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Capital

A Critique of Political Economy


Book One: The Process of Production of Capital
First published: in German in 1867, English edition first published in 1887; Source: First English edition of 1887 ( th German edition changes included as indicated! "ith some modernisation of spelling; #ublisher: #rogress #ublishers, $osco", %SS&; 'ranslated: Samuel $oore and Ed"ard ()eling, edited b* Frederic+ Engels; 'ranscribed: ,odiac, -inrich .uhls, (llan 'hurrott, /ill $c0orman, /ert Schult1 and $artha Gimene1 (122341226!; #roofed: and corrected b* (nd* /lunden and 5hris 5la*ton (6778!, $ar+ -arris (6717!8

Volume I

Table of Contents
#reface to the First German Edition ($ar9, 1867!88888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888886 #reface to the French Edition ($ar9, 1876!888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888882 (fter"ord to the Second German Edition (187:!88888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888817 (fter"ord to the French Edition (1873!88888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888816 #reface to the 'hird German Edition (188:!8888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888817 #reface to the English Edition (Engels, 1886!88888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888812 #reface to the Fourth German Edition (Engels, 1827!88888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888866 Part 1: Commodities and Money...............................................................................................26 5hapter 1: 5ommodities8888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888866 Section 1: 'he '"o Factors of a 5ommodit*: %se4;alue and ;alue ('he Substance of ;alue and the $agnitude of ;alue!88888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888866 Section 6: 'he '"ofold 5haracter of the <abour Embodied in 5ommodities888888888888888888888862 Section :: 'he Form of ;alue or E9change4;alue888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888:6 Section : 'he Fetishism of 5ommodities and the Secret 'hereof8888888888888888888888888888888888888888 6 5hapter 6: E9change888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888883: 5hapter :: $one*, =r the 5irculation of 5ommodities88888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888838 Section 1: 'he $easure of ;alues888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888838 Section 6: 'he $edium of 5irculation888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888866 Section :: $one*88888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888873 Part 2: Transformation of Money into Capital.........................................................................83 5hapter : 'he General Formula for 5apital888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888: 5hapter 3: 5ontradictions in the General Formula of 5apital88888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888 5hapter 6: 'he /u*ing and Selling of <abour4#o"er8888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888882 Part 3: The Production of Absolute urplus !alue.................................................................."" 5hapter 7: 'he <abour4#rocess and the #rocess of #roducing Surplus ;alue8888888888888888888888888822 Section 1: 'he <abour4#rocess or the #roduction of %se4;alues8888888888888888888888888888888888888888822 Section 6: 'he #roduction of Surplus ;alue8888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888817: 5hapter 8: 5onstant 5apital and ;ariable 5apital8888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888111 5hapter 2: 'he &ate of Surplus )alue8888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888118 Section 1: 'he 0egree of E9ploitation of <abour4#o"er8888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888118 Section 6: 'he &epresentation of the 5omponents of the ;alue of the #roduct b* 5orresponding #roportional #arts of the #roduct >tself8888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888166 Section :: Senior?s @<ast -ourA88888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888816 Section : Surplus4#roduce8888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888167 5hapter 17: 'he Bor+ing da*8888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888168 Section 1: 'he <imits of the Bor+ing da*88888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888168 Section 6: 'he Greed for Surplus4<abor, $anufacturer and /o*ard888888888888888888888888888888888881:7

Section :: /ranches of English >ndustr* Bithout <egal <imits to E9ploitation8888888888888888881: Section : 0a* and Cight Bor+8 'he &ela* S*stem888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888881 1 Section 3: 'he Struggle for a Cormal Bor+ing 0a*8 5ompulsor* <a"s for the E9tension of the Bor+ing 0a* from the $iddle of the 1 th to the End of the 17th 5entur*8888888888888888881 Section 6: 'he Struggle for a Cormal Bor+ing 0a*8 5ompulsor* <imitation b* <a" of the Bor+ing4'ime8 English Factor* (cts, 18::8888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888137 Section 7: 'he Struggle for a Cormal Bor+ing 0a*8 &eaction of the English Factor* (cts on =ther 5ountries88888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888132 5hapter 11: &ate and $ass of Surplus ;alue88888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888166 Part #: Production of $elati%e urplus !alue.........................................................................16& 5hapter 16: 'he 5oncept of &elati)e Surplus ;alue888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888167 5hapter 1:: 5o4operation8888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888817: 5hapter 1 : 0i)ision of <abour and $anufacture8888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888181 Section 1: '"o4Fold =rigin of $anufacture88888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888181 Section 6: 'he 0etail <abourer and his >mplements88888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888186 Section :: 'he '"o Fundamental Forms of $anufacture: -eterogeneous $anufacture, Serial $anufacture8888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888818 Section : 0i)ision of <abour in $anufacture, and 0i)ision of <abour in Societ*888888888888188 Section 3: 'he 5apitalistic 5haracter of $anufacture888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888126 5hapter 13: $achiner* and $odern >ndustr*8888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888127 Section 1 : 'he 0e)elopment of $achiner*888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888127 Section 6: 'he ;alue 'ransferred b* $achiner* to the #roduct888888888888888888888888888888888888888867 Section :: 'he #ro9imate Effects of $achiner* on the Bor+man8888888888888888888888888888888888888677 Section : 'he Factor*88888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888667 Section 3: 'he Strife /et"een Bor+man and $achine888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888666 Section 6: 'he 'heor* of 5ompensation as &egards the Bor+people 0isplaced b* $achiner*888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888668 Section 7: &epulsion and (ttraction of Bor+people b* the Factor* S*stem8 5rises in the 5otton 'rade888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888886:: Section 8: &e)olution Effected in $anufacture, -andicrafts, and 0omestic >ndustr* b* $odern >ndustr*888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888886 7 Section 2: 'he Factor* (cts8 Sanitar* and Educational 5lauses of the same8 'heir General E9tension in England8888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888631 Section 17: $odern >ndustr* and (griculture888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888663 Part ': Production of Absolute and $elati%e urplus !alue.................................................26& 5hapter 16: (bsolute and &elati)e Surplus ;alue888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888667 5hapter 17: 5hanges of $agnitude in the #rice of <abour4#o"er and in Surplus ;alue8888888867: Section 1: <ength of the Bor+ing da* and >ntensit* of <abour 5onstant8 #roducti)eness of <abour ;ariable88888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888867: Section 6: Bor+ing da* 5onstant8 #roducti)eness of <abour 5onstant8 >ntensit* of <abour ;ariable888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888676

Section :: #roducti)eness and >ntensit* of <abour 5onstant8 <ength of the Bor+ing da* ;ariable888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888677 Section : Simultaneous ;ariations in the 0uration, #roducti)eness, and >ntensit* of <abour 88888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888678 5hapter 18: ;arious Formula for the rate of Surplus )alue88888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888687 Part 6: (a)es............................................................................................................................283 5hapter 12: 'he 'ransformation of the ;alue (and &especti)e #rice! of <abour4#o"er into Bages888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888868: 5hapter 67: 'ime4Bages88888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888687 5hapter 61: #iece Bages88888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888621 5hapter 66: Cational 0ifferences of Bages8888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888623 Part &: The Accumulation of Capital......................................................................................2"8 5hapter 6:: Simple &eproduction8888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888628 5hapter 6 : 5on)ersion of Surplus )alue into 5apital888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888:76 Section 1: 5apitalist #roduction on a #rogressi)el* >ncreasing Scale8 'ransition of the <a"s of #ropert* that 5haracterise #roduction of 5ommodities into <a"s of 5apitalist (ppropriation8888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888:76 Section 6: Erroneous 5onception, b* #olitical Econom*, of &eproduction on a #rogressi)el* >ncreasing Scale888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888:11 Section :: Separation of Surplus )alue into 5apital and &e)enue8 'he (bstinence 'heor* 88888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888:1: Section : 5ircumstances that, >ndependentl* of the #roportional 0i)ision of Surplus )alue into 5apital and &e)enue, 0etermine the (mount of (ccumulation8 0egree of E9ploitation of <abour4#o"er8 #roducti)it* of <abour8 Gro"ing 0ifference in (mount /et"een 5apital Emplo*ed and 5apital 5onsumed8 $agnitude of 5apital (d)anced8888888888888888888888888888888888:17 Section 3: 'he So45alled <abour Fund8888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888:66 5hapter 63: 'he General <a" of 5apitalist (ccumulation88888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888:6 Section 1: 'he >ncreased 0emand for labour po"er that (ccompanies (ccumulation, the 5omposition of 5apital &emaining the same8888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888:6 Section 6: &elati)e 0iminution of the ;ariable #art of 5apital Simultaneousl* "ith the #rogress of (ccumulation and of the 5oncentration that (ccompanies it88888888888888888888888888:68 Section :: #rogressi)e #roduction of a &elati)e surplus population or >ndustrial &eser)e (rm*88888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888::6 Section : 0ifferent Forms of the &elati)e surplus population8 'he General <a" of 5apitalistic (ccumulation888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888::2 Section 3: >llustrations of the General <a" of 5apitalist (ccumulation88888888888888888888888888888: : Part 8: Primiti%e Accumulation ..............................................................................................383 5hapter 66: 'he Secret of #rimiti)e (ccumulation8888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888:8: 5hapter 67: E9propriation of the (gricultural #opulation From the <and888888888888888888888888888888:86 5hapter 68: /lood* <egislation (gainst the E9propriated, from the End of the 13th 5entur*8 Forcing 0o"n of Bages b* (cts of #arliament8888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888:2: 5hapter '"ent*4Cine: Genesis of the 5apitalist Farmer888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888:27

5hapter :7: &eaction of the (gricultural &e)olution on >ndustr*8 5reation of the -ome4$ar+et for >ndustrial 5apital888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888:28 5hapter :1: 'he Genesis of the >ndustrial 5apitalist888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888 71 5hapter :6: -istorical 'endenc* of 5apitalist (ccumulation8888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888 77 5hapter ::: 'he $odern 'heor* of 5olonisation 888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888 72

Preface to the First German Edition (Marx, 1867)


'he "or+, the first )olume of "hich > no" submit to the public, forms the continuation of m* ,ur .riti+ der #olitischen =e+onomie (A Contribution to the Criticism of Political Economy ! published in 18328 'he long pause bet"een the first part and the continuation is due to an illness of man* *ears? duration that again and again interrupted m* "or+8 'he substance of that earlier "or+ is summarised in the first three chapters of this )olume8 'his is done not merel* for the sa+e of conne9ion and completeness8 'he presentation of the subDect matter is impro)ed8 (s far as circumstances in an* "a* permit, man* points onl* hinted at in the earlier boo+ are here "or+ed out more full*, "hilst, con)ersel*, points "or+ed out full* there are onl* touched upon in this )olume8 'he sections on the histor* of the theories of )alue and of mone* are no", of course, left out altogether8 'he reader of the earlier "or+ "ill find, ho"e)er, in the notes to the first chapter additional sources of reference relati)e to the histor* of those theories8 E)er* beginning is difficult, holds in all sciences8 'o understand the first chapter, especiall* the section that contains the anal*sis of commodities, "ill, therefore, present the greatest difficult*8 'hat "hich concerns more especiall* the anal*sis of the substance of )alue and the magnitude of )alue, > ha)e, as much as it "as possible, popularised8 1 'he )alue4form, "hose full* de)eloped shape is the mone*4form, is )er* elementar* and simple8 Ce)ertheless, the human mind has for more than 6,777 *ears sought in )ain to get to the bottom of it all, "hilst on the other hand, to the successful anal*sis of much more composite and comple9 forms, there has been at least an appro9imation8 Bh*E /ecause the bod*, as an organic "hole, is more eas* of stud* than are the cells of that bod*8 >n the anal*sis of economic forms, moreo)er, neither microscopes nor chemical reagents are of use8 'he force of abstraction must replace both8 /ut in bourgeois societ*, the commodit*4form of the product of labour F or )alue4form of the commodit* F is the economic cell4form8 'o the superficial obser)er, the anal*sis of these forms seems to turn upon minutiae8 >t does in fact deal "ith minutiae, but the* are of the same order as those dealt "ith in microscopic anatom*8 Bith the e9ception of the section of )alue4form, therefore, this )olume cannot stand accused on the score of difficult*8 > presuppose, of course, a reader "ho is "illing to learn something ne" and therefore to thin+ for himself8 'he ph*sicist either obser)es ph*sical phenomena "here the* occur in their most t*pical form and most free from disturbing influence, or, "here)er possible, he ma+es e9periments under conditions that assure the occurrence of the phenomenon in its normalit*8 >n this "or+ > ha)e to e9amine the capitalist mode of production, and the conditions of production and e9change corresponding to that mode8 %p to the present time, their classic ground is England8 'hat is the reason "h* England is used as the chief illustration in the de)elopment of m* theoretical ideas8 >f, ho"e)er, the German reader shrugs his shoulders at the condition of the English industrial and agricultural labourers, or in optimist fashion comforts himself "ith the thought that in German* things are not nearl* so bad; > must plainl* tell him, @ De te fabula narratur!A G>t is of *ou that the stor* is told8 F -oraceH

#reface to the First German Edition ($ar9 1867!

>ntrinsicall*, it is not a Iuestion of the higher or lo"er degree of de)elopment of the social antagonisms that result from the natural la"s of capitalist production8 >t is a Iuestion of these la"s themsel)es, of these tendencies "or+ing "ith iron necessit* to"ards ine)itable results8 'he countr* that is more de)eloped industriall* onl* sho"s, to the less de)eloped, the image of its o"n future8 /ut apart from this8 Bhere capitalist production is full* naturalised among the Germans (for instance, in the factories proper! the condition of things is much "orse than in England, because the counterpoise of the Factor* (cts is "anting8 >n all other spheres, "e, li+e all the rest of 5ontinental Bestern Europe, suffer not onl* from the de)elopment of capitalist production, but also from the incompleteness of that de)elopment8 (longside the modern e)ils, a "hole series of inherited e)ils oppress us, arising from the passi)e sur)i)al of antiIuated modes of production, "ith their ine)itable train of social and political anachronisms8 Be suffer not onl* from the li)ing, but from the dead8 Le mort saisit le vif! G'he dead holds the li)ing in his grasp8 F formula of French common la"H 'he social statistics of German* and the rest of 5ontinental Bestern Europe are, in comparison "ith those of England, "retchedl* compiled8 /ut the* raise the )eil Dust enough to let us catch a glimpse of the $edusa head behind it8 Be should be appalled at the state of things at home, if, as in England, our go)ernments and parliaments appointed periodicall* commissions of inIuir* into economic conditions; if these commissions "ere armed "ith the same plenar* po"ers to get at the truth; if it "as possible to find for this purpose men as competent, as free from partisanship and respect of persons as are the English factor*4inspectors, her medical reporters on public health, her commissioners of inIuir* into the e9ploitation of "omen and children, into housing and food8 #erseus "ore a magic cap do"n o)er his e*es and ears as a ma+e4belie)e that there are no monsters8 <et us not decei)e oursel)es on this8 (s in the 18th centur*, the (merican "ar of independence sounded the tocsin for the European middle class, so that in the 12th centur*, the (merican 5i)il Bar sounded it for the European "or+ing class8 >n England the process of social disintegration is palpable8 Bhen it has reached a certain point, it must react on the 5ontinent8 'here it "ill ta+e a form more brutal or more humane, according to the degree of de)elopment of the "or+ing class itself8 (part from higher moti)es, therefore, their o"n most important interests dictate to the classes that are for the nonce the ruling ones, the remo)al of all legall* remo)able hindrances to the free de)elopment of the "or+ing class8 For this reason, as "ell as others, > ha)e gi)en so large a space in this )olume to the histor*, the details, and the results of English factor* legislation8 =ne nation can and should learn from others8 (nd e)en "hen a societ* has got upon the right trac+ for the disco)er* of the natural la"s of its mo)ement F and it is the ultimate aim of this "or+, to la* bare the economic la" of motion of modern societ* F it can neither clear b* bold leaps, nor remo)e b* legal enactments, the obstacles offered b* the successi)e phases of its normal de)elopment8 /ut it can shorten and lessen the birth4pangs8 'o pre)ent possible misunderstanding, a "ord8 > paint the capitalist and the landlord in no sense couleur de rose Gi8e8, seen through rose4tinted glassesH8 /ut here indi)iduals are dealt "ith onl* in so far as the* are the personifications of economic categories, embodiments of particular class4 relations and class4interests8 $* standpoint, from "hich the e)olution of the economic formation of societ* is )ie"ed as a process of natural histor*, can less than an* other ma+e the indi)idual responsible for relations "hose creature he sociall* remains, ho"e)er much he ma* subDecti)el* raise himself abo)e them8 >n the domain of #olitical Econom*, free scientific inIuir* meets not merel* the same enemies as in all other domains8 'he peculiar nature of the materials it deals "ith, summons as foes into the

#reface to the First German Edition ($ar9 1867!

field of battle the most )iolent, mean and malignant passions of the human breast, the Furies of pri)ate interest8 'he English Established 5hurch, e8g8, "ill more readil* pardon an attac+ on :8 of its :2 articles than on 1J:2 of its income8 Co"4a4da*s atheism is culpa levis Ga relati)el* slight sin, c8f8 mortal sinH, as compared "ith criticism of e9isting propert* relations8 Ce)ertheless, there is an unmista+able ad)ance8 > refer, e8g8, to the /lue boo+ published "ithin the last fe" "ee+s: @5orrespondence "ith -er $aDest*?s $issions (broad, regarding >ndustrial Kuestions and 'rades? %nions8A 'he representati)es of the English 5ro"n in foreign countries there declare in so man* "ords that in German*, in France, to be brief, in all the ci)ilised states of the European 5ontinent, radical change in the e9isting relations bet"een capital and labour is as e)ident and ine)itable as in England8 (t the same time, on the other side of the (tlantic =cean, $r8 Bade, )ice4president of the %nited States, declared in public meetings that, after the abolition of sla)er*, a radical change of the relations of capital and of propert* in land is ne9t upon the order of the da*8 'hese are signs of the times, not to be hidden b* purple mantles or blac+ cassoc+s8 'he* do not signif* that tomorro" a miracle "ill happen8 'he* sho" that, "ithin the ruling classes themsel)es, a foreboding is da"ning, that the present societ* is no solid cr*stal, but an organism capable of change, and is constantl* changing8 'he second )olume of this boo+ "ill treat of the process of the circulation of capital (/oo+ >>8!, and of the )aried forms assumed b* capital in the course of its de)elopment (/oo+ >>>8!, the third and last )olume (/oo+ >;8!, the histor* of the theor*8 E)er* opinion based on scientific criticism > "elcome8 (s to preDudices of so4called public opinion, to "hich > ha)e ne)er made concessions, no" as aforetime the ma9im of the great Florentine is mine: @Segui il tuo corso, e lascia dir le genti8A GFollo" *our o"n course, and let people tal+ F paraphrased from 0anteH Karl Marx <ondon Lul* 63, 1867

Preface to the French Edition (Marx, 1872)


'o the citi1en $aurice <achMtre 0ear 5iti1en, > applaud *our idea of publishing the translation of @0as .apitalA as a serial8 >n this form the boo+ "ill be more accessible to the "or+ing class, a consideration "hich to me out"eighs e)er*thing else8 'hat is the good side of *our suggestion, but here is the re)erse of the medal: the method of anal*sis "hich > ha)e emplo*ed, and "hich had not pre)iousl* been applied to economic subDects, ma+es the reading of the first chapters rather arduous, and it is to be feared that the French public, al"a*s impatient to come to a conclusion, eager to +no" the conne9ion bet"een general principles and the immediate Iuestions that ha)e aroused their passions, ma* be disheartened because the* "ill be unable to mo)e on at once8 'hat is a disad)antage > am po"erless to o)ercome, unless it be b* fore"arning and forearming those readers "ho 1ealousl* see+ the truth8 'here is no ro*al road to science, and onl* those "ho do not dread the fatiguing climb of its steep paths ha)e a chance of gaining its luminous summits8 /elie)e me, dear citi1en, Nour de)oted, Karl Marx <ondon $arch 18, 1876

Afterword to the Second German Edition (187 )


> must start b* informing the readers of the first edition about the alterations made in the second edition8 =ne is struc+ at once b* the clearer arrangement of the boo+8 (dditional notes are e)er*"here mar+ed as notes to the second edition8 'he follo"ing are the most important points "ith regard to the te9t itself: >n 5hapter >, Section 1, the deri)ation of )alue from an anal*sis of the eIuations b* "hich e)er* e9change4)alue is e9pressed has been carried out "ith greater scientific strictness; li+e"ise the conne9ion bet"een the substance of )alue and the determination of the magnitude of )alue b* sociall* necessar* labour4time, "hich "as onl* alluded to in the first edition, is no" e9pressl* emphasised8 5hapter >, Section : (the Form of ;alue!, has been completel* re)ised, a tas+ "hich "as made necessar* b* the double e9position in the first edition, if nothing else8 F <et me remar+, in passing, that that double e9position had been occasioned b* m* friend, 0r8 < .ugelmann in -ano)er8 > "as )isiting him in the spring of 1867 "hen the first proof4sheets arri)ed from -amburg, and he con)inced me that most readers needed a supplementar*, more didactic e9planation of the form of )alue8 F 'he last section of the first chapter, @'he Fetishism of 5ommodities, etc8,A has largel* been altered8 5hapter >>>, Section > ('he $easure of ;alue!, has been carefull* re)ised, because in the first edition this section had been treated negligentl*, the reader ha)ing been referred to the e9planation alread* gi)en in @,ur .riti+ der #olitischen =e+onomie,A /erlin 18328 5hapter ;>>, particularl* #art 6 GEng8 ed8, 5hapter >O, Section 6H, has been re4"ritten to a great e9tent8 >t "ould be a "aste of time to go into all the partial te9tual changes, "hich "ere often purel* st*listic8 'he* occur throughout the boo+8 Ce)ertheless > find no", on re)ising the French translation appearing in #aris, that se)eral parts of the German original stand in need of rather thorough remoulding, other parts reIuire rather hea)* st*listic editing, and still others painsta+ing elimination of occasional slips8 /ut there "as no time for that8 For > had been informed onl* in the autumn of 1871, "hen in the midst of other urgent "or+, that the boo+ "as sold out and that the printing of the second edition "as to begin in Lanuar* of 18768 'he appreciation "hich @0as .apitalA rapidl* gained in "ide circles of the German "or+ing class is the best re"ard of m* labours8 -err $a*er, a ;ienna manufacturer, "ho in economic matters represents the bourgeois point of )ie", in a pamphlet published during the Franco4German Bar aptl* e9pounded the idea that the great capacit* for theor*, "hich used to be considered a hereditar* German possession, had almost completel* disappeared amongst the so4called educated classes in German*, but that amongst its "or+ing class, on the contrar*, that capacit* "as celebrating its re)i)al8 'o the present moment #olitical Econom*, in German*, is a foreign science8 Gusta) )on Gulich in his @-istorical description of 5ommerce, >ndustr*,A Pc8, 1 especiall* in the t"o first )olumes published in 18:7, has e9amined at length the historical circumstances that pre)ented, in German*, the de)elopment of the capitalist mode of production, and conseIuentl* the de)elopment, in that countr*, of modern bourgeois societ*8 'hus the soil "hence #olitical Econom* springs "as "anting8 'his @scienceA had to be imported from England and France as a read*4made article; its German professors remained schoolbo*s8 'he theoretical e9pression of a foreign realit* "as turned, in their hands, into a collection of dogmas, interpreted b* them in terms of the pett* trading "orld around them, and therefore misinterpreted8 'he feeling of scientific impotence, a feeling not "holl* to be repressed, and the uneas* consciousness of

11

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ha)ing to touch a subDect in realit* foreign to them, "as but imperfectl* concealed, either under a parade of literar* and historical erudition, or b* an admi9ture of e9traneous material, borro"ed from the so4called @.ameralA sciences, a medle* of smatterings, through "hose purgator* the hopeful candidate for the German bureaucrac* has to pass8 Since 18 8 capitalist production has de)eloped rapidl* in German*, and at the present time it is in the full bloom of speculation and s"indling8 /ut fate is still unpropitious to our professional economists8 (t the time "hen the* "ere able to deal "ith #olitical Econom* in a straightfor"ard fashion, modern economic conditions did not actuall* e9ist in German*8 (nd as soon as these conditions did come into e9istence, the* did so under circumstances that no longer allo"ed of their being reall* and impartiall* in)estigated "ithin the bounds of the bourgeois hori1on8 >n so far as #olitical Econom* remains "ithin that hori1on, in so far, i8e8, as the capitalist regime is loo+ed upon as the absolutel* final form of social production, instead of as a passing historical phase of its e)olution, #olitical Econom* can remain a science onl* so long as the class struggle is latent or manifests itself onl* in isolated and sporadic phenomena8 <et us ta+e England8 >ts #olitical Econom* belongs to the period in "hich the class struggle "as as *et unde)eloped8 >ts last great representati)e, &icardo, in the end, consciousl* ma+es the antagonism of class interests, of "ages and profits, of profits and rent, the starting point of his in)estigations, nai)el* ta+ing this antagonism for a social la" of Cature8 /ut b* this start the science of bourgeois econom* had reached the limits be*ond "hich it could not pass8 (lread* in the lifetime of &icardo, and in opposition to him, it "as met b* criticism, in the person of Sismondi8 6 'he succeeding period, from 1867 to 18:7, "as notable in England for scientific acti)it* in the domain of #olitical Econom*8 >t "as the time as "ell of the )ulgarising and e9tending of &icardo?s theor*, as of the contest of that theor* "ith the old school8 Splendid tournaments "ere held8 Bhat "as done then, is little +no"n to the 5ontinent generall*, because the polemic is for the most part scattered through articles in re)ie"s, occasional literature and pamphlets8 'he unpreDudiced character of this polemic F although the theor* of &icardo alread* ser)es, in e9ceptional cases, as a "eapon of attac+ upon bourgeois econom* F is e9plained b* the circumstances of the time8 =n the one hand, modern industr* itself "as onl* Dust emerging from the age of childhood, as is sho"n b* the fact that "ith the crisis of 1863 it for the first time opens the periodic c*cle of its modern life8 =n the other hand, the class struggle bet"een capital and labour is forced into the bac+ground, politicall* b* the discord bet"een the go)ernments and the feudal aristocrac* gathered around the -ol* (lliance on the one hand, and the popular masses, led b* the bourgeoisie, on the other; economicall* b* the Iuarrel bet"een industrial capital and aristocratic landed propert* 4 a Iuarrel that in France "as concealed b* the opposition bet"een small and large landed propert*, and that in England bro+e out openl* after the 5orn <a"s8 'he literature of #olitical Econom* in England at this time calls to mind the storm* for"ard mo)ement in France after 0r8 Kuesna*?s death, but onl* as a Saint $artin?s summer reminds us of spring8 Bith the *ear 18:7 came the decisi)e crisis8 >n France and in England the bourgeoisie had conIuered political po"er8 'henceforth, the class struggle, practicall* as "ell as theoreticall*, too+ on more and more outspo+en and threatening forms8 >t sounded the +nell of scientific bourgeois econom*8 >t "as thenceforth no longer a Iuestion, "hether this theorem or that "as true, but "hether it "as useful to capital or harmful, e9pedient or ine9pedient, politicall* dangerous or not8 >n place of disinterested inIuirers, there "ere hired pri1e fighters; in place of genuine scientific research, the bad conscience and the e)il intent of apologetic8 Still, e)en the obtrusi)e pamphlets "ith "hich the (nti45orn <a" <eague, led b* the manufacturers 5obden and /right, deluged the "orld, ha)e a historic interest, if no

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scientific one, on account of their polemic against the landed aristocrac*8 /ut since then the Free 'rade legislation, inaugurated b* Sir &obert #eel, has depri)ed )ulgar econom* of this its last sting8 'he 5ontinental re)olution of 18 842 also had its reaction in England8 $en "ho still claimed some scientific standing and aspired to be something more than mere sophists and s*cophants of the ruling classes tried to harmonise the #olitical Econom* of capital "ith the claims, no longer to be ignored, of the proletariat8 -ence a shallo" s*ncretism of "hich Lohn Stuart $ill is the best representati)e8 >t is a declaration of ban+ruptc* b* bourgeois econom*, an e)ent on "hich the great &ussian scholar and critic, C8 'schern*sche"s+*, has thro"n the light of a master mind in his @=utlines of #olitical Econom* according to $ill8A >n German*, therefore, the capitalist mode of production came to a head, after its antagonistic character had alread*, in France and England, sho"n itself in a fierce strife of classes8 (nd mean"hile, moreo)er, the German proletariat had attained a much more clear class4consciousness than the German bourgeoisie8 'hus, at the )er* moment "hen a bourgeois science of #olitical Econom* seemed at last possible in German*, it had in realit* again become impossible8 %nder these circumstances its professors fell into t"o groups8 'he one set, prudent, practical business fol+, floc+ed to the banner of /astiat, the most superficial and therefore the most adeIuate representati)e of the apologetic of )ulgar econom*; the other, proud of the professorial dignit* of their science, follo"ed Lohn Stuart $ill in his attempt to reconcile irreconcilables8 Lust as in the classical time of bourgeois econom*, so also in the time of its decline, the Germans remained mere schoolbo*s, imitators and follo"ers, pett* retailers and ha"+ers in the ser)ice of the great foreign "holesale concern8 'he peculiar historical de)elopment of German societ* therefore forbids, in that countr*, all original "or+ in bourgeois econom*; but not the criticism of that econom*8 So far as such criticism represents a class, it can onl* represent the class "hose )ocation in histor* is the o)erthro" of the capitalist mode of production and the final abolition of all classes F the proletariat8 'he learned and unlearned spo+esmen of the German bourgeoisie tried at first to +ill @0as .apitalA b* silence, as the* had managed to do "ith m* earlier "ritings8 (s soon as the* found that these tactics no longer fitted in "ith the conditions of the time, the* "rote, under pretence of criticising m* boo+, prescriptions @for the tranIuillisation of the bourgeois mind8A /ut the* found in the "or+ers? press F see, e8g8, Loseph 0iet1gen?s articles in the F antagonists stronger than themsel)es, to "hom (do"n to this )er* da*! the* o"e a repl*8 : (n e9cellent &ussian translation of @0as .apitalA appeared in the spring of 18768 'he edition of :,777 copies is alread* nearl* e9hausted8 (s earl* as 1871, C8 Sieber, #rofessor of #olitical Econom* in the %ni)ersit* of .ie), in his "or+ @0a)id &icardo?s 'heor* of ;alue and of 5apital,A referred to m* theor* of )alue, of mone* and of capital, as in its fundamentals a necessar* seIuel to the teaching of Smith and &icardo8 'hat "hich astonishes the Bestern European in the reading of this e9cellent "or+, is the author?s consistent and firm grasp of the purel* theoretical position8 'hat the method emplo*ed in @0as .apitalA has been little understood, is sho"n b* the )arious conceptions, contradictor* one to another, that ha)e been formed of it8 'hus the Paris Revue Positiviste reproaches me in that, on the one hand, > treat economics metaph*sicall*, and on the other hand F imagineQ F confine m*self to the mere critical anal*sis of actual facts, instead of "riting receipts (5omtist onesE! for the coo+4shops of the future8 >n ans"er to the reproach in re metaph*sics, #rofessor Sieber has it:

1:

(fter"ord to the Second German Edition (187:!

@>n so far as it deals "ith actual theor*, the method of $ar9 is the deducti)e method of the "hole English school, a school "hose failings and )irtues are common to the best theoretic economists8A $8 /loc+ F @<es 'hRoriciens du Socialisme en (llemagne8 E9trait du Lournal des Economistes, Luillet et (oSt 1876A F ma+es the disco)er* that m* method is anal*tic and sa*s: @#ar cet ou)rage $8 $ar9 se classe parmi les esprits anal*tiIues les plus eminents8A German re)ie"s, of course, shrie+ out at @-egelian sophistics8A 'he European Messen er of St8 #etersburg in an article dealing e9clusi)el* "ith the method of @0as .apitalA ($a* number, 1876, pp8 674 :6!, finds m* method of inIuir* se)erel* realistic, but m* method of presentation, unfortunatel*, German4 dialectical8 >t sa*s: @(t first sight, if the Dudgment is based on the e9ternal form of the presentation of the subDect, $ar9 is the most ideal of ideal philosophers, al"a*s in the German, i8e8, the bad sense of the "ord8 /ut in point of fact he is infinitel* more realistic than all his forerunners in the "or+ of economic criticism8 -e can in no sense be called an idealist8A > cannot ans"er the "riter better than b* aid of a fe" e9tracts from his o"n criticism, "hich ma* interest some of m* readers to "hom the &ussian original is inaccessible8 (fter a Iuotation from the preface to m* @5riticism of #olitical Econom*,A /erlin, 1832, pp8 >;4 ;>>, "here > discuss the materialistic basis of m* method, the "riter goes on: @'he one thing "hich is of moment to $ar9, is to find the la" of the phenomena "ith "hose in)estigation he is concerned; and not onl* is that la" of moment to him, "hich go)erns these phenomena, in so far as the* ha)e a definite form and mutual conne9ion "ithin a gi)en historical period8 =f still greater moment to him is the la" of their )ariation, of their de)elopment, i8e8, of their transition from one form into another, from one series of conne9ions into a different one8 'his la" once disco)ered, he in)estigates in detail the effects in "hich it manifests itself in social life8 5onseIuentl*, $ar9 onl* troubles himself about one thing: to sho", b* rigid scientific in)estigation, the necessit* of successi)e determinate orders of social conditions, and to establish, as impartiall* as possible, the facts that ser)e him for fundamental starting4points8 For this it is Iuite enough, if he pro)es, at the same time, both the necessit* of the present order of things, and the necessit* of another order into "hich the first must ine)itabl* pass o)er; and this all the same, "hether men belie)e or do not belie)e it, "hether the* are conscious or unconscious of it8 $ar9 treats the social mo)ement as a process of natural histor*, go)erned b* la"s not onl* independent of human "ill, consciousness and intelligence, but rather, on the contrar*, determining that "ill, consciousness and intelligence8 888 >f in the histor* of ci)ilisation the conscious element pla*s a part so subordinate, then it is self4e)ident that a critical inIuir* "hose subDect4matter is ci)ilisation, can, less than an*thing else, ha)e for its basis an* form of, or an* result of, consciousness8 'hat is to sa*, that not the idea, but the material phenomenon alone can ser)e as its starting4point8 Such an inIuir* "ill confine itself to the confrontation and the comparison of a fact, not "ith ideas, but "ith another fact8 For this inIuir*, the one thing of moment is, that both facts be in)estigated as accuratel* as possible, and that the* actuall* form, each "ith respect to the other, different momenta of an e)olution; but most important of all is the rigid anal*sis of the series of successions, of the seIuences and concatenations in "hich the different stages of such an e)olution present

(fter"ord to the Second German Edition (187:!

themsel)es8 /ut it "ill be said, the general la"s of economic life are one and the same, no matter "hether the* are applied to the present or the past8 'his $ar9 directl* denies8 (ccording to him, such abstract la"s do not e9ist8 =n the contrar*, in his opinion e)er* historical period has la"s of its o"n8 888 (s soon as societ* has outli)ed a gi)en period of de)elopment, and is passing o)er from one gi)en stage to another, it begins to be subDect also to other la"s8 >n a "ord, economic life offers us a phenomenon analogous to the histor* of e)olution in other branches of biolog*8 'he old economists misunderstood the nature of economic la"s "hen the* li+ened them to the la"s of ph*sics and chemistr*8 ( more thorough anal*sis of phenomena sho"s that social organisms differ among themsel)es as fundamentall* as plants or animals8 Ca*, one and the same phenomenon falls under Iuite different la"s in conseIuence of the different structure of those organisms as a "hole, of the )ariations of their indi)idual organs, of the different conditions in "hich those organs function, Pc8 $ar9, e8g8, denies that the la" of population is the same at all times and in all places8 -e asserts, on the contrar*, that e)er* stage of de)elopment has its o"n la" of population8 888 Bith the )ar*ing degree of de)elopment of producti)e po"er, social conditions and the la"s go)erning them )ar* too8 Bhilst $ar9 sets himself the tas+ of follo"ing and e9plaining from this point of )ie" the economic s*stem established b* the s"a* of capital, he is onl* formulating, in a strictl* scientific manner, the aim that e)er* accurate in)estigation into economic life must ha)e8 'he scientific )alue of such an inIuir* lies in the disclosing of the special la"s that regulate the origin, e9istence, de)elopment, death of a gi)en social organism and its replacement b* another and higher one8 (nd it is this )alue that, in point of fact, $ar9?s boo+ has8A Bhilst the "riter pictures "hat he ta+es to be actuall* m* method, in this stri+ing and Gas far as concerns m* o"n application of itH generous "a*, "hat else is he picturing but the dialectic methodE =f course the method of presentation must differ in form from that of inIuir*8 'he latter has to appropriate the material in detail, to anal*se its different forms of de)elopment, to trace out their inner conne9ion8 =nl* after this "or+ is done, can the actual mo)ement be adeIuatel* described8 >f this is done successfull*, if the life of the subDect4matter is ideall* reflected as in a mirror, then it ma* appear as if "e had before us a mere a priori construction8 $* dialectic method is not onl* different from the -egelian, but is its direct opposite8 'o -egel, the life process of the human brain, i8e8, the process of thin+ing, "hich, under the name of @the >dea,A he e)en transforms into an independent subDect, is the demiurgos of the real "orld, and the real "orld is onl* the e9ternal, phenomenal form of @the >dea8A Bith me, on the contrar*, the ideal is nothing else than the material "orld reflected b* the human mind, and translated into forms of thought8 'he m*stif*ing side of -egelian dialectic > criticised nearl* thirt* *ears ago, at a time "hen it "as still the fashion8 /ut Dust as > "as "or+ing at the first )olume of @0as .apital,A it "as the good pleasure of the pee)ish, arrogant, mediocre GEpigones F /Tchner, 0Thring and othersH "ho no" tal+ large in cultured German*, to treat -egel in same "a* as the bra)e $oses $endelssohn in <essing?s time treated Spino1a, i8e8, as a @dead dog8A > therefore openl* a)o"ed m*self the pupil of that might* thin+er, and e)en here and there, in the chapter on the theor* of )alue, coIuetted "ith the modes of e9pression peculiar to him8 'he m*stification "hich dialectic suffers in -egel?s hands, b* no means pre)ents him from being the first to present its general

13

(fter"ord to the Second German Edition (187:!

form of "or+ing in a comprehensi)e and conscious manner8 Bith him it is standing on its head8 >t must be turned right side up again, if *ou "ould disco)er the rational +ernel "ithin the m*stical shell8 >n its m*stified form, dialectic became the fashion in German*, because it seemed to transfigure and to glorif* the e9isting state of things8 >n its rational form it is a scandal and abomination to bourgeoisdom and its doctrinaire professors, because it includes in its comprehension and affirmati)e recognition of the e9isting state of things, at the same time also, the recognition of the negation of that state, of its ine)itable brea+ing up; because it regards e)er* historicall* de)eloped social form as in fluid mo)ement, and therefore ta+es into account its transient nature not less than its momentar* e9istence; because it lets nothing impose upon it, and is in its essence critical and re)olutionar*8 'he contradictions inherent in the mo)ement of capitalist societ* impress themsel)es upon the practical bourgeois most stri+ingl* in the changes of the periodic c*cle, through "hich modern industr* runs, and "hose cro"ning point is the uni)ersal crisis8 'hat crisis is once again approaching, although as *et but in its preliminar* stage; and b* the uni)ersalit* of its theatre and the intensit* of its action it "ill drum dialectics e)en into the heads of the mushroom4upstarts of the ne", hol* #russo4German empire8 Karl Marx <ondon Lanuar* 6 , 187:

Afterword to the French Edition (187!)


$r8 L8 &o* set himself the tas+ of producing a )ersion that "ould be as e9act and e)en literal as possible, and has scrupulousl* fulfilled it8 /ut his )er* scrupulosit* has compelled me to modif* his te9t, "ith a )ie" to rendering it more intelligible to the reader8 'hese alterations, introduced from da* to da*, as the boo+ "as published in parts, "ere not made "ith eIual care and "ere bound to result in a lac+ of harmon* in st*le8 -a)ing once underta+en this "or+ of re)ision, > "as led to appl* it also to the basic original te9t (the second German edition!, to simplif* some arguments, to complete others, to gi)e additional historical or statistical material, to add critical suggestions, etc8 -ence, "hate)er the literar* defects of this French edition ma* be, it possesses a scientific )alue independent of the original and should be consulted e)en b* readers familiar "ith German8 /elo" > gi)e the passages in the (fter"ord to the second German edition "hich treat of the de)elopment of #olitical Econom* in German* and the method emplo*ed in the present "or+8 Karl Marx <ondon (pril 68, 1873

Preface to the "hird German Edition (188 )


$ar9 "as not destined to get this, the third, edition read* for press himself8 'he po"erful thin+er, to "hose greatness e)en his opponents no" ma+e obeisance, died on $arch 1 , 188:8 %pon me "ho in $ar9 lost the best, the truest friend > had F and had for fort* *ears F the friend to "hom > am more indebted than can be e9pressed in "ords F upon me no" de)ol)ed the dut* of attending to the publication of this third edition, as "ell as of the second )olume, "hich $ar9 had left behind in manuscript8 > must no" account here to the reader for the "a* in "hich > discharged the first part of m* dut*8 >t "as $ar9Us original intention to re4"rite a great part of the te9t of ;olume >, to formulate man* theoretical points more e9actl*, insert ne" ones and bring historical and statistical materials up to date8 /ut his ailing condition and the urgent need to do the final editing of ;olume >> induced him to gi)e up this scheme8 =nl* the most necessar* alterations "ere to be made, onl* the insertions "hich the French edition (@<e 5apital8A #ar .arl $ar98 #aris, <achMtre 187:! alread* contained, "ere to be put in8 (mong the boo+s left b* $ar9 there "as a German cop* "hich he himself had corrected here and there and pro)ided "ith references to the French edition; also a French cop* in "hich he had indicated the e9act passages to be used8 'hese alterations and additions are confined, "ith fe" e9ceptions, to the last GEngl8 ed8: second lastH part of the boo+: @'he (ccumulation of 5apital8A -ere the pre)ious te9t follo"ed the original draft more closel* than else"here, "hile the preceding sections had been gone o)er more thoroughl*8 'he st*le "as therefore more )i)acious, more of a single cast, but also more careless, studded "ith (nglicisms and in parts unclear; there "ere gaps here and there in the presentation of arguments, some important particulars being merel* alluded to8 Bith regard to the st*le, $ar9 had himself thoroughl* re)ised se)eral sub4sections and thereb* had indicated to me here, as "ell as in numerous oral suggestions, the length to "hich > could go in eliminating English technical terms and other (nglicisms8 $ar9 "ould in an* e)ent ha)e gone o)er the additions and supplemental te9ts and ha)e replaced the smooth French "ith his o"n terse German; > had to be satisfied, "hen transferring them, "ith bringing them into ma9imum harmon* "ith the original te9t8 'hus not a single "ord "as changed in this third edition "ithout m* firm con)iction that the author "ould ha)e altered it himself8 >t "ould ne)er occur to me to introduce into @0as .apitalA the current Dargon in "hich German economists are "ont to e9press themsel)es F that gibberish in "hich, for instance, one "ho for cash has others gi)e him their labour is called a labour4gi)er ((rbeitgeber! and one "hose labour is ta+en a"a* from him for "ages is called a labour4ta+er ((rbeitnehmer!8 >n French, too, the "ord @tra)ailA is used in e)er*4da* life in the sense of @occupation8A /ut the French "ould rightl* consider an* economist cra1* should he call the capitalist a donneur de tra)ail (a labour4gi)er! or the "or+er a rece)eur de tra)ail (a labour4ta+er!8 Cor ha)e > ta+en the libert* to con)ert the English coins and mone*s, measures and "eights used throughout the te9t to their ne"4German eIui)alents8 Bhen the first edition appeared there "ere as man* +inds of measures and "eights in German* as there are da*s in the *ear8 /esides there "ere t"o +inds of mar+s (the &eichsmar+ e9isted at the time onl* in the imagination of Soetbeer, "ho had in)ented it in the late thirties!, t"o +inds of gulden and at least three +inds of taler, including one called neues ,"eidrittel8 >n the natural sciences the metric s*stem pre)ailed, in the

18

#reface to the 'hird German Edition (188:!

