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International Journal of Advanced Computer Science, Vol. 1, No. 4, Pp. 127-133, Oct. 2011.

Reducing Maintenance Cost of Mud Slide Prediction System with Categorization of Sensor Data in Sensor Network
Kazuya Kato, Yusuke Yokota, Fumiko Harada, & Hiromitsu Shimakawa
Manuscript
Received: 11, Jul., 2011 Revised: 15, Aug., 2011 Accepted: 30, Aug., 2011 Published: 30, Oct., 2011

Keywords
Disaster prevention, Mud slide disaster, Categorization, Maintenance cost, Hierarchical clustering

Abstract Reduction of the human burden is necessary for the efficient use of the disasters prevention system predicting mud slide disaster with a wireless sensor network. This paper proposes a method to reduce the human burden by categorizing sensor data based on similarity of the characteristics of the sensor data. The user can determine the categorization interactively. Once categorization is determined by the proposed method, we can reduce the number of the data to be analyzed with the selection of a representative sensor data from each category. In addition, we can reduce the frequency of repairing damaged sensors by using another sensor data in the same category instead of the damaged ones. The experimental result shows that the proposed method can derive the categorization useful to reduce the human burden.

category constitution is decided, the system can reduce the human burden of the periodical management cost and emergency management cost. We have inspected whether the system can derive an effective category constitution by the proposed method. The categorization obtained for the threshold 0.8 reduces the data analysis cost to 60.56% and the emergent maintenance cost to 40.24%. In addition, the correlation coefficient implying the reliability of the categorization is 0.67. The rest of this paper is organized as follows: Section 2 describes the problem of the wireless sensor network and the maintenance cost in the mud slide prediction system. In section 3, we propose a method to categorize the tensiometers. Section 4 shows an inspection result of the proposed method. Section 5 concludes this paper.

2. Mud Slide Prediction System


A. System Overview We have build the mud slide detection system [1] aiming at evacuating neighborhood inhabitants safely. In this system, we set up wireless sensor nodes on the target slope to acquire sensor information in real time by a wireless sensor network. The system predicts mud slide disasters. Figure 1 expresses the system configuration diagram. This system measures the pore water pressure and precipitation in the analysis of the mud slide disaster predictor. The pore water pressure can be acquired in many points on the slope and in many depths by plural tensiometers connected to each wireless sensor node. We can acquire the precipitation with a weather sensor connected to a base station in cable broadcasting. The system acquires precipitation by the weather sensor connected to the base station.
OnOn-Site Server

1. Introduction
Serious damage is caused because of earth and sand disasters by rainfall in Japan. Especially, there are many victims by mud slide disasters. Predicting mud slide disasters and announcing appropriate warnings can prevent human and property damage. The mud slide disaster detection system [1] predicts danger of mud slide disasters by collecting data in the ground through wireless sensor networks using tensiometers as the sensor. However, this system has the problem on the human burden in maintenance tasks. In this paper, we propose a method to identify data of the tensiometers with similar characteristics. The method reduces the human burden of this system. The user obtains an indicator of reliability based on the correlation coefficients and quantity of reduction of the human burden of each category constitution through the proposed method. The user decides a category constitution based on them. If a
This research was partially supported by the Grant-in-Aid for Young Scientists (B), 22700111, 2010 and the Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ritsumeikan University. Kazuya Kato, Yusuke Yokota, Fumiko Harada, & Hiromitsu Shimakawa are with Ritsumeikan University of Graduate School of Science and Engineering, College of Information Science and Engineering ({kato, yyokota, harada, simakawa}@gmail.com)

Base Station
Node

Wireless Communication Unit


Node

Acquisition of Pore Water Pressure

Node

Tensiometer
Node

Cable Weather Sensor Acquisition of Precipitation


Node Node Node

Sensor Node

Fig. 1. Structure of the Mud Slide Prevention System.

