2#

)n this example, 'hiteCs bishop on g; is considered acti%e, 'hile blackCs bishop on e> is considered passi%e# Piece acti%ity depends on 'hether it can mo%e and attack# - piece can be rendered passi%e if it is stuck protecting another piece or if it is restricted from being able to get into play by its o'n pa'ns#

Good vs5 *ad *is(ops


-s noted abo%e, a bishop can only tra%el on s5uares of one colour# +his leads to a situation 0ikibooks E 41

*hapter 7 'herein one bishop may be effecti%ely blocked out of the game by the pa'n structure# )n general it is better to ha%e your pa'ns on the opposite coloured s5uares to your bishop# For example, if you as black ha%e pa'ns on e: and d;, your 5ueenCs bishop is likely to be a .bad bishop#. )t is bad because it is hard to do anything constructi%e 'ith it( de%eloping it to g7 is impossible and .fianchettoing. it %ia b> is ineffecti%e since your pa'n on d; blocks any influence it may ha%e o%er the centre# 0hen one has a bad bishop there are t'o methods to impro%e the game/ exchanging the offender and freeing up the game# )n general it is profitable to try to exchange your bad bishop for an opponentCs bishop or knight, as your bad bishop has little %alue# ?o'e%er, it is important to bear in mind that in the end game ha%ing t'o bishops is considerably stronger than ha%e t'o knights or a bishop and a knight# +herefore you should al'ays be 'ary of exchanging bishop for knight in situations 'here an endgame is likely# +he other method to rid yourself of this 'eakness is by freeing up the game through making pa'n mo%es#

Overloaded pie'es
<%erloaded pieces are pieces 'hich defend too many other pieces and therefore cannot be considered to defend all of them at once# For example, a rook can defend up to 7 pieces, but if one is taken, and the rook takes the offending piece, $ of the other pieces are undefended#

Initiative
+he player 'ith the initiati%e is the player 'ho is making the threats to 'hich the other person must respond# ?a%ing the initiati%e is ad%antageous because it forces your opponent to place his pieces in essentially defensi%e formations# - piece that is defending a s5uare generally has less mobility 1freedom of mo%ement2 than a piece attacking the same s5uare# ?a%ing the first mo%e, it is generally 'hite 'ho has the initiati%e in the early part of the game# +herefore trying to maintain the initiati%e 'ould be prudent strategy#

Compensation
*ompensation is a term used in chess to describe the situation in 'hich one player is materially do'n but has ad%antages in position on the board that make up for this material deficiency# +ypically ha%ing compensation for a piece means that an attack against the enemyCs king or strong points cannot be repelled or may only be repelled by the enemy returning the material he is up# <ften compensation can refer to ha%ing the initiati%e or in trapping the opponents king in a %ulnerable position# - pa'n maDority on one 'ing or a passed pa'n can also sometimes be considered compensation for a minor piece# Generally the player 'ho is do'n on material has to act 5uickly and a%oid exchanging pieces to pre%ent the enemy from making his material ad%antage count#

43 E *hess

&trategy

,ug-wang
- RugF'ang situation that occurs 'hen any mo%e a player makes 'ill 'eaken his/her position, ho'e%er, he/she is compelled to mo%e in accordance to the rules# -n example of the FugF'ang is as follo's/

0hite mo%es the pa'n, making a FugF'ang and forcing ,lackCs king to mo%e#

0ikibooks E 44

*hapter 7

+he black king is forced to mo%e a'ay from his current position because he no' has no other mo%e#

4" E *hess

&trategy

0hite gains a 5ueen and 'ins the game easily#

Combining attac& with defense


- 'inning strategy in *hess often in%ol%es balancing se%eral considerations against each other# Qo%es that maximiFe immediate material gain might expose a %ulnerability or yield a difficult position as the game progresses# &imilarly, material sacrifices for position may be disad%antageous if they cannot be parlayed into an effecti%e attack# +hus, a key consideration should be balancing attack 'ith defense# - profitable mo%e 'ould be one that both furthers your attack and solidifies your defense#

0ikibooks E 4%

*hapter ;

% * A0I& O PENING0
li%e %ersion B discussion B edit lesson B comment B report an error B ask a 5uestion See also: Opening theory in chess +he follo'ing is an o%er%ie' of the aims of an opening and some standard openings that you can try in your games# -ll of them are playable and should lead to reasonable games 'ith best play#