"orld mar+et F English measures and "eights8 %nder such circumstances English units of measure "ere Iuite natural for a boo+ "hich had to ta+e its factual proofs almost e9clusi)el* from /ritish industrial relations8 'he last4named reason is decisi)e e)en to4da*, especiall* because the corresponding relations in the "orld mar+et ha)e hardl* changed and English "eights and measures almost completel* control precisel* the +e* industries, iron and cotton8 >n conclusion a fe" "ords on $ar9Us art of Iuotation, "hich is so little understood8 Bhen the* are pure statements of fact or descriptions, the Iuotations, from the English /lue boo+s, for e9ample, ser)e of course as simple documentar* proof8 /ut this is not so "hen the theoretical )ie"s of other economists are cited8 -ere the Iuotation is intended merel* to state "here, "hen and b* "hom an economic idea concei)ed in the course of de)elopment "as first clearl* enunciated8 -ere the onl* consideration is that the economic conception in Iuestion must be of some significance to the histor* of science, that it is the more or less adeIuate theoretical e9pression of the economic situation of its time8 /ut "hether this conception still possesses an* absolute or relati)e )alidit* from the standpoint of the author or "hether it alread* has become "holl* past histor* is Iuite immaterial8 -ence these Iuotations are onl* a running commentar* to the te9t, a commentar* borro"ed from the histor* of economic science, and establish the dates and originators of certain of the more important ad)ances in economic theor*8 (nd that "as a )er* necessar* thing in a science "hose historians ha)e so far distinguished themsel)es onl* b* tendentious ignorance characteristic of careerists8 >t "ill no" be understandable "h* $ar9, in consonance "ith the (fter"ord to the second edition, onl* in )er* e9ceptional cases had occasion to Iuote German economists8 'here is hope that the second )olume "ill appear in the course of 188 8 !rederic" En els <ondon Co)ember 7, 188:

Preface to the En#$ish Edition (En#e$s, 1886)


'he publication of an English )ersion of @0as .apitalA needs no apolog*8 =n the contrar*, an e9planation might be e9pected "h* this English )ersion has been dela*ed until no", seeing that for some *ears past the theories ad)ocated in this boo+ ha)e been constantl* referred to, attac+ed and defended, interpreted and misinterpreted, in the periodical press and the current literature of both England and (merica8 Bhen, soon after the authorUs death in 188:, it became e)ident that an English edition of the "or+ "as reall* reIuired, $r8 Samuel $oore, for man* *ears a friend of $ar9 and of the present "riter, and than "hom, perhaps, no one is more con)ersant "ith the boo+ itself, consented to underta+e the translation "hich the literar* e9ecutors of $ar9 "ere an9ious to la* before the public8 >t "as understood that > should compare the $S8 "ith the original "or+, and suggest such alterations as > might deem ad)isable8 Bhen, b* and b*, it "as found that $r8 $ooreUs professional occupations pre)ented him from finishing the translation as Iuic+l* as "e all desired, "e gladl* accepted 0r8 ()elingUs offer to underta+e a portion of the "or+; at the same time $rs8 ()eling, $ar9Us *oungest daughter, offered to chec+ the Iuotations and to restore the original te9t of the numerous passages ta+en from English authors and /lue boo+s and translated b* $ar9 into German8 'his has been done throughout, "ith but a fe" una)oidable e9ceptions8 'he follo"ing portions of the boo+ ha)e been translated b* 0r8 ()eling: (>! 5hapters O8 ('he Bor+ing da*!, and O>8 (&ate and $ass of Surplus )alue!; (6! #art ;>8 (Bages, comprising 5hapters O>O8 to OO>>8!; (:! from 5hapter OO>;8, Section (5ircumstances that Pc8! to the end of the boo+, comprising the latter part of 5hapter OO>;8,8 5hapter OO;8, and the "hole of #art ;>>>8 (5hapters OO;>8 to OOO>>>!; ( ! the t"o (uthorUs prefaces8 (ll the rest of the boo+ has been done b* $r8 $oore8 Bhile, thus, each of the translators is responsible for his share of the "or+ onl*, > bear a Doint responsibilit* for the "hole8 'he third German edition, "hich has been made the basis of our "or+ throughout, "as prepared b* me, in 188:, "ith the assistance of notes left b* the author, indicating the passages of the second edition to be replaced b* designated passages, from the French te9t published in 187:8 1 'he alterations thus effected in the te9t of the second edition generall* coincided "ith changes prescribed b* $ar9 in a set of $S8 instructions for an English translation that "as planned, about ten *ears ago, in (merica, but abandoned chiefl* for "ant of a fit and proper translator8 'his $S8 "as placed at our disposal b* our old friend $r8 F8 (8 Sorge of -obo+en C8 L8 >t designates some further interpolations from the French edition; but, being so man* *ears older than the final instructions for the third edition, > did not consider m*self at libert* to ma+e use of it other"ise than sparingl*, and chiefl* in cases "here it helped us o)er difficulties8 >n the same "a*, the French te9t has been referred to in most of the difficult passages, as an indicator of "hat the author himself "as prepared to sacrifice "here)er something of the full import of the original had to be sacrificed in the rendering8 'here is, ho"e)er, one difficult* "e could not spare the reader: the use of certain terms in a sense different from "hat the* ha)e, not onl* in common life, but in ordinar* #olitical Econom*8 /ut this "as una)oidable8 E)er* ne" aspect of a science in)ol)es a re)olution in the technical terms of that science8 'his is best sho"n b* chemistr*, "here the "hole of the terminolog* is radicall* changed about once in t"ent* *ears, and "here *ou "ill hardl* find a single organic compound that has not gone through a "hole series of different names8 #olitical Econom* has generall* been content to ta+e, Dust as the* "ere, the terms of commercial and industrial life, and to operate

67

#reface to the English Edition (Engels 1886!

"ith them, entirel* failing to see that b* so doing, it confined itself "ithin the narro" circle of ideas e9pressed b* those terms8 'hus, though perfectl* a"are that both profits and rent are but sub4di)isions, fragments of that unpaid part of the product "hich the labourer has to suppl* to his emplo*er (its first appropriator, though not its ultimate e9clusi)e o"ner!, *et e)en classical #olitical Econom* ne)er "ent be*ond the recei)ed notions of profits and rents, ne)er e9amined this unpaid part of the product (called b* $ar9 surplus4product! in its integrit* as a "hole, and therefore ne)er arri)ed at a clear comprehension, either of its origin and nature, or of the la"s that regulate the subseIuent distribution of its )alue8 Similarl* all industr*, not agricultural or handicraft, is indiscriminatel* comprised in the term of manufacture, and thereb* the distinction is obliterated bet"een t"o great and essentiall* different periods of economic histor*: the period of manufacture proper, based on the di)ision of manual labour, and the period of modern industr* based on machiner*8 >t is, ho"e)er, self4 e)ident that a theor* "hich )ie"s modern capitalist production as a mere passing stage in the economic histor* of man+ind, must ma+e use of terms different from those habitual to "riters "ho loo+ upon that form of production as imperishable and final8 ( "ord respecting the authorUs method of Iuoting ma* not be out of place8 >n the maDorit* of cases, the Iuotations ser)e, in the usual "a*, as documentar* e)idence in support of assertions made in the te9t8 /ut in man* instances, passages from economic "riters are Iuoted in order to indicate "hen, "here, and b* "hom a certain proposition "as for the first time clearl* enunciated8 'his is done in cases "here the proposition Iuoted is of importance as being a more or less adeIuate e9pression of the conditions of social production and e9change pre)alent at the time, and Iuite irrespecti)e of $ar9Us recognition, or other"ise, of its general )alidit*8 'hese Iuotations, therefore, supplement the te9t b* a running commentar* ta+en from the histor* of the science8 =ur translation comprises the first boo+ of the "or+ onl*8 /ut this first boo+ is in a great measure a "hole in itself, and has for t"ent* *ears ran+ed as an independent "or+8 'he second boo+, edited in German b* me, in 1883, is decidedl* incomplete "ithout the third, "hich cannot be published before the end of 18878 Bhen /oo+ >>>8 has been brought out in the original German, it "ill then be soon enough to thin+ about preparing an English edition of both8 @0as .apitalA is often called, on the 5ontinent, @the /ible of the "or+ing class8A 'hat the conclusions arri)ed at in this "or+ are dail* more and more becoming the fundamental principles of the great "or+ing4 class mo)ement, not onl* in German* and S"it1erland, but in France, in -olland and /elgium, in (merica, and e)en in >tal* and Spain, that e)er*"here the "or+ing class more and more recognises, in these conclusions, the most adeIuate e9pression of its condition and of its aspirations, nobod* acIuainted "ith that mo)ement "ill den*8 (nd in England, too, the theories of $ar9, e)en at this moment, e9ercise a po"erful influence upon the socialist mo)ement "hich is spreading in the ran+s of @culturedA people no less than in those of the "or+ing class8 /ut that is not all8 'he time is rapidl* approaching "hen a thorough e9amination of EnglandUs economic position "ill impose itself as an irresistible national necessit*8 'he "or+ing of the industrial s*stem of this countr*, impossible "ithout a constant and rapid e9tension of production, and therefore of mar+ets, is coming to a dead stop8 Free 'rade has e9hausted its resources; e)en $anchester doubts this its Iuondam economic gospel86 Foreign industr*, rapidl* de)eloping, stares English production in the face e)er*"here, not onl* in protected, but also in neutral mar+ets, and e)en on this side of the 5hannel8 Bhile the producti)e po"er increases in a geometric, the e9tension of mar+ets proceeds at best in an arithmetic ratio8 'he decennial c*cle of stagnation, prosperit*, o)er4production and crisis, e)er recurrent from 1863 to 1867, seems indeed to ha)e run its course; but onl* to land us in the

61

#reface to the English Edition (Engels 1886!

slough of despond of a permanent and chronic depression8 'he sighed for period of prosperit* "ill not come; as often as "e seem to percei)e its heralding s*mptoms, so often do the* again )anish into air8 $ean"hile, each succeeding "inter brings up afresh the great Iuestion, @"hat to do "ith the unemplo*edV; but "hile the number of the unemplo*ed +eeps s"elling from *ear to *ear, there is nobod* to ans"er that Iuestion; and "e can almost calculate the moment "hen the unemplo*ed losing patience "ill ta+e their o"n fate into their o"n hands8 Surel*, at such a moment, the )oice ought to be heard of a man "hose "hole theor* is the result of a lifelong stud* of the economic histor* and condition of England, and "hom that stud* led to the conclusion that, at least in Europe, England is the onl* countr* "here the ine)itable social re)olution might be effected entirel* b* peaceful and legal means8 -e certainl* ne)er forgot to add that he hardl* e9pected the English ruling classes to submit, "ithout a @pro4sla)er* rebellion,A to this peaceful and legal re)olution8

Preface to the Fo%rth German Edition (En#e$s, 18&')


'he fourth edition reIuired that > should establish in final form, as nearl* as possible, both te9t and footnotes8 'he follo"ing brief e9planation "ill sho" ho" > ha)e fulfilled this tas+8 (fter again comparing the French edition and $ar9?s manuscript remar+s > ha)e made some further additions to the German te9t from that translation8 'he* "ill be found on p8 87 (:rd edition, p8 88! Gpresent edition, pp8 117418H, pp8 38467 (:rd edition, pp8 372417! Gpresent edition, pp8 66463H,i pp8 3 7431 (:rd edition, p8 677! Gpresent edition, pp8 3 8431H, pp8 32142: (:rd edition, p8 6 ! Gpresent edition, 387482H and p8 326 (:rd edition, p8 6 8! Gpresent edition, p8 321H in Cote 18 > ha)e also follo"ed the e9ample of the French and English editions b* putting the long footnote on the miners into the te9t (:rd edition, pp8 3724 13; th edition, pp8 61467! Gpresent edition, pp8 63471H8 =ther small alterations are of a purel* technical nature8 Further, > ha)e added a fe" more e9planator* notes, especiall* "here changed historical conditions seemed to demand this8 (ll these additional notes are enclosed in sIuare brac+ets and mar+ed either "ith m* initials or @08 -8A 6 $ean"hile a complete re)ision of the numerous Iuotations had been made necessar* b* the publication of the English edition8 For this edition $ar9?s *oungest daughter, Eleanor, undertoo+ to compare all the Iuotations "ith their originals, so that those ta+en from English sources, "hich constitute the )ast maDorit*, are gi)en there not as re4translations from the German but in the original English form >n preparing the fourth edition it "as therefore incumbent upon me to consult this te9t8 'he comparison re)ealed )arious small inaccuracies8 #age numbers "rongl* indicated, due partl* to mista+es in cop*ing from noteboo+s, and partl* to the accumulated misprints of three editions; misplaced Iuotation or omission mar+s, "hich cannot be a)oided "hen a mass of Iuotations is copied from note4boo+ e9tracts; here and there some rather unhapp* translation of a "ord; particular passages Iuoted from the old #aris noteboo+s of 18 :4 3, "hen $ar9 did not +no" English and "as reading English economists in French translations, so that the double translation *ielded a slightl* different shade of meaning, e8g8, in the case of Steuart, %re, etc8, "here the English te9t had no" to be used F and other similar instances of trifling inaccurac* or negligence8 /ut an*one "ho compares the fourth edition "ith the pre)ious ones can con)ince himself that all this laborious process of emendation has not produced the smallest change in the boo+ "orth spea+ing of8 'here "as onl* one Iuotation "hich could not be traced F the one from &ichard Lones ( th edition, p8 366, note 7!8 $ar9 probabl* slipped up "hen "riting do"n the title of the boo+8: (ll the other Iuotations retain their cogenc* in full, or ha)e enhanced it due to their present e9act form8 -ere, ho"e)er, > am obliged to re)ert to an old stor*8 > +no" of onl* one case in "hich the accurac* of a Iuotation gi)en b* $ar9 has been called in Iuestion8 /ut as the issue dragged be*ond his lifetime > cannot "ell ignore it here8 =n $arch 7, 1876, there appeared in the /erlin 5oncordia, organ of the German $anufacturers? (ssociation, an anon*mous article entitled: @-o" .arl $ar9 Kuotes8A >t "as here asserted, "ith an effer)escence of moral indignation and unparliamentar* language, that the Iuotation from Gladstone?s /udget Speech of (pril 16, 186: (in the >naugural (ddress of the >nternational Bor+ingmen?s (ssociation, 186 , and repeated in @5apital,A ;ol8 >, p8 617, th edition; p8 671,

6:

#reface to the Fourth German Edition (Engels 1827!

:rd edition! Gpresent edition, p8 617H, had been falsified; that not a single "ord of the sentence: @this into9icating augmentation of "ealth and po"er 888 is 888 entirel* confined to classes of propert*A "as to be found in the (semi4official! stenographic report in -ansard8 @/ut this sentence is no"here to be found in Gladstone?s speech8 E9actl* the opposite is stated there8A (>n bold t*pe!: @'his sentence, both in form and substance, is a lie inserted b* $ar98V $ar9, to "hom the number of 5oncordia "as sent the follo"ing $a*, ans"ered the anon*mous author in the #ol"sstaat of Lune 1st8 (s he could not recall "hich ne"spaper report he had used for the Iuotation, he limited himself to citing, first the eIui)alent Iuotation from t"o English publications, and then the report in 'he 'imes, according to "hich Gladstone sa*s: @'hat is the state of the case as regards the "ealth of this countr*8 > must sa* for one, > should loo+ almost "ith apprehension and "ith pain upon this into9icating augmentation of "ealth and po"er, if it "ere m* belief that it "as confined to classes "ho are in eas* circumstances8 'his ta+es no cognisance at all of the condition of the labouring population8 'he augmentation > ha)e described and "hich is founded, > thin+, upon accurate returns, is an augmentation entirel* confined to classes possessed of propert*8A 'hus Gladstone sa*s here that he "ould be sorr* if it "ere so, but it is so: this into9icating augmentation of "ealth and po"er is entirel* confined to classes of propert*8 (nd as to the semi4 official -ansard, $ar9 goes on to sa*: @>n the )ersion "hich he after"ards manipulated G1urechtgestTmpertH, $r8 Gladstone "as astute enough to obliterate G"eg1upfuschenH this passage, "hich, coming from an English 5hancellor of the E9cheIuer, "as certainl* compromising8 'his, b* the "a*, is a traditional usage in the English parliament and not an in)ention gotten up b* little <as+er against /ebel8A 'he anon*mous "riter gets angrier and angrier8 >n his ans"er in 5oncordia, Lul* th, he s"eeps aside second4hand sources and demurel* suggests that it is the @customA to Iuote parliamentar* speeches from the stenographic report; adding, ho"e)er, that 'he 'imes report ("hich includes the @falsifiedA sentence! and the -ansard report ("hich omits it! are @substantiall* in complete agreement,A "hile 'he 'imes report li+e"ise contains @the e9act opposite to that notorious passage in the >naugural (ddress8A 'his fello" carefull* conceals the fact that 'he 'imes report e9plicitl* includes that self4same @notorious passage,A alongside of its alleged @opposite8A 0espite all this, ho"e)er, the anon*mous one feels that he is stuc+ fast and that onl* some ne" dodge can sa)e him8 'hus, "hilst his article bristles, as "e ha)e Dust sho"n, "ith @impudent mendacit*A and is interlarded "ith such edif*ing terms of abuse as @bad faith,A @dishonest*,A @l*ing allegation,A @that spurious Iuotation,A @impudent mendacit*,A @a Iuotation entirel* falsified,A @this falsification,A @simpl* infamous,A etc8, he finds it necessar* to di)ert the issue to another domain and therefore promises @to e9plain in a second article the meaning "hich "e (the non4mendacious anon*mous one! attribute to the content of Gladstone?s "ords8A (s if his particular opinion, of no decisi)e )alue as it is, had an*thing "hate)er to do "ith the matter8 'his second article "as printed in 5oncordia on Lul* 11th8 $ar9 replied again in the #ol"sstaat of (ugust 7th no" gi)ing also the reports of the passage in Iuestion from the $orning Star and the $orning (d)ertiser of (pril 17, 186:8 (ccording to both reports Gladstone said that he "ould loo+ "ith apprehension, etc8, upon this into9icating augmentation of "ealth and po"er if he belie)ed it to be confined to @classes in eas* circumstances8A /ut this augmentation "as in fact @entirel* confined to classes possessed of propert*8A So these reports too reproduced "ord for "ord the sentence alleged to ha)e been @l*ingl* inserted8A $ar9 further established once more, b* a comparison of 'he 'imes and the -ansard te9ts, that this sentence, "hich three ne"spaper reports of identical content, appearing independentl* of one another the ne9t morning, pro)ed to ha)e been reall* uttered, "as missing

#reface to the Fourth German Edition (Engels 1827!

from the -ansard report, re)ised according to the familiar @custom,A and that Gladstone, to use $ar9?s "ords, @had after"ards conDured it a"a*8A >n conclusion $ar9 stated that he had no time for further intercourse "ith the anon*mous one8 'he latter also seems to ha)e had enough, at an* rate $ar9 recei)ed no further issues of 5oncordia8 Bith this the matter appeared to be dead and buried8 'rue, once or t"ice later on there reached us, from persons in touch "ith the %ni)ersit* of 5ambridge, m*sterious rumours of an unspea+able literar* crime "hich $ar9 "as supposed to ha)e committed in @5apital,A but despite all in)estigation nothing more definite could be learned8 'hen, on Co)ember 62, 188:, eight months after $ar9?s death, there appeared in 'he 'imes a letter headed 'rinit* 5ollege, 5ambridge, and signed Sedle* 'a*lor, in "hich this little man, "ho dabbles in the mildest sort of co4operati)e affairs, sei1ing upon some chance prete9t or other, at last enlightened us, not onl* concerning those )ague 5ambridge rumours, but also the anon*mous one in 5oncordia8 @Bhat appears e9tremel* singular,A sa*s the little man from 'rinit* 5ollege, @is that it "as reser)ed for #rofessor /rentano (then of the %ni)ersit* of /reslau, no" of that of Strassburg! to e9pose888 the bad faith "hich had manifestl* dictated the citation made from $r8 Gladstone?s speech in the G>nauguralH (ddress8 -err .arl $ar9, "ho 888 attempted to defend the citation, had the hardihood, in the deadl* shifts to "hich /rentano?s masterl* conduct of the attac+ speedil* reduced him, to assert that $r8 Gladstone had Wmanipulated? the report of his speech in 'he 'imes of (pril 17, 186:, before it appeared in -ansard, in order to Wobliterate? a passage "hich W"as certainl* compromising? for an English 5hancellor of the E9cheIuer8 =n /rentano?s sho"ing, b* a detailed comparison of te9ts, that the reports of 'he 'imes and of -ansard agreed in utterl* e9cluding the meaning "hich craftil* isolated Iuotation had put upon $r8 Gladstone?s "ords, $ar9 "ithdre" from further contro)ers* under the plea of W"ant of time8?A So that "as at the bottom of the "hole businessQ (nd thus "as the anon*mous campaign of -err /rentano in 5oncordia gloriousl* reflected in the producti)el* co4operating imagination of 5ambridge8 'hus he stood, s"ord in hand, and thus he battled, in his @masterl* conduct of the attac+,A this St8 George of the German $anufacturers? (ssociation, "hilst the infernal dragon $ar9, @in deadl* shifts,A @speedil*A breathed his last at his feet8 (ll this (riostian battle scene, ho"e)er, onl* ser)es to conceal the dodges of our St8 George8 -ere there is no longer tal+ of @l*ing insertionA or @falsification,A but of @craftil* isolated Iuotation8A 'he "hole issue "as shifted, and St8 George and his 5ambridge sIuire )er* "ell +ne" "h*8 Eleanor $ar9 replied in the monthl* Dournal 'o4da* (Februar* 188 !, as 'he 'imes refused to publish her letter8 She once more focussed the debate on the sole Iuestion at issue: had $ar9 @l*ingl* insertedA that sentence or notE 'o this $r8 Sedle* 'a*lor ans"ered that @the Iuestion "hether a particular sentence did or did not occur in $r8 Gladstone?s speechA had been, in his opinion, @of )er* subordinate importanceA in the /rentano4$ar9 contro)ers*, @compared to the issue "hether the Iuotation in dispute "as made "ith the intention of con)e*ing, or of per)erting $r8 Gladstone?s meaning8A -e then admits that 'he 'imes report contains @a )erbal contrariet*V; but, if the conte9t is rightl* interpreted, i8e8, in the Gladstonian <iberal sense, it sho"s "hat $r8 Gladstone meant to sa*8 ('o4da*, $arch, 188 8! 'he most comic point here is that our little 5ambridge man no" insists upon Iuoting the speech not from -ansard, as, according to the anon*mous /rentano, it is @customar*A to do, but from 'he 'imes report, "hich the same /rentano had characterised as @necessaril* bungling8A Caturall* so, for in -ansard the )e9atious sentence is missing8 Eleanor $ar9 had no difficult* (in the same issue of 'o4da*! in dissol)ing all this argumentation into thin air8 Either $r8 'a*lor had read the contro)ers* of 1876, in "hich case he "as no"

63

#reface to the Fourth German Edition (Engels 1827!

ma+ing not onl* @l*ing insertionsA but also @l*ingA suppressions; or he had not read it and ought to remain silent8 >n either case it "as certain that he did not dare to maintain for a moment the accusation of his friend /rentano that $ar9 had made a @l*ingA addition8 =n the contrar*, $ar9, it no" seems, had not l*ingl* added but suppressed an important sentence8 /ut this same sentence is Iuoted on page 3 of the >naugural (ddress, a fe" lines before the alleged @l*ing insertion8A (nd as to the @contrariet*A in Gladstone?s speech, is it not $ar9 himself, "ho in @5apital,A p8 618 (:rd edition, p8 676!, note 173 Gpresent edition, p8 611, Cote 1H, refers to @the continual cr*ing contradictions in Gladstone?s /udget speeches of 186: and 186 VE =nl* he does not presume X la $r8 Sedle* 'a*lor to resol)e them into complacent <iberal sentiments8 Eleanor $ar9, in concluding her repl*, finall* sums up as follo"s: @$ar9 has not suppressed an*thing "orth Iuoting, neither has he Wl*ingl*? added an*thing8 /ut he has restored, rescued from obli)ion, a particular sentence of one of $r8 Gladstone?s speeches, a sentence "hich had indubitabl* been pronounced, but "hich someho" or other had found its "a* F out of -ansard8A Bith that $r8 Sedle* 'a*lor too had had enough, and the result of this "hole professorial cob"eb, spun out o)er t"o decades and t"o great countries, is that nobod* has since dared to cast an* other aspersion upon $ar9?s literar* honest*; "hilst $r8 Sedle* 'a*lor, no doubt, "ill hereafter put as little confidence in the literar* "ar bulletins of -err /rentano as -err /rentano "ill in the papal infallibilit* of -ansard8 !rederic" En els <ondon8 Lune 638 1827

Part 1: Commodities and Money


(ha)ter 1* (ommodities
Section 1: The Two Factors of a Commodit : !se"Value and Value #The Substance of Value and the $a%nitude of Value&
'he "ealth of those societies in "hich the capitalist mode of production pre)ails, presents itself as @an immense accumulation of commodities,A 1 its unit being a single commodit*8 =ur in)estigation must therefore begin "ith the anal*sis of a commodit*8 ( commodit* is, in the first place, an obDect outside us, a thing that b* its properties satisfies human "ants of some sort or another8 'he nature of such "ants, "hether, for instance, the* spring from the stomach or from fanc*, ma+es no difference8 6 Ceither are "e here concerned to +no" ho" the obDect satisfies these "ants, "hether directl* as means of subsistence, or indirectl* as means of production8 E)er* useful thing, as iron, paper, Pc8, ma* be loo+ed at from the t"o points of )ie" of Iualit* and Iuantit*8 >t is an assemblage of man* properties, and ma* therefore be of use in )arious "a*s8 'o disco)er the )arious uses of things is the "or+ of histor*8 : So also is the establishment of sociall*4recogni1ed standards of measure for the Iuantities of these useful obDects8 'he di)ersit* of these measures has its origin partl* in the di)erse nature of the obDects to be measured, partl* in con)ention8 'he utilit* of a thing ma+es it a use )alue8 /ut this utilit* is not a thing of air8 /eing limited b* the ph*sical properties of the commodit*, it has no e9istence apart from that commodit*8 ( commodit*, such as iron, corn, or a diamond, is therefore, so far as it is a material thing, a use )alue, something useful8 'his propert* of a commodit* is independent of the amount of labour reIuired to appropriate its useful Iualities8 Bhen treating of use )alue, "e al"a*s assume to be dealing "ith definite Iuantities, such as do1ens of "atches, *ards of linen, or tons of iron8 'he use )alues of commodities furnish the material for a special stud*, that of the commercial +no"ledge of commodities83 %se )alues become a realit* onl* b* use or consumption: the* also constitute the substance of all "ealth, "hate)er ma* be the social form of that "ealth8 >n the form of societ* "e are about to consider, the* are, in addition, the material depositories of e9change )alue8 E9change )alue, at first sight, presents itself as a Iuantitati)e relation, as the proportion in "hich )alues in use of one sort are e9changed for those of another sort, 6 a relation constantl* changing "ith time and place8 -ence e9change )alue appears to be something accidental and purel* relati)e, and conseIuentl* an intrinsic )alue, i$e$, an e9change )alue that is inseparabl* connected "ith, inherent in commodities, seems a contradiction in terms8 7 <et us consider the matter a little more closel*8 ( gi)en commodit*, e$ $, a Iuarter of "heat is e9changed for 9 blac+ing, * sil+, or 1 gold, Pc8 F in short, for other commodities in the most different proportions8 >nstead of one e9change )alue, the "heat has, therefore, a great man*8 /ut since 9 blac+ing, * sil+, or 1 gold Pc8, each represents the e9change )alue of one Iuarter of "heat, 9 blac+ing, * sil+, 1 gold, Pc8, must, as e9change

67

5hapter 1

)alues, be replaceable b* each other, or eIual to each other8 'herefore, first: the )alid e9change )alues of a gi)en commodit* e9press something eIual; secondl*, e9change )alue, generall*, is onl* the mode of e9pression, the phenomenal form, of something contained in it, *et distinguishable from it8 <et us ta+e t"o commodities, e$ $, corn and iron8 'he proportions in "hich the* are e9changeable, "hate)er those proportions ma* be, can al"a*s be represented b* an eIuation in "hich a gi)en Iuantit* of corn is eIuated to some Iuantit* of iron: e$ $, 1 Iuarter corn Y 9 c"t8 iron8 Bhat does this eIuation tell usE >t tells us that in t"o different things F in 1 Iuarter of corn and 9 c"t8 of iron, there e9ists in eIual Iuantities something common to both8 'he t"o things must therefore be eIual to a third, "hich in itself is neither the one nor the other8 Each of them, so far as it is e9change )alue, must therefore be reducible to this third8 ( simple geometrical illustration "ill ma+e this clear8 >n order to calculate and compare the areas of rectilinear figures, "e decompose them into triangles8 /ut the area of the triangle itself is e9pressed b* something totall* different from its )isible figure, namel*, b* half the product of the base multiplied b* the altitude8 >n the same "a* the e9change )alues of commodities must be capable of being e9pressed in terms of something common to them all, of "hich thing the* represent a greater or less Iuantit*8 'his common @somethingA cannot be either a geometrical, a chemical, or an* other natural propert* of commodities8 Such properties claim our attention onl* in so far as the* affect the utilit* of those commodities, ma+e them use )alues8 /ut the e9change of commodities is e)identl* an act characterised b* a total abstraction from use )alue8 'hen one use )alue is Dust as good as another, pro)ided onl* it be present in sufficient Iuantit*8 =r, as old /arbon sa*s, @one sort of "ares are as good as another, if the )alues be eIual8 'here is no difference or distinction in things of eIual )alue 888 (n hundred pounds? "orth of lead or iron, is of as great )alue as one hundred pounds? "orth of sil)er or gold8A 8 (s use )alues, commodities are, abo)e all, of different Iualities, but as e9change )alues the* are merel* different Iuantities, and conseIuentl* do not contain an atom of use )alue8 >f then "e lea)e out of consideration the use )alue of commodities, the* ha)e onl* one common propert* left, that of being products of labour8 /ut e)en the product of labour itself has undergone a change in our hands8 >f "e ma+e abstraction from its use )alue, "e ma+e abstraction at the same time from the material elements and shapes that ma+e the product a use )alue; "e see in it no longer a table, a house, *arn, or an* other useful thing8 >ts e9istence as a material thing is put out of sight8 Ceither can it an* longer be regarded as the product of the labour of the Doiner, the mason, the spinner, or of an* other definite +ind of producti)e labour8 (long "ith the useful Iualities of the products themsel)es, "e put out of sight both the useful character of the )arious +inds of labour embodied in them, and the concrete forms of that labour; there is nothing left but "hat is common to them all; all are reduced to one and the same sort of labour, human labour in the abstract8 <et us no" consider the residue of each of these products; it consists of the same unsubstantial realit* in each, a mere congelation of homogeneous human labour, of labour po"er e9pended "ithout regard to the mode of its e9penditure8 (ll that these things no" tell us is, that human labour po"er has been e9pended in their production, that human labour is embodied in them8 Bhen loo+ed at as cr*stals of this social substance, common to them all, the* are F ;alues8 Be ha)e seen that "hen commodities are e9changed, their e9change )alue manifests itself as something totall* independent of their use )alue8 /ut if "e abstract from their use )alue, there remains their ;alue as defined abo)e8 'herefore, the common substance that manifests itself in the e9change )alue of commodities, "hene)er the* are e9changed, is their )alue8 'he progress of

68

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our in)estigation "ill sho" that e9change )alue is the onl* form in "hich the )alue of commodities can manifest itself or be e9pressed8 For the present, ho"e)er, "e ha)e to consider the nature of )alue independentl* of this, its form8 ( use )alue, or useful article, therefore, has )alue onl* because human labour in the abstract has been embodied or materialised in it8 -o", then, is the magnitude of this )alue to be measuredE #lainl*, b* the Iuantit* of the )alue4creating substance, the labour, contained in the article8 'he Iuantit* of labour, ho"e)er, is measured b* its duration, and labour time in its turn finds its standard in "ee+s, da*s, and hours8 Some people might thin+ that if the )alue of a commodit* is determined b* the Iuantit* of labour spent on it, the more idle and uns+ilful the labourer, the more )aluable "ould his commodit* be, because more time "ould be reIuired in its production8 'he labour, ho"e)er, that forms the substance of )alue, is homogeneous human labour, e9penditure of one uniform labour po"er8 'he total labour po"er of societ*, "hich is embodied in the sum total of the )alues of all commodities produced b* that societ*, counts here as one homogeneous mass of human labour po"er, composed though it be of innumerable indi)idual units8 Each of these units is the same as an* other, so far as it has the character of the a)erage labour po"er of societ*, and ta+es effect as such; that is, so far as it reIuires for producing a commodit*, no more time than is needed on an a)erage, no more than is sociall* necessar*8 'he labour time sociall* necessar* is that reIuired to produce an article under the normal conditions of production, and "ith the a)erage degree of s+ill and intensit* pre)alent at the time8 'he introduction of po"er4looms into England probabl* reduced b* one4half the labour reIuired to "ea)e a gi)en Iuantit* of *arn into cloth8 'he hand4 loom "ea)ers, as a matter of fact, continued to reIuire the same time as before; but for all that, the product of one hour of their labour represented after the change onl* half an hour?s social labour, and conseIuentl* fell to one4half its former )alue8 Be see then that that "hich determines the magnitude of the )alue of an* article is the amount of labour sociall* necessar*, or the labour time sociall* necessar* for its production8 2 Each indi)idual commodit*, in this conne9ion, is to be considered as an a)erage sample of its class8 17 5ommodities, therefore, in "hich eIual Iuantities of labour are embodied, or "hich can be produced in the same time, ha)e the same )alue8 'he )alue of one commodit* is to the )alue of an* other, as the labour time necessar* for the production of the one is to that necessar* for the production of the other8 @(s )alues, all commodities are onl* definite masses of congealed labour time8A11 'he )alue of a commodit* "ould therefore remain constant, if the labour time reIuired for its production also remained constant8 /ut the latter changes "ith e)er* )ariation in the producti)eness of labour8 'his producti)eness is determined b* )arious circumstances, amongst others, b* the a)erage amount of s+ill of the "or+men, the state of science, and the degree of its practical application, the social organisation of production, the e9tent and capabilities of the means of production, and b* ph*sical conditions8 For e9ample, the same amount of labour in fa)ourable seasons is embodied in 8 bushels of corn, and in unfa)ourable, onl* in four8 'he same labour e9tracts from rich mines more metal than from poor mines8 0iamonds are of )er* rare occurrence on the earth?s surface, and hence their disco)er* costs, on an a)erage, a great deal of labour time8 5onseIuentl* much labour is represented in a small compass8 Lacob doubts "hether gold has e)er been paid for at its full )alue8 'his applies still more to diamonds8 (ccording to Esch"ege, the total produce of the /ra1ilian diamond mines for the eight* *ears, ending in 186:, had not realised the price of one4and4a4half *ears? a)erage produce of the sugar and coffee plantations of the same countr*, although the diamonds cost much more labour, and therefore represented more )alue8 Bith richer mines, the same Iuantit* of labour "ould embod* itself in

62

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more diamonds, and their )alue "ould fall8 >f "e could succeed at a small e9penditure of labour, in con)erting carbon into diamonds, their )alue might fall belo" that of bric+s8 >n general, the greater the producti)eness of labour, the less is the labour time reIuired for the production of an article, the less is the amount of labour cr*stallised in that article, and the less is its )alue; and vice vers%, the less the producti)eness of labour, the greater is the labour time reIuired for the production of an article, and the greater is its )alue8 'he )alue of a commodit*, therefore, )aries directl* as the Iuantit*, and in)ersel* as the producti)eness, of the labour incorporated in it8 Z ( thing can be a use )alue, "ithout ha)ing )alue8 'his is the case "hene)er its utilit* to man is not due to labour8 Such are air, )irgin soil, natural meado"s, Pc8 ( thing can be useful, and the product of human labour, "ithout being a commodit*8 Bhoe)er directl* satisfies his "ants "ith the produce of his o"n labour, creates, indeed, use )alues, but not commodities8 >n order to produce the latter, he must not onl* produce use )alues, but use )alues for others, social use )alues8 ((nd not onl* for others, "ithout more8 'he mediae)al peasant produced Iuit4rent4corn for his feudal lord and tithe4corn for his parson8 /ut neither the Iuit4rent4corn nor the tithe4corn became commodities b* reason of the fact that the* had been produced for others8 'o become a commodit* a product must be transferred to another, "hom it "ill ser)e as a use )alue, b* means of an e9change8!16 <astl* nothing can ha)e )alue, "ithout being an obDect of utilit*8 >f the thing is useless, so is the labour contained in it; the labour does not count as labour, and therefore creates no )alue8

Section ': The Twofold Character of the (abour )mbodied in Commodities


(t first sight a commodit* presented itself to us as a comple9 of t"o things F use )alue and e9change )alue8 <ater on, "e sa" also that labour, too, possesses the same t"ofold nature; for, so far as it finds e9pression in )alue, it does not possess the same characteristics that belong to it as a creator of use )alues8 > "as the first to point out and to e9amine criticall* this t"ofold nature of the labour contained in commodities8 (s this point is the pi)ot on "hich a clear comprehension of political econom* turns, "e must go more into detail8 <et us ta+e t"o commodities such as a coat and 17 *ards of linen, and let the former be double the )alue of the latter, so that, if 17 *ards of linen Y B, the coat Y 6B8 'he coat is a use )alue that satisfies a particular "ant8 >ts e9istence is the result of a special sort of producti)e acti)it*, the nature of "hich is determined b* its aim, mode of operation, subDect, means, and result8 'he labour, "hose utilit* is thus represented b* the )alue in use of its product, or "hich manifests itself b* ma+ing its product a use )alue, "e call useful labour8 >n this connection "e consider onl* its useful effect8 (s the coat and the linen are t"o Iualitati)el* different use )alues, so also are the t"o forms of labour that produce them, tailoring and "ea)ing8 Bere these t"o obDects not Iualitati)el* different, not produced respecti)el* b* labour of different Iualit*, the* could not stand to each other in the relation of commodities8 5oats are not e9changed for coats, one use )alue is not e9changed for another of the same +ind8 'o all the different )arieties of )alues in use there correspond as man* different +inds of useful labour, classified according to the order, genus, species, and )ariet* to "hich the* belong in the
Z

'he follo"ing passage occurred onl* in the first edition8 @Co" "e +no" the substance of )alue8 >t is labour8 Be +no" the measure of its magnitude8 >t is labour time8 'he form, "hich stamps )alue as e9change4)alue, remains to be anal*sed8 /ut before this "e need to de)elop the characteristics "e ha)e alread* found some"hat more full*8A 'a+en from the #enguin edition of @5apital,A translated b* /en Fo"+es8

:7

5hapter 1

social di)ision of labour8 'his di)ision of labour is a necessar* condition for the production of commodities, but it does not follo", con)ersel*, that the production of commodities is a necessar* condition for the di)ision of labour8 >n the primiti)e >ndian communit* there is social di)ision of labour, "ithout production of commodities8 =r, to ta+e an e9ample nearer home, in e)er* factor* the labour is di)ided according to a s*stem, but this di)ision is not brought about b* the operati)es mutuall* e9changing their indi)idual products8 =nl* such products can become commodities "ith regard to each other, as result from different +inds of labour, each +ind being carried on independentl* and for the account of pri)ate indi)iduals8 'o resume, then: >n the use )alue of each commodit* there is contained useful labour, i$e$, producti)e acti)it* of a definite +ind and e9ercised "ith a definite aim8 %se )alues cannot confront each other as commodities, unless the useful labour embodied in them is Iualitati)el* different in each of them8 >n a communit*, the produce of "hich in general ta+es the form of commodities, i$e$, in a communit* of commodit* producers, this Iualitati)e difference bet"een the useful forms of labour that are carried on independentl* b* indi)idual producers, each on their o"n account, de)elops into a comple9 s*stem, a social di)ision of labour8 (n*ho", "hether the coat be "orn b* the tailor or b* his customer, in either case it operates as a use )alue8 Cor is the relation bet"een the coat and the labour that produced it altered b* the circumstance that tailoring ma* ha)e become a special trade, an independent branch of the social di)ision of labour8 Bhere)er the "ant of clothing forced them to it, the human race made clothes for thousands of *ears, "ithout a single man becoming a tailor8 /ut coats and linen, li+e e)er* other element of material "ealth that is not the spontaneous produce of Cature, must in)ariabl* o"e their e9istence to a special producti)e acti)it*, e9ercised "ith a definite aim, an acti)it* that appropriates particular nature4gi)en materials to particular human "ants8 So far therefore as labour is a creator of use )alue, is useful labour, it is a necessar* condition, independent of all forms of societ*, for the e9istence of the human race; it is an eternal nature4imposed necessit*, "ithout "hich there can be no material e9changes bet"een man and Cature, and therefore no life8 'he use )alues, coat, linen, Pc8, i$e$, the bodies of commodities, are combinations of t"o elements F matter and labour8 >f "e ta+e a"a* the useful labour e9pended upon them, a material substratum is al"a*s left, "hich is furnished b* Cature "ithout the help of man8 'he latter can "or+ onl* as Cature does, that is b* changing the form of matter8 1: Ca* more, in this "or+ of changing the form he is constantl* helped b* natural forces8 Be see, then, that labour is not the onl* source of material "ealth, of use )alues produced b* labour8 (s Billiam #ett* puts it, labour is its father and the earth its mother8 <et us no" pass from the commodit* considered as a use )alue to the )alue of commodities8 /* our assumption, the coat is "orth t"ice as much as the linen8 /ut this is a mere Iuantitati)e difference, "hich for the present does not concern us8 Be bear in mind, ho"e)er, that if the )alue of the coat is double that of 17 *ds of linen, 67 *ds of linen must ha)e the same )alue as one coat8 So far as the* are )alues, the coat and the linen are things of a li+e substance, obDecti)e e9pressions of essentiall* identical labour8 /ut tailoring and "ea)ing are, Iualitati)el*, different +inds of labour8 'here are, ho"e)er, states of societ* in "hich one and the same man does tailoring and "ea)ing alternatel*, in "hich case these t"o forms of labour are mere modifications of the labour of the same indi)idual, and not special and fi9ed functions of different persons, Dust as the coat "hich our tailor ma+es one da*, and the trousers "hich he ma+es another da*, impl* onl* a )ariation in the labour of one and the same indi)idual8 $oreo)er, "e see at a glance that, in our capitalist societ*, a gi)en portion of human labour is, in accordance "ith the )ar*ing demand, at one time supplied in the form of tailoring, at another in the form of "ea)ing8 'his change ma* possibl* not ta+e place "ithout friction, but ta+e place it must8

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#roducti)e acti)it*, if "e lea)e out of sight its special form, )i18, the useful character of the labour, is nothing but the e9penditure of human labour po"er8 'ailoring and "ea)ing, though Iualitati)el* different producti)e acti)ities, are each a producti)e e9penditure of human brains, ner)es, and muscles, and in this sense are human labour8 'he* are but t"o different modes of e9pending human labour po"er8 =f course, this labour po"er, "hich remains the same under all its modifications, must ha)e attained a certain pitch of de)elopment before it can be e9pended in a multiplicit* of modes8 /ut the )alue of a commodit* represents human labour in the abstract, the e9penditure of human labour in general8 (nd Dust as in societ*, a general or a ban+er pla*s a great part, but mere man, on the other hand, a )er* shabb* part, 1 so here "ith mere human labour8 >t is the e9penditure of simple labour po"er, i$e$, of the labour po"er "hich, on an a)erage, apart from an* special de)elopment, e9ists in the organism of e)er* ordinar* indi)idual8 Simple a)erage labour, it is true, )aries in character in different countries and at different times, but in a particular societ* it is gi)en8 S+illed labour counts onl* as simple labour intensified, or rather, as multiplied simple labour, a gi)en Iuantit* of s+illed being considered eIual to a greater Iuantit* of simple labour8 E9perience sho"s that this reduction is constantl* being made8 ( commodit* ma* be the product of the most s+illed labour, but its )alue, b* eIuating it to the product of simple uns+illed labour, represents a definite Iuantit* of the latter labour alone8 13 'he different proportions in "hich different sorts of labour are reduced to uns+illed labour as their standard, are established b* a social process that goes on behind the bac+s of the producers, and, conseIuentl*, appear to be fi9ed b* custom8 For simplicit*?s sa+e "e shall henceforth account e)er* +ind of labour to be uns+illed, simple labour; b* this "e do no more than sa)e oursel)es the trouble of ma+ing the reduction8 Lust as, therefore, in )ie"ing the coat and linen as )alues, "e abstract from their different use )alues, so it is "ith the labour represented b* those )alues: "e disregard the difference bet"een its useful forms, "ea)ing and tailoring8 (s the use )alues, coat and linen, are combinations of special producti)e acti)ities "ith cloth and *arn, "hile the )alues, coat and linen, are, on the other hand, mere homogeneous congelations of undifferentiated labour, so the labour embodied in these latter )alues does not count b* )irtue of its producti)e relation to cloth and *arn, but onl* as being e9penditure of human labour po"er8 'ailoring and "ea)ing are necessar* factors in the creation of the use )alues, coat and linen, precisel* because these t"o +inds of labour are of different Iualities; but onl* in so far as abstraction is made from their special Iualities, onl* in so far as both possess the same Iualit* of being human labour, do tailoring and "ea)ing form the substance of the )alues of the same articles8 5oats and linen, ho"e)er, are not merel* )alues, but )alues of definite magnitude, and according to our assumption, the coat is "orth t"ice as much as the ten *ards of linen8 Bhence this difference in their )aluesE >t is o"ing to the fact that the linen contains onl* half as much labour as the coat, and conseIuentl*, that in the production of the latter, labour po"er must ha)e been e9pended during t"ice the time necessar* for the production of the former8 Bhile, therefore, "ith reference to use )alue, the labour contained in a commodit* counts onl* Iualitati)el*, "ith reference to )alue it counts onl* Iuantitati)el*, and must first be reduced to human labour pure and simple8 >n the former case, it is a Iuestion of -o" and Bhat, in the latter of -o" muchE -o" long a timeE Since the magnitude of the )alue of a commodit* represents onl* the Iuantit* of labour embodied in it, it follo"s that all commodities, "hen ta+en in certain proportions, must be eIual in )alue8 >f the producti)e po"er of all the different sorts of useful labour reIuired for the production of a coat remains unchanged, the sum of the )alues of the coats produced increases "ith their number8 >f one coat represents 9 da*s? labour, t"o coats represent 69 da*s? labour, and so on8 /ut assume