The pore water pressure is the pressure of the subsurface water in the gap between the earth and sand. By

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International Journal of Advanced Computer Science, Vol. 1, No. 4, Pp. 127-133, Oct. 2011.

them, the mud slide detection system is constructed based on its measurement. When it rains, the pore water pressure rises. The raise increases the danger of mud slides. In other words, the cause of the mud slide disaster is the soil absorbs water. The more its weight increases, the more the friction between the soil decreases. B. The Problem of Maintenance Cost

In the present mud slide detection system, the heavy human burden by the following three factors becomes the problem. We define these human burdens as maintenance cost. Data analysis cost: The human burden by the manual analysis of data acquired from each tensiometer for parameter adjustment of the prediction algorithm of the mud slide disaster. Periodical management cost: Because the sensor nodes of this system are battery driven, the maintenance management such as the battery exchange work is necessary and human burden is taken regularly. Emergent management cost: At the time of the deficient outbreak of sensor nodes, there is human burden for a manager to go up to the spot to repair the node immediately. It is unexpected work. The repair is a heavy human burden for the manager because it is necessary to go up to the spot regardless of the night and day. The mud slide prediction system is applied to large-scale slopes that face roads with large traffic density in the future. Therefore, the sensor network for the system will become large. It is difficult to install this system in large-scale slopes since the maintenance cost increases drastically with respect to the number of sensor nodes. C. Related Works for Reducing Maintenance Cost

characteristics of the ground. Therefore, the data from sensor nodes include long-windedness by long-windedness of the sensor node placement [2][4] Applying only the methods in [2][4] to the mud slide prediction system is not sufficient to reduce the maintenance cost of large-scale networks because processing redundant data may increase the cost. Therefore, as well as fault tolerance improvement by the related works, it is necessary to reduce the maintenance cost with considering the long-windedness of data.

3. Reducing Maintenance Cost with Sensor Data Categorization


A. Outline of Categorization Algorithm In this paper, we propose a method to reduce the maintenance cost by processing redundant sensor data with guaranteeing the performance to predict mud slides. There can be data group with similar characteristics in the sensor data group provided from tensiometers. The system of our proposed method extracts redundant data. The system divides the observation points where tensiometers are set with the characteristic of sensor data into some categories. A backup of the tensiometer and the representative data election in every category are possible when we divide observation points into categories. By this, the system reduces two maintenance costs. Data analysis cost: Reducing maintenance cost by the decrease in number of the data which this system should handle by the representative data election. Emergent management cost: Reduction of the repair in the tensiometer malfunction by substituting in a sensor node. We describe the algorithm of the reduction with 3.6. The proposed method identifies the relation of the crack water pressure with respect of soil precipitation as the geologic characteristic of each observation point in every rain and detects the data which are redundant by dividing the observation points in categories by using the relations as the indicators.
Weather sensor Unit
Soil Precipitation
Pore Water Pressure

The wireless sensor network of the mud slide prediction system is built by sensor node groups arranged by certain interval. The fault tolerance of the sensor network changes according to the placement of the sensor nodes, communication interval between the sensor nodes, and network topology. There is proposition of a method to improve communication efficiency in the topologies where the network densities are not uniformed by placement of sensor nodes in nature [2]. An effective communication course is provided when we use an intermediate node for the sensor network [3]. By this, we can reduce the electricity consumption of the sensor node. Moreover, a method has been studied to simulate the most suitable placement of sensor nodes beforehand to evade the lack of power supply [4]. When the fault tolerance of the mud slide prediction system improves, the system can reduce the emergent management cost and periodical management cost. However, the characteristic of the pore water pressure that the mud slide prediction system uses cannot be figured out beforehand because it is strongly influenced by shapes or

Soil Precipitation

Pore Water Pressure

Precipitation
Tank Model

Pore Water Pressure Soil Precipitation


Sensor Node

Derivation of Water Retention Curve

Input of the User Threshold

Index of Categorization

Constitution of the Category

Representative Election

Substitute

Tensio Meter

Fig. 2. Flow of Categorization.

The pore water pressure is quantity of the water in the soil. The soil precipitation of a certain point is calculated based on the Tank Model [6], [5] We define the relation
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Kato et al.: Reducing Maintenance Cost of Mud Slide Prediction System with Categorization of Sensor Data in Sensor Network.

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as the Water Retention Curves [7] in this paper.