ims of an opening
,efore looking at some of the more common openings played today it is important to consider 'hat you are trying to achie%e in the opening of a chess game# )n some cases, one player 'ill sacrifice a pa'n, or in some cases e%en more, to accomplish the goals listed belo'# &uch an opening is called a $ambi # 9evelopmen Jou should attempt to mo%e your pieces a'ay from their starting positions to s5uares in 'hich they can participate more fully in the game# <b%iously a Gnight at c8 is more effecti%e both defensi%ely and aggressi%ely than a knight on b"# -%oid mo%ing pieces more than once in the opening as this allo's your opponent time to de%elop another piece 'hile you are 'asting time# -lso a%oid mo%ing your 5ueen in the opening, it can too easily be chased around the board by other pieces 'hich aids your opponents de%elopment 'hile 'asting mo%es for you# &on rol (e &en re +he s5uares in the centre of the board are critical for $ simple reasons# Firstly Pieces in the centre are able to mo%e to more s5uares than pieces on the edges# 1Note a knight on a8 can mo%e to only 7 s5uares, 'hereas a knight on c8 can mo%e to A#2 &econdly if you control the centre it is easier to mo%e pieces from Gingside to Hueenside 5uickly# <ne of the great truths in chess is that attacks along one 'ing are destined to fail if the centre is not sufficiently controlled# +his is because the defender 'ith a strong centre 'ill generally be able to muster enough defence on that side and at the same time mount a counterattack in the centre and/or on the other 'ing# &o if you plan on mounting an attack make sure you control the centre +raditionally it 'as thought that the ideal situation is one 'here you ha%e a pa'n maDority in the centre, especially 'ith pa'ns on e7 and d7 1for 'hite2# ?o'e%er it has been sho'n that an e5ually %alid strategy is to control the centre 'ith pieces and make minimal pa'n mo%es# +he thinking is that central pa'n mo%es often lead to permanent positions and can block attacks# .Fianchettoing. a bishop by mo%ing it to b$ or g$ after b8 or g8 allo's the bishop to keep a 'atchful eye on the centre 'ithout fixing a pa'n in the centre# &as le 4) E *hess

,asic <penings - Ging in the centre of the board is open to attack# )t is generally a good idea to castle your king so as to be able to defend it easier# &ome players 'ill sacrifice material in order to pre%ent the enemy king from castling and to attack it ferociously due to its %ulnerability# *astling also has the added benefit of bringing the rooks together on the first rank so that they are able to combine in defence and attack# <nce your pieces are de%eloped, king is safely castled, and your rooks are combined, the opening is o%er# Pro e' (e #in$ )t is not al'ays necessary although highly ad%isable to protect the king through castling# +hat being said, there are other 'ays to go about protecting the king than castling although they are less efficient and 'ill often result in pins#

.ing/s 'awn Openings


0panis( Openin$ >aka +!y Lope?@
15e" e% 35Nf4 N') 45*b% the main line continues 4555a) "5*a" Nf) %52A2 +he mo%e 4555a) 'orks because if 'hite plays "5*7') d7'), %5N7e% 'ill fall to %555-d", forking the pa'n and the knight#

0ikibooks E 4,

*hapter ;

I alian Game
15e" e% 35Nf4 N') 45*'"

+here are t'o key replies/ 8###,c;, kno'n as the Giuoco Piano 1)talian for Huiet Game2, and 8###Nf: headed to a much more in%ol%ed opening called the +'o Gnights Defence# &chool children in local clubs often drift into 'eaker %ariants of the Giuoco Piano, mostly out of insufficient kno'ledge# - fe' scholastic trainers ha%e e%en suggested a%oiding the opening, as there are fe'er crisp strategic concepts compared to many other openings#

4/ E *hess

,asic <penings

+!ssian Game >aka Pe roffBs 9efen'e@


15e" e% 35Nf4 Nf)

+he Petroff Defense may look like a counter-attack, and %ery early on this 'as supposed to be the idea# ?o'e%er, it soon became apparent that the symmetrical nature of the opening produced defensi%e positions# )t is considered 5uite solid, and is a key defensi%e opening against the dangerous first mo%e "# e7# +here are a fe' gambits 'hich 0hite can try to shift the style of the opening# +he *ochrane gambit is perhaps the most dangerous# )t in%ol%es a Gnight sacrifice on f># *urrently not considered obDecti%ely sound, its use is psychological/ 0hite dares the opponent to spend t'enty mo%es defending against an attack, and this pressure may cause the ,lack player to finally fall %ictim to a tactical shot#

P(ilidor 9efen'e
15e" e% 35Nf4 d)

0ikibooks E 41

*hapter ; )f ,lack 'ants to defend the threatened pa'n 'ith a pa'n, this is the 'ay to do it 1playing $###f:M is plain bad2# )t gi%es ,lack a solid but some'hat cramped position# +he fA bishop is hemmed in and 'ill be relegated to a defensi%e role# +he ,lack knight retains the option of going to d> lea%ing the c-pa'n mobile, but it is not 'ithout reason that $###Nc: is much more common than $###d:#

9anis( Gambi
15e" e% 35d" e7d" 45'4 d7'4 "5*'" '7b3 %5*7b3

+his gambit gi%es 0hite 5uick de%elopment and control of the center at the cost of t'o pa'ns initially# ?o'e%er, current opinion reports that to properly beat off the attacking 'a%es, at least one and sometimes both pa'ns must be returned# +his in%ol%es the liberating pa'n push ###d; by ,lack# =%en so, in%enti%e attacking players can still use the resulting open lines to play a complex game#

0i'ilian 9efen'e
15e" '%

"2 E *hess

,asic <penings

Play can continue# 35Nf4 N') 45d" '7d" "5N7d" 1$###d: and $###e: are also common, and usually also met by 8#d72 +he &icilian is the most common and best-scoring response to "#e7, as it balances the 'hite ad%antage 'ith flank play# )t discourages 0hite from occupying the centre 'ith $#d7# -fter $###cxd7 0hite must either take the pa'n back 'ith the 5ueen 1and mo%e it again after 8#Hxd7 Nc:2 or sacrifice the pa'n, usually 'ith 8#c8# <ne problem 'ith the &icilian is that there is a %ast amount of theory 'ritten on it, and in a sharp opening like this, you can 'ind up in trouble if you donCt kno' it#

