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Common Genres in Senior Secondary Schooling

Structures and Some of the Important Language Features

(This information can be adapted by teachers to suit the specific literacy demands of individual subjects.

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Context and Purpose of this Material

T,i# re#ource i# 'a#ed on -,e .re"i#e -,a- #.eci!ic #u'/ec-#0di#ci.line# ,a&e #.eci!ic li-erac de"and#% T,e .ur.o#e# o! a #u'/ec-0di#ci.line 1ill de-er"ine -,e genre#, language and "ediu"# o! .re#en-a-ion -,a- are .redo"inan-l u#ed% T,ere!ore, one o! -,e "ain 1a # in 1,ic, -,e li-eracie# o! #u'/ec-# can 'e iden-i!ied i# -o e2a"ine -,e 3ind# o! -e2-# -,a- #-uden-# are e2.ec-ed -o .roduce, including -,e #-ruc-ure# and language !ea-ure# o! -,e#e -e2-#% T,e#e #-ruc-ure# and language !ea-ure# can -,en 'e -aug,- #o -,a- #-uden-# gain a clear under#-anding o! -,e li-erac e2.ec-a-ion# o! #.eci!ic a##e##"en- -a#3#% Mo#- #-uden-# in .ri"ar #c,ool#, and an increa#ing nu"'er in "iddle #c,ool#, are e2.o#ed -o genre a..roac,e#% T,e alread ,a&e under#-anding# -,a- need -o 'e 'uil- on in -,e #enior ear#% T,ere!ore, i- i# i".or-an- -o "ain-ain a genre a..roac, a# "uc, a# .o##i'le, #o -,a#-uden-# can dra1 on -,eir .rior learning% For e2a".le, -,i# "ean# u#ing -er"inolog rela-ed -o genre -,a- "an #-uden-# 1ill under#-and% Teac,er# "a "a3e "odi!ica-ion# -o -,i# "a-erial -o #ui- 1,a- -,e 1ould li3e -o do #.eci!icall 1i-,in -,eir cla##roo"#% 4o-, -eac,er# and #-uden-# can c,oo#e -,e language !ea-ure# -,a- -,e cla## could concen-ra-e on 1,en crea-ing -e2-# 1i-,in a uni- o! 1or3% So"e o! -,e genre# u#ed in Senior Secondar #c,ooling are "acrogenre#, "eaning -,a- -,e are "ade u. o! "ore -,an one -radi-ional genre% In in#-ance# #uc, a# -,i#, -,e di!!eren- 3ind# o! genre# and rela-ed language !ea-ure# u#ed a- eac, #-age o! -,e -e2- re5uire iden-i!ica-ion% T,e language u#ed -,roug,ou- -,e#e "a-erial# i# !ro" 'o-, -radi-ional gra""ar and # #-e"ic !unc-ional lingui#-ic#% I- i# a reali- -,a- -eac,er# and #-uden-# need a language -o -al3 a'oulanguage i! -,e are -o di#cu## and 'uild on under#-anding# a'ou- language% A glo##ar ,a# 'een included a- -,e 'ac3 o! -,i# "a-erial -o ,el. -eac,er# and #-uden-# -o de&elo. -,eir under#-anding# o! genre# and language% T,ere i# al#o PD a&aila'le in Sou-, Au#-ralia, 1,ic, .ro&ide# -eac,er# 1i-, an under#-anding o! # #-e"ic !unc-ional lingui#-ic#, .ar-icularl -,e cour#e How Language Works o!!ered ' -,e Li-erac Secre-aria-.

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Some Common Genres in Senior Secondary Schooling and their Purposes


Genre click on links for more detail Recount (personal, historical, factual, imaginative) Practical Report (e.g. write up of a practical experiment, field trip, investigation) irected !nvestigation Reports Procedure "arrative !nformation Report !urpose -to retell events in the past.

-to explain how an experiment/practical was conducted, analyse the results and evaluate the outcomes.

-to undertake a mathematical investigation, analyse results and evaluate the outcomes. -to explain how to undertake a task. -to tell a story in an entertaining way. #ften such stories also aim to present specific values. -to inform a$out a topic. %n information report may $e taxonomic or descriptive & taxonomic will answer the 'uestion ()hat kinds*+ and descriptive will answer ()hat a$out*+ -% se'uential explanation explains how something occurs. % causal explanation explains how and why something occurs. -to provide one line of reasoning. -he author presents one interpretation of an issue and uses supporting material to try to convince others of their point of view. -he thesis that is put forward is $uilt up throughout the text. -to provide one point of view on an issue and to make the audience take action. #ften these texts are very emotive. /ome examples could include letters to the editor, speeches, articles and advertisements. -to present all arguments on a topic, as well as the supporting evidence for those arguments. -he conclusion contains a recommendation $ased on the evidence for all sides that have $een presented. -to interpret what a text(s) is presenting, providing evidence from the text(s) to support the interpretation. !nterpretations are often similar to analytical arguments/expositions in that they present one argument/point of view. -to present a personal response. -to descri$e and evaluate a text (eg film, $ook, painting, we$page)

,xplanation (se'uential or causal) ,xposition (%nalytical %rgument)