The outline of the proposed method is shown in Fig. 2. The Water Retention Curve corresponding of each tensiometer is derived by the past sensor data. The data of a tensiometer are provided for every observation point. The similarity of the Water Retention Curves between collected two data is provided as a correlation coefficient. The system divides the observation points with correlation coefficients into some categories where the correlation coefficients of any points of two tensiometers are more than the given threshold into the same category. While a user inputs a threshold, the category construction is decided interactively. The user refers to a conjugation of the reliability of category constitution for the threshold and the prediction of mud slide disasters and decides a category constitution. B. Derivation of Water Characteristic Curve We derive a water retention curve from data sampled with a tensiometer at each observation point as the index of the categorization. We can categorize observation points if we can derive the water retention curves. We discuss the derivation method of the Water Retention Curves of each observation point in this subsection. (1) We obtain the value of the pore water pressure and the value of the soil precipitation from each tensiometer. Plot of them on a two-dimensional plane obtains a scatter diagram. The scatter diagram has shape as shown in the left part of Fig. 3. (2) We find an approximation curve as shown in the right part of Fig. 3 from the scatter diagram obtained in (1). We define this as the Water Retention Curve. The procedure derives, the Water Retention Curve of a tensiometer. The Water Retention Curve expresses the characteristic of each tensiometer and is used as the indicator to divide the observation point into categories. However, it is difficult to evaluate similarity between curves in the state of Fig. 3. Therefore, the system expresses the curve as two vectors. The soil precipitation and the pore water pressure are represented by a soil precipitation vector D = (d1 d2 d3 . . . dn) and the pore water pressure vector P = (p1 p2 p3 . . . pn). Vector D and vector P are provided by arranging the soil precipitation and the pore water pressure in the chronological order. From the soil precipitation vectors and the pore water pressure vectors of two tensiometers, the system derives the similarity between the water characteristic curves as a correlation coefficient.
Soil Precipitation

C. Hierarchical Clustering of Tensiometeres We denote the Water Characteristic Curve of each tensiometer Tk in a tuple of (Pk,Dk) of the pore water pressure vector Pk and soil precipitation vector Dk. The system divides the set N = {(Pi,Di), . . . , (Pn,Dn)} of tensiometer group {T1, . . . , Tn} to clusters hierarchically. In the cluster division, we express similarity between tensiometers Ti and Tj in a correlation coefficient given by Equ. 1.
n i =1 j =1 n i =1

(
2

Pi + Di
2

PDi )( Pj + D j
2

PD j ) ,
2

C=

(
n

Pi + Di

PDi )2

n j =1

Pj + D j

PD j )2

(Equ. 1)

where
PDi =
i =1

Pi + Di n

PD j =

j =1

Pj + D j n

(Equ. 2)

The hierarchical clustering is performed as follows. The system repeats to derive two tensiometers with the maximum similarity and to connect them as one cluster. When data corresponding to Ti and Tj are united as one cluster Tij in the combination newly, we obtain data corresponding to Tij as Equ. 3 newly.

( Pab , Dab ) = (

( Pa + Pb ) ( Da + Db ) , ) 2 2

(Equ. 3)

I the following step, the system consider Tij to be one tensiometer having pore water pressure vector Pij and soil precipitation vector Dij given cluster Tij in Equ. 3. The system classifies tensiometers Ti and Tj to a cluster. The system repeats this and finds hierarchical cluster group of set N. D. Decision of Category Constitution When the smaller the coefficient of correlation between the data which tensiometers in the same category collect is the lower reliability of the mud slide disaster prediction. On the contrary, when the coefficient of correlation between the data which tensiometers belonging to the same category collect is large, the reliability for the prediction improves. However, the number of the categories relatively increases and quantity of reduction of the maintenance cost falls.

Soil Precipitation

Pore Water Pressure Drops

Similarity

A B C D E G Observation Point F

Fig. 3. Scatter Diagramand Water Retention Curve.

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Pore Water Pressure

Pore Water Pressure

Pore Water pressure Rises

Rain Start

Fig. 4 An illustration of a dendrogram.

Therefore, user input and judgment are necessary to settle

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International Journal of Advanced Computer Science, Vol. 1, No. 4, Pp. 127-133, Oct. 2011.