:ren'( 9efen'e
15e" e) 35d" d%

0hite has three essential continuations/ 8#Nc8 .0ina'er !ariation. 8#Nd$ .+arrasch !ariation. 8#e; .-d%ance !ariation.# - fourth alternati%e, the .=xchange !ariation. is 8# exd;, but this actually frees ,lackCs game 0ikibooks E "1

*hapter ; from all of the traditional cramping problems of the French Defence# )t is mainly used by 0hite players 'ho forgo all attempts at a theoretical battle, hoping to play on .general principles.# +he French Defence is considered one of the strongest black responses to the 0hite opening mo%e "#e7# -mong 'orld class grandmasters, it currently trails the &icilian "# e7 c; and the symmetrical "#e7 e; in popularity#

Pir' 9efen'e
15e" d), usually follo'ed by 35d" Nf) 45N'4 $)

+his opening bears considerable similarities to another one called the GingCs )ndian, 'hich begins "# d7 Nf: $# c7 g: 8# Nc8 ,g># ?o'e%er, subtle but long range strategic differences exist bet'een the t'o# )n the Pirc, 0hiteCs c-file pa'n is still at home, and not committed to the c7 s5uare# +his means that o%erall, 0hite has better control of the d7 s5uare# +he pa'n mo%e c$-c7 has been replaced by a de%eloping piece mo%e N-c8, and this .faster. de%elopment tends to encourage 0hite to'ards central or kingside attacks compared 'ith the 5ueenside play classically associated 'ith the GingCs )ndian defense# "3 E *hess

,asic <penings

Modern 9efen'e
15e" $), usually follo'ed by 35d" *$,

+his mo%e order is often used to .back into. a Pirc defense, 'hile a%oiding specific mo%e order issues# ?o'e%er, an entirely different range of strategy is possible based upon ###c: and ###d;#

0ikibooks E "4

*hapter ;

Alek(ineBs 9efen'e
15e" Nf), usually follo'ed by 35e% Nd% 45d" d)

+his looks like a rather alarming opening for ,lack to play# ,lack lets 0hite chase the knight around the board and use that time to build up the pa'n centre# ,lackCs plan is to sho' that 0hite has expanded too 5uickly, and 'ill find the pa'n centre %ulnerable# +he disad%antage to this opening is that if 0hite succeeds in maintaining it, 0hite 'ill ha%e a serious and suffocating ad%antage in space#

"" E *hess

,asic <penings

0'andinavian 9efen'e
15e" d%, usually follo'ed by 35e7d% -7d% 45N'4 -a%

Playing d>-d; is the main idea behind most of the semi-open games for black# ?ere it is played immediately for the price of an extra mo%e 'ith the 5ueen after 8#Nc8# ong disparaged as the epitome of 'eak play .because mo%ing the 5ueen early 'astes time., it 'as resurrected in the "996s 'ith a pa'n mo%e c>-c:, allo'ing the 5ueen to retreat from a; to c> 'hen necessary# No' it is considered an attempt to reduce 0hiteCs central pressure, and is popular among club players because 0hite suddenly has to demonstrate some sophistication#

0ikibooks E "%

*hapter ;

+ueen/s 'awn Openings


-!eenBs Gambi
15d" d% 35 '"

") E *hess

,asic <penings 3555e) 8#Nc8 Nf: 7#,g; ,e> leads to .HueenCs Gambit Declined. %ariations#

3555') 1usually follo'ed by 8#Nf8 Nf: 7#Nc8 dxc72 leads to the .&la% Defence.#

+his is one of the opening .families. 'ith interchangeable mo%es# )t is 5uite possible to play both ###e: and ###c: 1kno'n as the &emi-&la%2, and there are large numbers of interchangeable points called transpositions#

0ikibooks E ",

*hapter ; 3555d7'" is the .HueenCs Gambit -ccepted.#

,lack has gained a pa'n but ,lace cannot keep it# )f 0hite 'ants it back 0hite can play e$-e8 at some point, threatening the pa'n 'ith the bishop and if ,lack tries to defend it 'ith ###b; ,lack 'ill find the 5ueenside se%erely 'eakened 1and the pa'n should fall any'ay2# Nonetheless, this is playable for ,lack as 'ell, instead of trying to keep the pa'n, it is best to de%elop 5uickly and strike back at the 0hite centre#

#in$Bs Indian 9efen'e


15d" Nf) 35 '" $)

"/ E *hess

,asic <penings

45N'4 *$, "5 e" d)

Popularised after 0orld 0ar )), the GingCs )ndian Defence in%ol%es opposite sides strategies in a race bet'een ,lackCs mating attack %s# 0hiteCs methodical attempts to unra%el ,lackCs Hueenside# 0ikibooks E "1

*hapter ; -t 0orld *lass le%el, there is some concern that ,lackCs concept is %ery committal, leading Former *hampion Garry Gasparo% to discontinue his use of the opening shortly before he retired from the game# -t any le%el belo' that, it is still %ery popular due to the deep de%elopmental 'ork by Fischer and Gasparo%#

GrCnfeld 9efen'e
15d" Nf) 35'" $)

%2 E *hess

,asic <penings 45N'4 d%

ooks a bit like a cross bet'een the HueenCs Gambit and the GingCs )ndian Defense, but this opening is played differently from both of them# ,lack gi%es 0hite an early opportunity to grab control of the centre 'ith 7#cxd; Nxd; ;#e7# ,lack 'ill need to launch a counterattack against that centre, perhaps 'ith ###c; to stop 0hite from getting the upper hand# )f ,lack succeeds, the 0hite centre may indeed be %ery %ulnerable, if ,lacks fails, the centre 'ill be %ery dominating#