.ortatory ,xposition (%rgument urging the audience to act) iscussion

!nterpretation

Personal Response Review

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"ecount
!urpose# to retell events in the past. Structure orientation se'uence of events in chronological order re-orientation (optional) Language that is used to structure "ecounts and give them cohesion con0unctions to $egin paragraphs and sentences, usually these are related to time (eg 1irst, "ext) phrases in the place of con0unctions to $egin paragraphs and sentences, usually related to time (eg !n the following year, %fter that episode,) con0unctions to 0oin ideas $etween sentences and to make them flow (eg /o, "ext, .owever) linking con0unctions to 0oin information within sentences (eg and, so, $ut, or) $inding con0unctions to 0oin information within sentences (eg $ecause, when) reference items (eg he, she, it, those) Language that is used to e$plain the content of "ecounts noun groups to define and descri$e (eg -he $eautiful small weather$oard house on the hill2) a range of ver$s/processes to explain actions (eg $orn, educated, travelled) a range of ver$s/processes to explain the relationships $etween things (eg is, was, has, have) a range of ver$s/processes to explain mental processes (eg thought, felt, dreamed) a range of ver$s/processes to explain how things were said (eg expressed, told, argued) causal relational processes (eg $ecause, resulted in) circumstances to explain time (eg %t the time of his $irth)3 place (eg !n %ustralia)3 with (eg with his sister)3 how (eg with enormous 0oy)3 why (eg $ecause of his parents4 expectations) reported speech (eg -he $oy shouted in response that he would not take that option.) nominalisation (eg $eauty, sadness, 0oy) Language that is used to provide the tenor%stance of "ecounts statements to provide information expressions of attitudes and feelings (eg pleasure, gladness, genuine warmth) words to express o$ligation and inclination (eg had to, expected to, felt like) o$0ective or personal voice (eg personal used if recounting events from own life in an auto$iography, o$0ective voice used if writing a $iography) Language and other techni&ues that are used to e$press information clearly and accurately in "ecounts appropriate language has $een used at the $eginning of paragraphs and sentences, including nouns/noun groups, con0unctions (especially those expressing time and se'uence), and circumstances (especially those of time and place) past tense used appropriately and consistently words are spelt correctly presentation is effective (eg neat handwriting, use of !5-) passive and active voices used
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punctuation correct

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!ractical "eport (eg 'rite up of a practical e$periment !urpose# to explain how an experiment/practical was conducted, analyse the results and evaluate the outcomes. Structure introduce the purpose of the experiment in the opening sentence make a clear statement a$out the hypothesis to $e tested list the apparatus and materials provide a step $y step description of the method used provide a diagram give a ta$le of results include a discussion of results provide a conclusion & may include a statement a$out future work Language that is used to structure !ractical "eports and give them cohesion su$headings to indicate different sections con0unctions to $egin sentences in the description and method (eg 1irst, "ext, 1inally) con0unctions to 0oin ideas $etween sentences in the discussion and conclusion (eg /o, "ext, .owever) linking con0unctions within sentences (eg and, so, $ut, or) $inding con0unctions within sentences (eg $ecause, when) reference items/pronouns (eg it, they, those, this, them) Language that is used to e$plain the content of !ractical "eports noun groups to define and descri$e with many classifiers used (eg the acidic chemical mixture in the test tu$e) processes/ver$s that explain the actions (placed, dissolves, moves) processes/ver$s that explain the relationships $etween things (eg is, have, has, was) causal relational processes (eg causes, results in, leads to) circumstances to explain time (eg after two minutes)3 place (eg in the tu$e, on the glass)3 with (eg with the hot su$stance)3 how (eg very smoothly, rapidly)3 why (eg $ecause of the pressure) technical terms (eg evaporation, dissolves, photosynthesis) comparatives (eg slower, faster, thinner) nominalisation- where words (usually ver$s and ad0ectives) are turned into nouns (eg to use6the use, to solve6solution, to reduce6reduction, intense6intensity) Language that is used to provide the tenor%stance of !ractical "eports statements to provide information o$0ective voice & making sure that reference items/pronouns like (!+ and ()e+ are not used, which means that scientific concepts and noun groups are often put at the $eginning of sentences (eg (The increase in evaporation was expected+, rather than (! thought the amount of evaporation would increase.+) expressions of certainty, usuality, fre'uency (eg almost always, sometimes, often, definitely)

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Language and other techni&ues that are used to e$press information clearly and accurately in !ractical "eports appropriate language at the $eginning of paragraphs and sentences, including nouns/noun groups, nominalisations, con0unctions and circumstances of time and manner appropriate tense in different sections words spelt correctly, especially technical terms presentation effective (eg neat handwriting, use of !5-) punctuation correct passive voice when appropriate (eg -he flame is then turned on.)

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!ractical "eport (eg Field Trip( Investigation !urpose# to explain how a practical investigation was conducted, analyse the results and evaluate the outcomes. Structure

introduce the hypothesis in the opening sentence define the key terms related to the topic and discuss $riefly the aim discuss the methods proposed discuss the reason for choosing the topic, including why the issue/topic is significant provide $ackground to the topic synthesise information analyse and evaluate evidence gained summarise the findings discuss the findings in terms of the hypothesis comment on the significance of the main finding evaluate the extent to which the hypothesis is supported evaluate the limitations in the study suggest how the investigation could $e done differently and why suggest future trends and research su$headings to indicate different sections con0unctions to $egin sentences (eg 1irst, "ext, 1inally) phrases in the place of con0unctions to $egin sentences (eg !n addition to, #n the other hand, %nother reason why) con0unctions to 0oin ideas $etween sentences in the discussion and conclusion (eg /o, "ext, .owever, -herefore) linking con0unctions within sentences (eg and, so, $ut, or) $inding con0unctions within sentences (eg $ecause, when) reference items/pronouns (eg it, they, those, this, them) noun groups to define and descri$e with many classifiers used (eg the humanitarian and political refugees) processes/ver$s that explain the actions (eg investigated, interviewed, surveyed) processes/ver$s that explain the relationships $etween things (eg is, have, has, was) causal relational processes (eg causes, results in, leads to)
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Language that is used to structure !ractical "eports and give them cohesion