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that the duration of the labour necessar* for the production of a coat becomes doubled or hal)ed8 >n the first case one coat is "orth as much as t"o coats "ere before; in the second case, t"o coats are onl* "orth as much as one "as before, although in both cases one coat renders the same ser)ice as before, and the useful labour embodied in it remains of the same Iualit*8 /ut the Iuantit* of labour spent on its production has altered8 (n increase in the Iuantit* of use )alues is an increase of material "ealth8 Bith t"o coats t"o men can be clothed, "ith one coat onl* one man8 Ce)ertheless, an increased Iuantit* of material "ealth ma* correspond to a simultaneous fall in the magnitude of its )alue8 'his antagonistic mo)ement has its origin in the t"ofold character of labour8 #roducti)e po"er has reference, of course, onl* to labour of some useful concrete form, the efficac* of an* special producti)e acti)it* during a gi)en time being dependent on its producti)eness8 %seful labour becomes, therefore, a more or less abundant source of products, in proportion to the rise or fall of its producti)eness8 =n the other hand, no change in this producti)eness affects the labour represented b* )alue8 Since producti)e po"er is an attribute of the concrete useful forms of labour, of course it can no longer ha)e an* bearing on that labour, so soon as "e ma+e abstraction from those concrete useful forms8 -o"e)er then producti)e po"er ma* )ar*, the same labour, e9ercised during eIual periods of time, al"a*s *ields eIual amounts of )alue8 /ut it "ill *ield, during eIual periods of time, different Iuantities of )alues in use; more, if the producti)e po"er rise, fe"er, if it fall8 'he same change in producti)e po"er, "hich increases the fruitfulness of labour, and, in conseIuence, the Iuantit* of use )alues produced b* that labour, "ill diminish the total )alue of this increased Iuantit* of use )alues, pro)ided such change shorten the total labour time necessar* for their production; and vice vers%8 =n the one hand all labour is, spea+ing ph*siologicall*, an e9penditure of human labour po"er, and in its character of identical abstract human labour, it creates and forms the )alue of commodities8 =n the other hand, all labour is the e9penditure of human labour po"er in a special form and "ith a definite aim, and in this, its character of concrete useful labour, it produces use )alues816

Section *: The Form of Value or )+chan%e" Value


5ommodities come into the "orld in the shape of use )alues, articles, or goods, such as iron, linen, corn, Pc8 'his is their plain, homel*, bodil* form8 'he* are, ho"e)er, commodities, onl* because the* are something t"ofold, both obDects of utilit*, and, at the same time, depositories of )alue8 'he* manifest themsel)es therefore as commodities, or ha)e the form of commodities, onl* in so far as the* ha)e t"o forms, a ph*sical or natural form, and a )alue form8 'he realit* of the )alue of commodities differs in this respect from 0ame Kuic+l*, that "e don?t +no" @"here to ha)e it8A 'he )alue of commodities is the )er* opposite of the coarse materialit* of their substance, not an atom of matter enters into its composition8 'urn and e9amine a single commodit*, b* itself, as "e "ill, *et in so far as it remains an obDect of )alue, it seems impossible to grasp it8 >f, ho"e)er, "e bear in mind that the )alue of commodities has a purel* social realit*, and that the* acIuire this realit* onl* in so far as the* are e9pressions or embodiments of one identical social substance, )i18, human labour, it follo"s as a matter of course, that )alue can onl* manifest itself in the social relation of commodit* to commodit*8 >n fact "e started from e9change )alue, or the e9change relation of commodities, in order to get at the )alue that lies hidden behind it8 Be must no" return to this form under "hich )alue first appeared to us8

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5hapter 1

E)er* one +no"s, if he +no"s nothing else, that commodities ha)e a )alue form common to them all, and presenting a mar+ed contrast "ith the )aried bodil* forms of their use )alues8 > mean their mone* form8 -ere, ho"e)er, a tas+ is set us, the performance of "hich has ne)er *et e)en been attempted b* bour eois econom*, the tas+ of tracing the genesis of this mone* form, of de)eloping the e9pression of )alue implied in the )alue relation of commodities, from its simplest, almost imperceptible outline, to the da11ling mone*4form8 /* doing this "e shall, at the same time, sol)e the riddle presented b* mone*8 'he simplest )alue4relation is e)identl* that of one commodit* to some one other commodit* of a different +ind8 -ence the relation bet"een the )alues of t"o commodities supplies us "ith the simplest e9pression of the )alue of a single commodit*8

A. Elementary or Accidental Form Of Value


9 commodit* ( Y * commodit* /, or 9 commodit* ( is "orth * commodit* /8 67 *ards of linen Y 1 coat, or 67 Nards of linen are "orth 1 coat8

1. The two poles of the expression of value. Relative form and Equivalent form
'he "hole m*ster* of the form of )alue lies hidden in this elementar* form8 >ts anal*sis, therefore, is our real difficult*8 -ere t"o different +inds of commodities (in our e9ample the linen and the coat!, e)identl* pla* t"o different parts8 'he linen e9presses its )alue in the coat; the coat ser)es as the material in "hich that )alue is e9pressed8 'he former pla*s an acti)e, the latter a passi)e, part8 'he )alue of the linen is represented as relati)e )alue, or appears in relati)e form8 'he coat officiates as eIui)alent, or appears in eIui)alent form8 'he relati)e form and the eIui)alent form are t"o intimatel* connected, mutuall* dependent and inseparable elements of the e9pression of )alue; but, at the same time, are mutuall* e9clusi)e, antagonistic e9tremes F i$e$, poles of the same e9pression8 'he* are allotted respecti)el* to the t"o different commodities brought into relation b* that e9pression8 >t is not possible to e9press the )alue of linen in linen8 67 *ards of linen Y 67 *ards of linen is no e9pression of )alue8 =n the contrar*, such an eIuation merel* sa*s that 67 *ards of linen are nothing else than 67 *ards of linen, a definite Iuantit* of the use )alue linen8 'he )alue of the linen can therefore be e9pressed onl* relati)el* F i$e$, in some other commodit*8 'he relati)e form of the )alue of the linen presupposes, therefore, the presence of some other commodit* F here the coat F under the form of an eIui)alent8 =n the other hand, the commodit* that figures as the eIui)alent cannot at the same time assume the relati)e form8 'hat second commodit* is not the one "hose )alue is e9pressed8 >ts function is merel* to ser)e as the material in "hich the )alue of the first commodit* is e9pressed8 Co doubt, the e9pression 67 *ards of linen Y 1 coat, or 67 *ards of linen are "orth 1 coat, implies the opposite relation8 1 coat Y 67 *ards of linen, or 1 coat is "orth 67 *ards of linen8 /ut, in that case, > must re)erse the eIuation, in order to e9press the )alue of the coat relati)el*; and8 so soon as > do that the linen becomes the eIui)alent instead of the coat8 ( single commodit* cannot, therefore, simultaneousl* assume, in the same e9pression of )alue, both forms8 'he )er* polarit* of these forms ma+es them mutuall* e9clusi)e8

5hapter 1

Bhether, then, a commodit* assumes the relati)e form, or the opposite eIui)alent form, depends entirel* upon its accidental position in the e9pression of )alue F that is, upon "hether it is the commodit* "hose )alue is being e9pressed or the commodit* in "hich )alue is being e9pressed8

2. The Relative Form of value


(a8! 'he nature and import of this form >n order to disco)er ho" the elementar* e9pression of the )alue of a commodit* lies hidden in the )alue relation of t"o commodities, "e must, in the first place, consider the latter entirel* apart from its Iuantitati)e aspect8 'he usual mode of procedure is generall* the re)erse, and in the )alue relation nothing is seen but the proportion bet"een definite Iuantities of t"o different sorts of commodities that are considered eIual to each other8 >t is apt to be forgotten that the magnitudes of different things can be compared Iuantitati)el*, onl* "hen those magnitudes are e9pressed in terms of the same unit8 >t is onl* as e9pressions of such a unit that the* are of the same denomination, and therefore commensurable8 17 Bhether 67 *ards of linen Y 1 coat or Y 67 coats or Y 9 coats F that is, "hether a gi)en Iuantit* of linen is "orth fe" or man* coats, e)er* such statement implies that the linen and coats, as magnitudes of )alue, are e9pressions of the same unit, things of the same +ind8 <inen Y coat is the basis of the eIuation8 /ut the t"o commodities "hose identit* of Iualit* is thus assumed, do not pla* the same part8 >t is onl* the )alue of the linen that is e9pressed8 (nd ho"E /* its reference to the coat as its eIui)alent, as something that can be e9changed for it8 >n this relation the coat is the mode of e9istence of )alue, is )alue embodied, for onl* as such is it the same as the linen8 =n the other hand, the linen?s o"n )alue comes to the front, recei)es independent e9pression, for it is onl* as being )alue that it is comparable "ith the coat as a thing of eIual )alue, or e9changeable "ith the coat8 'o borro" an illustration from chemistr*, but*ric acid is a different substance from prop*l formate8 Net both are made up of the same chemical substances, carbon (5!, h*drogen (-!, and o9*gen (=!, and that, too, in li+e proportions F namel*, 5 -8=68 >f no" "e eIuate but*ric acid to prop*l formate, then, in the first place, prop*l formate "ould be, in this relation, merel* a form of e9istence of 5 -8=6; and in the second place, "e should be stating that but*ric acid also consists of 5 -8=68 'herefore, b* thus eIuating the t"o substances, e9pression "ould be gi)en to their chemical composition, "hile their different ph*sical forms "ould be neglected8 >f "e sa* that, as )alues, commodities are mere congelations of human labour, "e reduce them b* our anal*sis, it is true, to the abstraction, )alue; but "e ascribe to this )alue no form apart from their bodil* form8 >t is other"ise in the )alue relation of one commodit* to another8 -ere, the one stands forth in its character of )alue b* reason of its relation to the other8 /* ma+ing the coat the eIui)alent of the linen, "e eIuate the labour embodied in the former to that in the latter8 Co", it is true that the tailoring, "hich ma+es the coat, is concrete labour of a different sort from the "ea)ing "hich ma+es the linen8 /ut the act of eIuating it to the "ea)ing, reduces the tailoring to that "hich is reall* eIual in the t"o +inds of labour, to their common character of human labour8 >n this roundabout "a*, then, the fact is e9pressed, that "ea)ing also, in so far as it "ea)es )alue, has nothing to distinguish it from tailoring, and, conseIuentl*, is abstract human labour8 >t is the e9pression of eIui)alence bet"een different sorts of commodities that alone brings into relief the specific character of )alue4creating labour, and this it does b* actuall* reducing the different )arieties of labour embodied in the different +inds of commodities to their common Iualit* of human labour in the abstract8 18 'here is, ho"e)er, something else reIuired be*ond the e9pression of the specific character of the labour of "hich the )alue of the linen consists8 -uman labour po"er in motion, or human labour,

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creates )alue, but is not itself )alue8 >t becomes )alue onl* in its congealed state, "hen embodied in the form of some obDect8 >n order to e9press the )alue of the linen as a congelation of human labour, that )alue must be e9pressed as ha)ing obDecti)e e9istence, as being a something materiall* different from the linen itself, and *et a something common to the linen and all other commodities8 'he problem is alread* sol)ed8 Bhen occup*ing the position of eIui)alent in the eIuation of )alue, the coat ran+s Iualitati)el* as the eIual of the linen, as something of the same +ind, because it is )alue8 >n this position it is a thing in "hich "e see nothing but )alue, or "hose palpable bodil* form represents )alue8 Net the coat itself, the bod* of the commodit*, coat, is a mere use )alue8 ( coat as such no more tells us it is )alue, than does the first piece of linen "e ta+e hold of8 'his sho"s that "hen placed in )alue4 relation to the linen, the coat signifies more than "hen out of that relation, Dust as man* a man strutting about in a gorgeous uniform counts for more than "hen in mufti8 >n the production of the coat, human labour po"er, in the shape of tailoring, must ha)e been actuall* e9pended8 -uman labour is therefore accumulated in it8 >n this aspect the coat is a depositor* of )alue, but though "orn to a thread, it does not let this fact sho" through8 (nd as eIui)alent of the linen in the )alue eIuation, it e9ists under this aspect alone, counts therefore as embodied )alue, as a bod* that is )alue8 (, for instance, cannot be @*our maDest*A to /, unless at the same time maDest* in /?s e*es assumes the bodil* form of (, and, "hat is more, "ith e)er* ne" father of the people, changes its features, hair, and man* other things besides8 -ence, in the )alue eIuation, in "hich the coat is the eIui)alent of the linen, the coat officiates as the form of )alue8 'he )alue of the commodit* linen is e9pressed b* the bodil* form of the commodit* coat, the )alue of one b* the use )alue of the other8 (s a use )alue, the linen is something palpabl* different from the coat; as )alue, it is the same as the coat, and no" has the appearance of a coat8 'hus the linen acIuires a )alue form different from its ph*sical form8 'he fact that it is )alue, is made manifest b* its eIualit* "ith the coat, Dust as the sheep?s nature of a 5hristian is sho"n in his resemblance to the <amb of God8 Be see, then, all that our anal*sis of the )alue of commodities has alread* told us, is told us b* the linen itself, so soon as it comes into communication "ith another commodit*, the coat8 =nl* it betra*s its thoughts in that language "ith "hich alone it is familiar, the language of commodities8 >n order to tell us that its o"n )alue is created b* labour in its abstract character of human labour, it sa*s that the coat, in so far as it is "orth as much as the linen, and therefore is )alue, consists of the same labour as the linen8 >n order to inform us that its sublime realit* as )alue is not the same as its buc+ram bod*, it sa*s that )alue has the appearance of a coat, and conseIuentl* that so far as the linen is )alue, it and the coat are as li+e as t"o peas8 Be ma* here remar+, that the language of commodities has, besides -ebre", man* other more or less correct dialects8 'he German @Bertsein,A to be "orth, for instance, e9presses in a less stri+ing manner than the &omance )erbs @)alere,A @)aler,A @)aloir,A that the eIuating of commodit* / to commodit* (, is commodit* (?s o"n mode of e9pressing its )alue8 Paris vaut bien une messe8 G#aris is certainl* "orth a massH /* means, therefore, of the )alue4relation e9pressed in our eIuation, the bodil* form of commodit* / becomes the )alue form of commodit* (, or the bod* of commodit* / acts as a mirror to the )alue of commodit* (8 12 /* putting itself in relation "ith commodit* /, as )alue in propri% person%, as the matter of "hich human labour is made up, the commodit* ( con)erts the )alue in use, /, into the substance in "hich to e9press its, (?s, o"n )alue8 'he )alue of (, thus e9pressed in the use )alue of /, has ta+en the form of relati)e )alue8 (b8! Kuantitati)e determination of &elati)e )alue

:6

5hapter 1

E)er* commodit*, "hose )alue it is intended to e9press, is a useful obDect of gi)en Iuantit*, as 13 bushels of corn, or 177 lbs of coffee8 (nd a gi)en Iuantit* of an* commodit* contains a definite Iuantit* of human labour8 'he )alue form must therefore not onl* e9press )alue generall*, but also )alue in definite Iuantit*8 'herefore, in the )alue relation of commodit* ( to commodit* /, of the linen to the coat, not onl* is the latter, as )alue in general, made the eIual in Iualit* of the linen, but a definite Iuantit* of coat (1 coat! is made the eIui)alent of a definite Iuantit* (67 *ards! of linen8 'he eIuation, 67 *ards of linen Y 1 coat, or 67 *ards of linen are "orth one coat, implies that the same Iuantit* of )alue substance (congealed labour! is embodied in both; that the t"o commodities ha)e each cost the same amount of labour of the same Iuantit* of labour time8 /ut the labour time necessar* for the production of 67 *ards of linen or 1 coat )aries "ith e)er* change in the producti)eness of "ea)ing or tailoring8 Be ha)e no" to consider the influence of such changes on the Iuantitati)e aspect of the relati)e e9pression of )alue8 >8 <et the )alue of the linen )ar*, 67 that of the coat remaining constant8 >f, sa* in conseIuence of the e9haustion of fla94gro"ing soil, the labour time necessar* for the production of the linen be doubled, the )alue of the linen "ill also be doubled8 >nstead of the eIuation, 67 *ards of linen Y 1 coat, "e should ha)e 67 *ards of linen Y 6 coats, since 1 coat "ould no" contain onl* half the labour time embodied in 67 *ards of linen8 >f, on the other hand, in conseIuence, sa*, of impro)ed looms, this labour time be reduced b* one4half, the )alue of the linen "ould fall b* one4half8 5onseIuentl*, "e should ha)e 67 *ards of linen Y [ coat8 'he relati)e )alue of commodit* (, i$e$, its )alue e9pressed in commodit* /, rises and falls directl* as the )alue of (, the )alue of / being supposed constant8 >>8 <et the )alue of the linen remain constant, "hile the )alue of the coat )aries8 >f, under these circumstances, in conseIuence, for instance, of a poor crop of "ool, the labour time necessar* for the production of a coat becomes doubled, "e ha)e instead of 67 *ards of linen Y 1 coat, 67 *ards of linen Y [ coat8 >f, on the other hand, the )alue of the coat sin+s b* one4half, then 67 *ards of linen Y 6 coats8 -ence, if the )alue of commodit* ( remain constant, its relati)e )alue e9pressed in commodit* / rises and falls in)ersel* as the )alue of /8 >f "e compare the different cases in > and >>, "e see that the same change of magnitude in relati)e )alue ma* arise from totall* opposite causes8 'hus, the eIuation, 67 *ards of linen Y 1 coat, becomes 67 *ards of linen Y 6 coats, either, because the )alue of the linen has doubled, or because the )alue of the coat has fallen b* one4half; and it becomes 67 *ards of linen Y [ coat, either, because the )alue of the linen has fallen b* one4half, or because the )alue of the coat has doubled8 >>>8 <et the Iuantities of labour time respecti)el* necessar* for the production of the linen and the coat )ar* simultaneousl* in the same direction and in the same proportion8 >n this case 67 *ards of linen continue eIual to 1 coat, ho"e)er much their )alues ma* ha)e altered8 'heir change of )alue is seen as soon as the* are compared "ith a third commodit*, "hose )alue has remained constant8 >f the )alues of all commodities rose or fell simultaneousl*, and in the same proportion, their relati)e )alues "ould remain unaltered8 'heir real change of )alue "ould appear from the diminished or increased Iuantit* of commodities produced in a gi)en time8 >;8 'he labour time respecti)el* necessar* for the production of the linen and the coat, and therefore the )alue of these commodities ma* simultaneousl* )ar* in the same direction, but at uneIual rates or in opposite directions, or in other "a*s8 'he effect of all these possible different )ariations, on the relati)e )alue of a commodit*, ma* be deduced from the results of >, >>, and >>>8

:7

5hapter 1

'hus real changes in the magnitude of )alue are neither uneIui)ocall* nor e9hausti)el* reflected in their relati)e e9pression, that is, in the eIuation e9pressing the magnitude of relati)e )alue8 'he relati)e )alue of a commodit* ma* )ar*, although its )alue remains constant8 >ts relati)e )alue ma* remain constant, although its )alue )aries; and finall*, simultaneous )ariations in the magnitude of )alue and in that of its relati)e e9pression b* no means necessaril* correspond in amount861

3. The Equivalent form of value


Be ha)e seen that commodit* ( (the linen!, b* e9pressing its )alue in the use )alue of a commodit* differing in +ind (the coat!, at the same time impresses upon the latter a specific form of )alue, namel* that of the eIui)alent8 'he commodit* linen manifests its Iualit* of ha)ing a )alue b* the fact that the coat, "ithout ha)ing assumed a )alue form different from its bodil* form, is eIuated to the linen8 'he fact that the latter therefore has a )alue is e9pressed b* sa*ing that the coat is directl* e9changeable "ith it8 'herefore, "hen "e sa* that a commodit* is in the eIui)alent form, "e e9press the fact that it is directl* e9changeable "ith other commodities8 Bhen one commodit*, such as a coat, ser)es as the eIui)alent of another, such as linen, and coats conseIuentl* acIuire the characteristic propert* of being directl* e9changeable "ith linen, "e are far from +no"ing in "hat proportion the t"o are e9changeable8 'he )alue of the linen being gi)en in magnitude, that proportion depends on the )alue of the coat8 Bhether the coat ser)es as the eIui)alent and the linen as relati)e )alue, or the linen as the eIui)alent and the coat as relati)e )alue, the magnitude of the coat?s )alue is determined, independentl* of its )alue form, b* the labour time necessar* for its production8 /ut "hene)er the coat assumes in the eIuation of )alue, the position of eIui)alent, its )alue acIuires no Iuantitati)e e9pression; on the contrar*, the commodit* coat no" figures onl* as a definite Iuantit* of some article8 For instance, 7 *ards of linen are "orth F "hatE 6 coats8 /ecause the commodit* coat here pla*s the part of eIui)alent, because the use4)alue coat, as opposed to the linen, figures as an embodiment of )alue, therefore a definite number of coats suffices to e9press the definite Iuantit* of )alue in the linen8 '"o coats ma* therefore e9press the Iuantit* of )alue of 7 *ards of linen, but the* can ne)er e9press the Iuantit* of their o"n )alue8 ( superficial obser)ation of this fact, namel*, that in the eIuation of )alue, the eIui)alent figures e9clusi)el* as a simple Iuantit* of some article, of some use )alue, has misled /aile*, as also man* others, both before and after him, into seeing, in the e9pression of )alue, merel* a Iuantitati)e relation8 'he truth being, that "hen a commodit* acts as eIui)alent, no Iuantitati)e determination of its )alue is e9pressed8 'he first peculiarit* that stri+es us, in considering the form of the eIui)alent, is this: use )alue becomes the form of manifestation, the phenomenal form of its opposite, )alue8 'he bodil* form of the commodit* becomes its )alue form8 /ut, mar+ "ell, that this &uid pro &uo e9ists in the case of an* commodit* /, onl* "hen some other commodit* ( enters into a )alue relation "ith it, and then onl* "ithin the limits of this relation8 Since no commodit* can stand in the relation of eIui)alent to itself, and thus turn its o"n bodil* shape into the e9pression of its o"n )alue, e)er* commodit* is compelled to choose some other commodit* for its eIui)alent, and to accept the use )alue, that is to sa*, the bodil* shape of that other commodit* as the form of its o"n )alue8 =ne of the measures that "e appl* to commodities as material substances, as use )alues, "ill ser)e to illustrate this point8 ( sugar4loaf being a bod*, is hea)*, and therefore has "eight: but "e can neither see nor touch this "eight8 Be then ta+e )arious pieces of iron, "hose "eight has been determined beforehand8 'he iron, as iron, is no more the form of manifestation of "eight, than is the sugar4loaf8 Ce)ertheless, in order to e9press the sugar4loaf as so much "eight, "e put it into a "eight4relation "ith the iron8 >n this relation, the iron officiates as a bod* representing nothing

:8

5hapter 1

but "eight8 ( certain Iuantit* of iron therefore ser)es as the measure of the "eight of the sugar, and represents, in relation to the sugar4loaf, "eight embodied, the form of manifestation of "eight8 'his part is pla*ed b* the iron onl* "ithin this relation, into "hich the sugar or an* other bod*, "hose "eight has to be determined, enters "ith the iron8 Bere the* not both hea)*, the* could not enter into this relation, and the one could therefore not ser)e as the e9pression of the "eight of the other8 Bhen "e thro" both into the scales, "e see in realit*, that as "eight the* are both the same, and that, therefore, "hen ta+en in proper proportions, the* ha)e the same "eight8 Lust as the substance iron, as a measure of "eight, represents in relation to the sugar4loaf "eight alone, so, in our e9pression of )alue, the material obDect, coat, in relation to the linen, represents )alue alone8 -ere, ho"e)er, the analog* ceases8 'he iron, in the e9pression of the "eight of the sugar4loaf, represents a natural propert* common to both bodies, namel* their "eight; but the coat, in the e9pression of )alue of the linen, represents a non4natural propert* of both, something purel* social, namel*, their )alue8 Since the relati)e form of )alue of a commodit* F the linen, for e9ample F e9presses the )alue of that commodit*, as being something "holl* different from its substance and properties, as being, for instance, coat4li+e, "e see that this e9pression itself indicates that some social relation lies at the bottom of it8 Bith the eIui)alent form it is Dust the contrar*8 'he )er* essence of this form is that the material commodit* itself F the coat F Dust as it is, e9presses )alue, and is endo"ed "ith the form of )alue b* Cature itself8 =f course this holds good onl* so long as the )alue relation e9ists, in "hich the coat stands in the position of eIui)alent to the linen8 66 Since, ho"e)er, the properties of a thing are not the result of its relations to other things, but onl* manifest themsel)es in such relations, the coat seems to be endo"ed "ith its eIui)alent form, its propert* of being directl* e9changeable, Dust as much b* Cature as it is endo"ed "ith the propert* of being hea)*, or the capacit* to +eep us "arm8 -ence the enigmatical character of the eIui)alent form "hich escapes the notice of the bourgeois political economist, until this form, completel* de)eloped, confronts him in the shape of mone*8 -e then see+s to e9plain a"a* the m*stical character of gold and sil)er, b* substituting for them less da11ling commodities, and b* reciting, "ith e)er rene"ed satisfaction, the catalogue of all possible commodities "hich at one time or another ha)e pla*ed the part of eIui)alent8 -e has not the least suspicion that the most simple e9pression of )alue, such as 67 *ds of linen Y 1 coat, alread* propounds the riddle of the eIui)alent form for our solution8 'he bod* of the commodit* that ser)es as the eIui)alent, figures as the materialisation of human labour in the abstract, and is at the same time the product of some specificall* useful concrete labour8 'his concrete labour becomes, therefore, the medium for e9pressing abstract human labour8 >f on the one hand the coat ran+s as nothing but the embodiment of abstract human labour, so, on the other hand, the tailoring "hich is actuall* embodied in it, counts as nothing but the form under "hich that abstract labour is realised8 >n the e9pression of )alue of the linen, the utilit* of the tailoring consists, not in ma+ing clothes, but in ma+ing an obDect, "hich "e at once recognise to be ;alue, and therefore to be a congelation of labour, but of labour indistinguishable from that realised in the )alue of the linen8 >n order to act as such a mirror of )alue, the labour of tailoring must reflect nothing besides its o"n abstract Iualit* of being human labour generall*8 >n tailoring, as "ell as in "ea)ing, human labour po"er is e9pended8 /oth, therefore, possess the general propert* of being human labour, and ma*, therefore, in certain cases, such as in the production of )alue, ha)e to be considered under this aspect alone8 'here is nothing m*sterious in this8 /ut in the e9pression of )alue there is a complete turn of the tables8 For instance, ho" is the fact to be e9pressed that "ea)ing creates the )alue of the linen, not b* )irtue of being "ea)ing, as

:2

5hapter 1

such, but b* reason of its general propert* of being human labourE Simpl* b* opposing to "ea)ing that other particular form of concrete labour (in this instance tailoring!, "hich produces the eIui)alent of the product of "ea)ing8 Lust as the coat in its bodil* form became a direct e9pression of )alue, so no" does tailoring, a concrete form of labour, appear as the direct and palpable embodiment of human labour generall*8 -ence, the second peculiarit* of the eIui)alent form is, that concrete labour becomes the form under "hich its opposite, abstract human labour, manifests itself8 /ut because this concrete labour, tailoring in our case, ran+s as, and is directl* identified "ith, undifferentiated human labour, it also ran+s as identical "ith an* other sort of labour, and therefore "ith that embodied in the linen8 5onseIuentl*, although, li+e all other commodit*4 producing labour, it is the labour of pri)ate indi)iduals, *et, at the same time, it ran+s as labour directl* social in its character8 'his is the reason "h* it results in a product directl* e9changeable "ith other commodities8 Be ha)e then a third peculiarit* of the eIui)alent form, namel*, that the labour of pri)ate indi)iduals ta+es the form of its opposite, labour directl* social in its form8 'he t"o latter peculiarities of the eIui)alent form "ill become more intelligible if "e go bac+ to the great thin+er "ho "as the first to anal*se so man* forms, "hether of thought, societ*, or Cature, and amongst them also the form of )alue8 > mean (ristotle8 >n the first place, he clearl* enunciates that the mone* form of commodities is onl* the further de)elopment of the simple form of )alue F i$e$, of the e9pression of the )alue of one commodit* in some other commodit* ta+en at random; for he sa*s: 3 beds Y 1 house F ( \! is not to be distinguished from 3 beds Y so much mone*8 F ( ... ! -e further sees that the )alue relation "hich gi)es rise to this e9pression ma+es it necessar* that the house should Iualitati)el* be made the eIual of the bed, and that, "ithout such an eIualisation, these t"o clearl* different things could not be compared "ith each other as commensurable Iuantities8 @E9change,A he sa*s, @cannot ta+e place "ithout eIualit*, and eIualit* not "ithout commensurabilit*V8 ( \ \ \!8 -ere, ho"e)er, he comes to a stop, and gi)es up the further anal*sis of the form of )alue8 @>t is, ho"e)er, in realit*, impossible ( !, that such unli+e things can be commensurableA F i$e$, Iualitati)el* eIual8 Such an eIualisation can onl* be something foreign to their real nature, conseIuentl* onl* @a ma+eshift for practical purposes8A (ristotle therefore, himself, tells us "hat barred the "a* to his further anal*sis; it "as the absence of an* concept of )alue8 Bhat is that eIual something, that common substance, "hich admits of the )alue of the beds being e9pressed b* a houseE Such a thing, in truth, cannot e9ist, sa*s (ristotle8 (nd "h* notE 5ompared "ith the beds, the house does represent something eIual to them, in so far as it represents "hat is reall* eIual, both in the beds and the house8 (nd that is F human labour8 'here "as, ho"e)er, an important fact "hich pre)ented (ristotle from seeing that, to attribute )alue to commodities, is merel* a mode of e9pressing all labour as eIual human labour, and conseIuentl* as labour of eIual Iualit*8 Gree+ societ* "as founded upon sla)er*, and had, therefore, for its natural basis, the ineIualit* of men and of their labour po"ers8 'he secret of the e9pression of )alue, namel*, that all +inds of labour are eIual and eIui)alent, because, and so far as the* are human labour in general, cannot be deciphered, until the notion of human eIualit* has alread* acIuired the fi9it* of a popular preDudice8 'his, ho"e)er, is possible onl* in a societ* in "hich the great mass of the produce of labour ta+es the form of commodities, in "hich,

5hapter 1

conseIuentl*, the dominant relation bet"een man and man, is that of o"ners of commodities8 'he brillianc* of (ristotle?s genius is sho"n b* this alone, that he disco)ered, in the e9pression of the )alue of commodities, a relation of eIualit*8 'he peculiar conditions of the societ* in "hich he li)ed, alone pre)ented him from disco)ering "hat, @in truth,A "as at the bottom of this eIualit*8

4. The Elementary Form of value considered as a whole


'he elementar* form of )alue of a commodit* is contained in the eIuation, e9pressing its )alue relation to another commodit* of a different +ind, or in its e9change relation to the same8 'he )alue of commodit* (, is Iualitati)el* e9pressed, b* the fact that commodit* / is directl* e9changeable "ith it8 >ts )alue is Iuantitati)el* e9pressed b* the fact, that a definite Iuantit* of / is e9changeable "ith a definite Iuantit* of (8 >n other "ords, the )alue of a commodit* obtains independent and definite e9pression, b* ta+ing the form of e9change )alue8 Bhen, at the beginning of this chapter, "e said, in common parlance, that a commodit* is both a use )alue and an e9change )alue, "e "ere, accuratel* spea+ing, "rong8 ( commodit* is a use )alue or obDect of utilit*, and a )alue8 >t manifests itself as this t"ofold thing, that it is, as soon as its )alue assumes an independent form F )i18, the form of e9change )alue8 >t ne)er assumes this form "hen isolated, but onl* "hen placed in a )alue or e9change relation "ith another commodit* of a different +ind8 Bhen once "e +no" this, such a mode of e9pression does no harm; it simpl* ser)es as an abbre)iation8 =ur anal*sis has sho"n, that the form or e9pression of the )alue of a commodit* originates in the nature of )alue, and not that )alue and its magnitude originate in the mode of their e9pression as e9change )alue8 'his, ho"e)er, is the delusion as "ell of the mercantilists and their recent re)i)ers, Ferrier, Ganilh,6: and others, as also of their antipodes, the modern bagmen of Free4 trade, such as /astiat8 'he mercantilists la* special stress on the Iualitati)e aspect of the e9pression of )alue, and conseIuentl* on the eIui)alent form of commodities, "hich attains its full perfection in mone*8 'he modern ha"+ers of Free4trade, "ho must get rid of their article at an* price, on the other hand, la* most stress on the Iuantitati)e aspect of the relati)e form of )alue8 For them there conseIuentl* e9ists neither )alue, nor magnitude of )alue, an*"here e9cept in its e9pression b* means of the e9change relation of commodities, that is, in the dail* list of prices current8 $acleod, "ho has ta+en upon himself to dress up the confused ideas of <ombard Street in the most learned finer*, is a successful cross bet"een the superstitious mercantilists, and the enlightened Free4trade bagmen8 ( close scrutin* of the e9pression of the )alue of ( in terms of /, contained in the eIuation e9pressing the )alue relation of ( to /, has sho"n us that, "ithin that relation, the bodil* form of ( figures onl* as a use )alue, the bodil* form of / onl* as the form or aspect of )alue8 'he opposition or contrast e9isting internall* in each commodit* bet"een use )alue and )alue, is, therefore, made e)ident e9ternall* b* t"o commodities being placed in such relation to each other, that the commodit* "hose )alue it is sought to e9press, figures directl* as a mere use )alue, "hile the commodit* in "hich that )alue is to be e9pressed, figures directl* as mere e9change )alue8 -ence the elementar* form of )alue of a commodit* is the elementar* form in "hich the contrast contained in that commodit*, bet"een use )alue and )alue, becomes apparent8 E)er* product of labour is, in all states of societ*, a use )alue; but it is onl* at a definite historical epoch in a societ*?s de)elopment that such a product becomes a commodit*, )i18, at the epoch "hen the labour spent on the production of a useful article becomes e9pressed as one of the obDecti)e Iualities of that article, i$e$, as its )alue8 >t therefore follo"s that the elementar* )alue form is also the primiti)e form under "hich a product of labour appears historicall* as a commodit*, and that the gradual transformation of such products into commodities, proceeds pari passu "ith the de)elopment of the )alue form8

5hapter 1

Be percei)e, at first sight, the deficiencies of the elementar* form of )alue: it is a mere germ, "hich must undergo a series of metamorphoses before it can ripen into the price form8 'he e9pression of the )alue of commodit* ( in terms of an* other commodit* /, merel* distinguishes the )alue from the use )alue of (, and therefore places ( merel* in a relation of e9change "ith a single different commodit*, /; but it is still far from e9pressing (?s Iualitati)e eIualit*, and Iuantitati)e proportionalit*, to all commodities8 'o the elementar* relati)e )alue form of a commodit*, there corresponds the single eIui)alent form of one other commodit*8 'hus, in the relati)e e9pression of )alue of the linen, the coat assumes the form of eIui)alent, or of being directl* e9changeable, onl* in relation to a single commodit*, the linen8 Ce)ertheless, the elementar* form of )alue passes b* an eas* transition into a more complete form8 >t is true that b* means of the elementar* form, the )alue of a commodit* (, becomes e9pressed in terms of one, and onl* one, other commodit*8 /ut that one ma* be a commodit* of an* +ind, coat, iron, corn, or an*thing else8 'herefore, according as ( is placed in relation "ith one or the other, "e get for one and the same commodit*, different elementar* e9pressions of )alue86 'he number of such possible e9pressions is limited onl* b* the number of the different +inds of commodities distinct from it8 'he isolated e9pression of (?s )alue, is therefore con)ertible into a series, prolonged to an* length, of the different elementar* e9pressions of that )alue8

B. Total or Expanded Form of value


1 5om8 ( Y u 5om8 / or ) 5om8 5 or Y " 5om8 0 or Y 5om8 E or Y Pc8 (67 *ards of linen Y 1 coat or Y 17 lbs tea or Y 7 lbs8 coffee or Y 1 Iuarter corn or Y 6 ounces gold or Y [ ton iron or Y Pc8!

1. The Expanded Relative form of value


'he )alue of a single commodit*, the linen, for e9ample, is no" e9pressed in terms of numberless other elements of the "orld of commodities8 E)er* other commodit* no" becomes a mirror of the linen?s )alue863 >t is thus, that for the first time, this )alue sho"s itself in its true light as a congelation of undifferentiated human labour8 For the labour that creates it, no" stands e9pressl* re)ealed, as labour that ran+s eIuall* "ith e)er* other sort of human labour, no matter "hat its form, "hether tailoring, ploughing, mining, Pc8, and no matter, therefore, "hether it is realised in coats, corn, iron, or gold8 'he linen, b* )irtue of the form of its )alue, no" stands in a social relation, no longer "ith onl* one other +ind of commodit*, but "ith the "hole "orld of commodities8 (s a commodit*, it is a citi1en of that "orld8 (t the same time, the interminable series of )alue eIuations implies, that as regards the )alue of a commodit*, it is a matter of indifference under "hat particular form, or +ind, of use )alue it appears8 >n the first form, 67 *ds of linen Y 1 coat, it might, for ought that other"ise appears, be pure accident, that these t"o commodities are e9changeable in definite Iuantities8 >n the second form, on the contrar*, "e percei)e at once the bac+ground that determines, and is essentiall* different from, this accidental appearance8 'he )alue of the linen remains unaltered in magnitude, "hether e9pressed in coats, coffee, or iron, or in numberless different commodities, the propert* of as man* different o"ners8 'he accidental relation bet"een t"o indi)idual commodit*4o"ners disappears8 >t becomes plain, that it is not the e9change of commodities "hich regulates the magnitude of their )alue; but, on the contrar*, that it is the magnitude of their )alue "hich controls their e9change proportions8

2. The particular Equivalent form


Each commodit*, such as, coat, tea, corn, iron, Pc8, figures in the e9pression of )alue of the linen, as an eIui)alent, and, conseIuentl*, as a thing that is )alue8 'he bodil* form of each of

5hapter 1

these commodities figures no" as a particular eIui)alent form, one out of man*8 >n the same "a* the manifold concrete useful +inds of labour, embodied in these different commodities, ran+ no" as so man* different forms of the realisation, or manifestation, of undifferentiated human labour8

3. efects of the Total or Expanded form of value


>n the first place, the relati)e e9pression of )alue is incomplete because the series representing it is interminable8 'he chain of "hich each eIuation of )alue is a lin+, is liable at an* moment to be lengthened b* each ne" +ind of commodit* that comes into e9istence and furnishes the material for a fresh e9pression of )alue8 >n the second place, it is a man*4coloured mosaic of disparate and independent e9pressions of )alue8 (nd lastl*, if, as must be the case, the relati)e )alue of each commodit* in turn, becomes e9pressed in this e9panded form, "e get for each of them a relati)e )alue form, different in e)er* case, and consisting of an interminable series of e9pressions of )alue8 'he defects of the e9panded relati)e )alue form are reflected in the corresponding eIui)alent form8 Since the bodil* form of each single commodit* is one particular eIui)alent form amongst numberless others, "e ha)e, on the "hole, nothing but fragmentar* eIui)alent forms, each e9cluding the others8 >n the same "a*, also, the special, concrete, useful +ind of labour embodied in each particular eIui)alent, is presented onl* as a particular +ind of labour, and therefore not as an e9hausti)e representati)e of human labour generall*8 'he latter, indeed, gains adeIuate manifestation in the totalit* of its manifold, particular, concrete forms8 /ut, in that case, its e9pression in an infinite series is e)er incomplete and deficient in unit*8 'he e9panded relati)e )alue form is, ho"e)er, nothing but the sum of the elementar* relati)e e9pressions or eIuations of the first +ind, such as: 67 *ards of linen Y 1 coat 67 *ards of linen Y 17 lbs of tea, etc8 Each of these implies the corresponding in)erted eIuation, 1 coat Y 67 *ards of linen 17 lbs of tea Y 67 *ards of linen, etc8 >n fact, "hen a person e9changes his linen for man* other commodities, and thus e9presses its )alue in a series of other commodities, it necessaril* follo"s, that the )arious o"ners of the latter e9change them for the linen, and conseIuentl* e9press the )alue of their )arious commodities in one and the same third commodit*, the linen8 >f then, "e re)erse the series, 67 *ards of linen Y 1 coat or Y 17 lbs of tea, etc8, that is to sa*, if "e gi)e e9pression to the con)erse relation alread* implied in the series, "e get,

C. The General Form of Value


1 17 7 1 6 [ 9 coat lbs of tea lbs of coffee Iuarter of corn ounces of gold a ton of iron 5ommodit* (, etc8

Y 67 *ards of linen

5hapter 1

1. The altered character of the form of value


(ll commodities no" e9press their )alue (1! in an elementar* form, because in a single commodit*; (6! "ith unit*, because in one and the same commodit*8 'his form of )alue is elementar* and the same for all, therefore general8 'he forms ( and / "ere fit onl* to e9press the )alue of a commodit* as something distinct from its use )alue or material form8 'he first form, (, furnishes such eIuations as the follo"ing: F 1 coat Y 67 *ards of linen, 17 lbs of tea Y [ a ton of iron8 'he )alue of the coat is eIuated to linen, that of the tea to iron8 /ut to be eIuated to linen, and again to iron, is to be as different as are linen and iron8 'his form, it is plain, occurs practicall* onl* in the first beginning, "hen the products of labour are con)erted into commodities b* accidental and occasional e9changes8 'he second form, /, distinguishes, in a more adeIuate manner than the first, the )alue of a commodit* from its use )alue, for the )alue of the coat is there placed in contrast under all possible shapes "ith the bodil* form of the coat; it is eIuated to linen, to iron, to tea, in short, to e)er*thing else, onl* not to itself, the coat8 =n the other hand, an* general e9pression of )alue common to all is directl* e9cluded; for, in the eIuation of )alue of each commodit*, all other commodities no" appear onl* under the form of eIui)alents8 'he e9panded form of )alue comes into actual e9istence for the first time so soon as a particular product of labour, such as cattle, is no longer e9ceptionall*, but habituall*, e9changed for )arious other commodities8 'he third and lastl* de)eloped form e9presses the )alues of the "hole "orld of commodities in terms of a single commodit* set apart for the purpose, namel*, the linen, and thus represents to us their )alues b* means of their eIualit* "ith linen8 'he )alue of e)er* commodit* is no", b* being eIuated to linen, not onl* differentiated from its o"n use )alue, but from all other use )alues generall*, and is, b* that )er* fact, e9pressed as that "hich is common to all commodities8 /* this form, commodities are, for the first time, effecti)el* brought into relation "ith one another as )alues, or made to appear as e9change )alues8 'he t"o earlier forms either e9press the )alue of each commodit* in terms of a single commodit* of a different +ind, or in a series of man* such commodities8 >n both cases, it is, so to sa*, the special business of each single commodit* to find an e9pression for its )alue, and this it does "ithout the help of the others8 'hese others, "ith respect to the former, pla* the passi)e parts of eIui)alents8 'he general form of )alue, 5, results from the Doint action of the "hole "orld of commodities, and from that alone8 ( commodit* can acIuire a general e9pression of its )alue onl* b* all other commodities, simultaneousl* "ith it, e9pressing their )alues in the same eIui)alent; and e)er* ne" commodit* must follo" suit8 >t thus becomes e)ident that since the e9istence of commodities as )alues is purel* social, this social e9istence can be e9pressed b* the totalit* of their social relations alone, and conseIuentl* that the form of their )alue must be a sociall* recognised form8 (ll commodities being eIuated to linen no" appear not onl* as Iualitati)el* eIual as )alues generall*, but also as )alues "hose magnitudes are capable of comparison8 /* e9pressing the magnitudes of their )alues in one and the same material, the linen, those magnitudes are also compared "ith each other For instance, 17 lbs of tea Y 67 *ards of linen, and 7 lbs of coffee Y 67 *ards of linen8 'herefore, 17 lbs of tea Y 7 lbs of coffee8 >n other "ords, there is contained in 1 lb of coffee onl* one4fourth as much substance of )alue F labour F as is contained in 1 lb of tea8 'he general form of relati)e )alue, embracing the "hole "orld of commodities, con)erts the single commodit* that is e9cluded from the rest, and made to pla* the part of eIui)alent F here the linen F into the uni)ersal eIui)alent8 'he bodil* form of the linen is no" the form assumed in