Nim?oAIndian 9efen'e
15d" Nf) 35'" e)

0ikibooks E %1

*hapter ;

45N'4 *b"

-fter 8#Nc8, 0hite threatens to take control o%er the centre by playing 7#e7# +he NimFo)ndian, named after the hypermodern player -ron NimFo'itch, is one of the t'o main 'ays of pre%enting this 1the other 'ay is the direct 8###d; 'hich leads to the HueenCs Gambit Declined2# ,lack puts a bishop 'here it pins the 0hite knight, and often intends to trade it off, surrendering the bishop pair but inflicting 0hite 'ith doubled pa'ns if needed to recapture 'ith the b-pa'n# 0hite can a%oid these doubled pa'ns by playing the 5ueen to c$, but this costs time# <n the other hand, ,lack has not staked out a big claim of the centre yet, and 0hite can get a real space ad%antage if ,lack is careless#

%3 E *hess

,asic <penings

-!eenBs Indian 9efen'e


15d" Nf) 35'" e)

45Nf4 b)

0ikibooks E %4

*hapter ; &trategically, this opening is similar to the NimFo-)ndian# 0hite has played 8#Nf8 rather than 8#Nc8 so he is not threatening to grab the center 'ith 7#e7 Dust yet# Playing the NimFo-like 8###,b7K any'ay is possible 1and called the ,ogo-)ndian2 and tends to lead to rather 5uiet play# Qore usual is 8###b: 'hich opens up for the bishop to go to b> 'here it 'ill continue the clamp-do'n on the e7s5uare, or to a: 'here it 'ill put pressure on 0hiteCs pa'n on c7#

Modern *enoni
15d" Nf) 35'" '%

%" E *hess

,asic <penings 45d% e)

*enko Gambi
15d" Nf) 35'" '%

0ikibooks E %%

*hapter ; 45d% b%

Other openings
En$lis( Openin$
15'"

%) E *hess

,asic <penings ,lackCs most common responses are/ 1555e%, a re%ersed &icilian Defence

1555'%

0ikibooks E %,

*hapter ; 1555Nf)

1555e) 1preparing $###d;2

%/ E *hess

,asic <penings and 1555') 1preparing $###d;2

+D i Openin$
15Nf4 d% 35'"

0ikibooks E %1

*hapter ;

#in$Bs Indian A a'k


15Nf4 d% 35$4

)2 E *hess

+he =ndgame

) T HE E N9GAME
li%e %ersion B discussion B edit lesson B comment B report an error B ask a 5uestion

$asic Chec&mates
+hese include positions that ha%e no pa'ns# 0hen one side is ahead in material and has pa'ns, the easiest 'inning plan is typically to 5ueen one or more pa'ns and use them to checkmate# +he situations 'here one has a king and 5ueen, or king and rook, %ersus a lone king occur %ery often and it is essential to kno' ho' checkmate is achie%ed in such cases# +he other cases, 'ith minor pieces 1bishops and knights2 are much more rare, but are co%ered here for completeness#

#in$ and -!een vs5 #in$

&ample starting position for GKH %s# G mate Deli%ering checkmate 'ith a king and 5ueen against a lone king is 5uite easy# +he basic techni5ue in%ol%es dri%ing the king to the edge of the board, 'hich the 5ueen can do by herself# )tCs faster if you use your king and 5ueen together, but this increases the probability of a stalemate, so beginners should do it 'ithout the king# +he techni5ue described belo' 'ill accomplish the mate in about "6 to "; mo%es# ?ereCs an example 1see diagram on right2/ 15-b% *utting the black king off along the fifth rank# 1555#e)

0ikibooks E )1

*hapter : "###Gc> $#Ha: limits ,lackCs king to the last t'o ranks#

Position after $#Hc; 35-'% 1see diagram2 During this phase, notice ho' 0hiteCs 5ueen al'ays stays a knightCs mo%e a'ay from the black king, and ho' no checks are necessary 1or e%en desirable2# Qo%es like $#Hc:KM only allo' ,lackCs king more freedom after $###Ge;# 3555#f) 45-d% #$) "5-e% #f, -fter 7###Gh: ;#Hg8 0hiteCs goal has been achie%ed/ the black king is trapped on the edge# 0hite 'ill then bring his king to f: to force mate# %5-d) #$, )5-e) #(, ,lackCs king is forced to the edge of the board no matter 'hat he does, e#g# :###GfA >#Hd>#

)3 E *hess

+he =ndgame Position after A#Gb$ ,5-$" #() /5#b3 1see diagram2 No' that ,lackCs king is stuck, the 'hite monarch comes in to finish off his ad%ersary# /555#(, 15#'4 9#Hg; doesnCt spoil anything, but it isnCt necessary# Unlike the king and rook %s# king mate, here ,lackCs king doesnCt ha%e to be trapped in the corner# 1555#(/ 125#d" "6 Hg:OMM stalemate 'as 'hat ,lack 'as hoping for# ,e'are of this trapN 12555#(, 115#e% #(/ 135#f) #(, 145-$,;5 - detailed analysis of this endgame based on the computer-generated database is in -nalysis of GHG =ndgame# +his sho's that for any .Ging and Hueen %s# Ging. endgame, 'hite to mo%e can force checkmate in at most ten mo%es#