Language that is used to e$plain the content of !ractical "eports


circumstances to explain time (eg after the war)3 place (eg in the hospital)3 with (eg with the support of friends)3 how (eg very smoothly, rapidly)3 why (eg $ecause of the tension) technical terms (eg evacuation, granite) comparatives (eg slower, faster, thinner) nominalisation- where words (usually ver$s and ad0ectives) are turned into nouns (eg to use6the use, to solve6solution, to reduce6reduction, intense6intensity, demonstrate6demonstration) statements to provide information o$0ective voice used in most sections, except when evaluating the research process or providing opinion at the end. #$0ective voice means making sure that reference items/pronouns like (!+ and ()e+ are not used, which means that concepts and noun groups are often put at the $eginning of sentences (eg ( The increase in humanitarian refugees from the area was expected+, rather than (! thought that the num$er of refugees from the area would increase.+) expressions of certainty, usuality, fre'uency (eg almost always, sometimes, often, definitely)

Language that is used to provide the tenor%stance of !ractical "eports


Language and other techni&ues that are used to e$press information clearly and accurately in !ractical "eports

appropriate language at the $eginning of paragraphs and sentences, including nouns/noun groups, nominalisations, con0unctions and circumstances of time and manner appropriate tense in different sections words spelt correctly, especially technical terms presentation effective (eg neat handwriting, use of !5-) punctuation correct passive voice when appropriate (eg -he rocks were then collected and stored)

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)irected Investigation "eports !urpose# -o undertake a mathematical investigation, analyse results and evaluate the outcomes. Structure

introduce all the $ackground information relevant to the main focus of the investigation, state the aim of the investigation and outline the features of the pro$lem $eing investigated explain the methods and materials used complete solutions to all 'uestions display results effectively analyse and interpret results complete all answers to any set 'uestions conclude the investigation, including a summary of the main results, a statement of the overall conclusion ($ased on aim), evaluation of methods used (including discussion of what could $e improved next time and recommendations for further investigation) su$headings may $e used to define each section of the report

Language that is used to structure )irected Investigations and give them cohesion

con0unctions to $egin sentences (eg 1irst, "ext, 1inally) phrases in the place of con0unctions to $egin sentences (eg !n addition to, #n the other hand, %nother reason why) con0unctions to 0oin ideas $etween sentences (eg /o, "ext, .owever, -herefore) linking con0unctions within sentences (eg and, so, $ut, or) $inding con0unctions within sentences (eg $ecause, when) reference items/pronouns (eg it, those, this, them) technical language used appropriately noun groups to define and descri$e with many classifiers and numeratives used (eg the two isosceles triangle) processes/ver$s that explain the actions (eg investigated, interviewed, surveyed) processes/ver$s that explain the relationships $etween things (eg is, have, has, was, relates to) causal relational processes (eg causes, results in, leads to, $ecause of) circumstances to explain time (eg after the race)3 place (eg in the e'uation)3 with (eg with the calculator)3 how (eg very rapidly)3 why (eg $ecause of the time difference) comparatives (eg slower, faster, thinner)
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Language that is used to e$plain the content of )irected Investigations


nominalisation- where words (usually ver$s and ad0ectives) are turned into nouns (eg to use 6 the use, to solve6solution, to reduce6reduction, to measure6measurement, to e'uate6e'uation) statements to provide information o$0ective voice used. #$0ective voice means making sure that reference items/pronouns like (!+ and ()e+ are not used, which means that concepts and noun groups are often put at the $eginning of sentences (eg ( The multiplication of rather than (I thought that the multiplication would2+) expressions of certainty, usuality, fre'uency (eg almost always, sometimes, often, definitely, rarely) passive voice used when appropriate (-his is often used to ensure that the reference items/pronouns (!+, (we+ are not used and the report is written in the third person eg instead of (! measured the court+, use (-he measurement of the court was conducted.+ appropriate language at the $eginning of paragraphs and sentences, including especially nouns/noun groups, nominalisations appropriate tense in different sections words spelt correctly, especially technical terms presentation effective (eg neat handwriting, use of !5-) punctuation correct

Language that is used to provide the tenor%stance of )irected Investigations


Language and other techni&ues that are used to e$press information clearly

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!rocedure !urpose# to explain how to do something, using a num$er of steps. Structure $egin with a statement a$out the outcome that will $e achieved $y following through a num$er of steps list the materials or e'uipment that is re'uired present the steps involved in the task in a logical order (may $e num$ered or demonstrated in some other way eg 7) include diagrams/illustrations where appropriate

Language that is used to structure !rocedures and give them cohesion temporal (time) con0unctions to help indicate se'uence (eg 1irstly, /econdly)

action ver$s/processes to indicate a change in step (eg stir, run) reference items to refer to people/things and avoid repetition (eg it, them) full sentences may not $e used