5hapter 1

common b* the )alues of all commodities; it therefore becomes directl* e9changeable "ith all and e)er* of them8 'he substance linen becomes the )isible incarnation, the social chr*salis state of e)er* +ind of human labour8 Bea)ing, "hich is the labour of certain pri)ate indi)iduals producing a particular article, linen, acIuires in conseIuence a social character, the character of eIualit* "ith all other +inds of labour8 'he innumerable eIuations of "hich the general form of )alue is composed, eIuate in turn the labour embodied in the linen to that embodied in e)er* other commodit*, and the* thus con)ert "ea)ing into the general form of manifestation of undifferentiated human labour8 >n this manner the labour realised in the )alues of commodities is presented not onl* under its negati)e aspect, under "hich abstraction is made from e)er* concrete form and useful propert* of actual "or+, but its o"n positi)e nature is made to re)eal itself e9pressl*8 'he general )alue form is the reduction of all +inds of actual labour to their common character of being human labour generall*, of being the e9penditure of human labour po"er8 'he general )alue form, "hich represents all products of labour as mere congelations of undifferentiated human labour, sho"s b* its )er* structure that it is the social resumR of the "orld of commodities8 'hat form conseIuentl* ma+es it indisputabl* e)ident that in the "orld of commodities the character possessed b* all labour of being human labour constitutes its specific social character8

2. The !nterdependent evelopment of the Relative Form of "alue# and of the Equivalent Form
'he degree of de)elopment of the relati)e form of )alue corresponds to that of the eIui)alent form8 /ut "e must bear in mind that the de)elopment of the latter is onl* the e9pression and result of the de)elopment of the former8 'he primar* or isolated relati)e form of )alue of one commodit* con)erts some other commodit* into an isolated eIui)alent8 'he e9panded form of relati)e )alue, "hich is the e9pression of the )alue of one commodit* in terms of all other commodities, endo"s those other commodities "ith the character of particular eIui)alents differing in +ind8 (nd lastl*, a particular +ind of commodit* acIuires the character of uni)ersal eIui)alent, because all other commodities ma+e it the material in "hich the* uniforml* e9press their )alue8 'he antagonism bet"een the relati)e form of )alue and the eIui)alent form, the t"o poles of the )alue form, is de)eloped concurrentl* "ith that form itself8 'he first form, 67 *ds of linen Y one coat, alread* contains this antagonism, "ithout as *et fi9ing it8 (ccording as "e read this eIuation for"ards or bac+"ards, the parts pla*ed b* the linen and the coat are different8 >n the one case the relati)e )alue of the linen is e9pressed in the coat, in the other case the relati)e )alue of the coat is e9pressed in the linen8 >n this first form of )alue, therefore, it is difficult to grasp the polar contrast8 Form / sho"s that onl* one single commodit* at a time can completel* e9pand its relati)e )alue, and that it acIuires this e9panded form onl* because, and in so far as, all other commodities are, "ith respect to it, eIui)alents8 -ere "e cannot re)erse the eIuation, as "e can the eIuation 67 *ds of linen Y 1 coat, "ithout altering its general character, and con)erting it from the e9panded form of )alue into the general form of )alue8 Finall*, the form 5 gi)es to the "orld of commodities a general social relati)e form of )alue, because, and in so far as, thereb* all commodities, "ith the e9ception of one, are e9cluded from the eIui)alent form8 ( single commodit*, the linen, appears therefore to ha)e acIuired the character of direct e9changeabilit* "ith e)er* other commodit* because, and in so far as, this character is denied to e)er* other commodit*8 66

5hapter 1

'he commodit* that figures as uni)ersal eIui)alent, is, on the other hand, e9cluded from the relati)e )alue form8 >f the linen, or an* other commodit* ser)ing as uni)ersal eIui)alent, "ere, at the same time, to share in the relati)e form of )alue, it "ould ha)e to ser)e as its o"n eIui)alent8 Be should then ha)e 67 *ds of linen Y 67 *ds of linen; this tautolog* e9presses neither )alue, nor magnitude of )alue8 >n order to e9press the relati)e )alue of the uni)ersal eIui)alent, "e must rather re)erse the form 58 'his eIui)alent has no relati)e form of )alue in common "ith other commodities, but its )alue is relati)el* e9pressed b* a ne)er ending series of other commodities8 'hus, the e9panded form of relati)e )alue, or form /, no" sho"s itself as the specific form of relati)e )alue for the eIui)alent commodit*8

3. Transition from the $eneral form of value to the %oney form


'he uni)ersal eIui)alent form is a form of )alue in general8 >t can, therefore, be assumed b* an* commodit*8 =n the other hand, if a commodit* be found to ha)e assumed the uni)ersal eIui)alent form (form 5!, this is onl* because and in so far as it has been e9cluded from the rest of all other commodities as their eIui)alent, and that b* their o"n act8 (nd from the moment that this e9clusion becomes finall* restricted to one particular commodit*, from that moment onl*, the general form of relati)e )alue of the "orld of commodities obtains real consistence and general social )alidit*8 'he particular commodit*, "ith "hose bodil* form the eIui)alent form is thus sociall* identified, no" becomes the mone* commodit*, or ser)es as mone*8 >t becomes the special social function of that commodit*, and conseIuentl* its social monopol*, to pla* "ithin the "orld of commodities the part of the uni)ersal eIui)alent8 (mongst the commodities "hich, in form /, figure as particular eIui)alents of the linen, and, in form 5, e9press in common their relati)e )alues in linen, this foremost place has been attained b* one in particular F namel*, gold8 >f, then, in form 5 "e replace the linen b* gold, "e get,

D. The Money Form


67 1 17 7 1 6 [ 9 *ards of linen coat lbs of tea lbs of coffee Iuarter of corn ounces of gold a ton of iron 5ommodit* ( Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y

Y 6 ounces of gold

>n passing from form ( to form /, and from the latter to form 5, the changes are fundamental8 =n the other hand, there is no difference bet"een forms 5 and 0, e9cept that, in the latter, gold has assumed the eIui)alent form in the place of linen8 Gold is in form 0, "hat linen "as in form 5 F the uni)ersal eIui)alent8 'he progress consists in this alone, that the character of direct and uni)ersal e9changeabilit* F in other "ords, that the uni)ersal eIui)alent form F has no", b* social custom, become finall* identified "ith the substance, gold8 Gold is no" mone* "ith reference to all other commodities onl* because it "as pre)iousl*, "ith reference to them, a simple commodit*8 <i+e all other commodities, it "as also capable of ser)ing as an eIui)alent, either as simple eIui)alent in isolated e9changes, or as particular eIui)alent b* the side of others8 Graduall* it began to ser)e, "ithin )ar*ing limits, as uni)ersal eIui)alent8 So soon as it monopolises this position in the e9pression of )alue for the "orld of

5hapter 1

commodities, it becomes the mone* commodit*, and then, and not till then, does form 0 become distinct from form 5, and the general form of )alue become changed into the mone* form8 'he elementar* e9pression of the relati)e )alue of a single commodit*, such as linen, in terms of the commodit*, such as gold, that pla*s the part of mone*, is the price form of that commodit*8 'he price form of the linen is therefore 67 *ards of linen Y 6 ounces of gold, or, if 6 ounces of gold "hen coined are ]6, 67 *ards of linen Y ]68 'he difficult* in forming a concept of the mone* form, consists in clearl* comprehending the uni)ersal eIui)alent form, and as a necessar* corollar*, the general form of )alue, form 58 'he latter is deducible from form /, the e9panded form of )alue, the essential component element of "hich, "e sa", is form (, 67 *ards of linen Y 1 coat or 9 commodit* ( Y * commodit* /8 'he simple commodit* form is therefore the germ of the mone* form8

Section ,: The Fetishism of Commodities and the Secret Thereof


( commodit* appears, at first sight, a )er* tri)ial thing, and easil* understood8 >ts anal*sis sho"s that it is, in realit*, a )er* Iueer thing, abounding in metaph*sical subtleties and theological niceties8 So far as it is a )alue in use, there is nothing m*sterious about it, "hether "e consider it from the point of )ie" that b* its properties it is capable of satisf*ing human "ants, or from the point that those properties are the product of human labour8 >t is as clear as noon4da*, that man, b* his industr*, changes the forms of the materials furnished b* Cature, in such a "a* as to ma+e them useful to him8 'he form of "ood, for instance, is altered, b* ma+ing a table out of it8 Net, for all that, the table continues to be that common, e)er*4da* thing, "ood8 /ut, so soon as it steps forth as a commodit*, it is changed into something transcendent8 >t not onl* stands "ith its feet on the ground, but, in relation to all other commodities, it stands on its head, and e)ol)es out of its "ooden brain grotesIue ideas, far more "onderful than @table4turningA e)er "as8 66a 'he m*stical character of commodities does not originate, therefore, in their use )alue8 Lust as little does it proceed from the nature of the determining factors of )alue8 For, in the first place, ho"e)er )aried the useful +inds of labour, or producti)e acti)ities, ma* be, it is a ph*siological fact, that the* are functions of the human organism, and that each such function, "hate)er ma* be its nature or form, is essentiall* the e9penditure of human brain, ner)es, muscles, Pc8 Secondl*, "ith regard to that "hich forms the ground4"or+ for the Iuantitati)e determination of )alue, namel*, the duration of that e9penditure, or the Iuantit* of labour, it is Iuite clear that there is a palpable difference bet"een its Iuantit* and Iualit*8 >n all states of societ*, the labour time that it costs to produce the means of subsistence, must necessaril* be an obDect of interest to man+ind, though not of eIual interest in different stages of de)elopment8 67 (nd lastl*, from the moment that men in an* "a* "or+ for one another, their labour assumes a social form8 Bhence, then, arises the enigmatical character of the product of labour, so soon as it assumes the form of commoditiesE 5learl* from this form itself8 'he eIualit* of all sorts of human labour is e9pressed obDecti)el* b* their products all being eIuall* )alues; the measure of the e9penditure of labour po"er b* the duration of that e9penditure, ta+es the form of the Iuantit* of )alue of the products of labour; and finall* the mutual relations of the producers, "ithin "hich the social character of their labour affirms itself, ta+e the form of a social relation bet"een the products8 ( commodit* is therefore a m*sterious thing, simpl* because in it the social character of men?s labour appears to them as an obDecti)e character stamped upon the product of that labour; because the relation of the producers to the sum total of their o"n labour is presented to them as a social

5hapter 1

relation, e9isting not bet"een themsel)es, but bet"een the products of their labour8 'his is the reason "h* the products of labour become commodities, social things "hose Iualities are at the same time perceptible and imperceptible b* the senses8 >n the same "a* the light from an obDect is percei)ed b* us not as the subDecti)e e9citation of our optic ner)e, but as the obDecti)e form of something outside the e*e itself8 /ut, in the act of seeing, there is at all e)ents, an actual passage of light from one thing to another, from the e9ternal obDect to the e*e8 'here is a ph*sical relation bet"een ph*sical things8 /ut it is different "ith commodities8 'here, the e9istence of the things &u% commodities, and the )alue relation bet"een the products of labour "hich stamps them as commodities, ha)e absolutel* no connection "ith their ph*sical properties and "ith the material relations arising therefrom8 'here it is a definite social relation bet"een men, that assumes, in their e*es, the fantastic form of a relation bet"een things8 >n order, therefore, to find an analog*, "e must ha)e recourse to the mist4en)eloped regions of the religious "orld8 >n that "orld the productions of the human brain appear as independent beings endo"ed "ith life, and entering into relation both "ith one another and the human race8 So it is in the "orld of commodities "ith the products of men?s hands8 'his > call the Fetishism "hich attaches itself to the products of labour, so soon as the* are produced as commodities, and "hich is therefore inseparable from the production of commodities8 'his Fetishism of commodities has its origin, as the foregoing anal*sis has alread* sho"n, in the peculiar social character of the labour that produces them8 (s a general rule, articles of utilit* become commodities, onl* because the* are products of the labour of pri)ate indi)iduals or groups of indi)iduals "ho carr* on their "or+ independentl* of each other8 'he sum total of the labour of all these pri)ate indi)iduals forms the aggregate labour of societ*8 Since the producers do not come into social contact "ith each other until the* e9change their products, the specific social character of each producer?s labour does not sho" itself e9cept in the act of e9change8 >n other "ords, the labour of the indi)idual asserts itself as a part of the labour of societ*, onl* b* means of the relations "hich the act of e9change establishes directl* bet"een the products, and indirectl*, through them, bet"een the producers8 'o the latter, therefore, the relations connecting the labour of one indi)idual "ith that of the rest appear, not as direct social relations bet"een indi)iduals at "or+, but as "hat the* reall* are, material relations bet"een persons and social relations bet"een things8 >t is onl* b* being e9changed that the products of labour acIuire, as )alues, one uniform social status, distinct from their )aried forms of e9istence as obDects of utilit*8 'his di)ision of a product into a useful thing and a )alue becomes practicall* important, onl* "hen e9change has acIuired such an e9tension that useful articles are produced for the purpose of being e9changed, and their character as )alues has therefore to be ta+en into account, beforehand, during production8 From this moment the labour of the indi)idual producer acIuires sociall* a t"ofold character8 =n the one hand, it must, as a definite useful +ind of labour, satisf* a definite social "ant, and thus hold its place as part and parcel of the collecti)e labour of all, as a branch of a social di)ision of labour that has sprung up spontaneousl*8 =n the other hand, it can satisf* the manifold "ants of the indi)idual producer himself, onl* in so far as the mutual e9changeabilit* of all +inds of useful pri)ate labour is an established social fact, and therefore the pri)ate useful labour of each producer ran+s on an eIualit* "ith that of all others8 'he eIualisation of the most different +inds of labour can be the result onl* of an abstraction from their ineIualities, or of reducing them to their common denominator, )i18 e9penditure of human labour po"er or human labour in the abstract8 'he t"ofold social character of the labour of the indi)idual appears to him, "hen reflected in his brain, onl* under those forms "hich are impressed upon that labour in e)er*4da* practice b* the e9change of products8 >n this "a*, the character that his o"n labour possesses of being sociall* useful ta+es the form of the condition, that the product must be not onl* useful, but useful for

5hapter 1

others, and the social character that his particular labour has of being the eIual of all other particular +inds of labour, ta+es the form that all the ph*sicall* different articles that are the products of labour8 ha)e one common Iualit*, )i18, that of ha)ing )alue8 -ence, "hen "e bring the products of our labour into relation "ith each other as )alues, it is not because "e see in these articles the material receptacles of homogeneous human labour8 Kuite the contrar*: "hene)er, b* an e9change, "e eIuate as )alues our different products, b* that )er* act, "e also eIuate, as human labour, the different +inds of labour e9pended upon them8 Be are not a"are of this, ne)ertheless "e do it868 ;alue, therefore, does not stal+ about "ith a label describing "hat it is8 >t is )alue, rather, that con)erts e)er* product into a social hierogl*phic8 <ater on, "e tr* to decipher the hierogl*phic, to get behind the secret of our o"n social products; for to stamp an obDect of utilit* as a )alue, is Dust as much a social product as language8 'he recent scientific disco)er*, that the products of labour, so far as the* are )alues, are but material e9pressions of the human labour spent in their production, mar+s, indeed, an epoch in the histor* of the de)elopment of the human race, but, b* no means, dissipates the mist through "hich the social character of labour appears to us to be an obDecti)e character of the products themsel)es8 'he fact, that in the particular form of production "ith "hich "e are dealing, )i18, the production of commodities, the specific social character of pri)ate labour carried on independentl*, consists in the eIualit* of e)er* +ind of that labour, b* )irtue of its being human labour, "hich character, therefore, assumes in the product the form of )alue F this fact appears to the producers, not"ithstanding the disco)er* abo)e referred to, to be Dust as real and final, as the fact, that, after the disco)er* b* science of the component gases of air, the atmosphere itself remained unaltered8 Bhat, first of all, practicall* concerns producers "hen the* ma+e an e9change, is the Iuestion, ho" much of some other product the* get for their o"nE in "hat proportions the products are e9changeableE Bhen these proportions ha)e, b* custom, attained a certain stabilit*, the* appear to result from the nature of the products, so that, for instance, one ton of iron and t"o ounces of gold appear as naturall* to be of eIual )alue as a pound of gold and a pound of iron in spite of their different ph*sical and chemical Iualities appear to be of eIual "eight8 'he character of ha)ing )alue, "hen once impressed upon products, obtains fi9it* onl* b* reason of their acting and re4acting upon each other as Iuantities of )alue8 'hese Iuantities )ar* continuall*, independentl* of the "ill, foresight and action of the producers8 'o them, their o"n social action ta+es the form of the action of obDects, "hich rule the producers instead of being ruled b* them8 >t reIuires a full* de)eloped production of commodities before, from accumulated e9perience alone, the scientific con)iction springs up, that all the different +inds of pri)ate labour, "hich are carried on independentl* of each other, and *et as spontaneousl* de)eloped branches of the social di)ision of labour, are continuall* being reduced to the Iuantitati)e proportions in "hich societ* reIuires them8 (nd "h*E /ecause, in the midst of all the accidental and e)er fluctuating e9change relations bet"een the products, the labour time sociall* necessar* for their production forcibl* asserts itself li+e an o)er4riding la" of Cature8 'he la" of gra)it* thus asserts itself "hen a house falls about our ears8 62 'he determination of the magnitude of )alue b* labour time is therefore a secret, hidden under the apparent fluctuations in the relati)e )alues of commodities8 >ts disco)er*, "hile remo)ing all appearance of mere accidentalit* from the determination of the magnitude of the )alues of products, *et in no "a* alters the mode in "hich that determination ta+es place8 $an?s reflections on the forms of social life, and conseIuentl*, also, his scientific anal*sis of those forms, ta+e a course directl* opposite to that of their actual historical de)elopment8 -e begins, post festum, "ith the results of the process of de)elopment read* to hand before him8 'he characters that stamp products as commodities, and "hose establishment is a necessar* preliminar* to the circulation of commodities, ha)e alread* acIuired the stabilit* of natural, self4

5hapter 1

understood forms of social life, before man see+s to decipher, not their historical character, for in his e*es the* are immutable, but their meaning8 5onseIuentl* it "as the anal*sis of the prices of commodities that alone led to the determination of the magnitude of )alue, and it "as the common e9pression of all commodities in mone* that alone led to the establishment of their characters as )alues8 >t is, ho"e)er, Dust this ultimate mone* form of the "orld of commodities that actuall* conceals, instead of disclosing, the social character of pri)ate labour, and the social relations bet"een the indi)idual producers8 Bhen > state that coats or boots stand in a relation to linen, because it is the uni)ersal incarnation of abstract human labour, the absurdit* of the statement is self4e)ident8 Ce)ertheless, "hen the producers of coats and boots compare those articles "ith linen, or, "hat is the same thing, "ith gold or sil)er, as the uni)ersal eIui)alent, the* e9press the relation bet"een their o"n pri)ate labour and the collecti)e labour of societ* in the same absurd form8 'he categories of bourgeois econom* consist of such li+e forms8 'he* are forms of thought e9pressing "ith social )alidit* the conditions and relations of a definite, historicall* determined mode of production, )i18, the production of commodities8 'he "hole m*ster* of commodities, all the magic and necromanc* that surrounds the products of labour as long as the* ta+e the form of commodities, )anishes therefore, so soon as "e come to other forms of production8 Since &obinson 5rusoe?s e9periences are a fa)ourite theme "ith political economists, :7 let us ta+e a loo+ at him on his island8 $oderate though he be, *et some fe" "ants he has to satisf*, and must therefore do a little useful "or+ of )arious sorts, such as ma+ing tools and furniture, taming goats, fishing and hunting8 =f his pra*ers and the li+e "e ta+e no account, since the* are a source of pleasure to him, and he loo+s upon them as so much recreation8 >n spite of the )ariet* of his "or+, he +no"s that his labour, "hate)er its form, is but the acti)it* of one and the same &obinson, and conseIuentl*, that it consists of nothing but different modes of human labour8 Cecessit* itself compels him to apportion his time accuratel* bet"een his different +inds of "or+8 Bhether one +ind occupies a greater space in his general acti)it* than another, depends on the difficulties, greater or less as the case ma* be, to be o)ercome in attaining the useful effect aimed at8 'his our friend &obinson soon learns b* e9perience, and ha)ing rescued a "atch, ledger, and pen and in+ from the "rec+, commences, li+e a true4born /riton, to +eep a set of boo+s8 -is stoc+4boo+ contains a list of the obDects of utilit* that belong to him, of the operations necessar* for their production; and lastl*, of the labour time that definite Iuantities of those obDects ha)e, on an a)erage, cost him8 (ll the relations bet"een &obinson and the obDects that form this "ealth of his o"n creation, are here so simple and clear as to be intelligible "ithout e9ertion, e)en to $r8 Sedle* 'a*lor8 (nd *et those relations contain all that is essential to the determination of )alue8 <et us no" transport oursel)es from &obinson?s island bathed in light to the European middle ages shrouded in dar+ness8 -ere, instead of the independent man, "e find e)er*one dependent, serfs and lords, )assals and su1erains, la*men and clerg*8 #ersonal dependence here characterises the social relations of production Dust as much as it does the other spheres of life organised on the basis of that production8 /ut for the )er* reason that personal dependence forms the ground4"or+ of societ*, there is no necessit* for labour and its products to assume a fantastic form different from their realit*8 'he* ta+e the shape, in the transactions of societ*, of ser)ices in +ind and pa*ments in +ind8 -ere the particular and natural form of labour, and not, as in a societ* based on production of commodities, its general abstract form is the immediate social form of labour8 5ompulsor* labour is Dust as properl* measured b* time, as commodit*4producing labour; but e)er* serf +no"s that "hat he e9pends in the ser)ice of his lord, is a definite Iuantit* of his o"n personal labour po"er8 'he tithe to be rendered to the priest is more matter of fact than his blessing8 Co matter, then, "hat "e ma* thin+ of the parts pla*ed b* the different classes of people themsel)es in this societ*, the social relations bet"een indi)iduals in the performance of

37

5hapter 1

their labour, appear at all e)ents as their o"n mutual personal relations, and are not disguised under the shape of social relations bet"een the products of labour8 For an e9ample of labour in common or directl* associated labour, "e ha)e no occasion to go bac+ to that spontaneousl* de)eloped form "hich "e find on the threshold of the histor* of all ci)ilised races8:1 Be ha)e one close at hand in the patriarchal industries of a peasant famil*, that produces corn, cattle, *arn, linen, and clothing for home use8 'hese different articles are, as regards the famil*, so man* products of its labour, but as bet"een themsel)es, the* are not commodities8 'he different +inds of labour, such as tillage, cattle tending, spinning, "ea)ing and ma+ing clothes, "hich result in the )arious products, are in themsel)es, and such as the* are, direct social functions, because functions of the famil*, "hich, Dust as much as a societ* based on the production of commodities, possesses a spontaneousl* de)eloped s*stem of di)ision of labour8 'he distribution of the "or+ "ithin the famil*, and the regulation of the labour time of the se)eral members, depend as "ell upon differences of age and se9 as upon natural conditions )ar*ing "ith the seasons8 'he labour po"er of each indi)idual, b* its )er* nature, operates in this case merel* as a definite portion of the "hole labour po"er of the famil*, and therefore, the measure of the e9penditure of indi)idual labour po"er b* its duration, appears here b* its )er* nature as a social character of their labour8 <et us no" picture to oursel)es, b* "a* of change, a communit* of free indi)iduals, carr*ing on their "or+ "ith the means of production in common, in "hich the labour po"er of all the different indi)iduals is consciousl* applied as the combined labour po"er of the communit*8 (ll the characteristics of &obinson?s labour are here repeated, but "ith this difference, that the* are social, instead of indi)idual8 E)er*thing produced b* him "as e9clusi)el* the result of his o"n personal labour, and therefore simpl* an obDect of use for himself8 'he total product of our communit* is a social product8 =ne portion ser)es as fresh means of production and remains social8 /ut another portion is consumed b* the members as means of subsistence8 ( distribution of this portion amongst them is conseIuentl* necessar*8 'he mode of this distribution "ill )ar* "ith the producti)e organisation of the communit*, and the degree of historical de)elopment attained b* the producers8 Be "ill assume, but merel* for the sa+e of a parallel "ith the production of commodities, that the share of each indi)idual producer in the means of subsistence is determined b* his labour time8 <abour time "ould, in that case, pla* a double part8 >ts apportionment in accordance "ith a definite social plan maintains the proper proportion bet"een the different +inds of "or+ to be done and the )arious "ants of the communit*8 =n the other hand, it also ser)es as a measure of the portion of the common labour borne b* each indi)idual, and of his share in the part of the total product destined for indi)idual consumption8 'he social relations of the indi)idual producers, "ith regard both to their labour and to its products, are in this case perfectl* simple and intelligible, and that "ith regard not onl* to production but also to distribution8 'he religious "orld is but the refle9 of the real "orld8 (nd for a societ* based upon the production of commodities, in "hich the producers in general enter into social relations "ith one another b* treating their products as commodities and )alues, "hereb* the* reduce their indi)idual pri)ate labour to the standard of homogeneous human labour F for such a societ*, 5hristianit* "ith its cultus of abstract man, more especiall* in its bourgeois de)elopments, #rotestantism, 0eism, Pc8, is the most fitting form of religion8 >n the ancient (siatic and other ancient modes of production, "e find that the con)ersion of products into commodities, and therefore the con)ersion of men into producers of commodities, holds a subordinate place, "hich, ho"e)er, increases in importance as the primiti)e communities approach nearer and nearer to their dissolution8 'rading nations, properl* so called, e9ist in the ancient "orld onl* in its interstices, li+e the gods of Epicurus in the >ntermundia, or li+e Le"s in the pores of #olish

31

5hapter 1

societ*8 'hose ancient social organisms of production are, as compared "ith bourgeois societ*, e9tremel* simple and transparent8 /ut the* are founded either on the immature de)elopment of man indi)iduall*, "ho has not *et se)ered the umbilical cord that unites him "ith his fello"men in a primiti)e tribal communit*, or upon direct relations of subDection8 'he* can arise and e9ist onl* "hen the de)elopment of the producti)e po"er of labour has not risen be*ond a lo" stage, and "hen, therefore, the social relations "ithin the sphere of material life, bet"een man and man, and bet"een man and Cature, are correspondingl* narro"8 'his narro"ness is reflected in the ancient "orship of Cature, and in the other elements of the popular religions8 'he religious refle9 of the real "orld can, in an* case, onl* then finall* )anish, "hen the practical relations of e)er*4 da* life offer to man none but perfectl* intelligible and reasonable relations "ith regard to his fello"men and to Cature8 'he life4process of societ*, "hich is based on the process of material production, does not strip off its m*stical )eil until it is treated as production b* freel* associated men, and is consciousl* regulated b* them in accordance "ith a settled plan8 'his, ho"e)er, demands for societ* a certain material ground4"or+ or set of conditions of e9istence "hich in their turn are the spontaneous product of a long and painful process of de)elopment8 #olitical Econom* has indeed anal*sed, ho"e)er incompletel*, :6 )alue and its magnitude, and has disco)ered "hat lies beneath these forms8 /ut it has ne)er once as+ed the Iuestion "h* labour is represented b* the )alue of its product and labour time b* the magnitude of that )alue8 :: 'hese formul^, "hich bear it stamped upon them in unmista+able letters that the* belong to a state of societ*, in "hich the process of production has the master* o)er man, instead of being controlled b* him, such formul^ appear to the bourgeois intellect to be as much a self4e)ident necessit* imposed b* Cature as producti)e labour itself8 -ence forms of social production that preceded the bourgeois form, are treated b* the bourgeoisie in much the same "a* as the Fathers of the 5hurch treated pre45hristian religions8: 'o "hat e9tent some economists are misled b* the Fetishism inherent in commodities, or b* the obDecti)e appearance of the social characteristics of labour, is sho"n, amongst other "a*s, b* the dull and tedious Iuarrel o)er the part pla*ed b* Cature in the formation of e9change )alue8 Since e9change )alue is a definite social manner of e9pressing the amount of labour besto"ed upon an obDect, Cature has no more to do "ith it, than it has in fi9ing the course of e9change8 'he mode of production in "hich the product ta+es the form of a commodit*, or is produced directl* for e9change, is the most general and most embr*onic form of bourgeois production8 >t therefore ma+es its appearance at an earl* date in histor*, though not in the same predominating and characteristic manner as no"4a4da*s8 -ence its Fetish character is comparati)el* eas* to be seen through8 /ut "hen "e come to more concrete forms, e)en this appearance of simplicit* )anishes8 Bhence arose the illusions of the monetar* s*stemE 'o it gold and sil)er, "hen ser)ing as mone*, did not represent a social relation bet"een producers, but "ere natural obDects "ith strange social properties8 (nd modern econom*, "hich loo+s do"n "ith such disdain on the monetar* s*stem, does not its superstition come out as clear as noon4da*, "hene)er it treats of capitalE -o" long is it since econom* discarded the ph*siocratic illusion, that rents gro" out of the soil and not out of societ*E /ut not to anticipate, "e "ill content oursel)es "ith *et another e9ample relating to the commodit* form8 5ould commodities themsel)es spea+, the* "ould sa*: =ur use )alue ma* be a thing that interests men8 >t is no part of us as obDects8 Bhat, ho"e)er, does belong to us as obDects, is our )alue8 =ur natural intercourse as commodities pro)es it8 >n the e*es of each other "e are nothing but e9change )alues8 Co" listen ho" those commodities spea+ through the mouth of the economist8

36

5hapter 1

@;alueA F (i$e$, e9change )alue! @is a propert* of things, richesA F ( i$e$, use )alue! @of man8 ;alue, in this sense, necessaril* implies e9changes, riches do not8A :3 @&ichesA (use )alue! @are the attribute of men, )alue is the attribute of commodities8 ( man or a communit* is rich, a pearl or a diamond is )aluable888A ( pearl or a diamond is )aluable as a pearl or a diamond8 :6 So far no chemist has e)er disco)ered e9change )alue either in a pearl or a diamond8 'he economic disco)erers of this chemical element, "ho b*4the4b*e la* special claim to critical acumen, find ho"e)er that the use )alue of obDects belongs to them independentl* of their material properties, "hile their )alue, on the other hand, forms a part of them as obDects8 Bhat confirms them in this )ie", is the peculiar circumstance that the use )alue of obDects is realised "ithout e9change, b* means of a direct relation bet"een the obDects and man, "hile, on the other hand, their )alue is realised onl* b* e9change, that is, b* means of a social process8 Bho fails here to call to mind our good friend, 0ogberr*, "ho informs neighbour Seacoal, that, @'o be a "ell4fa)oured man is the gift of fortune; but reading and "riting comes b* Cature8A :7

(ha)ter 2* Exchan#e
>t is plain that commodities cannot go to mar+et and ma+e e9changes of their o"n account8 Be must, therefore, ha)e recourse to their guardians, "ho are also their o"ners8 5ommodities are things, and therefore "ithout po"er of resistance against man8 >f the* are "anting in docilit* he can use force; in other "ords, he can ta+e possession of them8 1 >n order that these obDects ma* enter into relation "ith each other as commodities, their guardians must place themsel)es in relation to one another, as persons "hose "ill resides in those obDect, and must beha)e in such a "a* that each does not appropriate the commodit* of the other, and part "ith his o"n, e9cept b* means of an act done b* mutual consent8 'he* must therefore, mutuall* recognise in each other the rights of pri)ate proprietors8 'his Duridical relation, "hich thus e9presses itself in a contract, "hether such contract be part of a de)eloped legal s*stem or not, is a relation bet"een t"o "ills, and is but the refle9 of the real economic relation bet"een the t"o8 >t is this economic relation that determines the subDect4matter comprised in each such Duridical act8 6 'he persons e9ist for one another merel* as representati)es of, and, therefore8 as o"ners of, commodities8 >n the course of our in)estigation "e shall find, in general, that the characters "ho appear on the economic stage are but the personifications of the economic relations that e9ist bet"een them8 Bhat chiefl* distinguishes a commodit* from its o"ner is the fact, that it loo+s upon e)er* other commodit* as but the form of appearance of its o"n )alue8 ( born le)eller and a c*nic, it is al"a*s read* to e9change not onl* soul, but bod*, "ith an* and e)er* other commodit*, be the same more repulsi)e than $aritornes herself8 'he o"ner ma+es up for this lac+ in the commodit* of a sense of the concrete, b* his o"n fi)e and more senses8 -is commodit* possesses for himself no immediate use4)alue8 =ther"ise, he "ould not bring it to the mar+et8 >t has use4)alue for others; but for himself its onl* direct use4)alue is that of being a depositor* of e9change4)alue, and, conseIuentl*, a means of e9change8 : 'herefore, he ma+es up his mind to part "ith it for commodities "hose )alue in use is of ser)ice to him8 (ll commodities are non4use4)alues for their o"ners, and use4)alues for their non4o"ners8 5onseIuentl*, the* must all change hands8 /ut this change of hands is "hat constitutes their e9change, and the latter puts them in relation "ith each other as )alues, and realises them as )alues8 -ence commodities must be realised as )alues before the* can be realised as use4)alues8 =n the other hand, the* must sho" that the* are use4)alues before the* can be realised as )alues8 For the labour spent upon them counts effecti)el*, onl* in so far as it is spent in a form that is useful for others8 Bhether that labour is useful for others, and its product conseIuentl* capable of satisf*ing the "ants of others, can be pro)ed onl* b* the act of e9change8 E)er* o"ner of a commodit* "ishes to part "ith it in e9change onl* for those commodities "hose use4)alue satisfies some "ant of his8 <oo+ed at in this "a*, e9change is for him simpl* a pri)ate transaction8 =n the other hand, he desires to realise the )alue of his commodit*, to con)ert it into an* other suitable commodit* of eIual )alue, irrespecti)e of "hether his o"n commodit* has or has not an* use4)alue for the o"ner of the other8 From this point of )ie", e9change is for him a social transaction of a general character8 /ut one and the same set of transactions cannot be simultaneousl* for all o"ners of commodities both e9clusi)el* pri)ate and e9clusi)el* social and general8

5hapter 6

<et us loo+ at the matter a little closer8 'o the o"ner of a commodit*, e)er* other commodit* is, in regard to his o"n, a particular eIui)alent, and conseIuentl* his o"n commodit* is the uni)ersal eIui)alent for all the others8 /ut since this applies to e)er* o"ner, there is, in fact, no commodit* acting as uni)ersal eIui)alent, and the relati)e )alue of commodities possesses no general form under "hich the* can be eIuated as )alues and ha)e the magnitude of their )alues compared8 So far, therefore, the* do not confront each other as commodities, but onl* as products or use4)alues8 >n their difficulties our commodit* o"ners thin+ li+e Faust: @>m (nfang "ar die 'at8A G@>n the beginning "as the deed8A F Goethe, !aust8H 'he* therefore acted and transacted before the* thought8 >nstincti)el* the* conform to the la"s imposed b* the nature of commodities8 'he* cannot bring their commodities into relation as )alues, and therefore as commodities, e9cept b* comparing them "ith some one other commodit* as the uni)ersal eIui)alent8 'hat "e sa" from the anal*sis of a commodit*8 /ut a particular commodit* cannot become the uni)ersal eIui)alent e9cept b* a social act8 'he social action therefore of all other commodities, sets apart the particular commodit* in "hich the* all represent their )alues8 'hereb* the bodil* form of this commodit* becomes the form of the sociall* recognised uni)ersal eIui)alent8 'o be the uni)ersal eIui)alent, becomes, b* this social process, the specific function of the commodit* thus e9cluded b* the rest8 'hus it becomes F mone*8 @>lli unum consilium habent et )irtutem et potestatem suam bestiae tradunt8 Et ne Iuis possit emere aut )endere, nisi Iui habet characterem aut nomen bestiae aut numerum nominis eDus8A G@'hese ha)e one mind, and shall gi)e their po"er and strength unto the beast8A &e)elations, 17:1:; @(nd that no man might bu* or sell, sa)e he that had the mar+, or the name of the beast, or the number of his name8A &e)elations, 1::178H (Apocalypse8! $one* is a cr*stal formed of necessit* in the course of the e9changes, "hereb* different products of labour are practicall* eIuated to one another and thus b* practice con)erted into commodities8 'he historical progress and e9tension of e9changes de)elops the contrast, latent in commodities, bet"een use4)alue and )alue8 'he necessit* for gi)ing an e9ternal e9pression to this contrast for the purposes of commercial intercourse, urges on the establishment of an independent form of )alue, and finds no rest until it is once for all satisfied b* the differentiation of commodities into commodities and mone*8 (t the same rate, then, as the con)ersion of products into commodities is being accomplished, so also is the con)ersion of one special commodit* into mone*8 'he direct barter of products attains the elementar* form of the relati)e e9pression of )alue in one respect, but not in another8 'hat form is 9 5ommodit* ( Y * 5ommodit* /8 'he form of direct barter is 9 use4)alue ( Y * use4)alue /8 3 'he articles ( and / in this case are not as *et commodities, but become so onl* b* the act of barter8 'he first step made b* an obDect of utilit* to"ards acIuiring e9change4)alue is "hen it forms a non4use4)alue for its o"ner, and that happens "hen it forms a superfluous portion of some article reIuired for his immediate "ants8 =bDects in themsel)es are e9ternal to man, and conseIuentl* alienable b* him8 >n order that this alienation ma* be reciprocal, it is onl* necessar* for men, b* a tacit understanding, to treat each other as pri)ate o"ners of those alienable obDects, and b* implication as independent indi)iduals8 /ut such a state of reciprocal independence has no e9istence in a primiti)e societ* based on propert* in common, "hether such a societ* ta+es the form of a patriarchal famil*, an ancient >ndian communit*, or a #eru)ian >nca State8 'he e9change of commodities, therefore, first begins on the boundaries of such communities, at their points of contact "ith other similar communities, or "ith members of the latter8 So soon, ho"e)er, as products once become commodities in the e9ternal relations of a communit*, the* also, b* reaction, become so in its internal intercourse8 'he proportions in "hich the* are e9changeable are at first Iuite a matter of chance8 Bhat ma+es them e9changeable is the mutual desire of their o"ners to alienate them8 $eantime the need for foreign obDects of utilit* graduall* establishes itself8 'he constant repetition of e9change ma+es it

33

5hapter 6

a normal social act8 >n the course of time, therefore, some portion at least of the products of labour must be produced "ith a special )ie" to e9change8 From that moment the distinction becomes firml* established bet"een the utilit* of an obDect for the purposes of consumption, and its utilit* for the purposes of e9change8 >ts use4)alue becomes distinguished from its e9change4 )alue8 =n the other hand, the Iuantitati)e proportion in "hich the articles are e9changeable, becomes dependent on their production itself8 5ustom stamps them as )alues "ith definite magnitudes8 >n the direct barter of products, each commodit* is directl* a means of e9change to its o"ner, and to all other persons an eIui)alent, but that onl* in so far as it has use4)alue for them8 (t this stage, therefore, the articles e9changed do not acIuire a )alue4form independent of their o"n use4 )alue, or of the indi)idual needs of the e9changers8 'he necessit* for a )alue4form gro"s "ith the increasing number and )ariet* of the commodities e9changed8 'he problem and the means of solution arise simultaneousl*8 5ommodit*4o"ners ne)er eIuate their o"n commodities to those of others, and e9change them on a large scale, "ithout different +inds of commodities belonging to different o"ners being e9changeable for, and eIuated as )alues to, one and the same special article8 Such last4mentioned article, b* becoming the eIui)alent of )arious other commodities, acIuires at once, though "ithin narro" limits, the character of a general social eIui)alent8 'his character comes and goes "ith the momentar* social acts that called it into life8 >n turns and transientl* it attaches itself first to this and then to that commodit*8 /ut "ith the de)elopment of e9change it fi9es itself firml* and e9clusi)el* to particular sorts of commodities, and becomes cr*stallised b* assuming the mone*4form8 'he particular +ind of commodit* to "hich it stic+s is at first a matter of accident8 Ce)ertheless there are t"o circumstances "hose influence is decisi)e8 'he mone*4form attaches itself either to the most important articles of e9change from outside, and these in fact are primiti)e and natural forms in "hich the e9change4)alue of home products finds e9pression; or else it attaches itself to the obDect of utilit* that forms, li+e cattle, the chief portion of indigenous alienable "ealth8 Comad races are the first to de)elop the mone*4form, because all their "orldl* goods consist of mo)eable obDects and are therefore directl* alienable; and because their mode of life, b* continuall* bringing them into contact "ith foreign communities, solicits the e9change of products8 $an has often made man himself, under the form of sla)es, ser)e as the primiti)e material of mone*, but has ne)er used land for that purpose8 Such an idea could onl* spring up in a bourgeois societ* alread* "ell de)eloped8 >t dates from the last third of the 17th centur*, and the first attempt to put it in practice on a national scale "as made a centur* after"ards, during the French bourgeois re)olution8 >n proportion as e9change bursts its local bonds, and the )alue of commodities more and more e9pands into an embodiment of human labour in the abstract, in the same proportion the character of mone* attaches itself to commodities that are b* Cature fitted to perform the social function of a uni)ersal eIui)alent8 'hose commodities are the precious metals8 'he truth of the proposition that, @although gold and sil)er are not b* Cature mone*, mone* is b* Cature gold and sil)er,A6 is sho"n b* the fitness of the ph*sical properties of these metals for the functions of mone*87 %p to this point, ho"e)er, "e are acIuainted onl* "ith one function of mone*, namel*, to ser)e as the form of manifestation of the )alue of commodities, or as the material in "hich the magnitudes of their )alues are sociall* e9pressed8 (n adeIuate form of manifestation of )alue, a fit embodiment of abstract, undifferentiated, and therefore eIual human labour, that material alone can be "hose e)er* sample e9hibits the same uniform Iualities8 =n the other hand, since the difference bet"een the magnitudes of )alue is purel* Iuantitati)e, the mone* commodit* must be susceptible of merel* Iuantitati)e differences, must therefore be di)isible at "ill, and eIuall* capable of being reunited8 Gold and sil)er possess these properties b* Cature8

36

5hapter 6

'he use4)alue of the mone*4commodit* becomes t"o4fold8 >n addition to its special use4)alue as a commodit* (gold, for instance, ser)ing to stop teeth, to form the ra" material of articles of lu9ur*, Pc8!, it acIuires a formal use4)alue, originating in its specific social function8 Since all commodities are merel* particular eIui)alents of mone*, the latter being their uni)ersal eIui)alent, the*, "ith regard to the latter as the uni)ersal commodit*, pla* the parts of particular commodities8 8 Be ha)e seen that the mone*4form is but the refle9, thro"n upon one single commodit*, of the )alue relations bet"een all the rest8 'hat mone* is a commodit* 2 is therefore a ne" disco)er* onl* for those "ho, "hen the* anal*se it, start from its full* de)eloped shape8 'he act of e9change gi)es to the commodit* con)erted into mone*, not its )alue, but its specific )alue4form8 /* confounding these t"o distinct things some "riters ha)e been led to hold that the )alue of gold and sil)er is imaginar*8 17 'he fact that mone* can, in certain functions, be replaced b* mere s*mbols of itself, ga)e rise to that other mista+en notion, that it is itself a mere s*mbol8 Ce)ertheless under this error lur+ed a presentiment that the mone*4form of an obDect is not an inseparable part of that obDect, but is simpl* the form under "hich certain social relations manifest themsel)es8 >n this sense e)er* commodit* is a s*mbol, since, in so far as it is )alue, it is onl* the material en)elope of the human labour spent upon it8 11 /ut if it be declared that the social characters assumed b* obDects, or the material forms assumed b* the social Iualities of labour under the rRgime of a definite mode of production, are mere s*mbols, it is in the same breath also declared that these characteristics are arbitrar* fictions sanctioned b* the so4called uni)ersal consent of man+ind8 'his suited the mode of e9planation in fa)our during the 18th centur*8 %nable to account for the origin of the pu11ling forms assumed b* social relations bet"een man and man, people sought to denude them of their strange appearance b* ascribing to them a con)entional origin8 >t has alread* been remar+ed abo)e that the eIui)alent form of a commodit* does not impl* the determination of the magnitude of its )alue8 'herefore, although "e ma* be a"are that gold is mone*, and conseIuentl* directl* e9changeable for all other commodities, *et that fact b* no means tells ho" much 17 lbs8, for instance, of gold is "orth8 $one*, li+e e)er* other commodit*, cannot e9press the magnitude of its )alue e9cept relati)el* in other commodities8 'his )alue is determined b* the labour4time reIuired for its production, and is e9pressed b* the Iuantit* of an* other commodit* that costs the same amount of labour4time8 16 Such Iuantitati)e determination of its relati)e )alue ta+es place at the source of its production b* means of barter8 Bhen it steps into circulation as mone*, its )alue is alread* gi)en8 >n the last decades of the 17th centur* it had alread* been sho"n that mone* is a commodit*, but this step mar+s onl* the infanc* of the anal*sis8 'he difficult* lies, not in comprehending that mone* is a commodit*, but in disco)ering ho", "h*, and b* "hat means a commodit* becomes mone*8 1: Be ha)e alread* seen, from the most elementar* e9pression of )alue, 9 commodit* ( Y * commodit* /, that the obDect in "hich the magnitude of the )alue of another obDect is represented, appears to ha)e the eIui)alent form independentl* of this relation, as a social propert* gi)en to it b* Cature8 Be follo"ed up this false appearance to its final establishment, "hich is complete so soon as the uni)ersal eIui)alent form becomes identified "ith the bodil* form of a particular commodit*, and thus cr*stallised into the mone*4form8 Bhat appears to happen is, not that gold becomes mone*, in conseIuence of all other commodities e9pressing their )alues in it, but, on the contrar*, that all other commodities uni)ersall* e9press their )alues in gold, because it is mone*8 'he intermediate steps of the process )anish in the result and lea)e no trace behind8 5ommodities find their o"n )alue alread* completel* represented, "ithout an* initiati)e on their part, in another commodit* e9isting in compan* "ith them8 'hese obDects, gold