#in$ and +ook vs5 #in$

&ample starting position for GKI %s# G mate +his mate takes longer to do than king and 5ueen %s# king, because the king and rook ha%e to 'ork together to trap the opposing king on the edge 1often in the corner2# +he most commonly taught techni5ue in%ol%es confining the opposing king into a box using the rook, 'hich is protected by its o'n king# +hen, the box becomes smaller and smaller until the king is forced into the corner# From the diagram on the right/

0ikibooks E )4

*hapter : 15#'3 #e% 35#d4 #d% 45+a" #e% -fter the kingCs position is impro%ed, the box can be constructed/ "5+d" +he box is dA-d7-h7#

Position after ;#Ie7 "555#f% %5+e" 1see diagram2 No' itCs eA-e7-h7# %555#f) )5#d" +he box canCt be reduced immediately, so the king creeps closer# )555#f% ,5#d% #f) >###Gg; A#Ge: Gg: 9#If7 Gg; "6#Ge; Gg: ""#If; Gg> "$#If: GgA "8#Gf; Gg> "7#Gg; Gh> ";#Ig: GhA ":#Gf: Gh> ">#Gf> GhA "A#Ig:L is similar#

)" E *hess

+he =ndgame /5+e%

Position after ";#Gf> ,ack to shrinking the box/ the process repeats itself# Notice that Dust as in GKH %s# G, no checks are necessary until the actual mate# /555#f, 15+e) #$, 125#e% #f, 115#f% #$, 135+f) #(, 145+$) #(/ 1"5#f) #(, 1%5#f, 1see diagram2 &omething important to kno'/ if it someho' transpires that 0hite reaches this position but itCs his turn to mo%e, all he has to do is mo%e the rook any'here along the sixth rank 1except Ih:K of courseN2# +hen, ,lackCs king is forced to mo%e to hA, and 0hite gi%es checkmate 'ith Ih:L# 1%555#(/ 1)5+();5 +he alternati%e method is based on the opposition of the kings 1see belo'2 'ith the rook being far a'ay# From the same starting position as before/ 15#'3 #e% 35#d4 #d% <nce again, 0hite must impro%e the position of his king first# No', once the kings are in opposition, he checks along the fifth rank to push the black king back#

0ikibooks E )%

*hapter :

Position after $###Gd; 45+a%6 1see diagram2 ,lack has no choice but to gi%e ground# 4555#') "5#d" #b) 7###Gd: ;#Ia:K immediately cuts ,lack off the sixth rank# %5+$% #') )5+(% #d) :###Gb: >#Gc7 Gc: A#Ih:K is the same sort of thing# ,5+()6 #e, /5#d% #f, 15#e% #$, 125+b) #f, 115+a) #e, 135+a,6 #d/ 145#e) #'/ 1"5#d) #b/ 1%5+$, #'/ 1)5+(, #b/ 1,5#') #a/ 1/5#b) #b/ 115+(/;5 Using either method, it should take about ";-$6 mo%es to deli%er the mate# +heoretically, it should take no longer than ": mo%es to checkmate, but depending on the position, one might ha%e to use a mixture of the t'o techni5ues to do this#

*inor 'iece Chec&mates


)f 'hite has only one minor piece against a lone king, it is not possible to arrange the pieces so that the black king is checkmated# )f 'hite has three pieces, the mate is easy# -s 'e shall see, 'ith t'o bishops 'hiteCs Dob is relati%ely easy, 'ith a bishop and knight it is some'hat harder, and 'ith t'o knights it is typically impossible#

)) E *hess

+he =ndgame

0hite to play +he diagram at left sho's a mate in : 'ith t'o bishops# "# ,c$ Gf" $# ,d$ Gg" 8# Gg8 Gf" 7# ,d8K Gg" ;# ,e8K Gh" :# ,e7L )f on the third mo%e, black plays, Gh", instead of Gf", 'hite responds 'ith the line/ 7# ,e" Gg" ;# ,f$ Gh$ :# ,e7KK <ne other possibility remains# )f ;# ,f$ #f1, then 'hite should respond/ :# ,d8KK +he bishops coordinate by taking adDacent diagonals, thus cutting off the opposing king#

0hite to play )n order to mate 'ith a bishop and knight, 'hite must force blackCs king to the corner that is the same color as his bishop - in this case the aA s5uare# +his is not so easy to do, because the bishop and knight do not coordinate 'ell in cutting off the opponentCs king# Qate can al'ays be forced unless black can 'in a 'hite piece, but, e%en 'ith best play, the mate may take o%er 86 mo%es# 0ikibooks E ),

*hapter : )n the position at right, much of the hard 'ork has already been done# ,lack is being pressed in the direction of the aA corner# Ne%ertheless, nine more mo%es are re5uired to mate# "# Gd: GcA $# Ge> Gb> 8# Gd> GbA 7# ,a: Ga> ;# ,cA GbA :# Ne> Ga> 1or :# ### GaA ># Gc> Ga> A# Nc:K GaA 9# ,b>KK 2 ># Gc> GaA A# ,b>K Ga> 9# Nc:KK