Language that is used to e$plain the content of !rocedures short noun groups with lots of classifiers (eg Nike sandshoes)

a range of ver$s/processes to explain the actions (eg run, stir, free8e)

a range of ver$s/processes to descri$e the relationships $etween things/people (eg was, is, connects) a range of circumstances to explain time, place, with whom/what, how and why (eg after five minutes, in the $owl, with a large racket, carefully, with great force, $ecause of the heat) causal relational processes (results in, causes)

technical terms (eg $aking soda, $lend) nominalisation (eg refrigeration)

Language that is used to provide the tenor%stance of !rocedures words to express certainty, o$ligation, fre'uency (eg will $urn, must 0ump high, should free8e well, twice) statements to give instructions (eg $lend for 9: minutes)

o$0ective voice

Language and other techni&ues that are used to e$press information clearly and accurately in !rocedures present tense

action ver$s sometimes put at the $eginning of sentences/dot points words spelt correctly presentation effective (eg use of !5-) illustrations/diagrams effective punctuation correct

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*arrative !urpose# to tell a story in an entertaining way. #ften such stories also aim to present specific values. Structure

an effective orientation to $egin, including time, place, main characters complication(s) resolution(s) evaluation/reflection a$out the complication(s) and resolution(s) (optional) coda (optional) phrases of time and place to organise the text (eg !n the morning, #n the $oat) linking con0unctions to expand sentences and increase their complexity (eg and, so, $ut, or) $inding con0unctions to expand sentences and increase their complexity (eg $ecause, when) reference items/pronouns to refer to people/things (eg it, he, him, me, this, them) paragraphs to organise the main ideas and sections of the narrative noun groups with lots of descri$ers/ad0ectives (eg the old rusty car, a clear $right morning in ;uly) processes/ver$s to explain actions (eg ran, carried, placed) processes/ver$s to explain mental processes (eg thought, dreamed) processes/ver$s to explain how things are said (eg cried, shouted, argued, yell) processes/ver$s to descri$e the relationships $etween things/people (eg was, have, am) circumstances to explain time, place, with whom/what, how and why (eg %t the end of the year, #n the crystal clear $each, with the massive dog, with great trepidation, $ecause of the time) appropriate idioms (eg pull her socks up) direct speech (eg (!n a minute+, she yelled.) reported speech (eg -he girl yelled that she would come in a minute) comparatives (eg fatter, wo$$lier) nominalisation (eg argument, concern, $eauty) figurative language (eg similes, metaphor, personification)

Language that is used to structure *arratives and give them cohesion


Language that is used to e$plain the content of *arratives


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Language that is used to e$press the tenor%stance of *arratives


expressions of attitudes and feelings (eg terri$le anguish, great sadness, sudden 0oy) expressions of certainty, o$ligation and inclination (eg definitely, might, have to, should) statements, 'uestions, offers and commands as appropriate to the story

Language and other techni&ues that are used to e$press ideas clearly and accurately in *arratives

appropriate tense (eg for time changes, flash$acks) words and phrases used to $egin paragraphs and sentences, including nouns/noun groups, nominalisations, con0unctions and circumstances of time and place words spelt correctly presentation effective (eg neat handwriting, use of !5-) passive and active voices punctuation correct

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Information "eport !urpose# to inform a$out a topic. %n !nformation Report may $e taxonomic or descriptive & taxonomic will answer the 'uestion ()hat kinds*+ and descriptive will answer ()hat a$out*+ Structure

clear opening statement to $egin information of the same type is grouped within paragraphs each paragraph has a clear topic sentence to $egin or a heading a conclusion summarises the main points that have $een presented (optional)

Language that is used to structure Information "eports and give them cohesion

connectives to se'uence a series of paragraphs (eg 1irstly, "ext, 1inally) con0unctions at the $eginning of sentences to help make the writing flow (eg /o, "ext, .owever, -herefore) linking con0unctions in the middle of sentences to expand sentences and to increase their complexity (eg and, so, $ut, or) $inding con0unctions in the middle of sentences to expand sentences and to increase their complexity (eg $ecause, when) reference items/pronouns to refer to people/things (eg it, those, this, them, you, me) noun groups to define and descri$e concepts (eg the extremely large and extensive conifer forest in 5anada) a range of ver$s/processes to explain the actions relevant to the topic (eg shattered, shot, spread, undermined, examine) a range of ver$s/processes to explain the relationships $etween things (eg is, was, were) a range of circumstances to explain time, place, with whom, how and why (eg in the $eginning, at the end of the lake, with five other explorers, with great care and concern, $ecause of the heat) relevant technical terms used appropriately (eg transportation, permea$le) comparatives to help explain concepts (eg slower, faster, fitter) nominalisation (eg evaporation, deception, use) o$0ective voice (no (!+, (we+, (us+) third person point of view statements to provide information language expressing certainty, usuality, fre'uency (eg !t is clear that2, often, fre'uently, always)
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Language that is used to e$plain the content of Information "eports


Language that is used to e$press the tenor%stance of Information "eports


Language and other techni&ues that are used to e$press ideas clearly and accurately in Information "eports

appropriate language at the $eginning of sentences and paragraphs, including nouns/noun groups, nominalisations, con0unctions and circumstances of time and place appropriate tense (often present tense $ut may depend on the topic) words spelt accurately presentation effective (eg neat handwriting, use of !5-) visual information presented and integrated with the written text punctuation correct passive voice at times consistent referencing and used throughout $i$liography/reference list included