the most suitable category constitution. The result of the hierarchical cluster division is visualized in a dendrogram as shown in Fig. 4. This dendrogram arranges the observation point where each tensiometer is installed in the horizontal axis, and the vertical axis shows the coefficient of correlation to become a similarity degree. When a user appoints resemblance degree for a threshold, the system shows a category constitution corresponding to the threshold. We show an example in Fig. 4. The number of the categories becomes 6 and observation points A and B become one category when they appoint the threshold at the point of . The number of the categories becomes 4 and the pairs of C, D and F, G become categories when they appoint the point of . The user appoints the threshold and the category constitution that a user can permit is decided by examining the category constitutions closely. We describe the flow that the user decides a category constitution. (1) The user inputs a threshold. (2) The dendrogram produces the category constitution corresponding to the coefficient of correlation that is equal to the threshold and the minimum correlation coefficient. We mention the minimum correlation later in 3.5. (3) The user confirms the result. If the user can permit it, it is finished. Otherwise the user return to (1) Repeating (1)-(3), the user decides a category constitution with acceptable prediction performance and maintenance cost. The reliability of the mud slide prediction deteriorates in accordance with reduction of the maintenance cost to find category constitution. The minimum correlation coefficient is determined with the required quality for the reliability of the category constitution. E. Minimum Correlation Coefficient The data group of the observation points that belong to one category can be treated as the same data. However, actually, reliability of the mud slide prediction deteriorates by regarding data of the different observation points as the same data. The system gives the indicator of the reduction of the reliability based on the coefficient of correlation. The user gets possible to compare the reliability on every category constitution by showing it by a numerical value. We define the coefficient of correlation to become the indicator as a minimum correlation coefficient. We denote the minimum correlation coefficient by a certain category constitution as Cmin. Suppose that a category constitution has the category of the M units. The system calculates the coefficients of correlation between every pair of two observation points in the category and finds the minimum of the coefficients. Then, the set C of minimum correlation coefficients of all categories is obtained. The system finds Cmin as the minimum among C.

F. Quantity of Reduced Maintenance Cost With the category constitution provided by the user interaction, we can reduce two maintenance costs as follows. Data Analysis Cost: The system can elect data of an observation point to become the representative of each category. The system can reduce the data analysis cost by performing the data analysis only for the representative data of the observation point to become the representative of a certain category. Emergent Management Cost: Even if the data of a certain tensiometer cannot be collected because of the breakdown of the node or a tensiometer, the system can use the data of another tensiometer of the same category instead of the in collectable data. The sensor node and tensiometer do not have to be repaired as far as data collectable observation points does not decrease. Since we can reduce the frequency of the repair by this, we can reduce the emergent management cost. In this way, we can reduce the maintenance cost.

4. Simulator to Derive Maintenance Cost


A. Importance of Simulator When a user sets a high threshold, the number of the categories increases. Though the quantity of reduction of the maintenance cost becomes small, it can enlarge the reliability of the mud slide disaster. On the other hand, when the user lowers the threshold, the number of the categories decreases, which can reduce the cost, while the reliability of the mud slide disaster decreases. It is important the user figures out appropriate threshold values which balances the cost and the reliability. However, a big labor is necessary to calculate the amount of reduction of maintenance cost and the reliability for any threshold by manual. Therefore, we implemented a simulator which automates this processing. B. Perspective of Simulator Figure 5 shows the overall flow of the simulator are

pore water pressure in past, precipitation in past, and threshold of coefficient of correlation The output data of the simulator are category constitution, and minimum correlation coefficient The simulator reads the pore water pressure and precipitation from the data as the .CSV form. Using the technique we showed in section 3[5], [6], the simulator
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derives the soil precipitation from the precipitation. From the water retention curves and soil precipitation, it generates the dendrogram such as Fig. 4. The user inputs a threshold by manual operation. The threshold determines the category constitution. The simulator calculates the minimum correlation coefficient of the category constitution. In this way, the user gets reliability of the mud slide disaster detection and the reduction amount of the maintenance cost automatically.
Automatic Input

Simulator

User Input Threshold of Coefficient of Correlation

Sensor Data
Pore water pressure Precipitation

Output Data
Sensor Node

reduction of the maintenance cost for each Dayi under the assumption that the user decides a category constitution through the proposed method using the sensor data of Dayi:1 and that the category constitution is applied in Dayi. Note that, however, the category constitution applied in Day1 is derived from the sensor data of Day1. The simulator calculates the quantity of reduction of the maintenance cost for Dayi according to the following. Suppose that the category constitution based on the sensor data Dayi:1 and the input threshold consists of K categories. Let MT be the number of the tensiometers whose data are acquired in Dayi. In addition, let MS be the number of categories including at least two tensiometers. The simulator calculates quantities of reduction Cd,Cc of the data analysis cost and the emergent management cost according to Equ. 4.

Category Constitution Minimum


Correlation Coefficient General view of the system

Tensiometer

Cd =

(MT K) 100[%], MT

Cc =

MS 100[%] K

(Equ. 4)

Fig. 5 Flow of Simulation.