0hite to play 0hen 'hite has t'o knights against a bare king, it is impossible to mate 'ithout cooperation from black# +he diagram at left illustrates his predicament# +he black king is cornered, but 'hite has no 'ay to force checkmate# Qo%ing either Nf8, or mo%ing Nh8 all lead to stalemate# 0hite can try for "# Ne7 Gg" $# Nf8K Gh"MM 8# Nf$KK, but instead black plays $# ### Gf" 8# Nd7 1other'ise black can play Ge$, and 'hite must corner him again2 Ge" and 'hite still has a challenge to confine the black king# )f black has one or more pa'n, 'hite may be able to 'in by cornering the black king 'ith a king and one knight, and a%oiding stalemate by letting black to ad%ance his pa'n, 'hile the other knight administers mate# - number of such chess endings ha%e been composed, some of 'hich re5uire as many >6 mo%es 'ithout a pa'n mo%e or capture# +hese compositions ha%e some historic interest - they lead to the amendment of the .;6 mo%e dra' rule. to exclude those positions in 'hich it could be demonstrated that more mo%es 'ere re5uired#

'awn Endings
+'o important concepts in endgames only in%ol%ing the kings and pa'ns are the r!le of (e sE!are and the opposi ion# - passed pa.n is a pa'n that cannot be stopped from 5ueening by an opponentCs pa'n# )f both sides ha%e one or more passed pa'ns, then the player 'ith a pro e' ed passed pa.n 1protected by another pa'n2 is likely to ha%e an ad%antage# )f neither side has a protected passed pa'n, then the player 'ith an o! side passed pa.n 1farthest from the other pa'ns2 'ill most likely 'in#

)/ E *hess

+he =ndgame

T(e +!le of (e 0E!are

+he Iule of the &5uare +he +!le of (e 0E!are is used to determine 'hether or not a passed pa'n can 5ueen 'hen it is not supported by its o'n king and the enemy king is chasing it# +he idea is sho'n by the diagram on the right/ <ne side of the s5uare is the line that extends from the pa'n to the s5uare on 'hich it 5ueens# +he rule says/ i the enemy king can reach the s!uare o the pawn" then it can capture the pawn# i not" the pawn can !ueen without the aid o its own king. Iemember that if the pa'n is on its starting s5uare, it can make a double step, so the s5uare is the same as if the pa'n has ad%anced one s5uare# +he rule is %alid for all pa'ns, including rookCs pa'ns# &o, in the diagram, if itCs 0hiteCs turn to mo%e, then ,lackCs king is outside the s5uare and 0hite can 5ueen/ 15e) #b% 35e, #') 45e/-65 )f ,lack is to play, the pa'n canCt escape the king/ 1555#b%< >movin$ in o (e sE!are@ 35e) #') 45e, #d, "5e/-6 #7e/ F5

0ikibooks E )1

*hapter :

+he rule assumes that there is nothing stopping the king from taking the shortest route to chase the pa'n# )f there are pa'ns that might get in the 'ay of the king then the rule does not apply/ +he position is the same as the first one, except that no' there is a black pa'n on c:# +his pa'n gets in the 'ay of its o'n king, so that e%en if itCs ,lackCs turn to mo%e he still loses/ 1555#b% 1"###c; $#e:N and ,lackCs king cannot get into the cA-c:-e:-eA s5uare2 35e) #b) 45e, #', "5e/-5

+he rule of the s5uare can form a basis for tactics# )n the position on the right, ,lack to mo%e played 1555#b", entering the s5uare of 0hiteCs f-pa'n# ?e thought that this 'ould be good enough for a dra', but 0hite played 35d)<# -fter 3555'7d) 45f% the effect of 0hiteCs sacrifice is clear/ he has decoyed ,lackCs pa'n to the a8-fA diagonal, 'here it obstructs ,lackCs king# No' 0hite simply promotes the pa'n and 'ins# ,lack had no other choice but to take 0hiteCs d-pa'n on his second mo%e as other'ise it 'ould ha%e 5ueened#

T(e Opposi ion


0hen the t'o Gings stand next to each other so that there is one s5uare bet'een them, they are said to oppose each other 1or to be in opposi ion2# ,ecause the rules of chess say that the Ging canCt step to a s5uare next to the opposite Ging, there is an in%isible 'all bet'een the Gings that makes it impossible for them to ad%ance for'ards# +he player 'ho is not to mo%e in such situation is said to ha%e the opposition# &ince his opponent canCt mo%e his Ging for'ards, he has to mo%e it side'ays or back'ards, and after that the other player gets to ad%ance his Ging for'ards, 'hich is usually ad%antageous for him#

,2 E *hess

+he =ndgame

+he kings are in opposition etCs consider the %ery simple position on the right that illustrates the opposition/ )f ,lack is to mo%e, 0hite has the opposition# ,lack canCt mo%e his Ging for'ards, so he might play "###Gd: 1"###Gf: is the same in mirror image2# No' the f;-s5uare becomes a%ailable for the 'hite Ging, so 0hiteCs next mo%e is $# Gf;# )f ,lack no' mo%es his Ging to e>, 0hite responds by mo%ing his Ging to e;, 'hen a position similar to the starting position has arisen, 'ith the exception that the 'hite Ging has ad%anced one s5uare for'ards and thus forced the black Ging to retreat one s5uare# No' you might 'onder 'hat is the ad%antage of ha%ing the opposition# etCs add a Pa'n to the pre%ious position, and 'e get an example of ho' to 5ueen the Pa'n 'ith the aid of the opposition 1see diagram on right2/

,lack to mo%e, 0hite 'ins# 0hite to mo%e dra's# No' ,lack plays "###Gd:, as in the pre%ious example# 0hiteCs first mo%e is also the same, $#Gf;, ad%ancing his Ging for'ards# +he play might go on $###Gd> 8#Gf: Gd:# No' it seems that 0ikibooks E ,1