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+$planation (Linear !urpose# % se'uential explanation explains how something occurs. % causal explanation explains how and why something occurs. Structure

introduce the phenomenon clearly in the first sentence logically se'uence the explanation concluding statement connectives to se'uence a series of paragraphs (eg 1irstly, "ext, 1inally) con0unctions at the $eginning of sentences to make the writing flow (eg /o, "ext, .owever, -herefore) - in particular, temporal con0unctions expressing time (eg %fter, <efore, !nitially) linking con0unctions in the middle of sentences to expand them and increase complexity (eg and, so, $ut, or) $inding con0unctions in the middle of sentences to expand them and increase complexity (eg $ecause, when) reference items/pronouns to refer to people/things (eg it, those, this, them, you, me) noun groups to define and descri$e concepts (eg the acidic mixture in the test tu$e) range of ver$s/processes to explain the actions relevant to the topic (eg placed, dissolves, moves) a range of ver$s/processes to explain the relationships $etween things (eg is, was, were, am, has) a range of circumstances to explain time, place, with whom/what, how and why (eg after ten years, in outer space, with the hot su$stance, rapidly, $ecause of the pressure) relevant technical terms (ed acid, evaporation) comparatives to explain concepts (eg slower, faster, clumsier) nominalisation (eg use, solution, development) o$0ective voice (eg (-he test tu$e+ not (!+, (we+) statements to provide information language expressing certainty, usuality and fre'uency (eg almost, always, sometimes, often, definitely)

Language that is used to structure +$planations and give them cohesion


Language that is used to e$plain the content of +$planations


Language that is used to e$press the tenor%stance of +$planations


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Language and other techni&ues that are used to e$press ideas clearly and accurately in +$planations

appropriate language used at the $eginning of paragraphs and sentences, including nouns/noun groups, nominalisations, con0unctions and circumstances of time and place present tense words spelt correctly presentation effective (eg neat handwriting, use of !5-) punctuation correct passive and active voices references consistent $i$liography/reference list

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+$position (,nalytical ,rgument !urpose# %nalytical ,xpositions provide one line of reasoning. -he author presents one interpretation of an issue and uses supporting material to try to convince others of their point of view. -he thesis that is put forward is $uilt up throughout the text. Structure

statement of the main argument/thesis at the $eginning main points of the argument follow the thesis statement, including a summary of the main information that will $e used to support the argument each paragraph after the introduction uses a clear topic sentence, which extends the main argument ela$orating sentences used within each paragraph to expand on the main idea of the paragraph supporting sentences with details and evidence used within each paragraph to support the ideas presented a paragraph may $e included which includes an anticipation of an opposing viewpoint(s) and this is refuted strong concluding paragraph with a summary of all the main points and reiteration of the main argument/thesis connectives to se'uence a series of paragraphs (eg 1irstly, 1inally) con0unctions to $egin sentences (eg "ext, /econdly) phrases sometimes used in the place of con0unctions at the $eginning of sentences (eg !n addition to this, %nother argument is that, #n the other hand) con0unctions to 0oin ideas $etween sentences and make them flow (eg .owever, -herefore) linking con0unctions to 0oin information within sentences (eg and, so, $ut, or) $inding con0unctions to 0oin information within sentences (eg $ecause, when) reference items/pronouns to avoid repetition and add cohesion (eg they, them, those) noun groups to define and descri$e concepts (eg -he large longitudinal sand dunes in the north) range of ver$s/processes to explain the actions relevant to the topic (eg $lew, dislodged, eroded) range of ver$s/processes to explain the relationships $etween things (eg is, are, have, am) range of ver$s/processes to explain how things were said (eg argued, asserted, declared, informed)

Language that is used to structure +$positions and give them cohesion


Language that is used to e$plain the content of +$positions


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a range of ver$s/processes to express cognition and sensing (eg saw, o$served, know) a range of circumstances to explain time (eg during last winter)3 place (eg on the 5oorong)3 with whom/what (eg with the assistance of park rangers)3 how (eg ferociously)3 why (eg $ecause of the wind speed and direction) relevant technical terms (eg prevailing wind, a$rasion) comparatives to explain concepts (eg faster, slower, mightier) nominalisation (eg erosion, distri$ution) o$0ective voice expressions of certainty, usuality and fre'uency (eg usually, most of the time, consistently, always) statements to give information words chosen carefully to express attitude and point of view of the writer (eg horrific destruction). (-he point of view of the writer is provided without using the pronoun/reference item (!+)

Language that is used to e$press the tenor%stance of +$positions


Language and other techni&ues that are used to e$press ideas clearly and accurately in +$positions

appropriate language at the $eginning of paragraphs and sentences to emphasise aspects, especially nouns and noun groups tense appropriate and changed when necessary words spelt correctly presentation effective (eg neat handwriting, use of !5-) punctuation correct passive and active voices used references used consistently and appropriately $i$liography or reference list