37

5hapter 6

and sil)er, Dust as the* come out of the bo"els of the earth, are forth"ith the direct incarnation of all human labour8 -ence the magic of mone*8 >n the form of societ* no" under consideration, the beha)iour of men in the social process of production is purel* atomic8 -ence their relations to each other in production assume a material character independent of their control and conscious indi)idual action8 'hese facts manifest themsel)es at first b* products as a general rule ta+ing the form of commodities8 Be ha)e seen ho" the progressi)e de)elopment of a societ* of commodit*4producers stamps one pri)ileged commodit* "ith the character of mone*8 -ence the riddle presented b* mone* is but the riddle presented b* commodities; onl* it no" stri+es us in its most glaring form8

(ha)ter * Mone+, ,r the (irc%$ation of (ommodities


Section 1: The $easure of Values
'hroughout this "or+, > assume, for the sa+e of simplicit*, gold as the mone*4commodit*8 'he first chief function of mone* is to suppl* commodities "ith the material for the e9pression of their )alues, or to represent their )alues as magnitudes of the same denomination, Iualitati)el* eIual, and Iuantitati)el* comparable8 >t thus ser)es as a universal measure of value8 (nd onl* b* )irtue of this function does gold, the eIui)alent commodit* par excellence, become mone*8 >t is not mone* that renders commodities commensurable8 Lust the contrar*8 >t is because all commodities, as )alues, are realised human labour, and therefore commensurable, that their )alues can be measured b* one and the same special commodit*, and the latter be con)erted into the common measure of their )alues, i$e8, into mone*8 $one* as a measure of )alue, is the phenomenal form that must of necessit* be assumed b* that measure of )alue "hich is immanent in commodities, labour4time81 'he e9pression of the )alue of a commodit* in gold F x commodit* ( Y y mone*4commodit* F is its mone*4form or price8 ( single eIuation, such as 1 ton of iron Y 6 ounces of gold, no" suffices to e9press the )alue of the iron in a sociall* )alid manner8 'here is no longer an* need for this eIuation to figure as a lin+ in the chain of eIuations that e9press the )alues of all other commodities, because the eIui)alent commodit*, gold, no" has the character of mone*8 'he general form of relati)e )alue has resumed its original shape of simple or isolated relati)e )alue8 =n the other hand, the e9panded e9pression of relati)e )alue, the endless series of eIuations, has no" become the form peculiar to the relati)e )alue of the mone*4commodit*8 'he series itself, too, is no" gi)en, and has social recognition in the prices of actual commodities8 Be ha)e onl* to read the Iuotations of a price4list bac+"ards, to find the magnitude of the )alue of mone* e9pressed in all sorts of commodities8 /ut mone* itself has no price8 >n order to put it on an eIual footing "ith all other commodities in this respect, "e should be obliged to eIuate it to itself as its o"n eIui)alent8 'he price or mone*4form of commodities is, li+e their form of )alue generall*, a form Iuite distinct from their palpable bodil* form; it is, therefore, a purel* ideal or mental form8 (lthough in)isible, the )alue of iron, linen and corn has actual e9istence in these )er* articles: it is ideall* made perceptible b* their eIualit* "ith gold, a relation that, so to sa*, e9ists onl* in their o"n heads8 'heir o"ner must, therefore, lend them his tongue, or hang a tic+et on them, before their prices can be communicated to the outside "orld8 6 Since the e9pression of the )alue of commodities in gold is a merel* ideal act, "e ma* use for this purpose imaginar* or ideal mone*8 E)er* trader +no"s, that he is far from ha)ing turned his goods into mone*, "hen he has e9pressed their )alue in a price or in imaginar* mone*, and that it does not reIuire the least bit of real gold, to estimate in that metal millions of pounds? "orth of goods8 Bhen, therefore, mone* ser)es as a measure of )alue; it is emplo*ed onl* as imaginar* or ideal mone*8 'his circumstance has gi)en rise to the "ildest theories8 : /ut, although the mone* that performs the functions of a measure of )alue is onl* ideal mone*, price depends entirel* upon the actual substance that is mone*8 'he )alue, or in other "ords, the Iuantit* of human labour contained in a ton of iron, is

32

5hapter :

e9pressed in imagination b* such a Iuantit* of the mone*4commodit* as contains the same amount of labour as the iron8 (ccording, therefore, as the measure of )alue is gold, sil)er, or copper, the )alue of the ton of iron "ill be e9pressed b* )er* different prices, or "ill be represented b* )er* different Iuantities of those metals respecti)el*8 >f, therefore, t"o different commodities, such as gold and sil)er, are simultaneousl* measures of )alue, all commodities ha)e t"o prices F one a gold4price, the other a sil)er4price8 'hese e9ist Iuietl* side b* side, so long as the ratio of 'he )alue of sil)er to that of gold remains unchanged, sa*, at 13:18 E)er* change in their ratio disturbs the ratio "hich e9ists bet"een the gold4prices and the sil)er4prices of commodities, and thus pro)es, b* facts, that a double standard of )alue is inconsistent "ith the functions of a standard8 5ommodities "ith definite prices present themsel)es under the form; a commodit* ( Y 9 gold; b commodit* / Y 1 gold; c commodit* 5 Y * gold, 'c8, "here a, b, c, represent definite Iuantities of the commodities (, /, 5 and 9, 1, *, definite Iuantities of gold8 'he )alues of these commodities are, therefore, changed in imagination into so man* different Iuantities of gold8 -ence, in spite of the confusing )ariet* of the commodities themsel)es, their )alues become magnitudes of the same denomination, gold4magnitudes8 'he* are no" capable of being compared "ith each other and measured, and the "ant becomes technicall* felt of comparing them "ith some fi9ed Iuantit* of gold as a unit measure8 'his unit, b* subseIuent di)ision into aliIuot parts, becomes itself the standard or scale8 /efore the* become mone*, gold, sil)er, and copper alread* possess such standard measures in their standards of "eight, so that, for e9ample, a pound "eight, "hile ser)ing as the unit, is, on the one hand, di)isible into ounces, and, on the other, ma* be combined to ma+e up hundred"eights8 3 >t is o"ing to this that, in all metallic currencies, the names gi)en to the standards of mone* or of price "ere originall* ta+en from the pre4e9isting names of the standards of "eight8 (s measure of #alue, and as standard of price, mone* has t"o entirel* distinct functions to perform8 >t is the measure of )alue inasmuch as it is the sociall* recognised incarnation of human labour; it is the standard of price inasmuch as it is a fi9ed "eight of metal8 (s the measure of )alue it ser)es to con)ert the )alues of all the manifold commodities into prices, into imaginar* Iuantities of gold; as the standard of price it measures those Iuantities of gold8 'he measure of )alues measures commodities considered as )alues; the standard of price measures, on the contrar*, Iuantities of gold b* a unit Iuantit* of gold, not the )alue of one Iuantit* of gold b* the "eight of another8 >n order to ma+e gold a standard of price, a certain "eight must be fi9ed upon as the unit8 >n this case, as in all cases of measuring Iuantities of the same denomination, the establishment of an un)ar*ing unit of measure is all4important8 -ence, the less the unit is subDect to )ariation, so much the better does the standard of price fulfil its office8 /ut onl* in so far as it is itself a product of labour, and, therefore, potentiall* )ariable in )alue, can gold ser)e as a measure of )alue8 6 >t is, in the first place, Iuite clear that a change in the )alue of gold does not, in an* "a*, affect its function as a standard of price8 Co matter ho" this )alue )aries, the proportions bet"een the )alues of different Iuantities of the metal remain constant8 -o"e)er great the fall in its )alue, 16 ounces of gold still ha)e 16 times the )alue of 1 ounce; and in prices, the onl* thing considered is the relation bet"een different Iuantities of gold8 Since, on the other hand, no rise or fall in the )alue of an ounce of gold can alter its "eight, no alteration can ta+e place in the "eight of its aliIuot parts8 'hus gold al"a*s renders the same ser)ice as an in)ariable standard of price, ho"e)er much its )alue ma* )ar*8 >n the second place, a change in the )alue of gold does not interfere "ith its functions as a measure of )alue8 'he change affects all commodities simultaneousl*, and, therefore, caeteris

67

5hapter :

paribus, lea)es their relati)e )alues inter se, unaltered, although those )alues are no" e9pressed in higher or lo"er gold4prices8 Lust as "hen "e estimate the )alue of an* commodit* b* a definite Iuantit* of the use4)alue of some other commodit*, so in estimating the )alue of the former in gold, "e assume nothing more than that the production of a gi)en Iuantit* of gold costs, at the gi)en period, a gi)en amount of labour8 (s regards the fluctuations of prices generall*, the* are subDect to the la"s of elementar* relati)e )alue in)estigated in a former chapter8 ( general rise in the prices of commodities can result onl*, either from a rise in their )alues F the )alue of mone* remaining constant F or from a fall in the )alue of mone*, the )alues of commodities remaining constant8 =n the other hand, a general fall in prices can result onl*, either from a fall in the )alues of commodities F the )alue of mone* remaining constant F or from a rise in the )alue of mone*, the )alues of commodities remaining constant8 >t therefore b* no means follo"s, that a rise in the )alue of mone* necessaril* implies a proportional fall in the prices of commodities; or that a fall in the )alue of mone* implies a proportional rise in prices8 Such change of price holds good onl* in the case of commodities "hose )alue remains constant8 Bith those, for e9ample, "hose )alue rises, simultaneousl* "ith, and proportionall* to, that of mone*, there is no alteration in price8 (nd if their )alue rise either slo"er or faster than that of mone*, the fall or rise in their prices "ill be determined b* the difference bet"een the change in their )alue and that of mone*; and so on8 <et us no" go bac+ to the consideration of the price4form8 /* degrees there arises a discrepanc* bet"een the current mone*names of the )arious "eights of the precious metal figuring as mone*, and the actual "eights "hich those names originall* represented8 'his discrepanc* is the result of historical causes, among "hich the chief are: F (1! 'he importation of foreign mone* into an imperfectl* de)eloped communit*8 'his happened in &ome in its earl* da*s, "here gold and sil)er coins circulated at first as foreign commodities8 'he names of these foreign coins ne)er coincide "ith those of the indigenous "eights8 (6! (s "ealth increases, the less precious metal is thrust out b* the more precious from its place as a measure of )alue, copper b* sil)er, sil)er b* gold, ho"e)er much this order of seIuence ma* be in contradiction "ith poetical chronolog*8 7'he "ord pound, for instance, "as the mone*4name gi)en to an actual pound "eight of sil)er8 Bhen gold replaced sil)er as a measure of )alue, the same name "as applied according to the ratio bet"een the )alues of sil)er and gold, to perhaps 14 13th of a pound of gold8 'he "ord pound, as a mone*4name, thus becomes differentiated from the same "ord as a "eight4name8 8 (:! 'he debasing of mone* carried on for centuries b* +ings and princes to such an e9tent that, of the original "eights of the coins, nothing in fact remained but the names82 'hese historical causes con)ert the separation of the mone*4name from the "eight4name into an established habit "ith the communit*8 Since the standard of mone* is on the one hand purel* con)entional, and must on the other hand find general acceptance, it is in the end regulated b* la"8 ( gi)en "eight of one of the precious metals, an ounce of gold, for instance, becomes officiall* di)ided into aliIuot parts, "ith legall* besto"ed names, such as pound, dollar, Pc8 'hese aliIuot parts, "hich thenceforth ser)e as units of mone*, are then subdi)ided into other aliIuot parts "ith legal names, such as shilling, penn*, Pc8 17 /ut, both before and after these di)isions are made, a definite "eight of metal is the standard of metallic mone*8 'he sole alteration consists in the subdi)ision and denomination8 'he prices, or Iuantities of gold, into "hich the )alues of commodities are ideall* changed, are therefore no" e9pressed in the names of coins, or in the legall* )alid names of the subdi)isions of the gold standard8 -ence, instead of sa*ing: ( Iuarter of "heat is "orth an ounce of gold; "e

61

5hapter :

sa*, it is "orth ]: 17s8 17 1J6d8 >n this "a* commodities e9press b* their prices ho" much the* are "orth, and mone* ser)es as money of account "hene)er it is a Iuestion of fi9ing the )alue of an article in its mone*4form8 11 'he name of a thing is something distinct from the Iualities of that thing8 > +no" nothing of a man, b* +no"ing that his name is Lacob8 >n the same "a* "ith regard to mone*, e)er* trace of a )alue4relation disappears in the names pound, dollar, franc, ducat, Pc8 'he confusion caused b* attributing a hidden meaning to these cabalistic signs is all the greater, because these mone*4 names e9press both the )alues of commodities, and, at the same time, aliIuot parts of the "eight of the metal that is the standard of mone*8 16 =n the other hand, it is absolutel* necessar* that )alue, in order that it ma* be distinguished from the )aried bodil* forms of commodities, should assume this material and unmeaning, but, at the same time, purel* social form8 1: #rice is the mone*4name of the labour realised in a commodit*8 -ence the e9pression of the eIui)alence of a commodit* "ith the sum of mone* constituting its price, is a tautolog* 1 , Dust as in general the e9pression of the relati)e )alue of a commodit* is a statement of the eIui)alence of t"o commodities8 /ut although price, being the e9ponent of the magnitude of a commodit*?s )alue, is the e9ponent of its e9change4ratio "ith mone*, it does not follo" that the e9ponent of this e9change4ratio is necessaril* the e9ponent of the magnitude of the commodit*?s )alue8 Suppose t"o eIual Iuantities of sociall* necessar* labour to be respecti)el* represented b* 1 Iuarter of "heat and ]6 (nearl* 1J6 o18 of gold!, ]6 is the e9pression in mone* of the magnitude of the )alue of the Iuarter of "heat, or is its price8 >f no" circumstances allo" of this price being raised to ]:, or compel it to be reduced to ]1, then although ]1 and ]: ma* be too small or too great properl* to e9press the magnitude of the "heat?s )alue; ne)ertheless the* are its prices, for the* are, in the first place, the form under "hich its )alue appears, i$e8, mone*; and in the second place, the e9ponents of its e9change4ratio "ith mone*8 >f the conditions of production, in other "ords, if the producti)e po"er of labour remain constant, the same amount of social labour4time must, both before and after the change in price, be e9pended in the reproduction of a Iuarter of "heat8 'his circumstance depends, neither on the "ill of the "heat producer, nor on that of the o"ners of other commodities8 $agnitude of )alue e9presses a relation of social production, it e9presses the conne9ion that necessaril* e9ists bet"een a certain article and the portion of the total labour4time of societ* reIuired to produce it8 (s soon as magnitude of )alue is con)erted into price, the abo)e necessar* relation ta+es the shape of a more or less accidental e9change4ratio bet"een a single commodit* and another, the mone*4commodit*8 /ut this e9change4ratio ma* e9press either the real magnitude of that commodit*?s )alue, or the Iuantit* of gold de)iating from that )alue, for "hich, according to circumstances, it ma* be parted "ith8 'he possibilit*, therefore, of Iuantitati)e incongruit* bet"een price and magnitude of )alue, or the de)iation of the former from the latter, is inherent in the price4form itself8 'his is no defect, but, on the contrar*, admirabl* adapts the price4form to a mode of production "hose inherent la"s impose themsel)es onl* as the mean of apparentl* la"less irregularities that compensate one another8 'he price4form, ho"e)er, is not onl* compatible "ith the possibilit* of a Iuantitati)e incongruit* bet"een magnitude of )alue and price, i$e8, bet"een the former and its e9pression in mone*, but it ma* also conceal a Iualitati)e inconsistenc*, so much so, that, although mone* is nothing but the )alue4form of commodities, price ceases altogether to e9press )alue8 =bDects that in themsel)es are no commodities, such as conscience, honour, Pc8, are capable of being offered for sale b* their holders, and of thus acIuiring, through their price, the form of commodities8 -ence an obDect ma* ha)e a price "ithout ha)ing )alue8 'he price in that case is imaginar*, li+e certain Iuantities in mathematics8 =n the other hand, the imaginar* price4form ma* sometimes conceal

66

5hapter :

either a direct or indirect real )alue4relation; for instance, the price of unculti)ated land, "hich is "ithout )alue, because no human labour has been incorporated in it8 #rice, li+e relati)e )alue in general, e9presses the )alue of a commodit* (e$ 8, a ton of iron!, b* stating that a gi)en Iuantit* of the eIui)alent (e$ 8, an ounce of gold!, is directl* e9changeable for iron8 /ut it b* no means states the con)erse, that iron is directl* e9changeable for gold8 >n order, therefore, that a commodit* ma* in practice act effecti)el* as e9change4)alue, it must Iuit its bodil* shape, must transform itself from mere imaginar* into real gold, although to the commodit* such transubstantiation ma* be more difficult than to the -egelian @concept,A the transition from @necessit*A to @freedom,A or to a lobster the casting of his shell, or to Saint Lerome the putting off of the old (dam8 13 'hough a commodit* ma*, side b* side "ith its actual form (iron, for instance!, ta+e in our imagination the form of gold, *et it cannot at one and the same time actuall* be both iron and gold8 'o fi9 its price, it suffices to eIuate it to gold in imagination8 /ut to enable it to render to its o"ner the ser)ice of a uni)ersal eIui)alent, it must be actuall* replaced b* gold8 >f the o"ner of the iron "ere to go to the o"ner of some other commodit* offered for e9change, and "ere to refer him to the price of the iron as proof that it "as alread* mone*, he "ould get the same ans"er as St8 #eter ga)e in hea)en to 0ante, "hen the latter recited the creed F @(ssad bene e trascorsa 0?esta moneta gia la lega e?l peso, $a dimmi se tu l?hai nella tua borsa8A ( price therefore implies both that a commodit* is e9changeable for mone*, and also that it must be so e9changed8 =n the other hand, gold ser)es as an ideal measure of )alue, onl* because it has alread*, in the process of e9change, established itself as the mone*4commodit*8 %nder the ideal measure of )alues there lur+s the hard cash8

Section ': The $edium of Circulation


&. The %etamorphosis of 'ommodities
Be sa" in a former chapter that the e9change of commodities implies contradictor* and mutuall* e9clusi)e conditions8 'he differentiation of commodities into commodities and mone* does not s"eep a"a* these inconsistencies, but de)elops a modus vivendi, a form in "hich the* can e9ist side b* side8 'his is generall* the "a* in "hich real contradictions are reconciled8 For instance, it is a contradiction to depict one bod* as constantl* falling to"ards another, and as, at the same time, constantl* fl*ing a"a* from it8 'he ellipse is a form of motion "hich, "hile allo"ing this contradiction to go on, at the same time reconciles it8 >n so far as e9change is a process, b* "hich commodities are transferred from hands in "hich the* are non4use4)alues, to hands in "hich the* become use4)alues, it is a social circulation of matter8 'he product of one form of useful labour replaces that of another8 Bhen once a commodit* has found a resting4place, "here it can ser)e as a use4)alue, it falls out of the sphere of e9change into that of consumption8 /ut the former sphere alone interests us at present8 Be ha)e, therefore, no" to consider e9change from a formal point of )ie"; to in)estigate the change of form or metamorphosis of commodities "hich effectuates the social circulation of matter8 'he comprehension of this change of form is, as a rule, )er* imperfect8 'he cause of this imperfection is, apart from indistinct notions of )alue itself, that e)er* change of form in a commodit* results from the e9change of t"o commodities, an ordinar* one and the mone*4 commodit*8 >f "e +eep in )ie" the material fact alone that a commodit* has been e9changed for gold, "e o)erloo+ the )er* thing that "e ought to obser)e F namel*, "hat has happened to the

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form of the commodit*8 Be o)erloo+ the facts that gold, "hen a mere commodit*, is not mone*, and that "hen other commodities e9press their prices in gold, this gold is but the mone*4form of those commodities themsel)es8 5ommodities, first of all, enter into the process of e9change Dust as the* are8 'he process then differentiates them into commodities and mone*, and thus produces an e9ternal opposition corresponding to the internal opposition inherent in them, as being at once use4)alues and )alues8 5ommodities as use4)alues no" stand opposed to mone* as e9change4)alue8 =n the other hand, both opposing sides are commodities, unities of use4)alue and )alue8 /ut this unit* of differences manifests itself at t"o opposite poles, and at each pole in an opposite "a*8 /eing poles the* are as necessaril* opposite as the* are connected8 =n the one side of the eIuation "e ha)e an ordinar* commodit*, "hich is in realit* a use4)alue8 >ts )alue is e9pressed onl* ideall* in its price, b* "hich it is eIuated to its opponent, the gold, as to the real embodiment of its )alue8 =n the other hand, the gold, in its metallic realit*, ran+s as the embodiment of )alue, as mone*8 Gold, as gold, is e9change4)alue itself8 (s to its use4)alue, that has onl* an ideal e9istence, represented b* the series of e9pressions of relati)e )alue in "hich it stands face to face "ith all other commodities, the sum of "hose uses ma+es up the sum of the )arious uses of gold8 'hese antagonistic forms of commodities are the real forms in "hich the process of their e9change mo)es and ta+es place8 <et us no" accompan* the o"ner of some commodit* F sa*, our old friend the "ea)er of linen F to the scene of action, the mar+et8 -is 67 *ards of linen has a definite price, ]68 -e e9changes it for the ]6, and then, li+e a man of the good old stamp that he is, he parts "ith the ]6 for a famil* /ible of the same price8 'he linen, "hich in his e*es is a mere commodit*, a depositor* of )alue, he alienates in e9change for gold, "hich is the linen?s )alue4form, and this form he again parts "ith for another commodit*, the /ible, "hich is destined to enter his house as an obDect of utilit* and of edification to its inmates8 'he e9change becomes an accomplished fact b* t"o metamorphoses of opposite *et supplementar* character F the con)ersion of the commodit* into mone*, and the re4con)ersion of the mone* into a commodit*8 16 'he t"o phases of this metamorphosis are both of them distinct transactions of the "ea)er F selling, or the e9change of the commodit* for mone*; bu*ing, or the e9change of the mone* for a commodit*; and, the unit* of the t"o acts, selling in order to bu*8 'he result of the "hole transaction, as regards the "ea)er, is this, that instead of being in possession of the linen, he no" has the /ible; instead of his original commodit*, he no" possesses another of the same )alue but of different utilit*8 >n li+e manner he procures his other means of subsistence and means of production8 From his point of )ie", the "hole process effectuates nothing more than the e9change of the product of his labour for the product of some one else?s, nothing more than an e9change of products8 'he e9change of commodities is therefore accompanied b* the follo"ing changes in their form8 5ommodit* F $one* F 5ommodit*8 5FFFFFF $ FFFFFF58 'he result of the "hole process is, so far as concerns the obDects themsel)es, 5 F 5, the e9change of one commodit* for another, the circulation of materialised social labour8 Bhen this result is attained, the process is at an end8

' ( %. First metamorphosis, or sale


'he leap ta+en b* )alue from the bod* of the commodit*, into the bod* of the gold, is, as > ha)e else"here called it, the salto mortale of the commodit*8 >f it falls short, then, although the commodit* itself is not harmed, its o"ner decidedl* is8 'he social di)ision of labour causes his

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labour to be as one4sided as his "ants are man*4sided8 'his is precisel* the reason "h* the product of his labour ser)es him solel* as e9change4)alue8 /ut it cannot acIuire the properties of a sociall* recognised uni)ersal eIui)alent, e9cept b* being con)erted into mone*8 'hat mone*, ho"e)er, is in some one else?s poc+et8 >n order to entice the mone* out of that poc+et, our friend?s commodit* must, abo)e all things, be a use4)alue to the o"ner of the mone*8 For this, it is necessar* that the labour e9pended upon it, be of a +ind that is sociall* useful, of a +ind that constitutes a branch of the social di)ision of labour8 /ut di)ision of labour is a s*stem of production "hich has gro"n up spontaneousl* and continues to gro" behind the bac+s of the producers8 'he commodit* to be e9changed ma* possibl* be the product of some ne" +ind of labour, that pretends to satisf* ne"l* arisen reIuirements, or e)en to gi)e rise itself to ne" reIuirements8 ( particular operation, though *esterda*, perhaps, forming one out of the man* operations conducted b* one producer in creating a gi)en commodit*, ma* to4da* separate itself from this conne9ion, ma* establish itself as an independent branch of labour and send its incomplete product to mar+et as an independent commodit*8 'he circumstances ma* or ma* not be ripe for such a separation8 'o4da* the product satisfies a social "ant8 'omorro" the article ma*, either altogether or partiall*, be superseded b* some other appropriate product8 $oreo)er, although our "ea)er?s labour ma* be a recognised branch of the social di)ision of labour, *et that fact is b* no means sufficient to guarantee the utilit* of his 67 *ards of linen8 >f the communit*?s "ant of linen, and such a "ant has a limit li+e e)er* other "ant, should alread* be saturated b* the products of ri)al "ea)ers8 our friend?s product is superfluous, redundant, and conseIuentl* useless8 (lthough people do not loo+ a gift4horse in the mouth, our friend does not freIuent the mar+et for the purpose of ma+ing presents8 /ut suppose his product turn out a real use4)alue, and thereb* attracts mone*E 'he Iuestion arises, ho" much "ill it attractE Co doubt the ans"er is alread* anticipated in the price of the article, in the e9ponent of the magnitude of its )alue8 Be lea)e out of consideration here an* accidental miscalculation of )alue b* our friend, a mista+e that is soon rectified in the mar+et8 Be suppose him to ha)e spent on his product onl* that amount of labour4time that is on an a)erage sociall* necessar*8 'he price then, is merel* the mone*name of the Iuantit* of social labour realised in his commodit*8 /ut "ithout the lea)e, and behind the bac+, of our "ea)er, the old4fashioned mode of "ea)ing undergoes a change8 'he labour4time that *esterda* "as "ithout doubt sociall* necessar* to the production of a *ard of linen, ceases to be so to4da*, a fact "hich the o"ner of the mone* is onl* too eager to pro)e from the prices Iuoted b* our friend?s competitors8 %nluc+il* for him, "ea)ers are not fe" and far bet"een8 <astl*, suppose that e)er* piece of linen in the mar+et contains no more labour4time than is sociall* necessar*8 >n spite of this, all these pieces ta+en as a "hole, ma* ha)e had superfluous labour4time spent upon them8 >f the mar+et cannot stomach the "hole Iuantit* at the normal price of 6 shillings a *ard, this pro)es that too great a portion of the total labour of the communit* has been e9pended in the form of "ea)ing8 'he effect is the same as if each indi)idual "ea)er had e9pended more labour4time upon his particular product than is sociall* necessar*8 -ere "e ma* sa*, "ith the German pro)erb: caught together, hung together8 (ll the linen in the mar+et counts but as one article of commerce, of "hich each piece is onl* an aliIuot part8 (nd as a matter of fact, the )alue also of each single *ard is but the materialised form of the same definite and sociall* fi9ed Iuantit* of homogeneous human labour8 17 Be see then, commodities are in lo)e "ith mone*, but @the course of true lo)e ne)er did run smooth8A 'he Iuantitati)e di)ision of labour is brought about in e9actl* the same spontaneous and accidental manner as its Iualitati)e di)ision8 'he o"ners of commodities therefore find out, that the same di)ision of labour that turns them into independent pri)ate producers, also frees the social process of production and the relations of the indi)idual producers to each other "ithin that process, from all dependence on the "ill of those producers, and that the seeming mutual

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independence of the indi)iduals is supplemented b* a s*stem of general and mutual dependence through or b* means of the products8 'he di)ision of labour con)erts the product of labour into a commodit*, and thereb* ma+es necessar* its further con)ersion into mone*8 (t the same time it also ma+es the accomplishment of this transubstantiation Iuite accidental8 -ere, ho"e)er, "e are onl* concerned "ith the phenomenon in its integrit*, and "e therefore assume its progress to be normal8 $oreo)er, if the con)ersion ta+e place at all, that is, if the commodit* be not absolutel* unsaleable, its metamorphosis does ta+e place although the price realised ma* be abnormall* abo)e or belo" the )alue8 'he seller has his commodit* replaced b* gold, the bu*er has his gold replaced b* a commodit*8 'he fact "hich here stares us in the face is, that a commodit* and gold, 67 *ards of linen and ]6, ha)e changed hands and places, in other "ords, that the* ha)e been e9changed8 /ut for "hat is the commodit* e9changedE For the shape assumed b* its o"n )alue, for the uni)ersal eIui)alent8 (nd for "hat is the gold e9changedE For a particular form of its o"n use4)alue8 Bh* does gold ta+e the form of mone* face to face "ith the linenE /ecause the linen?s price of ]6, its denomination in mone*, has alread* eIuated the linen to gold in its character of mone*8 ( commodit* strips off its original commodit*4form on being alienated, i$e8, on the instant its use4 )alue actuall* attracts the gold, that before e9isted onl* ideall* in its price8 'he realisation of a commodit*?s price, or of its ideal )alue4form, is therefore at the same time the realisation of the ideal use4)alue of mone*; the con)ersion of a commodit* into mone*, is the simultaneous con)ersion of mone* into a commodit*8 'he apparentl* single process is in realit* a double one8 From the pole of the commodit*4o"ner it is a sale, from the opposite pole of the mone*4o"ner, it is a purchase8 >n other "ords, a sale is a purchase, 5F$ is also $F58 18 %p to this point "e ha)e considered men in onl* one economic capacit*, that of o"ners of commodities, a capacit* in "hich the* appropriate the produce of the labour of others, b* alienating that of their o"n labour8 -ence, for one commodit*4o"ner to meet "ith another "ho has mone*, it is necessar*, either, that the product of the labour of the latter person, the bu*er, should be in itself mone*, should be gold, the material of "hich mone* consists, or that his product should alread* ha)e changed its s+in and ha)e stripped off its original form of a useful obDect8 >n order that it ma* pla* the part of mone*, gold must of course enter the mar+et at some point or other8 'his point is to be found at the source of production of the metal, at "hich place gold is bartered, as the immediate product of labour, for some other product of eIual )alue8 From that moment it al"a*s represents the realised price of some commodit*8 12 (part from its e9change for other commodities at the source of its production, gold, in "hose4so4e)er hands it ma* be, is the transformed shape of some commodit* alienated b* its o"ner; it is the product of a sale or of the first metamorphosis 5F$8 67 Gold, as "e sa", became ideal mone*, or a measure of )alues, in conseIuence of all commodities measuring their )alues b* it, and thus contrasting it ideall* "ith their natural shape as useful obDects, and ma+ing it the shape of their )alue8 >t became real mone*, b* the general alienation of commodities, b* actuall* changing places "ith their natural forms as useful obDects, and thus becoming in realit* the embodiment of their )alues8 Bhen the* assume this mone*4shape, commodities strip off e)er* trace of their natural use4)alue, and of the particular +ind of labour to "hich the* o"e their creation, in order to transform themsel)es into the uniform, sociall* recognised incarnation of homogeneous human labour8 Be cannot tell from the mere loo+ of a piece of mone*, for "hat particular commodit* it has been e9changed8 %nder their mone*4form all commodities loo+ ali+e8 -ence, mone* ma* be dirt, although dirt is not mone*8 Be "ill assume that the t"o gold pieces, in consideration of "hich our "ea)er has parted "ith his linen, are the metamorphosed shape of a Iuarter of "heat8 'he sale of the linen, 5F$, is at the same time its purchase, $F58 /ut the sale is the first act of a

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process that ends "ith a transaction of an opposite nature, namel*, the purchase of a /ible; the purchase of the linen, on the other hand, ends a mo)ement that began "ith a transaction of an opposite nature, namel*, "ith the sale of the "heat8 5F$ (linenFmone*!, "hich is the first phase of 5F$UF5 (linenFmone*F/ible!, is also $F5 (mone*Flinen!, the last phase of another mo)ement 5F$F5 ("heatFmone*Flinen!8 'he first metamorphosis of one commodit*, its transformation from a commodit* into mone*, is therefore also in)ariabl* the second metamorphosis of some other commodit*, the retransformation of the latter from mone* into a commodit*861

%('# or purchase. The second and concluding metamorphosis of a commodity


/ecause mone* is the metamorphosed shape of all other commodities, the result of their general alienation, for this reason it is alienable itself "ithout restriction or condition8 >t reads all prices bac+"ards, and thus, so to sa*, depicts itself in the bodies of all other commodities, "hich offer to it the material for the realisation of its o"n use4)alue8 (t the same time the prices, "ooing glances cast at mone* b* commodities, define the limits of its con)ertibilit*, b* pointing to its Iuantit*8 Since e)er* commodit*, on becoming mone*, disappears as a commodit*, it is impossible to tell from the mone* itself, ho" it got into the hands of its possessor, or "hat article has been changed into it8 Con olet, from "hate)er source it ma* come8 &epresenting on the one hand a sold commodit*, it represents on the other a commodit* to be bought8 66 $F5, a purchase, is, at the same time, 5F$, a sale; the concluding metamorphosis of one commodit* is the first metamorphosis of another8 Bith regard to our "ea)er, the life of his commodit* ends "ith the /ible, into "hich he has recon)erted his ]68 /ut suppose the seller of the /ible turns the ]6 set free b* the "ea)er into brand* $F5, the concluding phase of 5F$F5 (linenFmone*F/ible!, is also 5F$, the first phase of 5F$F5 (/ibleFmone*Fbrand*!8 'he producer of a particular commodit* has that one article alone to offer; this he sells )er* often in large Iuantities, but his man* and )arious "ants compel him to split up the price realised, the sum of mone* set free, into numerous purchases8 -ence a sale leads to man* purchases of )arious articles8 'he concluding metamorphosis of a commodit* thus constitutes an aggregation of first metamorphoses of )arious other commodities8 >f "e no" consider the completed metamorphosis of a commodit*, as a "hole, it appears in the first place, that it is made up of t"o opposite and complementar* mo)ements, 5F$ and $F58 'hese t"o antithetical transmutations of a commodit* are brought about b* t"o antithetical social acts on the part of the o"ner, and these acts in their turn stamp the character of the economic parts pla*ed b* him8 (s the person "ho ma+es a sale, he is a seller; as the person "ho ma+es a purchase, he is a bu*er8 /ut Dust as, upon e)er* such transmutation of a commodit*, its t"o forms, commodit*4form and mone*4form, e9ist simultaneousl* but at opposite poles, so e)er* seller has a bu*er opposed to him, and e)er* bu*er a seller8 Bhile one particular commodit* is going through its t"o transmutations in succession, from a commodit* into mone* and from mone* into another commodit*, the o"ner of the commodit* changes in succession his part from that of seller to that of bu*er8 'hese characters of seller and bu*er are therefore not permanent, but attach themsel)es in turns to the )arious persons engaged in the circulation of commodities8 'he complete metamorphosis of a commodit*, in its simplest form, implies four e9tremes, and three dramatic personae8 First, a commodit* comes face to face "ith mone*; the latter is the form ta+en b* the )alue of the former, and e9ists in all its hard realit*, in the poc+et of the bu*er8 ( commodit*4o"ner is thus brought into contact "ith a possessor of mone*8 So soon, no", as the commodit* has been changed into mone*, the mone* becomes its transient eIui)alent4form, the use4)alue of "hich eIui)alent4form is to be found in the bodies of other commodities8 $one*, the

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final term of the first transmutation, is at the same time the starting4point for the second8 'he person "ho is a seller in the first transaction thus becomes a bu*er in the second, in "hich a third commodit*4o"ner appears on the scene as a seller8 6: 'he t"o phases, each in)erse to the other, that ma+e up the metamorphosis of a commodit* constitute together a circular mo)ement, a circuit: commodit*4form, stripping off of this form, and return to the commodit*4form8 Co doubt, the commodit* appears here under t"o different aspects8 (t the starting4point it is not a use4)alue to its o"ner; at the finishing point it is8 So, too, the mone* appears in the first phase as a solid cr*stal of )alue, a cr*stal into "hich the commodit* eagerl* solidifies, and in the second, dissol)es into the mere transient eIui)alent4form destined to be replaced b* a use4)alue8 'he t"o metamorphoses constituting the circuit are at the same time t"o in)erse partial metamorphoses of t"o other commodities8 =ne and the same commodit*, the linen, opens the series of its o"n metamorphoses, and completes the metamorphosis of another (the "heat!8 >n the first phase or sale, the linen pla*s these t"o parts in its o"n person8 /ut, then, changed into gold, it completes its o"n second and final metamorphosis, and helps at the same time to accomplish the first metamorphosis of a third commodit*8 -ence the circuit made b* one commodit* in the course of its metamorphoses is ine9tricabl* mi9ed up "ith the circuits of other commodities8 'he total of all the different circuits constitutes the circulation of commodities8 'he circulation of commodities differs from the direct e9change of products (barter!, not onl* in form, but in substance8 =nl* consider the course of e)ents8 'he "ea)er has, as a matter of fact, e9changed his linen for a /ible, his o"n commodit* for that of some one else8 /ut this is true onl* so far as he himself is concerned8 'he seller of the /ible, "ho prefers something to "arm his inside, no more thought of e9changing his /ible for linen than our "ea)er +ne" that "heat had been e9changed for his linen8 /?s commodit* replaces that of (, but ( and / do not mutuall* e9change those commodities8 >t ma*, of course, happen that ( and / ma+e simultaneous purchases, the one from the other; but such e9ceptional transactions are b* no means the necessar* result of the general conditions of the circulation of commodities8 Be see here, on the one hand, ho" the e9change of commodities brea+s through all local and personal bounds inseparable from direct barter, and de)elops the circulation of the products of social labour; and on the other hand, ho" it de)elops a "hole net"or+ of social relations spontaneous in their gro"th and entirel* be*ond the control of the actors8 >t is onl* because the farmer has sold his "heat that the "ea)er is enabled to sell his linen, onl* because the "ea)er has sold his linen that our -otspur is enabled to sell his /ible, and onl* because the latter has sold the "ater of e)erlasting life that the distiller is enabled to sell his eau)de)vie, and so on8 'he process of circulation, therefore, does not, li+e direct barter of products, become e9tinguished upon the use4)alues changing places and hands8 'he mone* does not )anish on dropping out of the circuit of the metamorphosis of a gi)en commodit*8 >t is constantl* being precipitated into ne" places in the arena of circulation )acated b* other commodities8 >n the complete metamorphosis of the linen, for e9ample, linen F mone* F /ible, the linen first falls out of circulation, and mone* steps into its place8 'hen the /ible falls out of circulation, and again mone* ta+es its place8 Bhen one commodit* replaces another, the mone*4commodit* al"a*s stic+s to the hands of some third person86 5irculation s"eats mone* from e)er* pore8 Cothing can be more childish than the dogma, that because e)er* sale is a purchase, and e)er* purchase a sale, therefore the circulation of commodities necessaril* implies an eIuilibrium of sales and purchases8 >f this means that the number of actual sales is eIual to the number of purchases, it is mere tautolog*8 /ut its real purport is to pro)e that e)er* seller brings his bu*er to mar+et "ith him8 Cothing of the +ind8 'he sale and the purchase constitute one identical act, an

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e9change bet"een a commodit*4o"ner and an o"ner of mone*, bet"een t"o persons as opposed to each other as the t"o poles of a magnet8 'he* form t"o distinct acts, of polar and opposite characters, "hen performed b* one single person8 -ence the identit* of sale and purchase implies that the commodit* is useless, if, on being thro"n into the alchemistical retort of circulation, it does not come out again in the shape of mone*; if, in other "ords, it cannot be sold b* its o"ner, and therefore be bought b* the o"ner of the mone*8 'hat identit* further implies that the e9change, if it does ta+e place, constitutes a period of rest, an inter)al, long or short, in the life of the commodit*8 Since the first metamorphosis of a commodit* is at once a sale and a purchase, it is also an independent process in itself8 'he purchaser has the commodit*, the seller has the mone*, i$e8, a commodit* read* to go into circulation at an* time8 Co one can sell unless some one else purchases8 /ut no one is forth"ith bound to purchase, because he has Dust sold8 5irculation bursts through all restrictions as to time, place, and indi)iduals, imposed b* direct barter, and this it effects b* splitting up, into the antithesis of a sale and a purchase, the direct identit* that in barter does e9ist bet"een the alienation of one?s o"n and the acIuisition of some other man?s product8 'o sa* that these t"o independent and antithetical acts ha)e an intrinsic unit*, are essentiall* one, is the same as to sa* that this intrinsic oneness e9presses itself in an e9ternal antithesis8 >f the inter)al in time bet"een the t"o complementar* phases of the complete metamorphosis of a commodit* become too great, if the split bet"een the sale and the purchase become too pronounced, the intimate conne9ion bet"een them, their oneness, asserts itself b* producing F a crisis8 'he antithesis, use4)alue and )alue; the contradictions that pri)ate labour is bound to manifest itself as direct social labour, that a particularised concrete +ind of labour has to pass for abstract human labour; the contradiction bet"een the personification of obDects and the representation of persons b* things; all these antitheses and contradictions, "hich are immanent in commodities, assert themsel)es, and de)elop their modes of motion, in the antithetical phases of the metamorphosis of a commodit*8 'hese modes therefore impl* the possibilit*, and no more than the possibilit*, of crises8 'he con)ersion of this mere possibilit* into a realit* is the result of a long series of relations, that, from our present standpoint of simple circulation, ha)e as *et no e9istence8 63

B. The currency !" of money


'he change of form, 5F$F5, b* "hich the circulation of the material products of labour is brought about, reIuires that a gi)en )alue in the shape of a commodit* shall begin the process, and shall, also in the shape of a commodit*, end it8 'he mo)ement of the commodit* is therefore a circuit8 =n the other hand, the form of this mo)ement precludes a circuit from being made b* the mone*8 'he result is not the return of the mone*, but its continued remo)al further and further a"a* from its starting4point8 So long as the seller stic+s fast to his mone*, "hich is the transformed shape of his commodit*, that commodit* is still in the first phase of its metamorphosis, and has completed onl* half its course8 /ut so soon as he completes the process, so soon as he supplements his sale b* a purchase, the mone* again lea)es the hands of its possessor8 >t is true that if the "ea)er, after bu*ing the /ible, sell more linen, mone* comes bac+ into his hands8 /ut this return is not o"ing to the circulation of the first 67 *ards of linen; that circulation resulted in the mone* getting into the hands of the seller of the /ible8 'he return of mone* into the hands of the "ea)er is brought about onl* b* the rene"al or repetition of the process of circulation "ith a fresh commodit*, "hich rene"ed process ends "ith the same result as its predecessor did8 -ence the mo)ement directl* imparted to mone* b* the circulation of commodities ta+es the form of a constant motion a"a* from its starting4point, of a course from the hands of one commodit*4o"ner into those of another8 'his course constitutes its currenc* (cours de la monnaie!8

62

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'he currenc* of mone* is the constant and monotonous repetition of the same process8 'he commodit* is al"a*s in the hands of the seller; the mone*, as a means of purchase, al"a*s in the hands of the bu*er8 (nd mone* ser)es as a means of purchase b* realising the price of the commodit*8 'his realisation transfers the commodit* from the seller to the bu*er and remo)es the mone* from the hands of the bu*er into those of the seller, "here it again goes through the same process "ith another commodit*8 'hat this one4sided character of the mone*?s motion arises out of the t"o4sided character of the commodit*?s motion, is a circumstance that is )eiled o)er8 'he )er* nature of the circulation of commodities begets the opposite appearance8 'he first metamorphosis of a commodit* is )isibl*, not onl* the mone*?s mo)ement, but also that of the commodit* itself; in the second metamorphosis, on the contrar*, the mo)ement appears to us as the mo)ement of the mone* alone8 >n the first phase of its circulation the commodit* changes place "ith the mone*8 'hereupon the commodit*, under its aspect of a useful obDect, falls out of circulation into consumption867 >n its stead "e ha)e its )alue4shape F the mone*8 >t then goes through the second phase of its circulation, not under its o"n natural shape, but under the shape of mone*8 'he continuit* of the mo)ement is therefore +ept up b* the mone* alone, and the same mo)ement that as regards the commodit* consists of t"o processes of an antithetical character, is, "hen considered as the mo)ement of the mone*, al"a*s one and the same process, a continued change of places "ith e)er fresh commodities8 -ence the result brought about b* the circulation of4commodities, namel*, the replacing of one commodit* b* another, ta+es the appearance of ha)ing been effected not b* means of the change of form of the commodities but rather b* the mone* acting as a medium of circulation, b* an action that circulates commodities, to all appearance motionless in themsel)es, and transfers them from hands in "hich the* are non4use4 )alues, to hands in "hich the* are use4)alues; and that in a direction constantl* opposed to the direction of the mone*8 'he latter is continuall* "ithdra"ing commodities from circulation and stepping into their places, and in thus "a* continuall* mo)ing further and further from its starting4point -ence although the mo)ement of the mone* is merel* the e9pression of the circulation of commodities, *et the contrar* appears to be the actual fact, and the circulation of commodities seems to be the result of the mo)ement of the mone*8 68 (gain, mone* functions as a means of circulation onl* because in it the )alues of commodities ha)e independent realit*8 -ence its mo)ement, as the medium of circulation, is, in fact, merel* the mo)ement of commodities "hile changing their forms8 'his fact must therefore ma+e itself plainl* )isible in the currenc* of mone*8 'hus the linen for instance, first of all changes its commodit*4form into its mone*form8 'he second term of its first metamorphosis, 5F$, the mone* form, then becomes the first term of its final metamorphosis, $F5, its re4con)ersion into the /ible8 /ut each of these t"o changes of form is accomplished b* an e9change bet"een commodit* and mone*, b* their reciprocal displacement8 'he same pieces of coin come into the seller?s hand as the alienated form of the commodity and lea)e it as the absolutely alienable form of the commodity8 'he* are displaced t"ice8 'he first metamorphosis of the linen puts these coins into the "ea)er?s poc+et, the second dra"s them out of it8 'he t"o in)erse changes undergone b* the same commodit* are reflected in the displacement, t"ice repeated, but in opposite directions, of the same pieces of coin8 >f, on the contrar*, onl* one phase of the metamorphosis is gone through, if there are onl* sales or onl* purchases, then a gi)en piece of mone* changes its place onl* once8 >ts second change of place al"a*s e9presses the second metamorphosis of the commodit*, its re4con)ersion from mone*8 'he freIuent repetition of the displacement of the same coins reflects not onl* the series of metamorphoses that a single commodit* has gone through, but also the intert"ining of the innumerable metamorphoses in the "orld of commodities in general8 >t is a matter of course, that