*hapter : ,lack has the opposition, but 'e shouldnCt forget that 0hite doesnCt ha%e to mo%e his Ging# +herefore the right mo%e is 7#e7, 'hen ,lack has to concede the opposition# No' 0hite 'ins after 7###Gd> ;#e; GeA :#Ge: GdA ># Gf> Gd> A#e:K Gd: 9#e> and the Pa'n 5ueens next mo%e#

Dra', 'hoe%er mo%es# +his position might look like a simple 'in 'ith 0hite to mo%e as 'ell# ?o'e%er, in this case, the game is dra'n# ,lack has the opposition, and he can use it to block the Pa'n 1if he is careful and doesnCt blunder the opposition a'ay2# Play could begin 'ith "#Gf7 Gf: $# e7 Ge:N# +his is the only mo%e that holds the dra'# )n this kind of position, 'hen the defending Ging canCt oppose the enemy Ging, he must ne%er mo%e back'ards# )nstead he al'ays has to mo%e side'ays, and al'ays to the file on 'hich the opponentCs Pa'n stands# )f ,lack had no' played $###Ge>M, 0hite 'ould ha%e gained the opposition 'ith 8#Ge;, and 'on the game as in the pre%ious example# -fter $###Ge: 0hite has no 'ay to force the Pa'n through as long as ,lack carefully keeps the opposition# +he play could continue 8#e; Ge> 7#Gf; Gf> ;#e: GeA :#Gf: GfA >#e> GeA A#Ge: stalemate# Jou need more than Dust a pa'n and the opposition to 'in though# +ake the position at right# Unlike the pre%ious one, 0hiteCs king is behind the pa'n, and this is enough to ensure black a dra'# -ssuming black to mo%e 1so 'hite has the opposition2 the game might continue "# ### Gd> $# Gc; Gc> 8# d:K Gd> 7# Gd; GdA ;# Gc: GcA :# d>K GdA ># Gd: stalemate#

,3 E *hess

+he =ndgame

Dra', 'hoe%er mo%es# =%en if one side has a pa'n ad%antage, his king is in front of the pa'n, and he has the opposition, it may not be enough to 'in# - notable exception is sho'n at right, namely the rook pa'n# Unlike the pre%ious case, there is nothing 'hite can do to force black out of the corner - thus his pa'n can ne%er 5ueen#

O! side Passed Pa.n

0hite 'ins# +he position at right is a good example of an outside passed pa'n# )t is not that the pa'n is at the edge of the board - it is the fact that this pa'n is far a'ay from the other pa'ns, and acts as a decoy# )t is often the case that in positions 'ith an e5ual number of pa'ns that an outside passed pa'n is sufficient ad%antage to 'in# +ake the position at right as an example# 0hite ad%ances his passed pa'n, and 'hen the black king is far a'ay, he captures all the black pa'ns, and 5ueens his remaining pa'n# 0ikibooks E ,4

*hapter : "# f; Gd: $# f: Ge: 8# Gxc; Gxf: 7# Gb: Ge: ;# Gxa: Gd> :# Gb> and the pa'n 5ueens#

Pro e' ed Passed Pa.n

0hite 'ins# 0hiteCs c pa'n is a protected passed pa'n - enough to 'in in this position, e%en 'hen black has an outside passed pa'n# 0hite could easily fritter a'ay this ad%antage, and e%en lose, after "# c:KMM Gc> $# Gc; f; 8# Gd; f7 7# Ge7 Gxc: ;# Gxf; Gd; :# Ge8 Gc7 1the outside passed pa'n pre%ailed2# +he correct strategy is for 0hite to threaten the f pa'n 'ith his king, and then trade the c pa'n for the f pa'n in such a 'ay that he gets the opposition# ,lack cannot counter by attacking 0hiteCs other pa'ns, because then the c pa'n 'ill 5ueen# "# Ge; Ge> $# c: GdA 8# Gf: Gc> 7# Gxf> Gxc: ;# Ge: Gc> :# Gd; Gb: ># Gd: Gb> A# Gc; Ga: 9# Gc: 'ins both pa'ns Probably better is the fighting alternati%e "# Ge; Gc: $# Gf: Gd; 8# Gxf> Gc7 7# c: Gb8 ;# c> Gxa8 :# cA/H Gxb7 ># He: but 'hite has no trouble stopping the black pa'ns and mating#

," E *hess

+he =ndgame

Dra'# )f the protected passed pa'n is not so far ad%anced, it confers less of an ad%antage# +he position at right, 'hich has most of the pieces mo%ed back t'o ro's, actually pro%ides ,lack 'ith a slight ad%antage, but not enough to 'in against best defense# ,lack uses his outside passed pa'n as a decoy, and then 5ueens his b pa'n, 'hile 'hite 5ueens his c pa'n# "# Ge8 Gc7 $# Ge$ 1trying to stop black from penetrating2 f7 8# Gd$ f8 7# Ge8 f$ ;# Gxf$ Gd8 :# Gf8 Gc$ ># c7 Gxb$ A# c; Gxa8 9# c: b$ "6# c> b"/H ""# cA/H ,lack is a pa'n up in an ending 'ith 5ueens on the board# ,lack has an opportunity to play for a 'in, but such endings are generally dra'n#