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+$position (-ortatory !urpose# % .ortatory ,xposition presents one point of view on an issue and seeks to make the audience act. #ften these texts are very emotive. /ome examples could include letters to the editor, speeches, articles and advertisements. Structure

statement of the main argument/thesis at the $eginning main points of the argument follow the thesis statement, including a summary of the main information that will $e used to support the argument each paragraph after the introduction uses a clear topic sentence, which extends the main argument ela$orating sentences used within each paragraph to expand on the main idea of the paragraph supporting sentences with details and evidence used within each paragraph to support the ideas presented a paragraph may $e included which includes an anticipation of an opposing viewpoint(s) and this is refuted strong concluding paragraph with a summary of all the main points and reiteration of the main argument/thesis & a statement a$out how people should act in the future is also often included connectives to se'uence a series of paragraphs (eg 1irstly, 1inally) con0unctions to $egin sentences (eg "ext, /econdly) phrases sometimes used in the place of con0unctions at the $eginning of sentences (eg !n addition to this, %nother argument is that, #n the other hand) con0unctions to 0oin ideas $etween sentences and make them flow (eg .owever, -herefore) linking con0unctions to 0oin information within sentences (eg and, so, $ut, or) $inding con0unctions to 0oin information within sentences (eg $ecause, when) reference items/pronouns to avoid repetition and add cohesion (eg they, them, those) noun groups to define and descri$e concepts (eg -he large longitudinal sand dunes in the north) range of ver$s/processes to explain the actions relevant to the topic (eg $lew, dislodged, eroded) range of ver$s/processes to explain the relationships $etween things (eg is, are, have, am) range of ver$s/processes to explain how things were said (eg argued, asserted, declared, informed)
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Language that is used to structure +$positions and give them cohesion


Language that is used to e$plain the content of +$positions


-a range of ver$s/processes to express cognition and sensing (eg saw, o$served, know) a range of circumstances to explain time (eg during last winter)3 place (eg on the 5oorong)3 with whom/what (eg with the assistance of park rangers)3 how (eg ferociously)3 why (eg $ecause of the wind speed and direction) relevant technical terms (eg prevailing wind, a$rasion) comparatives to explain concepts (eg faster, slower, mightier) nominalisation (eg erosion, distri$ution) o$0ective voice used to set up the writer/speaker as an =independent4 expert su$0ective voice used at times to express personal involvement and emotion expressions of certainty, usuality and fre'uency (eg usually, most of the time, consistently, always) statements to give information words chosen carefully to express attitude and point of view of the writer (eg horrific destruction). (-he point of view of the writer is provided without using the pronoun/reference item (!+)

Language that is used to e$press the tenor%stance of +$positions


Language and other techni&ues that are used to e$press ideas clearly and accurately in +$positions

appropriate language at the $eginning of paragraphs and sentences to emphasise aspects, especially nouns and noun groups tense appropriate and changed when necessary words spelt correctly presentation effective (eg neat handwriting, use of !5-) punctuation correct passive and active voices used references used consistently and appropriately $i$liography or reference list

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)iscussion !urpose: iscussions seek to present all arguments on a topic, as well as the supporting evidence for those arguments. -he conclusion contains a recommendation $ased on the evidence for all sides that have $een presented . Structure

an opening statement presenting $oth sides of the issue main points of all the arguments follow the opening statement, including a $rief summary of the main information that will $e used to support the arguments each paragraph after the introduction $egins with a clear topic sentence, which indicates which side of the issue the paragraph is a$out (#R one paragraph may contain comments a$out $oth sides of an issue) ela$orating sentences are used within each paragraph to expand on the main idea of the paragraph supporting sentences with details and evidence are used within each paragraph to support the ideas presented concluding paragraph presented with $oth sides of the issue summarised and a recommendation made $ased on the weight of evidence connectives to se'uence a series of paragraphs (eg 1irstly, 1inally) con0unctions to $egin sentences (eg "ext, /econdly) phrases sometimes used in the place of con0unctions at the $eginning of sentences (eg !n addition to this, %nother alternative argument is that) -con0unctions used to 0oin ideas $etween sentences and make them flow (eg .owever, -herefore) linking con0unctions used to 0oin information within sentences (eg and, so, $ut, or) $inding con0unctions used to 0oin information within sentences (eg $ecause, when) reference items/pronouns used to avoid repetition and add cohesion (eg they, them, those) noun groups to define and descri$e concepts (eg -he enormous terrifying white pointer sharks in %ustralian waters) range of ver$s/processes to explain the actions relevant to the topic (eg disem$owelled, gorged, maimed, chew, chomp) a range of ver$s/processes to explain the relationship $etween things (eg have, is, has, are) a range of ver$s/processes to explain how things were said (eg argued, asserted, explained) a range of ver$s/processes to express cognition and sensing (eg sensed, thought, knew, $elieved)
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Language that is used to structure )iscussions and give them cohesion


Language that is used to e$plain the content of )iscussions


a range of circumstances to explain time (eg during the summer)3 place (eg on the /outh )est <each)3 with whom/what (eg with other swimmers)3 how (eg slowly and carefully), why (eg $ecause of their migration patterns) technical terms (eg culling) comparatives (eg faster, heavier) nominalisation (eg argument, reason, migration) o$0ective voice language to express certainty, usuality and fre'uency (eg mostly, often, will definitely) statements to give information

Language that is used to e$press the tenor%stance of )iscussions


Language and other techni&ues that are used to e$press ideas clearly and accurately in )iscussions

appropriate language at the $eginning of paragraphs and sentences to emphasise aspects, especially nouns and noun groups (eg -he general pu$lic using the $each2) tense used appropriately and altered correctly when necessary words spelt correctly presentation effective (eg neat handwriting, use of !5-) punctuation correct passive and active voices references $i$liography or reference list