77

5hapter :

all this is applicable to the simple circulation of commodities alone, the onl* form that "e are no" considering8 E)er* commodit*, "hen it first steps into circulation, and undergoes its first change of form, does so onl* to fall out of circulation again and to be replaced b* other commodities8 $one*, on the contrar*, as the medium of circulation, +eeps continuall* "ithin the sphere of circulation, and mo)es about in it8 'he Iuestion therefore arises, ho" much mone* this sphere constantl* absorbsE >n a gi)en countr* there ta+e place e)er* da* at the same time, but in different localities, numerous one4sided metamorphoses of commodities, or, in other "ords, numerous sales and numerous purchases8 'he commodities are eIuated beforehand in imagination, b* their prices, to definite Iuantities of mone*8 (nd since, in the form of circulation no" under consideration, mone* and commodities al"a*s come bodil* face to face, one at the positi)e pole of purchase, the other at the negati)e pole of sale, it is clear that the amount of the means of circulation reIuired, is determined beforehand b* the sum of the prices of all these commodities8 (s a matter of fact, the mone* in realit* represents the Iuantit* or sum of gold ideall* e9pressed beforehand b* the sum of the prices of the commodities8 'he eIualit* of these t"o sums is therefore self4 e)ident8 Be +no", ho"e)er, that, the )alues of commodities remaining constant, their prices )ar* "ith the )alue of gold (the material of mone*!, rising in proportion as it falls, and falling in proportion as it rises8 Co" if, in conseIuence of such a rise or fall in the )alue of gold, the sum of the prices of commodities fall or rise, the Iuantit* of mone* in currenc* must fall or rise to the same e9tent8 'he change in the Iuantit* of the circulating medium is, in this case, it is true, caused b* the mone* itself, *et not in )irtue of its function as a medium of circulation, but of its function as a measure of )alue8 First, the price of the commodities )aries in)ersel* as the )alue of the mone*, and then the Iuantit* of the medium of circulation )aries directl* as the price of the commodities8 E9actl* the same thing "ould happen if, for instance, instead of the )alue of gold falling, gold "ere replaced b* sil)er as the measure of )alue, or if, instead of the )alue of sil)er rising, gold "ere to thrust sil)er out from being the measure of )alue8 >n the one case, more sil)er "ould be current than gold "as before; in the other case, less gold "ould be current than sil)er "as before8 >n each case the )alue of the material of mone*, i8 e8, the )alue of the commodit* that ser)es as the measure of )alue, "ould ha)e undergone a change, and therefore so, too, "ould the prices of commodities "hich e9press their )alues in mone*, and so, too, "ould the Iuantit* of mone* current "hose function it is to realise those prices8 Be ha)e alread* seen, that the sphere of circulation has an opening through "hich gold (or the material of mone* generall*! enters into it as a commodit* "ith a gi)en )alue8 -ence, "hen mone* enters on its functions as a measure of )alue, "hen it e9presses prices, its )alue is alread* determined8 >f no" its )alue fall, this fact is first e)idenced b* a change in the prices of those commodities that are directl* bartered for the precious metals at the sources of their production8 'he greater part of all other commodities, especiall* in the imperfectl* de)eloped stages of ci)il societ*, "ill continue for a long time to be estimated b* the former antiIuated and illusor* )alue of the measure of )alue8 Ce)ertheless, one commodit* infects another through their common )alue4relation, so that their prices, e9pressed in gold or in sil)er, graduall* settle do"n into the proportions determined b* their comparati)e )alues, until finall* the )alues of all commodities are estimated in terms of the ne" )alue of the metal that constitutes mone*8 'his process is accompanied b* the continued increase in the Iuantit* of the precious metals, an increase caused b* their streaming in to replace the articles directl* bartered for them at their sources of production8 >n proportion therefore as commodities in general acIuire their true prices, in proportion as their )alues become estimated according to the fallen )alue of the precious metal, in the same proportion the Iuantit* of that metal necessar* for realising those ne" prices is pro)ided beforehand8 ( one4sided obser)ation of the results that

71

5hapter :

follo"ed upon the disco)er* of fresh supplies of gold and sil)er, led some economists in the 17th, and particularl* in the 18th centur*, to the false conclusion, that the prices of commodities had gone up in conseIuence of the increased Iuantit* of gold and sil)er ser)ing as means of circulation8 -enceforth "e shall consider the )alue of gold to be gi)en, as, in fact, it is momentaril*, "hene)er "e estimate the price of a commodit*8 =n this supposition then, the Iuantit* of the medium of circulation is determined b* the sum of the prices that ha)e to be realised8 >f no" "e further suppose the price of each commodit* to be gi)en, the sum of the prices clearl* depends on the mass of commodities in circulation8 >t reIuires but little rac+ing of brains to comprehend that if one Iuarter of "heat costs ]6,177 Iuarters "ill cost ]677, 677 Iuarters ] 77, and so on, that conseIuentl* the Iuantit* of mone* that changes place "ith the "heat, "hen sold, must increase "ith the Iuantit* of that "heat8 >f the mass of commodities remain constant, the Iuantit* of circulating mone* )aries "ith the fluctuations in the prices of those commodities8 >t increases and diminishes because the sum of the prices increases or diminishes in conseIuence of the change of price8 'o produce this effect, it is b* no means reIuisite that the prices of all commodities should rise or fall simultaneousl*8 ( rise or a fall in the prices of a number of leading articles, is sufficient in the one case to increase, in the other to diminish, the sum of the prices of all commodities, and, therefore, to put more or less mone* in circulation8 Bhether the change in the price correspond to an actual change of )alue in the commodities, or "hether it be the result of mere fluctuations in mar+et4prices, the effect on the Iuantit* of the medium of circulation remains the same8 Suppose the follo"ing articles to be sold or partiall* metamorphosed simultaneousl* in different localities: sa*, one Iuarter of "heat, 67 *ards of linen, one /ible, and gallons of brand*8 >f the price of each article be ]6, and the sum of the prices to be realised be conseIuentl* ]8, it follo"s that ]8 in mone* must go into circulation8 >f, on the other hand, these same articles are lin+s in the follo"ing chain of metamorphoses: 1 Iuarter of "heat F ]6 F 67 *ards of linen F ]6 F 1 /ible F ]6 F gallons of brand* F ]6, a chain that is alread* "ell +no"n to us, in that case the ]6 cause the different commodities to circulate one after the other, and after realising their prices successi)el*, and therefore the sum of those prices, ]8, the* come to rest at last in the poc+et of the distiller8 'he ]6 thus ma+e four mo)es8 'his repeated change of place of the same pieces of mone* corresponds to the double change in form of the commodities, to their motion in opposite directions through t"o stages of circulation8 and to the interlacing of the metamorphoses of different commodities8 62 'hese antithetic and complementar* phases, of "hich the process of metamorphosis consists, are gone through, not simultaneousl*, but successi)el*8 'ime is therefore reIuired for the completion of the series8 -ence the )elocit* of the currenc* of mone* is measured b* the number of mo)es made b* a gi)en piece of mone* in a gi)en time8 Suppose the circulation of the articles ta+es a da*8 'he sum of the prices to be realised in the da* is ]8, the number of mo)es of the t"o pieces of mone* is four, and the Iuantit* of mone* circulating is ]68 -ence, for a gi)en inter)al of time during the process of circulation, "e ha)e the follo"ing relation: the Iuantit* of mone* functioning as the circulating medium is eIual to the sum of the prices of the commodities di)ided b* the number of mo)es made b* coins of the same denomination8 'his la" holds generall*8 'he total circulation of commodities in a gi)en countr* during a gi)en period is made up on the one hand of numerous isolated and simultaneous partial metamorphoses, sales "hich are at the same time purchases, in "hich each coin changes its place onl* once, or ma+es onl* one mo)e; on the other hand, of numerous distinct series of metamorphoses partl* running side b* side, and partl* coalescing "ith each other, in each of "hich series each coin ma+es a number of mo)es, the number being greater or less according to circumstances8 'he total number of mo)es made b* all the circulating coins of one denomination being gi)en, "e can arri)e at the a)erage number of

76

5hapter :

mo)es made b* a single coin of that denomination, or at the a)erage )elocit* of the currenc* of mone*8 'he Iuantit* of mone* thro"n into the circulation at the beginning of each da* is of course determined b* the sum of the prices of all the commodities circulating simultaneousl* side b* side8 /ut once in circulation, coins are, so to sa*, made responsible for one another8 >f the one increase its )elocit*, the other either retards its o"n, or altogether falls out of circulation; for the circulation can absorb onl* such a Iuantit* of gold as "hen multiplied b* the mean number of mo)es made b* one single coin or element, is eIual to the sum of the prices to be realised8 -ence if the number of mo)es made b* the separate pieces increase, the total number of those pieces in circulation diminishes8 >f the number of the mo)es diminish, the total number of pieces increases8 Since the Iuantit* of mone* capable of being absorbed b* the circulation is gi)en for a gi)en mean )elocit* of currenc*, all that is necessar* in order to abstract a gi)en number of so)ereigns from the circulation is to thro" the same number of one4pound notes into it, a tric+ "ell +no"n to all ban+ers8 Lust as the currenc* of mone*, generall* considered, is but a refle9 of the circulation of commodities, or of the antithetical metamorphoses the* undergo, so, too, the )elocit* of that currenc* reflects the rapidit* "ith "hich commodities change their forms, the continued interlacing of one series of metamorphoses "ith another, the hurried social interchange of matter, the rapid disappearance of commodities from the sphere of circulation, and the eIuall* rapid substitution of fresh ones in their places8 -ence, in the )elocit* of the currenc* "e ha)e the fluent unit* of the antithetical and complementar* phases, the unit* of the con)ersion of the useful aspect of commodities into their )alue4aspect, and their re4con)ersion from the latter aspect to the former, or the unit* of the t"o processes of sale and purchase8 =n the other hand, the retardation of the currenc* reflects the separation of these t"o processes into isolated antithetical phases, reflects the stagnation in the change of form, and therefore, in the social interchange of matter8 'he circulation itself, of course, gi)es no clue to the origin of this stagnation; it merel* puts in e)idence the phenomenon itself8 'he general public, "ho, simultaneousl* "ith the retardation of the currenc*, see mone* appear and disappear less freIuentl* at the peripher* of circulation, naturall* attribute this retardation to a Iuantitati)e deficienc* in the circulating medium8 :7 'he total Iuantit* of mone* functioning during a gi)en period as the circulating medium, is determined, on the one hand, b* the sum of the prices of the circulating commodities, and on the other hand, b* the rapidit* "ith "hich the antithetical phases of the metamorphoses follo" one another8 =n this rapidit* depends "hat proportion of the sum of the prices can, on the a)erage, be realised b* each single coin8 /ut the sum of the prices of the circulating commodities depends on the Iuantit*, as "ell as on the prices, of the commodities8 'hese three factors, ho"e)er, state of prices, Iuantit* of circulating commodities, and )elocit* of mone*4currenc*, are all )ariable8 -ence, the sum of the prices to be realised, and conseIuentl* the Iuantit* of the circulating medium depending on that sum, "ill )ar* "ith the numerous )ariations of these three factors in combination8 =f these )ariations "e shall consider those alone that ha)e been the most important in the histor* of prices8 Bhile prices remain constant, the Iuantit* of the circulating medium ma* increase o"ing to the number of circulating commodities increasing, or to the )elocit* of currenc* decreasing, or to a combination of the t"o8 =n the other hand the Iuantit* of the circulating medium ma* decrease "ith a decreasing number of commodities, or "ith an increasing rapidit* of their circulation8 Bith a general rise in the prices of commodities, the Iuantit* of the circulating medium "ill remain constant, pro)ided the number of commodities in circulation decrease proportionall* to the increase in their prices, or pro)ided the )elocit* of currenc* increase at the same rate as prices rise, the number of commodities in circulation remaining constant8 'he Iuantit* of the circulating

7:

5hapter :

medium ma* decrease, o"ing to the number of commodities decreasing more rapidl*; or to the )elocit* of currenc* rise8 Bith a general fall in the prices of commodities, the Iuantit* of the circulating medium "ill remain constant, pro)ided the number of commodities increase proportionall* to their fall in price, or pro)ided the )elocit* of currenc* decrease in the same proportion8 'he Iuantit* of the circulating medium "ill increase, pro)ided the number of commodities increase Iuic+er, or the rapidit* of circulation decrease Iuic+er, than the prices fall8 'he )ariations of the different factors ma* mutuall* compensate each other, so that not"ithstanding their continued instabilit*, the sum of the prices to be realised and the Iuantit* of mone* in circulation remain constant; conseIuentl*, "e find, especiall* if "e ta+e long periods into consideration, that the de)iations from the a)erage le)el, of the Iuantit* of mone* current in an* countr*, are much smaller than "e should at first sight e9pect, apart of course from e9cessi)e perturbations periodicall* arising from industrial and commercial crises, or less freIuentl*, from fluctuations in the )alue of mone*8 'he la", that the Iuantit* of the circulating medium is determined b* the sum of the prices of the commodities circulating, and the a)erage )elocit* of currenc* :1 ma* also be stated as follo"s: gi)en the sum of the )alues of commodities, and the a)erage rapidit* of their metamorphoses, the Iuantit* of precious metal current as mone* depends on the )alue of that precious metal8 'he erroneous opinion that it is, on the contrar*, prices that are determined b* the Iuantit* of the circulating medium, and that the latter depends on the Iuantit* of the precious metals in a countr*;:6 this opinion "as based b* those "ho first held it, on the absurd h*pothesis that commodities are "ithout a price, and mone* "ithout a )alue, "hen the* first enter into circulation, and that, once in the circulation, an aliIuot part of the medle* of commodities is e9changed for an aliIuot part of the heap of precious metals8 ::

C. Coin and #ym$ol# of value


'hat mone* ta+es the shape of coin, springs from its function as the circulating medium8 'he "eight of gold represented in imagination b* the prices or mone*4names of commodities, must confront those commodities, "ithin the circulation, in the shape of coins or pieces of gold of a gi)en denomination8 5oining, li+e the establishment of a standard of prices, is the business of the State8 'he different national uniforms "orn at home b* gold and sil)er as coins, and doffed again in the mar+et of the "orld, indicate the separation bet"een the internal or national spheres of the circulation of commodities, and their uni)ersal sphere8 'he onl* difference, therefore, bet"een coin and bullion, is one of shape, and gold can at an* time pass from one form to the other8 : /ut no sooner does coin lea)e the mint, than it immediatel* finds itself on the high4road to the melting pot8 0uring their currenc*, coins "ear a"a*, some more, others less8 Came and substance, nominal "eight and real "eight, begin their process of separation8 5oins of the same denomination become different in )alue, because the* are different in "eight8 'he "eight of gold fi9ed upon as the standard of prices, de)iates from the "eight that ser)es as the circulating medium, and the latter thereb* ceases an* longer to be a real eIui)alent of the commodities "hose prices it realises8 'he histor* of coinage during the middle ages and do"n into the 18th centur*, records the e)er rene"ed confusion arising from this cause8 'he natural tendenc* of circulation to con)ert coins into a mere semblance of "hat the* profess to be, into a s*mbol of the "eight of metal the* are officiall* supposed to contain, is recognised b* modern legislation, "hich fi9es the loss of "eight sufficient to demonetise a gold coin, or to ma+e it no longer legal tender8

5hapter :

'he fact that the currenc* of coins itself effects a separation bet"een their nominal and their real "eight, creating a distinction bet"een them as mere pieces of metal on the one hand, and as coins "ith a definite function on the other F this fact implies the latent possibilit* of replacing metallic coins b* to+ens of some other material, b* s*mbols ser)ing the same purposes as coins8 'he practical difficulties in the "a* of coining e9tremel* minute Iuantities of gold or sil)er, and the circumstance that at first the less precious metal is used as a measure of )alue instead of the4more precious, copper instead of sil)er, sil)er instead of gold, and that the less precious circulates as mone* until dethroned b* the more precious F all these facts e9plain the parts historicall* pla*ed b* sil)er and copper to+ens as substitutes for gold coins8 Sil)er and copper to+ens ta+e the place of gold in those regions of the circulation "here coins pass from hand to hand most rapidl*, and are subDect to the ma9imum amount of "ear and tear8 'his occurs "here sales and purchases on a )er* small scale are continuall* happening8 >n order to pre)ent these satellites from establishing themsel)es permanentl* in the place of gold, positi)e enactments determine the e9tent to "hich the* must be compulsoril* recei)ed as pa*ment instead of gold8 'he particular trac+s pursued b* the different species of coin in currenc*, run naturall* into each other8 'he to+ens +eep compan* "ith gold, to pa* fractional parts of the smallest gold coin; gold is, on the one hand, constantl* pouring into retail circulation, and on the other hand is as constantl* being thro"n out again b* being changed into to+ens8:3 'he "eight of metal in the sil)er and copper to+ens is arbitraril* fi9ed b* la"8 Bhen in currenc*, the* "ear a"a* e)en more rapidl* than gold coins8 -ence their functions are totall* independent of their "eight, and conseIuentl* of all )alue8 'he function of gold as coin becomes completel* independent of the metallic )alue of that gold8 'herefore things that are relati)el* "ithout )alue, such as paper notes, can ser)e as coins in its place8 'his purel* s*mbolic character is to a certain e9tent mas+ed in metal to+ens8 >n paper mone* it stands out plainl*8 >n fact, ce n?est Iue le premier pas Iui coSte8 Be allude here onl* to incon)ertible paper mone* issued b* the State and ha)ing compulsor* circulation8 >t has its immediate origin in the metallic currenc*8 $one* based upon credit implies on the other hand conditions, "hich, from our standpoint of the simple circulation of commodities, are as *et totall* un+no"n to us8 /ut "e ma* affirm this much, that Dust as true paper mone* ta+es its rise in the function of mone* as the circulating medium, so mone* based upon credit ta+es root spontaneousl* in the function of mone* as the means of pa*ment8 :6 'he State puts in circulation bits of paper on "hich their )arious denominations, sa* ]1, ]3, Pc8, are printed8 >n so far as the* actuall* ta+e the place of gold to the same amount, their mo)ement is subDect to the la"s that regulate the currenc* of mone* itself8 ( la" peculiar to the circulation of paper mone* can spring up onl* from the proportion in "hich that paper mone* represents gold8 Such a la" e9ists; stated simpl*, it is as follo"s: the issue of paper mone* must not e9ceed in amount the gold (or sil)er as the case ma* be! "hich "ould actuall* circulate if not replaced b* s*mbols8 Co" the Iuantit* of gold "hich the circulation can absorb, constantl*4fluctuates about a gi)en le)el8 Still, the mass of the circulating medium in a gi)en countr* ne)er sin+s belo" a certain minimum easil* ascertained b* actual e9perience8 'he fact that this minimum mass continuall* undergoes changes in its constituent parts, or that the pieces of gold of "hich it consists are being constantl* replaced b* fresh ones, causes of course no change either in its amount or in the continuit* of its circulation8 >t can therefore be replaced b* paper s*mbols8 >f, on the other hand, all the conduits of circulation "ere to4da* filled "ith paper mone* to the full e9tent of their capacit* for absorbing mone*, the* might to4morro" be o)erflo"ing in conseIuence of a fluctuation in the circulation of commodities8 'here "ould no longer be an* standard8 >f the paper mone* e9ceed its proper limit, "hich is the amount in gold coins of the li+e denomination that can actuall* be current, it "ould, apart from the danger of falling into general

73

5hapter :

disrepute, represent onl* that Iuantit* of gold, "hich, in accordance "ith the la"s of the circulation of commodities, is reIuired, and is alone capable of being represented b* paper8 >f the Iuantit* of paper mone* issued be double "hat it ought to be, then, as a matter of fact, ]1 "ould be the mone*4name not of 1J of an ounce, but of 1J8 of an ounce of gold8 'he effect "ould be the same as if an alteration had ta+en place in the function of gold as a standard of prices8 'hose )alues that "ere pre)iousl* e9pressed b* the price of ]1 "ould no" be e9pressed b* the price of ]68 #aper mone* is a to+en representing gold or mone*8 'he relation bet"een it and the )alues of commodities is this, that the latter are ideall* e9pressed in the same Iuantities of gold that are s*mbolicall* represented b* the paper8 =nl* in so far as paper mone* represents gold, "hich li+e all other commodities has )alue, is it a s*mbol of )alue8 :7 Finall*, some one ma* as+ "h* gold is capable of being replaced b* to+ens that ha)e no )alueE /ut, as "e ha)e alread* seen, it is capable of being so replaced onl* in so far as it functions e9clusi)el* as coin, or as the circulating medium, and as nothing else8 Co", mone* has other functions besides this one, and the isolated function of ser)ing as the mere circulating medium is not necessaril* the onl* one attached to gold coin, although this is the case "ith those abraded coins that continue to circulate8 Each piece of mone* is a mere coin, or means of circulation, onl* so long as it actuall* circulates8 /ut this is Dust the case "ith that minimum mass of gold, "hich is capable of being replaced b* paper mone*8 'hat mass remains constantl* "ithin the sphere of circulation, continuall* functions as a circulating medium, and e9ists e9clusi)el* for that purpose8 >ts mo)ement therefore represents nothing but the continued alternation of the in)erse phases of the metamorphosis 5F$F5, phases in "hich commodities confront their )alue4forms, onl* to disappear again immediatel*8 'he independent e9istence of the e9change4)alue of a commodit* is here a transient apparition, b* means of "hich the commodit* is immediatel* replaced b* another commodit*8 -ence, in this process "hich continuall* ma+es mone* pass from hand to hand, the mere s*mbolical e9istence of mone* suffices8 >ts functional e9istence absorbs, so to sa*, its material e9istence8 /eing a transient and obDecti)e refle9 of the prices of commodities, it ser)es onl* as a s*mbol of itself, and is therefore capable of being replaced b* a to+en8 :8 =ne thing is, ho"e)er, reIuisite; this to+en must ha)e an obDecti)e social )alidit* of its o"n, and this the paper s*mbol acIuires b* its forced currenc*8 'his compulsor* action of the State can ta+e effect onl* "ithin that inner sphere of circulation "hich is coterminous "ith the territories of the communit*, but it is also onl* "ithin that sphere that mone* completel* responds to its function of being the circulating medium, or becomes coin8

Section *: $one
'he commodit* that functions as a measure of )alue, and, either in its o"n person or b* a representati)e, as the medium of circulation, is mone*8 Gold (or sil)er! is therefore mone*8 >t functions as mone*, on the one hand, "hen it has to be present in its o"n golden person8 >t is then the mone*4commodit*, neither merel* ideal, as in its function of a measure of )alue, nor capable of being represented, as in its function of circulating medium8 =n the other hand, it also functions as mone*, "hen b* )irtue of its function, "hether that function be performed in person or b* representati)e, it congeals into the sole form of )alue, the onl* adeIuate form of e9istence of e9change4)alue, in opposition to use4)alue, represented b* all other commodities8

A. %oardin&
'he continual mo)ement in circuits of the t"o antithetical metamorphoses of commodities, or the ne)er ceasing alternation of sale and purchase, is reflected in the restless currenc* of mone*, or in

76

5hapter :

the function that mone* performs of a perpetuum mobile of circulation8 /ut so soon as the series of metamorphoses is interrupted, so soon as sales are not supplemented b* subseIuent purchases, mone* ceases to be mobilised; it is transformed, as /oisguillebert sa*s, from @meubleA into @immeuble,A from mo)able into immo)able, from coin into mone*8 Bith the )er* earliest de)elopment of the circulation of commodities, there is also de)eloped the necessit*, and the passionate desire, to hold fast the product of the first metamorphosis8 'his product is the transformed shape of the commodit*, or its gold4chr*salis8 :2 5ommodities are thus sold not for the purpose of bu*ing others, but in order to replace their commodit*4form b* their mone*4form8 From being the mere means of effecting the circulation of commodities, this change of form becomes the end and aim8 'he changed form of the commodit* is thus pre)ented from functioning as its unconditionall* alienable form, or as its merel* transient mone*4form8 'he mone* becomes petrified into a hoard, and the seller becomes a hoarder of mone*8 >n the earl* stages of the circulation of commodities, it is the surplus use4)alues alone that are con)erted into mone*8 Gold and sil)er thus become of themsel)es social e9pressions for superfluit* or "ealth8 'his nai)e form of hoarding becomes perpetuated in those communities in "hich the traditional mode of production is carried on for the suppl* of a fi9ed and limited circle of home "ants8 >t is thus "ith the people of (sia, and particularl* of the East >ndies8 ;anderlint, "ho fancies that the prices of commodities in a countr* are determined b* the Iuantit* of gold and sil)er to be found in it, as+s himself "h* >ndian commodities are so cheap8 (ns"er: /ecause the -indus bur* their mone*8 From 1676 to 17: , he remar+s, the* buried 137 millions of pounds sterling of sil)er, "hich originall* came from (merica to Europe8 7 >n the 17 *ears from 1836 to 1866, England e9ported to >ndia and 5hina ]167,777,777 in sil)er, "hich had been recei)ed in e9change for (ustralian gold8 $ost of the sil)er e9ported to 5hina ma+es its "a* to >ndia8 (s the production of commodities further de)elops, e)er* producer of commodities is compelled8 to ma+e sure of the ne9us rerum or the social pledge8 1 -is "ants are constantl* ma+ing themsel)es felt, and necessitate the continual purchase of other people?s commodities, "hile the production and sale of his o"n goods reIuire time, and depend upon circumstances8 >n order then to be able to bu* "ithout selling, he must ha)e sold pre)iousl* "ithout bu*ing8 'his operation, conducted on a general scale, appears to impl* a contradiction8 /ut the precious metals at the sources of their production are directl* e9changed for other commodities8 (nd here "e ha)e sales (b* the o"ners of commodities! "ithout purchases (b* the o"ners of gold or sil)er!8 6(nd subseIuent sales, b* other producers, unfollo"ed b* purchases, merel* bring about the distribution of the ne"l* produced precious metals among all the o"ners of commodities8 >n this "a*, all along the line of e9change, hoards of gold and sil)er of )aried e9tent are accumulated8 Bith the possibilit* of holding and storing up e9change4)alue in the shape of a particular commodit*, arises also the greed for gold8 (long "ith the e9tension of circulation, increases the po"er of mone*, that absolutel* social form of "ealth e)er read* for use8 @Gold is a "onderful thingQ Bhoe)er possesses it is lord of all he "ants8 /* means of gold one can e)en get souls into #aradise8A (5olumbus in his letter from Lamaica, 137:8! Since gold does not disclose "hat has been transformed into it, e)er*thing, commodit* or not, is con)ertible into gold8 E)er*thing becomes saleable and bu*able8 'he circulation becomes the great social retort into "hich e)er*thing is thro"n, to come out again as a gold4cr*stal8 Cot e)en are the bones of saints, and still less are more delicate res sacrosanctae, e9tra commercium hominum able to "ithstand this alchem*8 : Lust as e)er* Iualitati)e difference bet"een commodities is e9tinguished in mone*, so mone*, on its side, li+e the radical le)eller that it is, does a"a* "ith all distinctions8 :a /ut mone* itself is a commodit*, an e9ternal obDect, capable of becoming the pri)ate propert* of an* indi)idual8 'hus social po"er becomes the pri)ate po"er of pri)ate persons8 'he ancients therefore denounced mone* as sub)ersi)e of the economic and moral order of things8 :b $odern

77

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societ*, "hich, soon after its birth, pulled #lutus b* the hair of his head from the bo"els of the earth, greets gold as its -ol* Grail, as the glittering incarnation of the )er* principle of its o"n life8 ( commodit*, in its capacit* of a use4)alue, satisfies a particular "ant, and is a particular element of material "ealth8 /ut the )alue of a commodit* measures the degree of its attraction for all other elements of material "ealth, and therefore measures the social "ealth of its o"ner8 'o a barbarian o"ner of commodities, and e)en to a Best4European peasant, )alue is the same as )alue4form, and therefore8 to him the increase in his hoard of gold and sil)er is an increase in )alue8 >t is true that the )alue of mone* )aries, at one time in conseIuence of a )ariation in its o"n )alue, at another, in conseIuence of a change in the )alues of commodities8 /ut this, on the one hand, does not pre)ent 677 ounces of gold from still containing more )alue than 177 ounces, nor, on the other hand, does it hinder the actual metallic form of this article from continuing to be the uni)ersal eIui)alent form of all other commodities, and the immediate social incarnation of all human labour8 'he desire after hoarding is in its )er* nature unsatiable8 >n its Iualitati)e aspect, or formall* considered, mone* has no bounds to its efficac*, i$e8, it is the uni)ersal representati)e of material "ealth, because it is directl* con)ertible into an* other commodit*8 /ut, at the same time, e)er* actual sum of mone* is limited in amount, and, therefore, as a means of purchasing, has onl* a limited efficac*8 'his antagonism bet"een the Iuantitati)e limits of mone* and its Iualitati)e boundlessness, continuall* acts as a spur to the hoarder in his Sis*phus4 li+e labour of accumulating8 >t is "ith him as it is "ith a conIueror "ho sees in e)er* ne" countr* anne9ed, onl* a ne" boundar*8 >n order that gold ma* be held as mone*, and made to form a hoard, it must be pre)ented from circulating, or from transforming itself into a means of enDo*ment8 'he hoarder, therefore, ma+es a sacrifice of the lusts of the flesh to his gold fetish8 -e acts in earnest up to the Gospel of abstention8 =n the other hand, he can "ithdra" from circulation no more than "hat he has thro"n into it in the shape of commodities8 'he more he produces, the more he is able to sell8 -ard "or+, sa)ing, and a)arice are, therefore, his three cardinal )irtues, and to sell much and bu* little the sum of his political econom*8 3 /* the side of the gross form of a hoard, "e find also its aesthetic form in the possession of gold and sil)er articles8 'his gro"s "ith the "ealth of ci)il societ*8 @So*ons riches ou paraissons richesA (0iderot!8 >n this "a* there is created, on the one hand, a constantl* e9tending mar+et for gold and sil)er, unconnected "ith their functions as mone*, and, on the other hand, a latent source of suppl*, to "hich recourse is had principall* in times of crisis and social disturbance8 -oarding ser)es )arious purposes in the econom* of the metallic circulation8 >ts first function arises out of the conditions to "hich the currenc* of gold and sil)er coins is subDect8 Be ha)e seen ho", along "ith the continual fluctuations in the e9tent and rapidit* of the circulation of commodities and in their prices, the Iuantit* of mone* current unceasingl* ebbs and flo"s8 'his mass must, therefore, be capable of e9pansion and contraction8 (t one time mone* must be attracted in order to act as circulating coin, at another, circulating coin must be repelled in order to act again as more or less stagnant mone*8 >n order that the mass of mone*, actuall* current, ma* constantl* saturate the absorbing po"er of the circulation, it is necessar* that the Iuantit* of gold and sil)er in a countr* be greater than the Iuantit* reIuired to function as coin8 'his condition is fulfilled b* mone* ta+ing the form of hoards8 'hese reser)es ser)e as conduits for the suppl* or "ithdra"al of mone* to or from the circulation, "hich in this "a* ne)er o)erflo"s its ban+s8 6

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B. Mean# of 'ayment
>n the simple form of the circulation of commodities hitherto considered, "e found a gi)en )alue al"a*s presented to us in a double shape, as a commodit* at one pole, as mone* at the opposite pole8 'he o"ners of commodities came therefore into contact as the respecti)e representati)es of "hat "ere alread* eIui)alents8 /ut "ith the de)elopment of circulation, conditions arise under "hich the alienation of commodities becomes separated, b* an inter)al of time, from the realisation of their prices8 >t "ill be sufficient to indicate the most simple of these conditions8 =ne sort of article reIuires a longer, another a shorter time for its production8 (gain, the production of different commodities depends on different seasons of the *ear8 =ne sort of commodit* ma* be born on its o"n mar+et place, another has to ma+e a long Dourne* to mar+et8 5ommodit*4o"ner Co8 1, ma* therefore be read* to sell, before Co8 6 is read* to bu*8 Bhen the same transactions are continuall* repeated bet"een the same persons, the conditions of sale are regulated in accordance "ith the conditions of production8 =n the other hand, the use of a gi)en commodit*, of a house, for instance, is sold (in common parlance, let! for a definite period8 -ere, it is onl* at the end of the term that the bu*er has actuall* recei)ed the use4)alue of the commodit*8 -e therefore bu*s it before he pa*s for it8 'he )endor sells an e9isting commodit*, the purchaser bu*s as the mere representati)e of mone*, or rather of future mone*8 'he )endor becomes a creditor, the purchaser becomes a debtor8 Since the metamorphosis of commodities, or the de)elopment of their )alue4form, appears here under a ne" aspect, mone* also acIuires a fresh function; it becomes the means of pa*ment8 'he character of creditor, or of debtor, results here from the simple circulation8 'he change in the form of that circulation stamps bu*er and seller "ith this ne" die8 (t first, therefore, these ne" parts are Dust as transient and alternating as those of seller and bu*er, and are in turns pla*ed b* the same actors8 /ut the opposition is not nearl* so pleasant, and is far more capable of cr*stallisation8 7 'he same characters can, ho"e)er, be assumed independentl* of the circulation of commodities8 'he class4struggles of the ancient "orld too+ the form chiefl* of a contest bet"een debtors and creditors, "hich in &ome ended in the ruin of the plebeian debtors8 'he* "ere displaced b* sla)es8 >n the middle ages the contest ended "ith the ruin of the feudal debtors, "ho lost their political po"er together "ith the economic basis on "hich it "as established8 Ce)ertheless, the mone* relation of debtor and creditor that e9isted at these t"o periods reflected onl* the deeper4l*ing antagonism bet"een the general economic conditions of e9istence of the classes in Iuestion8 <et us return to the circulation of commodities8 'he appearance of the t"o eIui)alents, commodities and mone*, at the t"o poles of the process of sale, has ceased to be simultaneous8 'he mone* functions no", first as a measure of )alue in the determination of the price of the commodit* sold; the price fi9ed b* the contract measures the obligation of the debtor, or the sum of mone* that he has to pa* at a fi9ed date8 Secondl*, it ser)es as an ideal means of purchase8 (lthough e9isting onl* in the promise of the bu*er to pa*, it causes the commodit* to change hands8 >t is not before the da* fi9ed for pa*ment that the means of pa*ment actuall* steps into circulation, lea)es the hand of the bu*er for that of the seller8 'he circulating medium "as transformed into a hoard, because the process stopped short after the first phase, because the con)erted shape of the commodit*, )i18, the mone*, "as "ithdra"n from circulation8 'he means of pa*ment enters the circulation, but onl* after the commodit* has left it8 'he mone* is no longer the means that brings about the process8 >t onl* brings it to a close, b* stepping in as the absolute form of e9istence of e9change4)alue, or as the uni)ersal commodit*8 'he seller turned his commodit* into mone*, in order thereb* to satisf* some "ant, the hoarder did the same in order to +eep his commodit* in its mone*4shape, and the debtor in order to be able to pa*; if he

72

5hapter :

do not pa*, his goods "ill be sold b* the sheriff8 'he )alue4form of commodities, mone*, is therefore no" the end and aim of a sale, and that o"ing to a social necessit* springing out of the process of circulation itself8 'he bu*er con)erts mone* bac+ into commodities before he has turned commodities into mone*: in other "ords, he achie)es the second metamorphosis of commodities before the first8 'he seller?s commodit* circulates, and realises its price, but onl* in the shape of a legal claim upon mone*8 >t is con)erted into a use4)alue before it has been con)erted into mone*8 'he completion of its first metamorphosis follo"s onl* at a later period8 8 'he obligations falling due "ithin a gi)en period, represent the sum of the prices of the commodities, the sale of "hich ga)e rise to those obligations8 'he Iuantit* of gold necessar* to realise this sum, depends, in the first instance, on the rapidit* of currenc* of the means of pa*ment8 'hat Iuantit* is conditioned b* t"o circumstances: first the relations bet"een debtors and creditors form a sort of chain, in such a "a* that (, "hen he recei)es mone* from his debtor /, straight"a* hands it o)er to 5 his creditor, and so on; the second circumstance is the length of the inter)als bet"een the different due4da*s of the obligations8 'he continuous chain of pa*ments, or retarded first metamorphoses, is essentiall* different from that interlacing of the series of metamorphoses "hich "e considered on a former page8 /* the currenc* of the circulating medium, the conne9ion bet"een bu*ers and sellers, is not merel* e9pressed8 'his conne9ion is originated b*, and e9ists in, the circulation alone8 5ontrari"ise, the mo)ement of the means of pa*ment e9presses a social relation that "as in e9istence long before8 'he fact that a number of sales ta+e place simultaneousl*, and side b* side, limits the e9tent to "hich coin can be replaced b* the rapidit* of currenc*8 =n the other hand, this fact is a ne" le)er in economising the means of pa*ment8 >n proportion as pa*ments are concentrated at one spot, special institutions and methods are de)eloped for their liIuidation8 Such in the middle ages "ere the virements at <*ons8 'he debts due to ( from /, to / from 5, to 5 from (, and so on, ha)e onl* to be confronted "ith each other, in order to annul each other to a certain e9tent li+e positi)e and negati)e Iuantities8 'here thus remains onl* a single balance to pa*8 'he greater the amount of the pa*ments concentrated, the less is this balance relati)el* to that amount, and the less is the mass of the means of pa*ment in circulation8 'he function of mone* as the means of pa*ment implies a contradiction "ithout a terminus medius8 >n so far as the pa*ments balance one another, mone* functions onl* ideall* as mone* of account, as a measure of )alue8 >n so far as actual pa*ments ha)e to be made, mone* does not ser)e as a circulating medium, as a mere transient agent in the interchange of products, but as the indi)idual incarnation of social labour, as the independent form of e9istence of e9change4)alue, as the uni)ersal commodit*8 'his contradiction comes to a head in those phases of industrial and commercial crises "hich are +no"n as monetar* crises8 2 Such a crisis occurs onl* "here the e)er4lengthening chain of pa*ments, and an artificial s*stem of settling them, has been full* de)eloped8 Bhene)er there is a general and e9tensi)e disturbance of this mechanism, no matter "hat its cause, mone* becomes suddenl* and immediatel* transformed, from its merel* ideal shape of mone* of account, into hard cash8 #rofane commodities can no longer replace it8 'he use4)alue of commodities becomes )alueless, and their )alue )anishes in the presence of its o"n independent form8 =n the e)e of the crisis, the bourgeois, "ith the self4sufficienc* that springs from into9icating prosperit*, declares mone* to be a )ain imagination8 5ommodities alone are mone*8 /ut no" the cr* is e)er*"here: mone* alone is a commodit*Q (s the hart pants after fresh "ater, so pants his soul after mone*, the onl* "ealth8 37 >n a crisis, the antithesis bet"een commodities and their )alue4form, mone*, becomes heightened into an absolute contradiction8 -ence, in such e)ents, the form under "hich mone* appears is of no importance8 'he mone*

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famine continues, "hether pa*ments ha)e to be made in gold or in credit mone* such as ban+4 notes831 >f "e no" consider the sum total of the mone* current during a gi)en period, "e shall find that, gi)en the rapidit* of currenc* of the circulating medium and of the means of pa*ment, it is eIual to the sum of the prices to be realised, plus the sum of the pa*ments falling due, minus the pa*ments that balance each other, minus finall* the number of circuits in "hich the same piece of coin ser)es in turn as means of circulation and of pa*ment8 -ence, e)en "hen prices, rapidit* of currenc*, and the e9tent of the econom* in pa*ments, are gi)en, the Iuantit* of mone* current and the mass of commodities circulating during a gi)en period, such as a da*, no longer correspond8 $one* that represents commodities long "ithdra"n from circulation, continues to be current8 5ommodities circulate, "hose eIui)alent in mone* "ill not appear on the scene till some future da*8 $oreo)er, the debts contracted each da*, and the pa*ments falling due on the same da*, are Iuite incommensurable Iuantities836 5redit4mone* springs directl* out of the function of mone* as a means of pa*ment8 5ertificates of the debts o"ing for the purchased commodities circulate for the purpose of transferring those debts to others8 =n the other hand, to the same e9tent as the s*stem of credit is e9tended, so is the function of mone* as a means of pa*ment8 >n that character it ta+es )arious forms peculiar to itself under "hich it ma+es itself at home in the sphere of great commercial transactions8 Gold and sil)er coin, on the other hand, are mostl* relegated to the sphere of retail trade8 3: Bhen the production of commodities has sufficientl* e9tended itself, mone* begins to ser)e as the means of pa*ment be*ond the sphere of the circulation of commodities8 >t becomes the commodit* that is the uni)ersal subDect4matter of all contracts8 3 &ents, ta9es, and such li+e pa*ments are transformed from pa*ments in +ind into mone* pa*ments8 'o "hat e9tent this transformation depends upon the general conditions of production, is sho"n, to ta+e one e9ample, b* the fact that the &oman Empire t"ice failed in its attempt to le)* all contributions in mone*8 'he unspea+able miser* of the French agricultural population under <ouis O>;8, a miser* so eloIuentl* denounced b* /oisguillebert, $arshal ;auban, and others, "as due not onl* to the "eight of the ta9es, but also to the con)ersion of ta9es in +ind into mone* ta9es8 33 >n (sia, on the other hand, the fact that state ta9es are chiefl* composed of rents pa*able in +ind, depends on conditions of production that are reproduced "ith the regularit* of natural phenomena8 (nd this mode of pa*ment tends in its turn to maintain the ancient form of production8 >t is one of the secrets of the conser)ation of the =ttoman Empire8 >f the foreign trade, forced upon Lapan b* Europeans, should lead to the substitution of mone* rents for rents in +ind, it "ill be all up "ith the e9emplar* agriculture of that countr*8 'he narro" economic conditions under "hich that agriculture is carried on, "ill be s"ept a"a*8 >n e)er* countr*, certain da*s of the *ear become b* habit recognised settling da*s for )arious large and recurrent pa*ments8 'hese dates depend, apart from other re)olutions in the "heel of reproduction, on conditions closel* connected "ith the seasons8 'he* also regulate the dates for pa*ments that ha)e no direct conne9ion "ith the circulation of commodities such as ta9es, rents, and so on8 'he Iuantit* of mone* reIuisite to ma+e the4pa*ments, falling due on those dates all o)er the countr*, causes periodical, though merel* superficial, perturbations in the econom* of the medium of pa*ment836 From the la" of the rapidit* of currenc* of the means of pa*ment, it follo"s that the Iuantit* of the means of pa*ment reIuired for all periodical pa*ments, "hate)er their source, is in in)erse 37 proportion to the length of their periods838 'he de)elopment of mone* into a medium of pa*ment ma+es it necessar* to accumulate mone* against the dates fi9ed for the pa*ment of the sums o"ing8 Bhile hoarding, as a distinct mode of

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acIuiring riches, )anishes "ith the progress of ci)il societ*, the formation of reser)es of the means of pa*ment gro"s "ith that progress8