C. Experimental Result Using the categorization technique that we explained in section 3, we derive the number of the categories and the minimum correlation coefficients from the data which the tensiometer collected. Figure 6 shows the variation of the number of categories for each Dayi with respect to the threshold from 0.1 to 0.9. Similarly, Figure 7 does that of the minimum correlation coefficient for each Dayi. Figure 6 explains the following tendencies. The number of the categories decreases with a decline of the threshold in every Dayi.

5. Experiment
A. Purpose We have conducted an experiment to inspect the effectiveness of the proposed method with actual sensor data observed by the mud slide prediction system. The purpose of this experiment is two points: the inspection that the category constitution that reduces the maintenance cost can be derived with the proposed method and the tendency analysis of the variation of the reduction rate of the maintenance cost with respect to the category constitution and the threshold. In this experiment, we have made a simulator automates calculation of quantity of cost reduction and derivation of the reliability that a category constitution for a certain threshold brigs. B. Contents We use the data observed by the mud slide prediction system in Otsu, Shiga, Japan, around the 6 observation days 7/10/2009, 7/13, 8/8, 9/12, 11/1, and 11/17. In these days, the precipitation has been observed continuously. The sensor data of each day includes the precipitation and pore water pressures for 30 tensiometers at most. The data of a tensiometer in an observation day is excluded if the pore water pressure is constant during a few hours or if the rate of the data loss of the pore water pressure is more than 50%. The outline of the experiment is as follows. When the proposed method is adopted to manage the mud slide prediction system, the user decides a category constitution based on the past sensor data and the decided category constitution applied to reduce the future maintenance cost. Let Day1,Day2, . . . ,Day6 be the observation days 7/10, 7/13, . . ., 11/17, respectively. We evaluate the quantity of
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The numbers of categories of all Dayis are similar values for the threshold less than 0.3. Figure 7 explains the following tendencies.

If the threshold is less than 0.2, the difference of the minimum correlation coefficients of all Dayis disappears. If the threshold exceeds 0.2, the difference of the

minimum correlation coefficients of all Dayis spreads.


30

Number of Categories

7/10
25

7/13
20

8/8
15

9/12
10

11/1
5 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9

11/1 7

Threshold

Fig. 6 Alteration in number of categories.

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100

Minimum Correlation Coefficient

7/10
0.8
80

7/10 7/13

7/13

Cc [%]

60

0.6

8/8 9/12 11/1 11/17


0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

8/8
40

9/12 11/1 11/17

0.4

20

0.2

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

Threshold

Threshold

Fig. 8 Emergent Maintenance Cost.


100

Fig. 7 Alteration in minimum correlation coefficient.

7/10

The threshold is assumed to be set to a value greater than 0.2 for large minimum correlation coefficient. It is emphasized that the threshold is set to a value greater than 0.3 and that an individual category constitution should be derived for every Dayi with large minimum correlation coefficient, which improves reliability of the category constitutions. We derive quantity of reduction of the maintenance cost from the category constitution obtained from Figures 6 and 7. As shown in Section 4.A, the simulator derives the quantity of reduction of the maintenance cost from the category constitutions. The simulator confirms the change of the quantity of reduction of the maintenance cost by changing the threshold from 0.1 to 0.9. We show quantity of reduction of the emergent management cost and the data analysis cost in the Figures 8 and 9, respectively. The quantity of reduction of the maintenance cost has the tendency becoming small by making the threshold large as show in Figures 8 and 9. Regarding to the data analysis cost, there are few differences between quantities of reduction of the maintenance cost in the observation days for the threshold less than 0.3. In addition, the quantity of reduction of the emergent maintenance cost decreases steeply for the thresholds more than 0.7 while it has few differences for the thresholds less than or equal to 0.7. Therefore, the emergent maintenance cost can reduce largely by setting the threshold equal to or less than 0.7. The following discussion assumes that the user sets the threshold 0.8 to achieve the optimal quantity of reduction of the cost and minimum correlation coefficient. Table 1 shows the percentages of the reduced maintenance cost for those without the proposed method for each Dayi. The reduced data analysis and emergent maintenance costs, <: Cd & Cc. The data analysis cost reduces to 60.56% in

80

7/13

Cd%

60

8/8 9/12 11/1 11/17

40

20

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

Threshold

Fig. 9 Periodical Maintenance Cost.