E%ternal 0in&s

!ie' endgames in%ol%ing the GingKGnightKPa'n %s# GingKGnightKPa'n !ie' endgames in%ol%ing the GingKPa'n %s# GingKPa'n !ie' endgames in%ol%ing the GingKHueenKPa'n %s# GingKHueenKPa'n !ie' endgames in%ol%ing the GingKIookKPa'n %s# GingKIookKPa'n !ie' endgames in%ol%ing the GingK,ishopKPa'n %s# GingK,ishopKPa'n

0ikibooks E ,%

*hapter >

, H I0TO+Y G 9 O&HMENT N OTE0


1i&iboo& History
+his book 'as created on $667-6"-8" and 'as de%eloped on the 0ikibooks proDect by the contributors listed in the next section# +he latest %ersion may be found at http///en#'ikibooks#org/'iki/*hess#

'!# Information 2 History


+his PDF 'as created on $66:-6>-"> based on the $66:-6>-": %ersion of the 0ikibook# transparent copy of this document is a%ailable at 0ikibooks/*hess/Printable %ersion# -n <penDocument +ext %ersion of this PDF document and the template from 'hich it 'as created is a%ailable upon re5uest at 0ikibooks/User talk/?agindaF# - printer-friendly %ersion of this document may be a%ailable at 0ikibooks/)mage/*hessSprintableS%ersion#pdf#

!ocument Information

Pages/ A7 Paragraphs/ >:7$ 0ords/ ":76; *haracters/ 9>9;$

,) E *hess

-uthors, ,ibliography, @ )mage *redits

/ A HTHO+0 I * I*LIOG+APHY I G I MAGE & +E9IT0


'rincipal uthors

0arren0ilkinson 1*ontributions2 Dysprosia 1*ontributions2 Dar%ian 1*ontributions2 +m chk 1*ontributions2 ,ill -lexander 1*ontributions2 -uthor 1*ontributions2 -uthor 1*ontributions2

ll uthors3 number of edits


+itle Page/ -nonymous,>: 4 0arren0ilkinson,;$ 4 Dysprosia,"8 - *hi &igma,; - &iroxo,8 - Iobin?,$ - Rero<ne,$ ?agindaF,$ - Garrett,$ - &am=,$ - Nielmo,$ - 0ereon,$ - Derbeth,$ - Tlapointe," - Dar%ian," - Tguk," - Poiuyt Qan," - -,*D," ukeQeyers," - +hree=," - Donarreiskoffer," - *ryptic," - Iobert ?orning," - *omplexReta," - Gmcfoley," - Plaicy," - =ib'en," ,im,ot," - ?ehelol," 4 -dam>da%ies," *hapter 6"/ Playing the Game/ -nonymous,7$ - Dar%ian,> - ,ill -lexander,7 - Dragontamer,8 - Jorkto'n">>:,8 *hessmaniac,8 - &am=,$ - +im'i,$ - *h%sancheF," - *hi &igma," - <rderud," - Tokes Free7Qe," - ?agindaF," - &imIPGman," - G7sxe," - Gmcfoley," - eo+I," - Derbeth," - &nehalppatel," - Tulians," - ,im,ot," - &trongbad," - Rero<ne," - Qichael &lone," - Nadir"9A7," *hapter 6$/ Notating the Game/ -nonymous,"" - D&Joung=s5,7 - <rderud,$ - *h%sancheF,$ - &imIPGman," *hi &igma," - Gmcfoley," - &eahen," - ,im,ot," - ?agindaF," - Dar%ian," - Iobert ?orning," *hapter 68/ +actics/ -nonymous,8" - Tokes Free7Qe,; - ,Dimba,8 - <rderud,$ - &trongbad,$ - ,im,ot," - Rero<ne," Gb"c%h," - ?agindaF," - Dar%ian," - Popski," - *h%sancheF," - &im man," - &narius," - &imIPGman," - )Ielayer," *hapter 67/ &trategy/ -nonymous,;7 - <rderud,$ - Tokes Free7Qe,$ - Rero<ne,$ - )Ielayer," - ?agindaF," - Dar%ian," Popski," - &trongbad," - Tuan Ponderas," - *h%sancheF," - Qagicmonster," - Tustplainuncool," - &imIPGman," *hapter 6;/ ,asic <penings/ -nonymous,7" - &Dakkalle,> - &ecular mind,: - Iegre>,; - *h%sancheF,8 - <rderud,$ ,im,ot," - FF;>9"," - ,ill -lexander," - T=*ompton," - ?agindaF," - Dar%ian," - &imIPGman," - eo+I," *hapter 6:/ +he =ndgame/ -nonymous,89 - +m chk,$6 - ,ill -lexander,"8 - 0alter*,$ - Derbeth,$ - *hessmaniac,$ - <rderud,$ - ?agindaF," - Dar%ian," - &imIPGman," - Tokes Free7Qe,"

Image Credits
*o%er/ *hess&et by -lan ight# 1GFD 2 *hessboard s5uares and pieces/ *reated by created by -r%indn and Glin and other members of 0ikiProDect *hess, &ome shapes 'ere copied from the program x,oard# Ieleased under either GP or GFD #

0ikibooks E ,,

*hapter 9

1 GNH : +EE 9 O&HMENTATION L I&EN0E


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0ikibooks E ,1

*hapter 9

85 9E($ TI* CO'7I"G


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645 #;T;(E (E9ISIO"S O# THIS 0ICE"SE


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