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Interpretation !urpose# !nterpretations analyse what a text(s) is presenting, providing evidence from the text(s) to support the interpretation. !nterpretations are often similar to analytical arguments/expositions in that they present one argument/point of view. Structure

statement of the main interpretation at the $eginning (-his is like a thesis statement). main points of the interpretation follow the thesis statement, including a summary of the main information that will $e used to support the interpretation each paragraph after the introduction uses a clear topic sentence, which extends the main interpretation ela$orating sentences used within each paragraph to expand on the main idea of the paragraph supporting sentences with details and evidence used within each paragraph to support the ideas presented strong concluding paragraph with a summary of all the main points and reiteration of the main interpretation connectives to se'uence a series of paragraphs (eg 1irstly, 1inally) con0unctions to $egin sentences (eg "ext, /econdly) phrases sometimes used in the place of con0unctions at the $eginning of sentences (eg !n addition to this, %nother argument is that, #n the other hand) con0unctions to 0oin ideas $etween sentences and make them flow (eg .owever, -herefore) linking con0unctions to 0oin information within sentences (eg and, so, $ut, or) $inding con0unctions to 0oin information within sentences (eg $ecause, when) reference items/pronouns to avoid repetition and add cohesion (eg they, them, those) noun groups to define and descri$e concepts (eg -he large longitudinal sand dunes in the north) range of ver$s/processes to explain the actions relevant to the topic (eg $lew, dislodged, eroded) range of ver$s/processes to explain the relationships $etween things (eg is, are, have, am) range of ver$s/processes to explain how things were said (eg argued, asserted, declared, informed) a range of ver$s/processes to express cognition and sensing (eg saw, o$served, know)
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Language that is used to structure Interpretations and give them cohesion


Language that is used to e$plain the content of Interpretations


a range of circumstances to explain time (eg during last winter)3 place (eg on the 5oorong)3 with whom/what (eg with the assistance of park rangers)3 how (eg ferociously)3 why (eg $ecause of the wind speed and direction) relevant technical terms (eg prevailing wind, a$rasion) comparatives to explain concepts (eg faster, slower, mightier) nominalisation (eg erosion, distri$ution) o$0ective voice expressions of certainty, usuality and fre'uency (eg usually, most of the time, consistently, always) statements to give information words chosen carefully to express attitude and point of view of the creator (eg -he sym$ol of water supports the strong central theme of purity.). (-he point of view of the writer is provided without using the pronoun/reference item (!+)

Language that is used to e$press the tenor%stance of Interpretations


Language and other techni&ues that are used to e$press ideas clearly and accurately in Interpretations

appropriate language at the $eginning of paragraphs and sentences to emphasise aspects, especially nouns and noun groups (eg -he central argument of the text2) tense appropriate and changed when necessary words spelt correctly presentation effective (eg neat handwriting, use of !5-) punctuation correct passive and active voices used references used consistently and appropriately $i$liography or reference list

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"evie' !urpose# Reviews are used to descri$e and evaluate a text (eg film, $ook, painting, we$page). Structure

introduce the text & often includes a $rief description introduce the main argument that the reviewer will present & the reviewer4s main opinion is made clear elements of the reviewer4s arguments and opinions are presented within paragraphs with supporting examples and explanations included conclusion with a summary of the main points and often a restatement of the main viewpoint and recommendation (eg on4t $other visiting this we$page if detailed information is sought.) connectives to se'uence a series of paragraphs (eg 1irst, "ext, 1inally, %nother flaw is that) con0unctions at the $eginnings of some sentences to help make the writing flow and connect ideas (eg /o, "ext, .owever, -herefore) linking con0unctions in the middle of sentences to expand sentences and to increase their complexity (eg and, so, $ut, or) $inding con0unctions in the middle of sentences to expand sentences and increase their complexity (eg $ecause, when) reference items/pronouns to refer to people/things (eg !, it, those, this, them) noun groups with lots of descri$ers (eg -he chaotic unplanned structure of the we$page) a range of ver$s/processes to descri$e the plot in novels, films, plays etc (eg advanced, escaped) a range of ver$s/processes to explain mental processes (eg thought, felt, wondered, considered) a range of ver$s/processes to descri$e how things are said (eg argue, present, assert) a range of ver$s/processes to descri$e the relationships $etween people/things (eg align, represents, sym$olises) a range of circumstances to explain time, place, with whom/what, how and why (eg %t the $eginning of the text, in southern 1rance, with the supporting actor, with great skill, $ecause of the great script) appropriate idioms (eg $reak a leg) comparatives, especially to compare and contrast texts (eg $righter, clearer, more realistic)
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Language that is used to structure "evie's and give them cohesion


Language that is used to e$plain the content of "evie's


nominalisation (eg $eauty, compilation, 0udgement) words to express attitudes and feelings (eg astonished, concerned, shocked, horrible interpretation) words to express certainty, o$ligation and inclination (eg definitely, should like it, may change perspectives) words to express statements and 'uestions (eg )hy would you want to $other seeing it again* on4t expect great things from the writer.)