100 1 0.9 0.8

Cd&Cc%

90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

Cmin

0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0

Cd[%] Cc[%] Cmin

7/10

7/13

8/8

9/12

11/1

11/17 average

Fig. 10 and by threshold 0.8. TABLE 1 AND BY THRESHOLD 0.8. Threshold : 0.8 Cd CC Cmin 7/10 46.67 21.43 0.775 7/13 50.00 20.00 0.887 8/8 53.33 25.00 0.446 9/12 66.67 50.00 0.670 11/1 80.00 75.00 0.445 11/17 66.67 50.00 0.768 Average 60.56 40.24 0.67

6. Conclusion
In this paper, we has proposed a categorization method of the observation points that focuses on the similarity of sensor data in order to reduce the maintenance cost in the mud slide prediction system. The proposed method reduces the maintenance cost by detecting redundant data by dividing the observation points that sensors are installed in based on the relations of soil precipitations and the pore water pressures. We use user input and the judgment by the user to let the most suitable category constitution settle. We use the minimum threshold of the coefficient of correlation as user input. We derive a category constitution with applying the threshold in this coefficient of correlation. The user can establish the most suitable category constitution by himself by examining the quantity of maintenance cost derived based on this category constitution, referring the maintenance cost reduction and the minimum correlation coefficient. With actual sensor data, the possibility that derivation of
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average and the emergent maintenance cost does to 40.24% in average. In addition, the average of the minimum correlation coefficients, : Cmin, is 0.67 among the category constitutions of Day1, . . . ,Day6, which is reasonably high. The proposed method can derive the category constitutions which reduce the maintenance cost effectively in the threshold 0.8.

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the category constitution that the maintenance cost could reduce from the proposed method is inspected. The category constitution obtained for the threshold 0.8 reduces the amount of the analyzed data to 60.56%, and the frequency to repair to 40.24%. In addition, the correlation coefficient implying the reliability of the categorization is 0.67. The experiment has showed that the proposed method is effective. Our future work aims to improving the reliability of the proposed method by extracting hierarchical category constitutions with considering temporal variation of the sensor data.

Fumiko Harada received B.E. and M.E, and Ph.D degrees from Osaka University in 2003, 2004, and 2007, respectively. She joined Ritsumeikan University as an assistant professor in Ritsumeikan University in 2007, and is currently a lecturer. She engages in the research on real-time systems and data engineering. She is a member of IEEE. Hiromitsu Shimakawa was born in 1961. He obtained his Ph.D. degree in Engineering from Kyoto University, Japan in 1999. From 2002, he has been a professor of Ritsumeikan University in Japan. His research interests include data mining and user interface. He is also interested in programming education. He is a member of IEEE and ACM.

References
[1] K. Kajimoto, Y. Yokota, F. Harada & H. Shimakawa, " Sensor Network to Monitor Underground State Transition against Mad Slide Disaster," (2008) Proceedings of the 12th WSEAS international conference on Computers, pp. 115-121. F. Stann, J. Heidemann, R. Shroff & M. Z. Murtaza, " RBP: robust broadcast propagation in wireless networks," (2006) Sensys 2006. H. Kajikawa, T. Fukuhara, S. Bouk & I. Sasase, " Multipath routing protocol combined with least hop backup path and packet salvaging for MANETs," (2009) The 2009 IEEE Pacific Rim Conference on Communications. M. Ishizuka, M. Aida, "The Reliability Performance of Wireless Sensor Networks Configured by Power-Law and Other Forms of Stochastic Node Placement," (2004) IEICE Trans. on Communications, vol. E87-B, no. 9, pp. 2511-2520. Y. Ishihara, S. Kobatake, Runoff model for flood forecasting, (1979) Bull. D.P.R.I., vol. 29, no. 260, pp. 27-43. B. A. A. Hasan Md, T. Junichiro & K. Toshihiko, Identification and uncertainty assessment of model parameters of distributed runoff model using Bayesian inference," (2007), Journal of Rainwater Catchment Systems, vol. 13(1), pp. 1-10. Y. Kohgo, "A Hysteresis Model of Soil Water Retention Curves Based on Bounding Surface Concept," (2008) Soils and foundation, vol. 48, no. 5, pp. 633-640. Kazuya Kato was born in 1985. He received B.E. degree from Ritsumeikan University in 2010.

[2] [3]

[4]

[5] [6]

[7]

Yusuke Yokota is an associate professor in the Department of Computer Science at Ritsumeikan University. He received the B.E., M.E., and Ph.D degrees from Kyoto University in 1996, 1998, and 2005, respectively. His current research interests include data management, energy harvesting, and routing protocols in wireless sensor network systems. He is a member of ACM. International Journal Publishers Group (IJPG)