C. (niver#al Money
Bhen mone* lea)es the home sphere of circulation, it strips off the local garbs "hich it there assumes, of a standard of prices, of coin, of to+ens, and of a s*mbol of )alue, and returns to its original form of bullion8 >n the trade bet"een the mar+ets of the "orld, the )alue of commodities is e9pressed so as to be uni)ersall* recognised8 -ence their independent )alue4form also, in these cases, confronts them under the shape of uni)ersal mone*8 >t is onl* in the mar+ets of the "orld that mone* acIuires to the full e9tent the character of the commodit* "hose bodil* form is also the immediate social incarnation of human labour in the abstract8 >ts real mode of e9istence in this sphere adeIuatel* corresponds to its ideal concept8 Bithin the sphere of home circulation, there can be but one commodit* "hich, b* ser)ing as a measure of )alue, becomes mone*8 >n the mar+ets of the "orld a double measure of )alue holds s"a*, gold and sil)er832 $one* of the "orld ser)es as the uni)ersal medium of pa*ment, as the uni)ersal means of purchasing, and as the uni)ersall* recognised embodiment of all "ealth8 >ts function as a means of pa*ment in the settling of international balances is its chief one8 -ence the "atch"ord of the mercantilists, balance of trade867 Gold and sil)er ser)e as international means of purchasing chiefl* and necessaril* in those periods "hen the customar* eIuilibrium in the interchange of products bet"een different nations is suddenl* disturbed8 (nd lastl*, it ser)es as the uni)ersall* recognised embodiment of social "ealth, "hene)er the Iuestion is not of bu*ing or pa*ing, but of transferring "ealth from one countr* to another, and "hene)er this transference in the form of commodities is rendered impossible, either b* special conDunctures in the mar+ets or b* the purpose itself that is intended861 Lust as e)er* countr* needs a reser)e of mone* for its home circulation so, too, it reIuires one for e9ternal circulation in the mar+ets of the "orld8 'he functions of hoards, therefore, arise in part out of the function of mone*, as the medium of the home circulation and home pa*ments, and in part out of its function of mone* of the "orld8 66 For this latter function, the genuine mone*4 commodit*, actual gold and sil)er, is necessar*8 =n that account, Sir Lames Steuart, in order to distinguish them from their purel* local substitutes, calls gold and sil)er @mone* of the "orld8A 'he current of the stream of gold and sil)er is a double one8 =n the one hand, it spreads itself from its sources o)er all the mar+ets of the "orld, in order to become absorbed, to )arious e9tents, into the different national spheres of circulation, to fill the conduits of currenc*, to replace abraded gold and sil)er coins, to suppl* the material of articles of lu9ur*, and to petrif* into hoards86: 'his first current is started b* the countries that e9change their labour, realised in commodities, for the labour embodied in the precious metals b* gold and sil)er4producing countries8 =n the other hand, there is a continual flo"ing bac+"ards and for"ards of gold and sil)er bet"een the different national spheres of circulation, a current "hose motion depends on the ceaseless fluctuations in the course of e9change8 6 5ountries in "hich the bourgeois form of production is de)eloped to a certain e9tent, limit the hoards concentrated in the strong rooms of the ban+s to the minimum reIuired for the proper performance of their peculiar functions8 63 Bhene)er these hoards are stri+ingl* abo)e their a)erage le)el, it is, "ith some e9ceptions, an indication of stagnation in the circulation of commodities, of an interruption in the e)en flo" of their metamorphoses8 66

86

5hapter :

Part ': Transformation of $one into Capital


(ha)ter -* "he Genera$ Form%$a for (a)ita$
'he circulation of commodities is the starting4point of capital8 'he production of commodities, their circulation, and that more de)eloped form of their circulation called commerce, these form the historical ground4"or+ from "hich it rises8 'he modern histor* of capital dates from the creation in the 16th centur* of a "orld4embracing commerce and a "orld4embracing mar+et8 >f "e abstract from the material substance of the circulation of commodities, that is, from the e9change of the )arious use4)alues, and consider onl* the economic forms produced b* this process of circulation, "e find its final result to be mone*: this final product of the circulation of commodities is the first form in "hich capital appears8 (s a matter of histor*, capital, as opposed to landed propert*, in)ariabl* ta+es the form at first of mone*; it appears as mone*ed "ealth, as the capital of the merchant and of the usurer8 1 /ut "e ha)e no need to refer to the origin of capital in order to disco)er that the first form of appearance of capital is mone*8 Be can see it dail* under our )er* e*es8 (ll ne" capital, to commence "ith, comes on the stage, that is, on the mar+et, "hether of commodities, labour, or mone*, e)en in our da*s, in the shape of mone* that b* a definite process has to be transformed into capital8 'he first distinction "e notice bet"een mone* that is mone* onl*, and mone* that is capital, is nothing more than a difference in their form of circulation8 'he simplest form of the circulation of commodities is 54$45, the transformation of commodities into mone*, and the change of the mone* bac+ again into commodities; or selling in order to bu*8 /ut alongside of this form "e find another specificall* different form: $454$, the transformation of mone* into commodities, and the change of commodities bac+ again into mone*; or bu*ing in order to sell8 $one* that circulates in the latter manner is thereb* transformed into, becomes capital, and is alread* potentiall* capital8 Co" let us e9amine the circuit $454$ a little closer8 >t consists, li+e the other, of t"o antithetical phases8 >n the first phase, $45, or the purchase, the mone* is changed into a commodit*8 >n the second phase, 54$, or the sale, the commodit* is changed bac+ again into mone*8 'he combination of these t"o phases constitutes the single mo)ement "hereb* mone* is e9changed for a commodit*, and the same commodit* is again e9changed for mone*; "hereb* a commodit* is bought in order to be sold, or, neglecting the distinction in form bet"een bu*ing and selling, "hereb* a commodit* is bought "ith mone*, and then mone* is bought "ith a commodit*8 6 'he result, in "hich the phases of the process )anish, is the e9change of mone* for mone*, $4$8 >f > purchase 6,777 lbs8 of cotton for ]177, and resell the 6,777 lbs8 of cotton for ]117, > ha)e, in fact, e9changed ]177 for ]117, mone* for mone*8 Co" it is e)ident that the circuit $454$ "ould be absurd and "ithout meaning if the intention "ere to e9change b* this means t"o eIual sums of mone*, ]177 for ]1778 'he miser?s plan "ould be far simpler and surer; he stic+s to his ]177 instead of e9posing it to the dangers of circulation8 (nd *et, "hether the merchant "ho has paid ]177 for his cotton sells it for ]117, or lets it go for ]177, or e)en ]37, his mone* has, at all e)ents, gone through a characteristic and

5hapter

original mo)ement, Iuite different in +ind from that "hich it goes through in the hands of the peasant "ho sells corn, and "ith the mone* thus set free bu*s clothes8 Be ha)e therefore to e9amine first the distinguishing characteristics of the forms of the circuits $454$ and 54$45, and in doing this the real difference that underlies the mere difference of form "ill re)eal itself8 <et us see, in the first place, "hat the t"o forms ha)e in common8 /oth circuits are resol)able into the same t"o antithetical phases, 54$, a sale, and $45, a purchase8 >n each of these phases the same material elements 4 a commodit*, and mone*, and the same economic dramatis personae, a bu*er and a seller 4 confront one another8 Each circuit is the unit* of the same t"o antithetical phases, and in each case this unit* is brought about b* the inter)ention of three contracting parties, of "hom one onl* sells, another onl* bu*s, "hile the third both bu*s and sells8 Bhat, ho"e)er, first and foremost distinguishes the circuit 54$45 from the circuit $454$, is the in)erted order of succession of the t"o phases8 'he simple circulation of commodities begins "ith a sale and ends "ith a purchase, "hile the circulation of mone* as capital begins "ith a purchase and ends "ith a sale8 >n the one case both the starting4point and the goal are commodities, in the other the* are mone*8 >n the first form the mo)ement is brought about b* the inter)ention of mone*, in the second b* that of a commodit*8 >n the circulation 54$45, the mone* is in the end con)erted into a commodit*, that ser)es as a use4)alue; it is spent once for all8 >n the in)erted form, $454$, on the contrar*, the bu*er la*s out mone* in order that, as a seller, he ma* reco)er mone*8 /* the purchase of his commodit* he thro"s mone* into circulation, in order to "ithdra" it again b* the sale of the same commodit*8 -e lets the mone* go, but onl* "ith the sl* intention of getting it bac+ again8 'he mone*, therefore, is not spent, it is merel* ad)anced8 : >n the circuit 54$45, the same piece of mone* changes its place t"ice8 'he seller gets it from the bu*er and pa*s it a"a* to another seller8 'he complete circulation, "hich begins "ith the receipt, concludes "ith the pa*ment, of mone* for commodities8 >t is the )er* contrar* in the circuit $454 $8 -ere it is not the piece of mone* that changes its place t"ice, but the commodit*8 'he bu*er ta+es it from the hands of the seller and passes it into the hands of another bu*er8 Lust as in the simple circulation of commodities the double change of place of the same piece of mone* effects its passage from one hand into another, so here the double change of place of the same commodit* brings about the reflu9 of the mone* to its point of departure8 Such reflu9 is not dependent on the commodit* being sold for more than "as paid for it8 'his circumstance influences onl* the amount of the mone* that comes bac+8 'he reflu9 itself ta+es place, so soon as the purchased commodit* is resold, in other "ords, so soon as the circuit $454 $ is completed8 Be ha)e here, therefore, a palpable difference bet"een the circulation of mone* as capital, and its circulation as mere mone*8 'he circuit 54$45 comes completel* to an end, so soon as the mone* brought in b* the sale of one commodit* is abstracted again b* the purchase of another8 >f, ne)ertheless, there follo"s a reflu9 of mone* to its starting4point, this can onl* happen through a rene"al or repetition of the operation8 >f > sell a Iuarter of corn for ]:, and "ith this ]: bu* clothes, the mone*, so far as > am concerned, is spent and done "ith8 >t belongs to the clothes merchant8 >f > no" sell a second Iuarter of corn, mone* indeed flo"s bac+ to me, not ho"e)er as a seIuel to the first transaction, but in conseIuence of its repetition8 'he mone* again lea)es me, so soon as > complete this second transaction b* a fresh purchase8 'herefore, in the circuit 54$4 5, the e9penditure of mone* has nothing to do "ith its reflu98 =n the other hand, in $454$, the reflu9 of the mone* is conditioned b* the )er* mode of its e9penditure8 Bithout this reflu9, the

83

5hapter

operation fails, or the process is interrupted and incomplete, o"ing to the absence of its complementar* and final phase, the sale8 'he circuit 54$45 starts "ith one commodit*, and finishes "ith another, "hich falls out of circulation and into consumption8 5onsumption, the satisfaction of "ants, in one "ord, use4)alue, is its end and aim8 'he circuit $454$, on the contrar*, commences "ith mone* and ends "ith mone*8 >ts leading moti)e, and the goal that attracts it, is therefore mere e9change4)alue8 >n the simple circulation of commodities, the t"o e9tremes of the circuit ha)e the same economic form8 'he* are both commodities, and commodities of eIual )alue8 /ut the* are also use4)alues differing in their Iualities, as, for e9ample, corn and clothes8 'he e9change of products, of the different materials in "hich the labour of societ* is embodied, forms here the basis of the mo)ement8 >t is other"ise in the circulation $454$, "hich at first sight appears purposeless, because tautological8 /oth e9tremes ha)e the same economic form8 'he* are both mone*, and therefore are not Iualitati)el* different use4)alues; for mone* is but the con)erted form of commodities, in "hich their particular use4)alues )anish8 'o e9change ]177 for cotton, and then this same cotton again for ]177, is merel* a roundabout "a* of e9changing mone* for mone*, the same for the same, and appears to be an operation Dust as purposeless as it is absurd8 =ne sum of mone* is distinguishable from another onl* b* its amount8 'he character and tendenc* of the process $454$, is therefore not due to an* Iualitati)e difference bet"een its e9tremes, both being mone*, but solel* to their Iuantitati)e difference8 $ore mone* is "ithdra"n from circulation at the finish than "as thro"n into it at the start8 'he cotton that "as bought for ]177 is perhaps resold for ]177 _ ]17 or ]1178 'he e9act form of this process is therefore $454$U, "here $U Y $ _ 0 $ Y the original sum ad)anced, plus an increment8 'his increment or e9cess o)er the original )alue > call @surplus )alue8A 'he )alue originall* ad)anced, therefore, not onl* remains intact "hile in circulation, but adds to itself a surplus )alue or e9pands itself8 >t is this mo)ement that con)erts it into capital8 =f course, it is also possible, that in 54$45, the t"o e9tremes 545, sa* corn and clothes, ma* represent different Iuantities of )alue8 'he farmer ma* sell his corn abo)e its )alue, or ma* bu* the clothes at less than their )alue8 -e ma*, on the other hand, @be doneA b* the clothes merchant8 Net, in the form of circulation no" under consideration, such differences in )alue are purel* accidental8 'he fact that the corn and the clothes are eIui)alents, does not depri)e the process of all meaning, as it does in $454$8 'he eIui)alence of their )alues is rather a necessar* condition to its normal course8 'he repetition or rene"al of the act of selling in order to bu*, is +ept "ithin bounds b* the )er* obDect it aims at, namel*, consumption or the satisfaction of definite "ants, an aim that lies altogether outside the sphere of circulation8 /ut "hen "e bu* in order to sell, "e, on the contrar*, begin and end "ith the same thing, mone*, e9change4)alue; and thereb* the mo)ement becomes interminable8 Co doubt, $ becomes $ _ 0 $, ]177 become ]1178 /ut "hen )ie"ed in their Iualitati)e aspect alone, ]117 are the same as ]177, namel* mone*; and considered Iuantitati)el*, ]117 is, li+e ]177, a sum of definite and limited )alue8 >f no", the ]117 be spent as mone*, the* cease to pla* their part8 'he* are no longer capital8 Bithdra"n from circulation, the* become petrified into a hoard, and though the* remained in that state till doomsda*, not a single farthing "ould accrue to them8 >f, then, the e9pansion of )alue is once aimed at, there is Dust the same inducement to augment the )alue of the ]117 as that of the ]177; for both are but limited e9pressions for e9change4)alue, and therefore both ha)e the same )ocation to approach, b* Iuantitati)e increase, as near as possible to absolute "ealth8 $omentaril*, indeed, the )alue originall* ad)anced, the ]177 is distinguishable from the surplus )alue of ]17 that is anne9ed to it during circulation; but the distinction )anishes immediatel*8 (t the end of the process, "e do not

86

5hapter

recei)e "ith one hand the original ]177, and "ith the other, the surplus )alue of ]178 Be simpl* get a )alue of ]117, "hich is in e9actl* the same condition and fitness for commencing the e9panding process, as the original ]177 "as8 $one* ends the mo)ement onl* to begin it again8 3 'herefore, the final result of e)er* separate circuit, in "hich a purchase and conseIuent sale are completed, forms of itself the starting4point of a ne" circuit8 'he simple circulation of commodities 4 selling in order to bu* 4 is a means of carr*ing out a purpose unconnected "ith circulation, namel*, the appropriation of use4)alues, the satisfaction of "ants8 'he circulation of mone* as capital is, on the contrar*, an end in itself, for the e9pansion of )alue ta+es place onl* "ithin this constantl* rene"ed mo)ement8 'he circulation of capital has therefore no limits8 6 (s the conscious representati)e of this mo)ement, the possessor of mone* becomes a capitalist8 -is person, or rather his poc+et, is the point from "hich the mone* starts and to "hich it returns8 'he e9pansion of )alue, "hich is the obDecti)e basis or main4spring of the circulation $454$, becomes his subDecti)e aim, and it is onl* in so far as the appropriation of e)er more and more "ealth in the abstract becomes the sole moti)e of his operations, that he functions as a capitalist, that is, as capital personified and endo"ed "ith consciousness and a "ill8 %se4)alues must therefore ne)er be loo+ed upon as the real aim of the capitalist; 7 neither must the profit on an* single transaction8 'he restless ne)er4ending process of profit4ma+ing alone is "hat he aims at8 8 'his boundless greed after riches, this passionate chase after e9change4)alue 2, is common to the capitalist and the miser; but "hile the miser is merel* a capitalist gone mad, the capitalist is a rational miser8 'he ne)er4ending augmentation of e9change4)alue, "hich the miser stri)es after, b* see+ing to sa)e17 his mone* from circulation, is attained b* the more acute capitalist, b* constantl* thro"ing it afresh into circulation811 'he independent form, i$e$, the mone*4form, "hich the )alue of commodities assumes in the case of simple circulation, ser)es onl* one purpose, namel*, their e9change, and )anishes in the final result of the mo)ement8 =n the other hand, in the circulation $454$, both the mone* and the commodit* represent onl* different modes of e9istence of )alue itself, the mone* its general mode, and the commodit* its particular, or, so to sa*, disguised mode8 16 >t is constantl* changing from one form to the other "ithout thereb* becoming lost, and thus assumes an automaticall* acti)e character8 >f no" "e ta+e in turn each of the t"o different forms "hich self4e9panding )alue successi)el* assumes in the course of its life, "e then arri)e at these t"o propositions: 5apital is mone*: 5apital is commodities8 1: >n truth, ho"e)er, )alue is here the acti)e factor in a process, in "hich, "hile constantl* assuming the form in turn of mone* and commodities, it at the same time changes in magnitude, differentiates itself b* thro"ing off surplus )alue from itself; the original )alue, in other "ords, e9pands spontaneousl*8 For the mo)ement, in the course of "hich it adds surplus )alue, is its o"n mo)ement, its e9pansion, therefore, is automatic e9pansion8 /ecause it is )alue, it has acIuired the occult Iualit* of being able to add )alue to itself8 >t brings forth li)ing offspring, or, at the least, la*s golden eggs8 ;alue, therefore, being the acti)e factor in such a process, and assuming at one time the form of mone*, at another that of commodities, but through all these changes preser)ing itself and e9panding, it reIuires some independent form, b* means of "hich its identit* ma* at an* time be established8 (nd this form it possesses onl* in the shape of mone*8 >t is under the form of mone* that )alue begins and ends, and begins again, e)er* act of its o"n spontaneous generation8 >t began b* being ]177, it is no" ]117, and so on8 /ut the mone* itself is onl* one of the t"o forms of )alue8 %nless it ta+es the form of some commodit*, it does not become capital8 'here is here no antagonism, as in the case of hoarding, bet"een the mone* and commodities8 'he capitalist +no"s that all commodities, ho"e)er scur)* the* ma* loo+, or ho"e)er badl* the* ma* smell, are in faith and in truth mone*, in"ardl* circumcised Le"s, and "hat is more, a "onderful means "hereb* out of mone* to ma+e more mone*8

87

5hapter

>n simple circulation, 54$45, the )alue of commodities attained at the most a form independent of their use4)alues, i$e$, the form of mone*; but that same )alue no" in the circulation $454$, or the circulation of capital, suddenl* presents itself as an independent substance, endo"ed "ith a motion of its o"n, passing through a life4process of its o"n, in "hich mone* and commodities are mere forms "hich it assumes and casts off in turn8 Ca*, more: instead of simpl* representing the relations of commodities, it enters no", so to sa*, into pri)ate relations "ith itself8 >t differentiates itself as original )alue from itself as surplus )alue; as the father differentiates himself from himself Iua the son, *et both are one and of one age: for onl* b* the surplus )alue of ]17 does the ]177 originall* ad)anced become capital, and so soon as this ta+es place, so soon as the son, and b* the son, the father, is begotten, so soon does their difference )anish, and the* again become one, ]1178 ;alue therefore no" becomes )alue in process, mone* in process, and, as such, capital8 >t comes out of circulation, enters into it again, preser)es and multiplies itself "ithin its circuit, comes bac+ out of it "ith e9panded bul+, and begins the same round e)er afresh8 1 $4$U, mone* "hich begets mone*, such is the description of 5apital from the mouths of its first interpreters, the $ercantilists8 /u*ing in order to sell, or, more accuratel*, bu*ing in order to sell dearer, $454$U, appears certainl* to be a form peculiar to one +ind of capital alone, namel*, merchants? capital8 /ut industrial capital too is mone*, that is changed into commodities, and b* the sale of these commodities, is re4con)erted into more mone*8 'he e)ents that ta+e place outside the sphere of circulation, in the inter)al bet"een the bu*ing and selling, do not affect the form of this mo)ement8 <astl*, in the case of interest4bearing capital, the circulation $454$U appears abridged8 Be ha)e its result "ithout the intermediate stage, in the form $4$U, @en st*le lapidaireA so to sa*, mone* that is "orth more mone*, )alue that is greater than itself8 $454$U is therefore in realit* the general formula of capital as it appears prima facie "ithin the sphere of circulation8

(ha)ter !* (ontradictions in the Genera$ Form%$a of (a)ita$


'he form "hich circulation ta+es "hen mone* becomes capital, is opposed to all the la"s "e ha)e hitherto in)estigated bearing on the nature of commodities, )alue and mone*, and e)en of circulation itself8 Bhat distinguishes this form from that of the simple circulation of commodities, is the in)erted order of succession of the t"o antithetical processes, sale and purchase8 -o" can this purel* formal distinction bet"een these processes change their character as it "ere b* magicE /ut that is not all8 'his in)ersion has no e9istence for t"o out of the three persons "ho transact business together8 (s capitalist, > bu* commodities from ( and sell them again to /, but as a simple o"ner of commodities, > sell them to / and then purchase fresh ones from (8 ( and / see no difference bet"een the t"o sets of transactions8 'he* are merel* bu*ers or sellers8 (nd > on each occasion meet them as a mere o"ner of either mone* or commodities, as a bu*er or a seller, and, "hat is more, in both sets of transactions, > am opposed to ( onl* as a bu*er and to / onl* as a seller, to the one onl* as mone*, to the other onl* as commodities, and to neither of them as capital or a capitalist, or as representati)e of an*thing that is more than mone* or commodities, or that can produce an* effect be*ond "hat mone* and commodities can8 For me the purchase from ( and the sale to / are part of a series8 /ut the conne9ion bet"een the t"o acts e9ists for me alone8 ( does not trouble himself about m* transaction "ith /, nor does / about m* business "ith (8 (nd if > offered to e9plain to them the meritorious nature of m* action in in)erting the order of succession, the* "ould probabl* point out to me that > "as mista+en as to that order of succession, and that the "hole transaction, instead of beginning "ith a purchase and ending "ith a sale, began, on the contrar*, "ith a sale and "as concluded "ith a purchase8 >n truth, m* first act, the purchase, "as from the standpoint of (, a sale, and m* second act, the sale, "as from the standpoint of /, a purchase8 Cot content "ith that, ( and / "ould declare that the "hole series "as superfluous and nothing but -o+us #o+us; that for the future ( "ould bu* direct from /, and / sell direct to (8 'hus the "hole transaction "ould be reduced to a single act forming an isolated, non4complemented phase in the ordinar* circulation of commodities, a mere sale from (?s point of )ie", and from /?s, a mere purchase8 'he in)ersion, therefore, of the order of succession, does not ta+e us outside the sphere of the simple circulation of commodities, and "e must rather loo+, "hether there is in this simple circulation an*thing permitting an e9pansion of the )alue that enters into circulation, and, conseIuentl*, a creation of surplus )alue8 <et us ta+e the process of circulation in a form under "hich it presents itself as a simple and direct e9change of commodities8 'his is al"a*s the case "hen t"o o"ners of commodities bu* from each other, and on the settling da* the amounts mutuall* o"ing are eIual and cancel each other8 'he mone* in this case is mone* of account and ser)es to e9press the )alue of the commodities b* their prices, but is not, itself, in the shape of hard cash, confronted "ith them8 So far as regards use4)alues, it is clear that both parties ma* gain some ad)antage8 /oth part "ith goods that, as use4)alues, are of no ser)ice to them, and recei)e others that the* can ma+e use of8 (nd there ma* also be a further gain8 (, "ho sells "ine and bu*s corn, possibl* produces more "ine, "ith gi)en labour4time, than farmer / could, and / on the other hand, more corn than "ine4gro"er ( could8 (, therefore, ma* get, for the same e9change4)alue, more corn, and / more "ine, than each "ould respecti)el* get "ithout an* e9change b* producing his o"n corn and "ine8 Bith reference, therefore, to use4)alue, there is good ground for sa*ing that @e9change

82

5hapter 3

is a transaction b* "hich both sides gain8A 1 >t is other"ise "ith e9change4)alue8 @( man "ho has plent* of "ine and no corn treats "ith a man "ho has plent* of corn and no "ine; an e9change ta+es place bet"een them of corn to the )alue of 37, for "ine of the same )alue8 'his act produces no increase of e9change4)alue either for the one or the other; for each of them alread* possessed, before the e9change, a )alue eIual to that "hich he acIuired b* means of that operation8A6 'he result is not altered b* introducing mone*, as a medium of circulation, bet"een the commodities, and ma+ing the sale and the purchase t"o distinct acts8 : 'he )alue of a commodit* is e9pressed in its price before it goes into circulation, and is therefore a precedent condition of circulation, not its result8 (bstractedl* considered, that is, apart from circumstances not immediatel* flo"ing from the la"s of the simple circulation of commodities, there is in an e9change nothing (if "e e9cept the replacing of one use4)alue b* another! but a metamorphosis, a mere change in the form of the commodit*8 'he same e9change4)alue, i8e8, the same Iuantit* of incorporated social labour, remains throughout in the hands of the o"ner of the commodit*, first in the shape of his o"n commodit*, then in the form of the mone* for "hich he e9changed it, and lastl*, in the shape of the commodit* he bu*s "ith that mone*8 'his change of form does not impl* a change in the magnitude of the )alue8 /ut the change, "hich the )alue of the commodit* undergoes in this process, is limited to a change in its mone*4form8 'his form e9ists first as the price of the commodit* offered for sale, then as an actual sum of mone*, "hich, ho"e)er, "as alread* e9pressed in the price, and lastl*, as the price of an eIui)alent commodit*8 'his change of form no more implies, ta+en alone, a change in the Iuantit* of )alue, than does the change of a ]3 note into so)ereigns, half so)ereigns and shillings8 So far therefore as the circulation of commodities effects a change in the form alone of their )alues, and is free from disturbing influences, it must be the e9change of eIui)alents8 <ittle as ;ulgar4Econom* +no"s about the nature of )alue, *et "hene)er it "ishes to consider the phenomena of circulation in their purit*, it assumes that suppl* and demand are eIual, "hich amounts to this, that their effect is nil8 >f therefore, as regards the use4)alues e9changed, both bu*er and seller ma* possibl* gain something, this is not the case as regards the e9change4)alues8 -ere "e must rather sa*, @Bhere eIualit* e9ists there can be no gain8A3 >t is true, commodities ma* be sold at prices de)iating from their )alues, but these de)iations are to be considered as infractions of the la"s of the e9change of commodities 6, "hich in its normal state is an e9change of eIui)alents, conseIuentl*, no method for increasing )alue87 -ence, "e see that behind all attempts to represent the circulation of commodities as a source of surplus )alue, there lur+s a &uid pro &uo, a mi9ing up of use4)alue and e9change4)alue8 For instance, 5ondillac sa*s: @>t is not true that on an e9change of commodities "e gi)e )alue for )alue8 =n the contrar*, each of the t"o contracting parties in e)er* case, gi)es a less for a greater )alue8 888 >f "e reall* e9changed eIual )alues, neither part* could ma+e a profit8 (nd *et, the* both gain, or ought to gain8 Bh*E 'he )alue of a thing consists solel* in its relation to our "ants8 Bhat is more to the one is less to the other, and vice vers%8 888 >t is not to be assumed that "e offer for sale articles reIuired for our o"n consumption8 888 Be "ish to part "ith a useless thing, in order to get one that "e need; "e "ant to gi)e less for more8 888 >t "as natural to thin+ that, in an e9change, )alue "as gi)en for )alue, "hene)er each of the articles e9changed "as of eIual )alue "ith the same Iuantit* of gold8 888 /ut there is another point to be considered in our calculation8 'he Iuestion is, "hether "e both e9change something superfluous for something necessar*8A 8 Be see in this passage, ho" 5ondillac not onl* confuses use4)alue "ith e9change4)alue, but in a reall* childish manner assumes, that in a societ*, in "hich the production of commodities is "ell de)eloped, each producer produces his o"n means of subsistence, and thro"s into circulation onl* the e9cess o)er his o"n reIuirements 2 Still, 5ondillac?s argument is freIuentl* used b*

27

5hapter 3

modern economists, more especiall* "hen the point is to sho", that the e9change of commodities in its de)eloped form, commerce, is producti)e of surplus )alue8 For instance, @5ommerce 888 adds )alue to products, for the same products in the hands of consumers, are "orth more than in the hands of producers, and it ma* strictl* be considered an act of production8A 17 /ut commodities are not paid for t"ice o)er, once on account of their use4)alue, and again on account of their )alue8 (nd though the use4)alue of a commodit* is more ser)iceable to the bu*er than to the seller, its mone*4form is more ser)iceable to the seller8 Bould he other"ise sell itE Be might therefore Dust as "ell sa* that the bu*er performs @strictl* an act of production,A b* con)erting stoc+ings, for e9ample, into mone*8 >f commodities, or commodities and mone*, of eIual e9change4)alue, and conseIuentl* eIui)alents, are e9changed, it is plain that no one abstracts more )alue from, than he thro"s into, circulation8 'here is no creation of surplus )alue8 (nd, in its normal form, the circulation of commodities demands the e9change of eIui)alents8 /ut in actual practice, the process does not retain its normal form8 <et us, therefore, assume an e9change of non4eIui)alents8 >n an* case the mar+et for commodities is onl* freIuented b* o"ners of commodities, and the po"er "hich these persons e9ercise o)er each other, is no other than the po"er of their commodities8 'he material )ariet* of these commodities is the material incenti)e to the act of e9change, and ma+es bu*ers and sellers mutuall* dependent, because none of them possesses the obDect of his o"n "ants, and each holds in his hand the obDect of another?s "ants8 /esides these material differences of their use4)alues, there is onl* one other difference bet"een commodities, namel*, that bet"een their bodil* form and the form into "hich the* are con)erted b* sale, the difference bet"een commodities and mone*8 (nd conseIuentl* the o"ners of commodities are distinguishable onl* as sellers, those "ho o"n commodities, and bu*ers, those "ho o"n mone*8 Suppose then, that b* some ine9plicable pri)ilege, the seller is enabled to sell his commodities abo)e their )alue, "hat is "orth 177 for 117, in "hich case the price is nominall* raised 17`8 'he seller therefore poc+ets a surplus )alue of 178 /ut after he has sold he becomes a bu*er8 ( third o"ner of commodities comes to him no" as seller, "ho in this capacit* also enDo*s the pri)ilege of selling his commodities 17` too dear8 =ur friend gained 17 as a seller onl* to lose it again as a bu*er811 'he net result is, that all o"ners of commodities sell their goods to one another at 17` abo)e their )alue, "hich comes precisel* to the same as if the* sold them at their true )alue8 Such a general and nominal rise of prices has the same effect as if the )alues had been e9pressed in "eight of sil)er instead of in "eight of gold8 'he nominal prices of commodities "ould rise, but the real relation bet"een their )alues "ould remain unchanged8 <et us ma+e the opposite assumption, that the bu*er has the pri)ilege of purchasing commodities under their )alue8 >n this case it is no longer necessar* to bear in mind that he in his turn "ill become a seller8 -e "as so before he became bu*er; he had alread* lost 17` in selling before he gained 17` as bu*er816 E)er*thing is Dust as it "as8 'he creation of surplus )alue, and therefore the con)ersion of mone* into capital, can conseIuentl* be e9plained neither on the assumption that commodities are sold abo)e their )alue, nor that the* are bought belo" their )alue81: 'he problem is in no "a* simplified b* introducing irrele)ant matters after the manner of 5ol8 'orrens: @Effectual demand consists in the po"er and inclination (Q!, on the part of consumers, to gi)e for commodities, either b* immediate or circuitous barter, some greater portion of 888 capital than their production costs8A1 >n relation to circulation, producers and consumers meet onl* as bu*ers and sellers8 'o assert that the surplus )alue acIuired b* the producer has its origin in the fact that consumers pa* for commodities more than their )alue, is onl* to sa* in other "ords: 'he o"ner of commodities possesses, as a seller, the pri)ilege of selling too dear8 'he seller has

21

5hapter 3

himself produced the commodities or represents their producer, but the bu*er has to no less e9tent produced the commodities represented b* his mone*, or represents their producer8 'he distinction bet"een them is, that one bu*s and the other sells8 'he fact that the o"ner of the commodities, under the designation of producer, sells them o)er their )alue, and under the designation of consumer, pa*s too much for them, does not carr* us a single step further8 13 'o be consistent therefore, the upholders of the delusion that surplus )alue has its origin in a nominal rise of prices or in the pri)ilege "hich the seller has of selling too dear, must assume the e9istence of a class that onl* bu*s and does not sell, i8e8, onl* consumes and does not produce8 'he e9istence of such a class is ine9plicable from the standpoint "e ha)e so far reached, )i18, that of simple circulation8 /ut let us anticipate8 'he mone* "ith "hich such a class is constantl* ma+ing purchases, must constantl* flo" into their poc+ets, "ithout an* e9change, gratis, b* might or right, from the poc+ets of the commodit*4o"ners themsel)es8 'o sell commodities abo)e their )alue to such a class, is onl* to crib bac+ again a part of the mone* pre)iousl* gi)en to it816 'he to"ns of (sia $inor thus paid a *earl* mone* tribute to ancient &ome8 Bith this mone* &ome purchased from them commodities, and purchased them too dear8 'he pro)incials cheated the &omans, and thus got bac+ from their conIuerors, in the course of trade, a portion of the tribute8 Net, for all that, the conIuered "ere the reall* cheated8 'heir goods "ere still paid for "ith their o"n mone*8 'hat is not the "a* to get rich or to create surplus )alue8 <et us therefore +eep "ithin the bounds of e9change "here sellers are also bu*ers, and bu*ers, sellers8 =ur difficult* ma* perhaps ha)e arisen from treating the actors as personifications instead of as indi)iduals8 ( ma* be cle)er enough to get the ad)antage of / or 5 "ithout their being able to retaliate8 ( sells "ine "orth ] 7 to /, and obtains from him in e9change corn to the )alue of ]378 ( has con)erted his ] 7 into ]37, has made more mone* out of less, and has con)erted his commodities into capital8 <et us e9amine this a little more closel*8 /efore the e9change "e had ] 7 "orth of "ine in the hands of (, and ]37 "orth of corn in those of /, a total )alue of ]278 (fter the e9change "e ha)e still the same total )alue of ]278 'he )alue in circulation has not increased b* one iota, it is onl* distributed differentl* bet"een ( and /8 Bhat is a loss of )alue to / is surplus )alue to (; "hat is @minusA to one is @plusA to the other8 'he same change "ould ha)e ta+en place, if (, "ithout the formalit* of an e9change, had directl* stolen the ]17 from /8 'he sum of the )alues in circulation can clearl* not be augmented b* an* change in their distribution, an* more than the Iuantit* of the precious metals in a countr* b* a Le" selling a Kueen (nne?s farthing for a guinea8 'he capitalist class, as a "hole, in an* countr*, cannot o)er4reach themsel)es817 'urn and t"ist then as "e ma*, the fact remains unaltered8 >f eIui)alents are e9changed, no surplus )alue results, and if non4eIui)alents are e9changed, still no surplus )alue8 18 5irculation, or the e9change of commodities, begets no )alue8 12 'he reason is no" therefore plain "h*, in anal*sing the standard form of capital, the form under "hich it determines the economic organisation of modern societ*, "e entirel* left out of consideration its most popular, and, so to sa*, antedilu)ian forms, merchants? capital and mone*4 lenders? capital8 'he circuit $454$, bu*ing in order to sell dearer, is seen most clearl* in genuine merchants? capital8 /ut the mo)ement ta+es place entirel* "ithin the sphere of circulation8 Since, ho"e)er, it is impossible, b* circulation alone, to account for the con)ersion of mone* into capital, for the formation of surplus )alue, it "ould appear, that merchants? capital is an impossibilit*, so long as eIui)alents are e9changed;67 that, therefore, it can onl* ha)e its origin in the t"o4fold ad)antage gained, o)er both the selling and the bu*ing producers, b* the merchant "ho parasiticall* sho)es

26

5hapter 3

himself in bet"een them8 >t is in this sense that Fran+lin sa*s, @"ar is robber*, commerce is generall* cheating8A61 >f the transformation of merchants? mone* into capital is to be e9plained other"ise than b* the producers being simpl* cheated, a long series of intermediate steps "ould be necessar*, "hich, at present, "hen the simple circulation of commodities forms our onl* assumption, are entirel* "anting8 Bhat "e ha)e said "ith reference to merchants? capital, applies still more to mone*4lenders? capital8 >n merchants? capital, the t"o e9tremes, the mone* that is thro"n upon the mar+et, and the augmented mone* that is "ithdra"n from the mar+et, are at least connected b* a purchase and a sale, in other "ords b* the mo)ement of the circulation8 >n mone*4lenders? capital the form $454$ is reduced to the t"o e9tremes "ithout a mean, $4$ , mone* e9changed for more mone*, a form that is incompatible "ith the nature of mone*, and therefore remains ine9plicable from the standpoint of the circulation of commodities8 -ence (ristotle: @since chrematistic is a double science, one part belonging to commerce, the other to economic, the latter being necessar* and praise"orth*, the former based on circulation and "ith Dustice disappro)ed (for it is not based on Cature, but on mutual cheating!, therefore the usurer is most rightl* hated, because mone* itself is the source of his gain, and is not used for the purposes for "hich it "as in)ented8 For it originated for the e9change of commodities, but interest ma+es out of mone*, more mone*8 -ence its name (abcb\ interest and offspring!8 For the begotten are li+e those "ho beget them8 /ut interest is mone* of mone*, so that of all modes of ma+ing a li)ing, this is the most contrar* to Cature8A66 >n the course of our in)estigation, "e shall find that both merchants? capital and interest4bearing capital are deri)ati)e forms, and at the same time it "ill become clear, "h* these t"o forms appear in the course of histor* before the modern standard form of capital8 Be ha)e sho"n that surplus )alue cannot be created b* circulation, and, therefore, that in its formation, something must ta+e place in the bac+ground, "hich is not apparent in the circulation itself86: /ut can surplus )alue possibl* originate an*"here else than in circulation, "hich is the sum total of all the mutual relations of commodit*4o"ners, as far as the* are determined b* their commoditiesE (part from circulation, the commodit*4o"ner is in relation onl* "ith his o"n commodit*8 So far as regards )alue, that relation is limited to this, that the commodit* contains a Iuantit* of his o"n labour, that Iuantit* being measured b* a definite social standard8 'his Iuantit* is e9pressed b* the )alue of the commodit*, and since the )alue is rec+oned in mone* of account, this Iuantit* is also e9pressed b* the price, "hich "e "ill suppose to be ]178 /ut his labour is not represented both b* the )alue of the commodit*, and b* a surplus o)er that )alue, not b* a price of 17 that is also a price of 11, not b* a )alue that is greater than itself8 'he commodit* o"ner can, b* his labour, create )alue, but not self4e9panding )alue8 -e can increase the )alue of his commodit*, b* adding fresh labour, and therefore more )alue to the )alue in hand, b* ma+ing, for instance, leather into boots8 'he same material has no" more )alue, because it contains a greater Iuantit* of labour8 'he boots ha)e therefore more )alue than the leather, but the )alue of the leather remains "hat it "as; it has not e9panded itself, has not, during the ma+ing of the boots, anne9ed surplus )alue8 >t is therefore impossible that outside the sphere of circulation, a producer of commodities can, "ithout coming into contact "ith other commodit*4 o"ners, e9pand )alue, and conseIuentl* con)ert mone* or commodities into capital8

2:

5hapter 3

>t is therefore impossible for capital to be produced b* circulation, and it is eIuall* impossible for it to originate apart from circulation8 >t must ha)e its origin both in circulation and *et not in circulation8 Be ha)e, therefore, got a double result8 'he con)ersion of mone* into capital has to be e9plained on the basis of the la"s that regulate the e9change of commodities, in such a "a* that the starting4point is the e9change of eIui)alents8 6 =ur friend, $one*bags, "ho as *et is onl* an embr*o capitalist, must bu* his commodities at their )alue, must sell them at their )alue, and *et at the end of the process must "ithdra" more )alue from circulation than he thre" into it at starting8 -is de)elopment into a full4gro"n capitalist must ta+e place, both "ithin the sphere of circulation and "ithout it8 'hese are the conditions of the problem8 *ic Rhodus+ hic salta!63

(ha)ter 6* "he .%+in# and Se$$in# of /a0o%r1 Power


'he change of )alue that occurs in the case of mone* intended to be con)erted into capital, cannot ta+e place in the mone* itself, since in its function of means of purchase and of pa*ment, it does no more than realise the price of the commodit* it bu*s or pa*s for; and, as hard cash, it is )alue petrified, ne)er )ar*ing81 Lust as little can it originate in the second act of circulation, the re4sale of the commodit*, "hich does no more than transform the article from its bodil* form bac+ again into its mone*4form8 'he change must, therefore, ta+e place in the commodit* bought b* the first act, $45, but not in its )alue, for eIui)alents are e9changed, and the commodit* is paid for at its full )alue8 Be are, therefore, forced to the conclusion that the change originates in the use4)alue, as such, of the commodit*, i8e8, in its consumption8 >n order to be able to e9tract )alue from the consumption of a commodit*, our friend, $one*bags, must be so luc+* as to find, "ithin the sphere of circulation, in the mar+et, a commodit*, "hose use4)alue possesses the peculiar propert* of being a source of )alue, "hose actual consumption, therefore, is itself an embodiment of labour, and, conseIuentl*, a creation of )alue8 'he possessor of mone* does find on the mar+et such a special commodit* in capacit* for labour or labour4po"er8 /* labour4po"er or capacit* for labour is to be understood the aggregate of those mental and ph*sical capabilities e9isting in a human being, "hich he e9ercises "hene)er he produces a use4 )alue of an* description8 /ut in order that our o"ner of mone* ma* be able to find labour4po"er offered for sale as a commodit*, )arious conditions must first be fulfilled8 'he e9change of commodities of itself implies no other relations of dependence than those "hich, result from its o"n nature8 =n this assumption, labour4po"er can appear upon the mar+et as a commodit*, onl* if, and so far as, its possessor, the indi)idual "hose labour4po"er it is, offers it for sale, or sells it, as a commodit*8 >n order that he ma* be able to do this, he must ha)e it at his disposal, must be the untrammelled o"ner of his capacit* for labour, i8e8, of his person8 6 -e and the o"ner of mone* meet in the mar+et, and deal "ith each other as on the basis of eIual rights, "ith this difference alone, that one is bu*er, the other seller; both, therefore, eIual in the e*es of the la"8 'he continuance of this relation demands that the o"ner of the labour4po"er should sell it onl* for a definite period, for if he "ere to sell it rump and stump, once for all, he "ould be selling himself, con)erting himself from a free man into a sla)e, from an o"ner of a commodit* into a commodit*8 -e must constantl* loo+ upon his labour4po"er as his o"n propert*, his o"n commodit*, and this he can onl* do b* placing it at the disposal of the bu*er temporaril*, for a definite period of time8 /* this means alone can he a)oid renouncing his rights of o"nership o)er it8 : 'he second essential condition to the o"ner of mone* finding labour4po"er in the mar+et as a commodit* is this F that the labourer instead of being in the position to sell commodities in "hich his labour is incorporated, must be obliged to offer for sale as a commodit* that )er* labour4 po"er, "hich e9ists onl* in his li)ing self8 >n order that a man ma* be able to sell commodities other than labour4po"er, he must of course ha)e the means of production, as ra" material, implements, Pc8 Co boots can be made "ithout leather8 -e reIuires also the means of subsistence8 Cobod* F not e)en @a musician of the futureA F can li)e upon future products, or upon use4)alues in an unfinished state; and e)er since the first

23

5hapter 6

moment of his appearance on the "orld?s stage, man al"a*s has been, and must still be a consumer, both before and "hile he is producing8 >n a societ* "here all products assume the form of commodities, these commodities must be sold after the* ha)e been produced, it is onl* after their sale that the* can ser)e in satisf*ing the reIuirements of their producer8 'he time necessar* for their sale is superadded to that necessar* for their production8 For the con)ersion of his mone* into capital, therefore, the o"ner of mone* must meet in the mar+et "ith the free labourer, free in the double sense, that as a free man he can dispose of his labour4po"er as his o"n commodit*, and that on the other hand he has no other commodit* for sale, is short of e)er*thing necessar* for the realisation of his labour4po"er8 'he Iuestion "h* this free labourer confronts him in the mar+et, has no interest for the o"ner of mone*, "ho regards the labour4mar+et as a branch of the general mar+et for commodities8 (nd for the present it interests us Dust as little8 Be cling to the fact theoreticall*, as he does practicall*8 =ne thing, ho"e)er, is clear F Cature does not produce on the one side o"ners of mone* or commodities, and on the other men possessing nothing but their o"n labour4po"er8 'his relation has no natural basis, neither is its social basis one that is common to all historical periods8 >t is clearl* the result of a past historical de)elopment, the product of man* economic re)olutions, of the e9tinction of a "hole series of older forms of social production8 So, too, the economic categories, alread* discussed b* us, bear the stamp of histor*8 0efinite historical conditions are necessar* that a product ma* become a commodit*8 >t must not be produced as the immediate means of subsistence of the producer himself8 -ad "e gone further, and inIuired under "hat circumstances all, or e)en the maDorit* of products ta+e the form of commodities, "e should ha)e found that this can onl* happen "ith production of a )er* specific +ind, capitalist production8 Such an inIuir*, ho"e)er, "ould ha)e been foreign to the anal*sis of commodities8 #roduction and circulation of commodities can ta+e place, although the great mass of the obDects produced are intended for the immediate reIuirements of their producers, are not turned into commodities, and conseIuentl* social production is not *et b* a long "a* dominated in its length and breadth b* e9change4)alue8 'he appearance of products as commodities pre4 supposes such a de)elopment of the social di)ision of labour, that the separation of use4)alue from e9change4)alue, a separation "hich first begins "ith barter, must alread* ha)e been completed8 /ut such a degree of de)elopment is common to man* forms of societ*, "hich in other respects present the most )ar*ing historical features8 =n the other hand, if "e consider mone*, its e9istence implies a definite stage in the e9change of commodities8 'he particular functions of mone* "hich it performs, either as the mere eIui)alent of commodities, or as means of circulation, or means of pa*ment, as hoard or as uni)ersal mone*, point, according to the e9tent and relati)e preponderance of the one function or the other, to )er* different stages in the process of social production8 Net "e +no" b* e9perience that a circulation of commodities relati)el* primiti)e, suffices for the production of all these forms8 =ther"ise "ith capital8 'he historical conditions of its e9istence are b* no means gi)en "ith the mere circulation of mone* and commodities8 >t can spring into life, onl* "hen the o"ner of the means of production and subsistence meets in the mar+et "ith the free labourer selling his labour4po"er8 (nd this one historical condition comprises a "orld?s histor*8 5apital, therefore, announces from its first appearance a ne" epoch in the process of social production8 Be must no" e9amine more closel* this peculiar commodit*, labour4po"er8 <i+e all others it has a )alue83 -o" is that )alue determinedE 'he )alue of labour4po"er is determined, as in the case of e)er* other commodit*, b* the labour4 time necessar* for the production, and conseIuentl* also the reproduction, of this special article8 So far as it has )alue, it represents no more than a definite Iuantit* of the a)erage labour of