Language that is used to e$press the tenor%stance of "evie's


Language and other techni&ues that are used to e$press ideas clearly and accurately in "evie's

appropriate tense for different sections (eg past tense when summarising plot, present tense when providing opinions a$out texts that exist today, future tense when considering future work and implications) a range of words and phrases to $egin paragraphs and sentences, including nouns/noun groups, nominalisations, connectives, con0unctions and circumstances) words spelt correctly, especially technical terms presentation effective (eg neat handwriting, use of !5-) passive and active voices used punctuation correct

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!ersonal "esponse !urpose# to present a personal response (may $e related to a text, event etc) Structure

$egin with an effective orientation, where the thing $eing responded to is introduced and $riefly descri$ed paragraphs structure ideas throughout the personal response within paragraphs, further descriptions of the thing $eing responded to and personal feelings, reactions are included

Language that is used to structure !ersonal "esponses and give them cohesion

phrases explaining why and how are used to organise the text at times (eg <ecause of my feelings,2 With enormous care, the painter had) con0unctions and phrases are used at the $eginnings of paragraphs and sentences to se'uence ideas in the text (eg 1irst, #n the other hand,) linking con0unctions are used in the middle of sentences to expand sentences and to increase their complexity (eg and, so, $ut, or) $inding con0unctions are $een used in the middle of sentences to expand sentences and to increase their complexity (eg $ecause, when) reference items (pronouns) have $een used to refer to people/things (eg it, they, those, them, !) noun groups with lots of descri$ers (eg the beautiful bright images on the canvas) a range of ver$s/processes to explain the actions involved (eg to dance) a range of ver$s/processes to explain senses and mental states (eg thought, wonder, feel) a range of ver$s/processes to descri$e the relationships $etween things/people (egwas, am, had, refers to) a range of circumstances to explain time, place, with whom/what, how and why (eg %t the time of the performance3 !n the studio, )ith the assistance of the organiser, carefully and smoothly, as a result of the intense interest) words to express attitudes and feelings (eg loved, fantastic, reacted with fear) words to express certainty, o$ligation and inclination (eg definitely, will have to, should) opinions expressed as statements (eg !t is not worth seeing this.). su$0ective voice (eg the pronoun =!4 is used throughout) Language and other techni&ues that are used to e$press ideas clearly and accurately in !ersonal "esponses
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Language that is used to e$plain the content of !ersonal "esponses


Language that is used to e$press the tenor%stance of !ersonal "esponses


appropriate tense (eg present tense when speaking a$out a thing that exists or past tense when speaking a$out a thing that existed in the past $ut no longer does) a range of words and phrases to $egin paragraphs and sentences, including nouns/noun groups, nominalisations, con0unctions and circumstances of time and place. words spelt correctly presentation effective (eg neat handwriting, use of !5-) passive and active voices punctuation correct

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Glossary of Terms Circumstances> -his term refers to information that is provided a$out the context of a process (e.g. the where, when, how and why of the process). Classifier: a word in the noun/nominal group that provides information a$out the kind of thing. (eg the humpback whale) Conjunctions> -hese words provide links within a text. 5lauses, sentences and paragraphs may $e linked $y these kinds of words. ?inking con0unctions refer to words that are used to 0oin clauses, where the two clauses are not structurally dependent on each other (e.g. and, $ut, so). <inding con0unctions refer to words that are used to 0oin clauses, where one clause is structurally dependent on the other (e.g. if, $ecause, when). Definite/Indefinite articles> =-he4 is a definite article, as it is used to refer specifically to something, whereas =a4/4an4 are indefinite articles. Describer/adjective> -he word(s) that descri$e the thing in the noun/nominal group. ore!roundin!> % way of highlighting important information is to put it at the $eginning of clauses, sentences, paragraphs or whole texts. -his techni'ue is called foregrounding. Genres> -exts that are structured to achieve specific purposes. (e.g. iscussion, escription) Metalan!ua!e> -his term is used to refer to a language used to talk a$out language. Modality> @odality includes when the creator of a text is making a 0udgment of pro$a$ility,
usuality, o$ligation or inclination.

"ominalisation> )ords, such as ver$s and ad0ectives are turned into nouns. (e.g. $eautiful6$eauty, to inform6information) "oun Groups> -his language feature may also $e called the nominal group. !t refers to the group of words that are placed around the main thing/person. (e.g. -he hot uncontrolled flame from the <unsen $urner2) "umerative> -he word that provides information a$out how many are in the noun/nominal group. Passive #oice> -his form of language is used when the creator of a text wants to explain how something is having something done to it (e.g. -he flame is turned on). -his techni'ue is used when the creator of the text does not want to express who or what is making something happen. %ctive voice is when the who or what is making something happen. Pointer> -he word that highlights the thing in the nominal/noun group.
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Processes/#erbs> -hese two terms refer to what is going on in the text. -he words may descri$e, actions (e.g. run, cry), mental states (e.g. know, like), how things were said (e.g. tell, screamed) and the relationships $etween things (e.g. have, is). $ualifier> -hese words may $e included within a noun group. -hey provide 'ualifying information a$out the noun. (e.g. -he small house on the hill) %eference Items/Pronouns> -hese words, such as =he4, =they4, =those4, are used in place of specific names of people and things. -hey help to add cohesion to the text and avoid repetition. Tenor> -his term refers to the interpersonal elements of a text. !t can include aspects, such as the feelings and attitudes expressed, as well as the degree of certainty, fre'uency and whether or not an occurrence is usual. #$0ective and su$0ective voice is also included within the tenor of a text.

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