26

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societ* incorporated in it8 <abour4po"er e9ists onl* as a capacit*, or po"er of the li)ing indi)idual8 >ts production conseIuentl* pre4supposes his e9istence8 Gi)en the indi)idual, the production of labour4po"er consists in his reproduction of himself or his maintenance8 For his maintenance he reIuires a gi)en Iuantit* of the means of subsistence8 'herefore the labour4time reIuisite for the production of labour4po"er reduces itself to that necessar* for the production of those means of subsistence; in other "ords, the )alue of labour4po"er is the )alue of the means of subsistence necessar* for the maintenance of the labourer8 <abour4po"er, ho"e)er, becomes a realit* onl* b* its e9ercise; it sets itself in action onl* b* "or+ing8 /ut thereb* a definite Iuantit* of human muscle, ner)e8 brain, Pc8, is "asted, and these reIuire to be restored8 'his increased e9penditure demands a larger income8 6 >f the o"ner of labour4po"er "or+s to4da*, to4morro" he must again be able to repeat the same process in the same conditions as regards health and strength8 -is means of subsistence must therefore be sufficient to maintain him in his normal state as a labouring indi)idual8 -is natural "ants, such as food, clothing, fuel, and housing, )ar* according to the climatic and other ph*sical conditions of his countr*8 =n the other hand, the number and e9tent of his so4called necessar* "ants, as also the modes of satisf*ing them, are themsel)es the product of historical de)elopment, and depend therefore to a great e9tent on the degree of ci)ilisation of a countr*, more particularl* on the conditions under "hich, and conseIuentl* on the habits and degree of comfort in "hich, the class of free labourers has been formed87 >n contradistinction therefore to the case of other commodities, there enters into the determination of the )alue of labour4po"er a historical and moral element8 Ce)ertheless, in a gi)en countr*, at a gi)en period, the a)erage Iuantit* of the means of subsistence necessar* for the labourer is practicall* +no"n8 'he o"ner of labour4po"er is mortal8 >f then his appearance in the mar+et is to be continuous, and the continuous con)ersion of mone* into capital assumes this, the seller of labour4po"er must perpetuate himself, @in the "a* that e)er* li)ing indi)idual perpetuates himself, b* procreation8A8 'he labour4po"er "ithdra"n from the mar+et b* "ear and tear and death, must be continuall* replaced b*, at the )er* least, an eIual amount of fresh labour4po"er8 -ence the sum of the means of subsistence necessar* for the production of labour4po"er must include the means necessar* for the labourer?s substitutes, i8e8, his children, in order that this race of peculiar commodit*4o"ners ma* perpetuate its appearance in the mar+et8 2 >n order to modif* the human organism, so that it ma* acIuire s+ill and handiness in a gi)en branch of industr*, and become labour4po"er of a special +ind, a special education or training is reIuisite, and this, on its part, costs an eIui)alent in commodities of a greater or less amount8 'his amount )aries according to the more or less complicated character of the labour4po"er8 'he e9penses of this education (e9cessi)el* small in the case of ordinar* labour4po"er!, enter pro tanto into the total )alue spent in its production8 'he )alue of labour4po"er resol)es itself into the )alue of a definite Iuantit* of the means of subsistence8 >t therefore )aries "ith the )alue of these means or "ith the Iuantit* of labour reIuisite for their production8 Some of the means of subsistence, such as food and fuel, are consumed dail*, and a fresh suppl* must be pro)ided dail*8 =thers such as clothes and furniture last for longer periods and reIuire to be replaced onl* at longer inter)als8 =ne article must be bought or paid for dail*, another "ee+l*, another Iuarterl*, and so on8 /ut in "hate)er "a* the sum total of these outla*s ma* be spread o)er the *ear, the* must be co)ered b* the a)erage income, ta+ing one da* "ith another8 >f the total of the commodities reIuired dail* for the production of labour4po"er Y (, and those reIuired "ee+l* Y /, and those reIuired Iuarterl* Y 5, and so on, the dail* a)erage of these commodities Y (:63( _ 36/ _ 5 _ Pc! J :638 Suppose that in this mass of commodities

27

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reIuisite for the a)erage da* there are embodied 6 hours of social labour, then there is incorporated dail* in labour4po"er half a da*?s a)erage social labour, in other "ords, half a da*?s labour is reIuisite for the dail* production of labour4po"er8 'his Iuantit* of labour forms the )alue of a da*?s labour4po"er or the )alue of the labour4po"er dail* reproduced8 >f half a da*?s a)erage social labour is incorporated in three shillings, then three shillings is the price corresponding to the )alue of a da*?s labour4po"er8 >f its o"ner therefore offers it for sale at three shillings a da*, its selling price is eIual to its )alue, and according to our supposition, our friend $one*bags, "ho is intent upon con)erting his three shillings into capital, pa*s this )alue8 'he minimum limit of the )alue of labour4po"er is determined b* the )alue of the commodities, "ithout the dail* suppl* of "hich the labourer cannot rene" his )ital energ*, conseIuentl* b* the )alue of those means of subsistence that are ph*sicall* indispensable8 >f the price of labour4po"er fall to this minimum, it falls belo" its )alue, since under such circumstances it can be maintained and de)eloped onl* in a crippled state8 /ut the )alue of e)er* commodit* is determined b* the labour4time reIuisite to turn it out so as to be of normal Iualit*8 >t is a )er* cheap sort of sentimentalit* "hich declares this method of determining the )alue of labour4po"er, a method prescribed b* the )er* nature of the case, to be a brutal method, and "hich "ails "ith &ossi that, @'o comprehend capacit* for labour (puissance de tra)ail! at the same time that "e ma+e abstraction from the means of subsistence of the labourers during the process of production, is to comprehend a phantom (dtre de raison!8 Bhen "e spea+ of labour, or capacit* for labour, "e spea+ at the same time of the labourer and his means of subsistence, of labourer and "ages8A17 Bhen "e spea+ of capacit* for labour, "e do not spea+ of labour, an* more than "hen "e spea+ of capacit* for digestion, "e spea+ of digestion8 'he latter process reIuires something more than a good stomach8 Bhen "e spea+ of capacit* for labour, "e do not abstract from the necessar* means of subsistence8 =n the contrar*, their )alue is e9pressed in its )alue8 >f his capacit* for labour remains unsold, the labourer deri)es no benefit from it, but rather he "ill feel it to be a cruel nature4imposed necessit* that this capacit* has cost for its production a definite amount of the means of subsistence and that it "ill continue to do so for its reproduction8 -e "ill then agree "ith Sismondi: @that capacit* for labour 888 is nothing unless it is sold8A 11 =ne conseIuence of the peculiar nature of labour4po"er as a commodit* is, that its use4)alue does not, on the conclusion of the contract bet"een the bu*er and seller, immediatel* pass into the hands of the former8 >ts )alue, li+e that of e)er* other commodit*, is alread* fi9ed before it goes into circulation, since a definite Iuantit* of social labour has been spent upon it; but its use4 )alue consists in the subseIuent e9ercise of its force8 'he alienation of labour4po"er and its actual appropriation b* the bu*er, its emplo*ment as a use4)alue, are separated b* an inter)al of time8 /ut in those cases in "hich the formal alienation b* sale of the use4)alue of a commodit*, is not simultaneous "ith its actual deli)er* to the bu*er, the mone* of the latter usuall* functions as means of pa*ment816 >n e)er* countr* in "hich the capitalist mode of production reigns, it is the custom not to pa* for labour4po"er before it has been e9ercised for the period fi9ed b* the contract, as for e9ample, the end of each "ee+8 >n all cases, therefore, the use4)alue of the labour4 po"er is ad)anced to the capitalist: the labourer allo"s the bu*er to consume it before he recei)es pa*ment of the price; he e)er*"here gi)es credit to the capitalist8 'hat this credit is no mere fiction, is sho"n not onl* b* the occasional loss of "ages on the ban+ruptc* of the capitalist, 1: but also b* a series of more enduring conseIuences8 1 Ce)ertheless, "hether mone* ser)es as a means of purchase or as a means of pa*ment, this ma+es no alteration in the nature of the e9change of commodities8 'he price of the labour4po"er is fi9ed b* the contract, although it is not realised till later, li+e the rent of a house8 'he labour4po"er is sold, although it is onl* paid for at a later period8 >t "ill, therefore, be useful, for a clear comprehension of the relation of the

28

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parties, to assume pro)isionall*, that the possessor of labour4po"er, on the occasion of each sale, immediatel* recei)es the price stipulated to be paid for it8 Be no" +no" ho" the )alue paid b* the purchaser to the possessor of this peculiar commodit*, labour4po"er, is determined8 'he use4)alue "hich the former gets in e9change, manifests itself onl* in the actual utilisation, in the consumption of the labour4po"er8 'he mone*4o"ner bu*s e)er*thing necessar* for this purpose, such as ra" material, in the mar+et, and pa*s for it at its full )alue8 'he consumption of labour4po"er is at one and the same time the production of commodities and of surplus )alue8 'he consumption of labour4po"er is completed, as in the case of e)er* other commodit*, outside the limits of the mar+et or of the sphere of circulation8 (ccompanied b* $r8 $one*bags and b* the possessor of labour4po"er, "e therefore ta+e lea)e for a time of this nois* sphere, "here e)er*thing ta+es place on the surface and in )ie" of all men, and follo" them both into the hidden abode of production, on "hose threshold there stares us in the face @Co admittance e9cept on business8A -ere "e shall see, not onl* ho" capital produces, but ho" capital is produced8 Be shall at last force the secret of profit ma+ing8 'his sphere that "e are deserting, "ithin "hose boundaries the sale and purchase of labour4po"er goes on, is in fact a )er* Eden of the innate rights of man8 'here alone rule Freedom, EIualit*, #ropert* and /entham8 Freedom, because both bu*er and seller of a commodit*, sa* of labour4 po"er, are constrained onl* b* their o"n free "ill8 'he* contract as free agents, and the agreement the* come to, is but the form in "hich the* gi)e legal e9pression to their common "ill8 EIualit*, because each enters into relation "ith the other, as "ith a simple o"ner of commodities, and the* e9change eIui)alent for eIui)alent8 #ropert*, because each disposes onl* of "hat is his o"n8 (nd /entham, because each loo+s onl* to himself8 'he onl* force that brings them together and puts them in relation "ith each other, is the selfishness, the gain and the pri)ate interests of each8 Each loo+s to himself onl*, and no one troubles himself about the rest, and Dust because the* do so, do the* all, in accordance "ith the pre4established harmon* of things, or under the auspices of an all4shre"d pro)idence, "or+ together to their mutual ad)antage, for the common "eal and in the interest of all8 =n lea)ing this sphere of simple circulation or of e9change of commodities, "hich furnishes the @Free4trader ;ulgarisA "ith his )ie"s and ideas, and "ith the standard b* "hich he Dudges a societ* based on capital and "ages, "e thin+ "e can percei)e a change in the ph*siognom* of our dramatis personae8 -e, "ho before "as the mone*4o"ner, no" strides in front as capitalist; the possessor of labour4po"er follo"s as his labourer8 'he one "ith an air of importance, smir+ing, intent on business; the other, timid and holding bac+, li+e one "ho is bringing his o"n hide to mar+et and has nothing to e9pect but F a hiding8

Part 3: The Production of Absolute urplus !alue


(ha)ter 7* "he /a0o%r1Process and the Process of Prod%cin# S%r)$%s 2a$%e
Section 1: The (abour"Process or the Production of !se"Values
'he capitalist bu*s labour4po"er in order to use it; and labour4po"er in use is labour itself8 'he purchaser of labour4po"er consumes it b* setting the seller of it to "or+8 /* "or+ing, the latter becomes actuall*, "hat before he onl* "as potentiall*, labour4po"er in action, a labourer8 >n order that his labour ma* re4appear in a commodit*, he must, before all things, e9pend it on something useful, on something capable of satisf*ing a "ant of some sort8 -ence, "hat the capitalist sets the labourer to produce, is a particular use4)alue, a specified article8 'he fact that the production of use4)alues, or goods, is carried on under the control of a capitalist and on his behalf, does not alter the general character of that production8 Be shall, therefore, in the first place, ha)e to consider the labour4process independentl* of the particular form it assumes under gi)en social conditions8 <abour is, in the first place, a process in "hich both man and Cature participate, and in "hich man of his o"n accord starts, regulates, and controls the material re4actions bet"een himself and Cature8 -e opposes himself to Cature as one of her o"n forces, setting in motion arms and legs, head and hands, the natural forces of his bod*, in order to appropriate Cature?s productions in a form adapted to his o"n "ants8 /* thus acting on the e9ternal "orld and changing it, he at the same time changes his o"n nature8 -e de)elops his slumbering po"ers and compels them to act in obedience to his s"a*8 Be are not no" dealing "ith those primiti)e instincti)e forms of labour that remind us of the mere animal8 (n immeasurable inter)al of time separates the state of things in "hich a man brings his labour4po"er to mar+et for sale as a commodit*, from that state in "hich human labour "as still in its first instincti)e stage8 Be pre4suppose labour in a form that stamps it as e9clusi)el* human8 ( spider conducts operations that resemble those of a "ea)er, and a bee puts to shame man* an architect in the construction of her cells8 /ut "hat distinguishes the "orst architect from the best of bees is this, that the architect raises his structure in imagination before he erects it in realit*8 (t the end of e)er* labour4process, "e get a result that alread* e9isted in the imagination of the labourer at its commencement8 -e not onl* effects a change of form in the material on "hich he "or+s, but he also realises a purpose of his o"n that gi)es the la" to his modus operandi, and to "hich he must subordinate his "ill8 (nd this subordination is no mere momentar* act8 /esides the e9ertion of the bodil* organs, the process demands that, during the "hole operation, the "or+man?s "ill be steadil* in consonance "ith his purpose8 'his means close attention8 'he less he is attracted b* the nature of the "or+, and the mode in "hich it is carried on, and the less, therefore, he enDo*s it as something "hich gi)es pla* to his bodil* and mental po"ers, the more close his attention is forced to be8

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'he elementar* factors of the labour4process are 1, the personal acti)it* of man, i$e8, "or+ itself, 6, the subDect of that "or+, and :, its instruments8 'he soil (and this, economicall* spea+ing, includes "ater! in the )irgin state in "hich it supplies 1 man "ith necessaries or the means of subsistence read* to hand, e9ists independentl* of him, and is the uni)ersal subDect of human labour8 (ll those things "hich labour merel* separates from immediate conne9ion "ith their en)ironment, are subDects of labour spontaneousl* pro)ided b* Cature8 Such are fish "hich "e catch and ta+e from their element, "ater, timber "hich "e fell in the )irgin forest, and ores "hich "e e9tract from their )eins8 >f, on the other hand, the subDect of labour has, so to sa*, been filtered through pre)ious labour, "e call it ra" material; such is ore alread* e9tracted and read* for "ashing8 (ll ra" material is the subDect of labour, but not e)er* subDect of labour is ra" material: it can onl* become so, after it has undergone some alteration b* means of labour8 (n instrument of labour is a thing, or a comple9 of things, "hich the labourer interposes bet"een himself and the subDect of his labour, and "hich ser)es as the conductor of his acti)it*8 -e ma+es use of the mechanical, ph*sical, and chemical properties of some substances in order to ma+e other substances subser)ient to his aims8 6 <ea)ing out of consideration such read*4made means of subsistence as fruits, in gathering "hich a man?s o"n limbs ser)e as the instruments of his labour, the first thing of "hich the labourer possesses himself is not the subDect of labour but its instrument8 'hus Cature becomes one of the organs of his acti)it*, one that he anne9es to his o"n bodil* organs, adding stature to himself in spite of the /ible8 (s the earth is his original larder, so too it is his original tool house8 >t supplies him, for instance, "ith stones for thro"ing, grinding, pressing, cutting, Pc8 'he earth itself is an instrument of labour, but "hen used as such in agriculture implies a "hole series of other instruments and a comparati)el* high de)elopment of labour8: Co sooner does labour undergo the least de)elopment, than it reIuires speciall* prepared instruments8 'hus in the oldest ca)es "e find stone implements and "eapons8 >n the earliest period of human histor* domesticated animals, i$e8, animals "hich ha)e been bred for the purpose, and ha)e undergone modifications b* means of labour, pla* the chief part as instruments of labour along "ith speciall* prepared stones, "ood, bones, and shells8 'he use and fabrication of instruments of labour, although e9isting in the germ among certain species of animals, is specificall* characteristic of the human labour4process, and Fran+lin therefore defines man as a tool4ma+ing animal8 &elics of b*gone instruments of labour possess the same importance for the in)estigation of e9tinct economic forms of societ*, as do fossil bones for the determination of e9tinct species of animals8 >t is not the articles made, but ho" the* are made, and b* "hat instruments, that enables us to distinguish different economic epochs8 3 >nstruments of labour not onl* suppl* a standard of the degree of de)elopment to "hich human labour has attained, but the* are also indicators of the social conditions under "hich that labour is carried on8 (mong the instruments of labour, those of a mechanical nature, "hich, ta+en as a "hole, "e ma* call the bone and muscles of production, offer much more decided characteristics of a gi)en epoch of production, than those "hich, li+e pipes, tubs, bas+ets, Dars, Pc8, ser)e onl* to hold the materials for labour, "hich latter class, "e ma* in a general "a*, call the )ascular s*stem of production8 'he latter first begins to pla* an important part in the chemical industries8 >n a "ider sense "e ma* include among the instruments of labour, in addition to those things that are used for directl* transferring labour to its subDect, and "hich therefore, in one "a* or another, ser)e as conductors of acti)it*, all such obDects as are necessar* for carr*ing on the labour4 process8 'hese do not enter directl* into the process, but "ithout them it is either impossible for it to ta+e place at all, or possible onl* to a partial e9tent8 =nce more "e find the earth to be a uni)ersal instrument of this sort, for it furnishes a locus standi to the labourer and a field of

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emplo*ment for his acti)it*8 (mong instruments that are the result of pre)ious labour and also belong to this class, "e find "or+shops, canals, roads, and so forth8 >n the labour4process, therefore, man?s acti)it*, "ith the help of the instruments of labour, effects an alteration, designed from the commencement, in the material "or+ed upon8 'he process disappears in the product, the latter is a use4)alue, Cature?s material adapted b* a change of form to the "ants of man8 <abour has incorporated itself "ith its subDect: the former is materialised, the latter transformed8 'hat "hich in the labourer appeared as mo)ement, no" appears in the product as a fi9ed Iualit* "ithout motion8 'he blac+smith forges and the product is a forging8 >f "e e9amine the "hole process from the point of )ie" of its result, the product, it is plain that both the instruments and the subDect of labour, are means of production, 6 and that the labour itself is producti)e labour87 'hough a use4)alue, in the form of a product, issues from the labour4process, *et other use4 )alues, products of pre)ious labour, enter into it as means of production8 'he same4use4)alue is both the product of a pre)ious process, and a means of production in a later process8 #roducts are therefore not onl* results, but also essential conditions of labour8 Bith the e9ception of the e9tracti)e industries, in "hich the material for labour is pro)ided immediatel* b* Cature, such as mining, hunting, fishing, and agriculture (so far as the latter is confined to brea+ing up )irgin soil!, all branches of industr* manipulate ra" material, obDects alread* filtered through labour, alread* products of labour8 Such is seed in agriculture8 (nimals and plants, "hich "e are accustomed to consider as products of Cature, are in their present form, not onl* products of, sa* last *ear?s labour, but the result of a gradual transformation, continued through man* generations, under man?s superintendence, and b* means of his labour8 /ut in the great maDorit* of cases, instruments of labour sho" e)en to the most superficial obser)er, traces of the labour of past ages8 &a" material ma* either form the principal substance of a product, or it ma* enter into its formation onl* as an accessor*8 (n accessor* ma* be consumed b* the instruments of labour, as coal under a boiler, oil b* a "heel, ha* b* draft4horses, or it ma* be mi9ed "ith the ra" material in order to produce some modification thereof, as chlorine into unbleached linen, coal "ith iron, d*e4stuff "ith "ool, or again, it ma* help to carr* on the "or+ itself, as in the case of the materials used for heating and lighting "or+shops8 'he distinction bet"een principal substance and accessor* )anishes in the true chemical industries, because there none of the ra" material re4 appears, in its original composition, in the substance of the product8 8 E)er* obDect possesses )arious properties, and is thus capable of being applied to different uses8 =ne and the same product ma* therefore ser)e as ra" material in )er* different processes8 5orn, for e9ample, is a ra" material for millers, starch4manufacturers, distillers, and cattlebreeders8 >t also enters as ra" material into its o"n production in the shape of seed; coal, too, is at the same time the product of, and a means of production in, coal4mining8 (gain, a particular product ma* be used in one and the same process, both as an instrument of labour and as ra" material8 'a+e, for instance, the fattening of cattle, "here the animal is the ra" material, and at the same time an instrument for the production of manure8 ( product, though read* for immediate consumption, ma* *et ser)e as ra" material for a further product, as grapes "hen the* become the ra" material for "ine8 =n the other hand, labour ma* gi)e us its product in such a form, that "e can use it onl* as ra" material, as is the case "ith cotton, thread, and *arn8 Such a ra" material, though itself a product, ma* ha)e to go through a "hole series of different processes: in each of these in turn, it ser)es, "ith constantl* )ar*ing form, as ra" material, until the last process of the series lea)es it a perfect product, read* for indi)idual consumption, or for use as an instrument of labour8

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-ence "e see, that "hether a use4)alue is to be regarded as ra" material, as instrument of labour, or as product, this is determined entirel* b* its function in the labour4process, b* the position it there occupies: as this )aries, so does its character8 Bhene)er therefore a product enters as a means of production into a ne" labour4process, it thereb* loses its character of product, and becomes a mere factor in the process8 ( spinner treats spindles onl* as implements for spinning, and fla9 onl* as the material that he spins8 =f course it is impossible to spin "ithout material and spindles; and therefore the e9istence of these things as products, at the commencement of the spinning operation, must be presumed: but in the process itself, the fact that the* are products of pre)ious labour, is a matter of utter indifference; Dust as in the digesti)e process, it is of no importance "hate)er, that bread is the produce of the pre)ious labour of the farmer, the miller, and the ba+er8 =n the contrar*, it is generall* b* their imperfections as products, that the means of production in an* process assert themsel)es in their character of products8 ( blunt +nife or "ea+ thread forcibl* remind us of $r8 (8, the cutler, or $r8 /8, the spinner8 >n the finished product the labour b* means of "hich it has acIuired its useful Iualities is not palpable, has apparentl* )anished8 ( machine "hich does not ser)e the purposes of labour, is useless8 >n addition, it falls a pre* to the destructi)e influence of natural forces8 >ron rusts and "ood rots8 Narn "ith "hich "e neither "ea)e nor +nit, is cotton "asted8 <i)ing labour must sei1e upon these things and rouse them from their death4sleep, change them from mere possible use4)alues into real and effecti)e ones8 /athed in the fire of labour, appropriated as part and parcel of labour?s organism, and, as it "ere, made ali)e for the performance of their functions in the process, the* are in truth consumed, but consumed "ith a purpose, as elementar* constituents of ne" use4)alues, of ne" products, e)er read* as means of subsistence for indi)idual consumption, or as means of production for some ne" labour4process8 >f then, on the one hand, finished products are not onl* results, but also necessar* conditions, of the labour4process, on the other hand, their assumption into that process, their contact "ith li)ing labour, is the sole means b* "hich the* can be made to retain their character of use4)alues, and be utilised8 <abour uses up its material factors, its subDect and its instruments, consumes them, and is therefore a process of consumption8 Such producti)e consumption is distinguished from indi)idual consumption b* this, that the latter uses up products, as means of subsistence for the li)ing indi)idual; the former, as means "hereb* alone, labour, the labour4po"er of the li)ing indi)idual, is enabled to act8 'he product, therefore, of indi)idual consumption, is the consumer himself; the result of producti)e consumption, is a product distinct from the consumer8 >n so far then, as its instruments and subDects are themsel)es products, labour consumes products in order to create products, or in other "ords, consumes one set of products b* turning them into means of production for another set8 /ut, Dust as in the beginning, the onl* participators in the labour4process "ere man and the earth, "hich latter e9ists independentl* of man, so e)en no" "e still emplo* in the process man* means of production, pro)ided directl* b* Cature, that do not represent an* combination of natural substances "ith human labour8 'he labour4process, resol)ed as abo)e into its simple elementar* factors, is human action "ith a )ie" to the production of use4)alues, appropriation of natural substances to human reIuirements; it is the necessar* condition for effecting e9change of matter bet"een man and Cature; it is the e)erlasting Cature4imposed condition of human e9istence, and therefore is independent of e)er* social phase of that e9istence, or rather, is common to e)er* such phase8 >t "as, therefore, not necessar* to represent our labourer in conne9ion "ith other labourers; man and his labour on one side, Cature and its materials on the other, sufficed8 (s the taste of the porridge does not tell *ou

17:

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"ho gre" the oats, no more does this simple process tell *ou of itself "hat are the social conditions under "hich it is ta+ing place, "hether under the sla)e4o"ner?s brutal lash, or the an9ious e*e of the capitalist, "hether 5incinnatus carries it on in tilling his modest farm or a sa)age in +illing "ild animals "ith stones82 <et us no" return to our "ould4be capitalist8 Be left him Dust after he had purchased, in the open mar+et, all the necessar* factors of the labour process; its obDecti)e factors, the means of production, as "ell as its subDecti)e factor, labour4po"er8 Bith the +een e*e of an e9pert, he has selected the means of production and the +ind of labour4po"er best adapted to his particular trade, be it spinning, bootma+ing, or an* other +ind8 -e then proceeds to consume the commodit*, the labour4po"er that he has Dust bought, b* causing the labourer, the impersonation of that labour4po"er, to consume the means of production b* his labour8 'he general character of the labour4process is e)identl* not changed b* the fact, that the labourer "or+s for the capitalist instead of for himself; moreo)er, the particular methods and operations emplo*ed in bootma+ing or spinning are not immediatel* changed b* the inter)ention of the capitalist8 -e must begin b* ta+ing the labour4po"er as he finds it in the mar+et, and conseIuentl* be satisfied "ith labour of such a +ind as "ould be found in the period immediatel* preceding the rise of capitalists8 5hanges in the methods of production b* the subordination of labour to capital, can ta+e place onl* at a later period, and therefore "ill ha)e to be treated of in a later chapter8 'he labour4process, turned into the process b* "hich the capitalist consumes labour4po"er, e9hibits t"o characteristic phenomena8 First, the labourer "or+s under the control of the capitalist to "hom his labour belongs; the capitalist ta+ing good care that the "or+ is done in a proper manner, and that the means of production are used "ith intelligence, so that there is no unnecessar* "aste of ra" material, and no "ear and tear of the implements be*ond "hat is necessaril* caused b* the "or+8 Secondl*, the product is the propert* of the capitalist and not that of the labourer, its immediate producer8 Suppose that a capitalist pa*s for a da*?s labour4po"er at its )alue; then the right to use that po"er for a da* belongs to him, Dust as much as the right to use an* other commodit*, such as a horse that he has hired for the da*8 'o the purchaser of a commodit* belongs its use, and the seller of labour4po"er, b* gi)ing his labour, does no more, in realit*, than part "ith the use4)alue that he has sold8 From the instant he steps into the "or+shop, the use4)alue of his labour4po"er, and therefore also its use, "hich is labour, belongs to the capitalist8 /* the purchase of labour4 po"er, the capitalist incorporates labour, as a li)ing ferment, "ith the lifeless constituents of the product8 From his point of )ie", the labour4process is nothing more than the consumption of the commodit* purchased, i$ e$+ of labour4po"er; but this consumption cannot be effected e9cept b* suppl*ing the labour4po"er "ith the means of production8 'he labour4process is a process bet"een things that the capitalist has purchased, things that ha)e become his propert*8 'he product of this process belongs, therefore, to him, Dust as much as does the "ine "hich is the product of a process of fermentation completed in his cellar8 17

Section ': The Production of Surplus Value


'he product appropriated b* the capitalist is a use4)alue, as *arn, for e9ample, or boots8 /ut, although boots are, in one sense, the basis of all social progress, and our capitalist is a decided @progressist,A *et he does not manufacture boots for their o"n sa+e8 %se4)alue is, b* no means, the thing @Iu?on aime pour lui4mdmeA in the production of commodities8 %se4)alues are onl* produced b* capitalists, because, and in so far as, the* are the material substratum, the depositories of e9change4)alue8 =ur capitalist has t"o obDects in )ie": in the first place, he "ants to produce a use4)alue that has a )alue in e9change, that is to sa*, an article destined to be sold, a

17

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commodit*; and secondl*, he desires to produce a commodit* "hose )alue shall be greater than the sum of the )alues of the commodities used in its production, that is, of the means of production and the labour4po"er, that he purchased "ith his good mone* in the open mar+et8 -is aim is to produce not onl* a use4)alue, but a commodit* also; not onl* use4)alue, but )alue; not onl* )alue, but at the same time surplus )alue8 >t must be borne in mind, that "e are no" dealing "ith the production of commodities, and that, up to this point, "e ha)e onl* considered one aspect of the process8 Lust as commodities are, at the same time, use4)alues and )alues, so the process of producing them must be a labour4process, and at the same time, a process of creating )alue8 11 <et us no" e9amine production as a creation of )alue8 Be +no" that the )alue of each commodit* is determined b* the Iuantit* of labour e9pended on and materialised in it, b* the "or+ing4time necessar*, under gi)en social conditions, for its production8 'his rule also holds good in the case of the product that accrued to our capitalist, as the result of the labour4process carried on for him8 (ssuming this product to be 17 lbs8 of *arn, our first step is to calculate the Iuantit* of labour realised in it8 For spinning the *arn, ra" material is reIuired; suppose in this case 17 lbs8 of cotton8 Be ha)e no need at present to in)estigate the )alue of this cotton, for our capitalist has, "e "ill assume, bought it at its full )alue, sa* of ten shillings8 >n this price the labour reIuired for the production of the cotton is alread* e9pressed in terms of the a)erage labour of societ*8 Be "ill further assume that the "ear and tear of the spindle, "hich, for our present purpose, ma* represent all other instruments of labour emplo*ed, amounts to the )alue of 6s8 >f, then, t"ent*4four hours? labour, or t"o "or+ing da*s, are reIuired to produce the Iuantit* of gold represented b* t"el)e shillings, "e ha)e here, to begin "ith, t"o da*s? labour alread* incorporated in the *arn8 Be must not let oursel)es be misled b* the circumstance that the cotton has ta+en a ne" shape "hile the substance of the spindle has to a certain e9tent been used up8 /* the general la" of )alue, if the )alue of 7 lbs8 of *arn Y the )alue of 7 lbs8 of cotton _ the )alue of a "hole spindle, i$ e$+ if the same "or+ing4time is reIuired to produce the commodities on either side of this eIuation, then 17 lbs8 of *arn are an eIui)alent for 17 lbs8 of cotton, together "ith one4fourth of a spindle8 >n the case "e are considering the same "or+ing4time is materialised in the 17 lbs8 of *arn on the one hand, and in the 17 lbs8 of cotton and the fraction of a spindle on the other8 'herefore, "hether )alue appears in cotton, in a spindle, or in *arn, ma+es no difference in the amount of that )alue8 'he spindle and cotton, instead of resting Iuietl* side b* side, Doin together in the process, their forms are altered, and the* are turned into *arn; but their )alue is no more affected b* this fact than it "ould be if the* had been simpl* e9changed for their eIui)alent in *arn8 'he labour reIuired for the production of the cotton, the ra" material of the *arn, is part of the labour necessar* to produce the *arn, and is therefore contained in the *arn8 'he same applies to the labour embodied in the spindle, "ithout "hose "ear and tear the cotton could not be spun8 -ence, in determining the )alue of the *arn, or the labour4time reIuired for its production, all the special processes carried on at )arious times and in different places, "hich "ere necessar*, first to produce the cotton and the "asted portion of the spindle, and then "ith the cotton and spindle to spin the *arn, ma* together be loo+ed on as different and successi)e phases of one and the same process8 'he "hole of the labour in the *arn is past labour; and it is a matter of no importance that the operations necessar* for the production of its constituent elements "ere carried on at times "hich, referred to the present, are more remote than the final operation of spinning8 >f a definite Iuantit* of labour, sa* thirt* da*s, is reIuisite to build a house, the total amount of labour incorporated in it is not altered b* the fact that the "or+ of the last da* is done

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t"ent*4nine da*s later than that of the first8 'herefore the labour contained in the ra" material and the instruments of labour can be treated Dust as if it "ere labour e9pended in an earlier stage of the spinning process, before the labour of actual spinning commenced8 'he )alues of the means of production, i$ e$+ the cotton and the spindle, "hich )alues are e9pressed in the price of t"el)e shillings, are therefore constituent parts of the )alue of the *arn, or, in other "ords, of the )alue of the product8 '"o conditions must ne)ertheless be fulfilled8 First, the cotton and spindle must concur in the production of a use4)alue; the* must in the present case become *arn8 ;alue is independent of the particular use4)alue b* "hich it is borne, but it must be embodied in a use4)alue of some +ind8 Secondl*, the time occupied in the labour of production must not e9ceed the time reall* necessar* under the gi)en social conditions of the case8 'herefore, if no more than 1 lb8 of cotton be reIuisite to spin 1 lbs8 of *arn, care must be ta+en that no more than this "eight of cotton is consumed in the production of 1 lbs8 of *arn; and similarl* "ith regard to the spindle8 'hough the capitalist ha)e a hobb*, and use a gold instead of a steel spindle, *et the onl* labour that counts for an*thing in the )alue of the *arn is that "hich "ould be reIuired to produce a steel spindle, because no more is necessar* under the gi)en social conditions8 Be no" +no" "hat portion of the )alue of the *arn is o"ing to the cotton and the spindle8 >t amounts to t"el)e shillings or the )alue of t"o da*s? "or+8 'he ne9t point for our consideration is, "hat portion of the )alue of the *arn is added to the cotton b* the labour of the spinner8 Be ha)e no" to consider this labour under a )er* different aspect from that "hich it had during the labour4process; there, "e )ie"ed it solel* as that particular +ind of human acti)it* "hich changes cotton into *arn; there, the more the labour "as suited to the "or+, the better the *arn, other circumstances remaining the same8 'he labour of the spinner "as then )ie"ed as specificall* different from other +inds of producti)e labour, different on the one hand in its special aim, )i18, spinning, different, on the other hand, in the special character of its operations, in the special nature of its means of production and in the special use4)alue of its product8 For the operation of spinning, cotton and spindles are a necessit*, but for ma+ing rifled cannon the* "ould be of no use "hate)er8 -ere, on the contrar*, "here "e consider the labour of the spinner onl* so far as it is )alue4creating, i$e$, a source of )alue, his labour differs in no respect from the labour of the man "ho bores cannon, or ("hat here more nearl* concerns us!, from the labour of the cotton4planter and spindle4ma+er incorporated in the means of production8 >t is solel* b* reason of this identit*, that cotton planting, spindle ma+ing and spinning, are capable of forming the component parts differing onl* Iuantitati)el* from each other, of one "hole, namel*, the )alue of the *arn8 -ere, "e ha)e nothing more to do "ith the Iualit*, the nature and the specific character of the labour, but merel* "ith its Iuantit*8 (nd this simpl* reIuires to be calculated8 Be proceed upon the assumption that spinning is simple, uns+illed labour, the a)erage labour of a gi)en state of societ*8 -ereafter "e shall see that the contrar* assumption "ould ma+e no difference8 Bhile the labourer is at "or+, his labour constantl* undergoes a transformation: from being motion, it becomes an obDect "ithout motion; from being the labourer "or+ing, it becomes the thing produced8 (t the end of one hour?s spinning, that act is represented b* a definite Iuantit* of *arn; in other "ords, a definite Iuantit* of labour, namel* that of one hour, has become embodied in the cotton8 Be sa* labour, i$e8, the e9penditure of his )ital force b* the spinner, and not spinning labour, because the special "or+ of spinning counts here, onl* so far as it is the e9penditure of labour4po"er in general, and not in so far as it is the specific "or+ of the spinner8 >n the process "e are no" considering it is of e9treme importance, that no more time be consumed in the "or+ of transforming the cotton into *arn than is necessar* under the gi)en

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social conditions8 >f under normal, i$e8, a)erage social conditions of production, a pounds of cotton ought to be made into b pounds of *arn b* one hour?s labour, then a da*?s labour does not count as 16 hours? labour unless 16 a pounds of cotton ha)e been made into 16 b pounds of *arn; for in the creation of )alue, the time that is sociall* necessar* alone counts8 Cot onl* the labour, but also the ra" material and the product no" appear in Iuite a ne" light, )er* different from that in "hich "e )ie"ed them in the labour4process pure and simple8 'he ra" material ser)es no" merel* as an absorbent of a definite Iuantit* of labour8 /* this absorption it is in fact changed into *arn, because it is spun, because labour4po"er in the form of spinning is added to it; but the product, the *arn, is no" nothing more than a measure of the labour absorbed b* the cotton8 >f in one hour 1 6J: lbs8 of cotton can be spun into 1 6J: lbs8 of *arn, then 17 lbs8 of *arn indicate the absorption of 6 hours? labour8 0efinite Iuantities of product, these Iuantities being determined b* e9perience, no" represent nothing but definite Iuantities of labour, definite masses of cr*stallised labour4time8 'he* are nothing more than the materialisation of so man* hours or so man* da*s of social labour8 Be are here no more concerned about the facts, that the labour is the specific "or+ of spinning, that its subDect is cotton and its product *arn, than "e are about the fact that the subDect itself is alread* a product and therefore ra" material8 >f the spinner, instead of spinning, "ere "or+ing in a coal mine, the subDect of his labour, the coal, "ould be supplied b* Cature; ne)ertheless, a definite Iuantit* of e9tracted coal, a hundred"eight for e9ample, "ould represent a definite Iuantit* of absorbed labour8 Be assumed, on the occasion of its sale, that the )alue of a da*?s labour4po"er is three shillings, and that si9 hours? labour is incorporated in that sum; and conseIuentl* that this amount of labour is reIuisite to produce the necessaries of life dail* reIuired on an a)erage b* the labourer8 >f no" our spinner b* "or+ing for one hour, can con)ert 1 6J: lbs8 of cotton into 1 6J: lbs8 of *arn, 16it follo"s that in si9 hours he "ill con)ert 17 lbs8 of cotton into 17 lbs8 of *arn8 -ence, during the spinning process, the cotton absorbs si9 hours? labour8 'he same Iuantit* of labour is also embodied in a piece of gold of the )alue of three shillings8 5onseIuentl* b* the mere labour of spinning, a )alue of three shillings is added to the cotton8 <et us no" consider the total )alue of the product, the 17 lbs8 of *arn8 '"o and a half da*s? labour has been embodied in it, of "hich t"o da*s "ere contained in the cotton and in the substance of the spindle "orn a"a*, and half a da* "as absorbed during the process of spinning8 'his t"o and a half da*s? labour is also represented b* a piece of gold of the )alue of fifteen shillings8 -ence, fifteen shillings is an adeIuate price for the 17 lbs8 of *arn, or the price of one pound is eighteenpence8 =ur capitalist stares in astonishment8 'he )alue of the product is e9actl* eIual to the )alue of the capital ad)anced8 'he )alue so ad)anced has not e9panded, no surplus )alue has been created, and conseIuentl* mone* has not been con)erted into capital8 'he price of the *arn is fifteen shillings, and fifteen shillings "ere spent in the open mar+et upon the constituent elements of the product, or, "hat amounts to the same thing, upon the factors of the labour4process; ten shillings "ere paid for the cotton, t"o shillings for the substance of the spindle "orn a"a*, and three shillings for the labour4po"er8 'he s"ollen )alue of the *arn is of no a)ail, for it is merel* the sum of the )alues formerl* e9isting in the cotton, the spindle, and the labour4po"er: out of such a simple addition of e9isting )alues, no surplus )alue can possibl* arise8 1: 'hese separate )alues are no" all concentrated in one thing; but so the* "ere also in the sum of fifteen shillings, before it "as split up into three parts, b* the purchase of the commodities8 'here is in realit* nothing )er* strange in this result8 'he )alue of one pound of *arn being eighteenpence, if our capitalist bu*s 17 lbs8 of *arn in the mar+et, he must pa* fifteen shillings for

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them8 >t is clear that, "hether a man bu*s his house read* built, or gets it built for him, in neither case "ill the mode of acIuisition increase the amount of mone* laid out on the house8 =ur capitalist, "ho is at home in his )ulgar econom*, e9claims: ,-h! but . advanced my money for the express purpose of ma"in more money$, 'he "a* to -ell is pa)ed "ith good intentions, and he might Dust as easil* ha)e intended to ma+e mone*, "ithout producing at all8 1 -e threatens all sorts of things8 -e "on?t be caught napping again8 >n future he "ill bu* the commodities in the mar+et, instead of manufacturing them himself8 /ut if all his brother capitalists "ere to do the same, "here "ould he find his commodities in the mar+etE (nd his mone* he cannot eat8 -e tries persuasion8 @5onsider m* abstinence; > might ha)e pla*ed duc+s and dra+es "ith the 13 shillings; but instead of that > consumed it producti)el*, and made *arn "ith it8A ;er* "ell, and b* "a* of re"ard he is no" in possession of good *arn instead of a bad conscience; and as for pla*ing the part of a miser, it "ould ne)er do for him to relapse into such bad "a*s as that; "e ha)e seen before to "hat results such asceticism leads8 /esides, "here nothing is, the +ing has lost his rights; "hate)er ma* be the merit of his abstinence, there is nothing "here"ith speciall* to remunerate it, because the )alue of the product is merel* the sum of the )alues of the commodities that "ere thro"n into the process of production8 <et him therefore console himself "ith the reflection that )irtue is its o"n re"ard, /ut no, he becomes importunate8 -e sa*s: @ /he yarn is of no use to me0 . produced it for sale$ A >n that case let him sell it, or, still better, let him for the future produce onl* things for satisf*ing his personal "ants, a remed* that his ph*sician $ac5ulloch has alread* prescribed as infallible against an epidemic of o)er4production8 -e no" gets obstinate8 @5an the labourer,A he as+s, @merel* "ith his arms and legs, produce commodities out of nothingE 0id > not suppl* him "ith the materials, b* means of "hich, and in "hich alone, his labour could be embodiedE (nd as the greater part of societ* consists of such ne?er4do4"ells, ha)e > not rendered societ* incalculable ser)ice b* m* instruments of production, m* cotton and m* spindle, and not onl* societ*, but the labourer also, "hom in addition > ha)e pro)ided "ith the necessaries of lifeE (nd am > to be allo"ed nothing in return for all this ser)iceEA Bell, but has not the labourer rendered him the eIui)alent ser)ice of changing his cotton and spindle into *arnE $oreo)er, there is here no Iuestion of ser)ice8 13 ( ser)ice is nothing more than the useful effect of a use4)alue, be it of a commodit*, or be it of labour8 16 /ut here "e are dealing "ith e9change4)alue8 'he capitalist paid to the labourer a )alue of : shillings, and the labourer ga)e him bac+ an e9act eIui)alent in the )alue of : shillings, added b* him to the cotton: he ga)e him )alue for )alue8 =ur friend, up to this time so purse4proud, suddenl* assumes the modest demeanour of his o"n "or+man, and e9claims: ,*ave . myself not 1or"ed2 *ave . not performed the labour of superintendence and of overloo"in the spinner2 And does not this labour+ too+ create value2, -is o)erloo+er and his manager tr* to hide their smiles8 $ean"hile, after a heart* laugh, he re4assumes his usual mien8 'hough he chanted to us the "hole creed of the economists, in realit*, he sa*s, he "ould not gi)e a brass farthing for it8 -e lea)es this and all such li+e subterfuges and Duggling tric+s to the professors of #olitical Econom*, "ho are paid for it8 -e himself is a practical man; and though he does not al"a*s consider "hat he sa*s outside his business, *et in his business he +no"s "hat he is about8 <et us e9amine the matter more closel*8 'he )alue of a da*?s labour4po"er amounts to : shillings, because on our assumption half a da*?s labour is embodied in that Iuantit* of labour4 po"er, i$e$, because the means of subsistence that are dail* reIuired for the production of labour4 po"er, cost half a da*?s labour8 /ut the past labour that is embodied in the labour4po"er, and the li)ing labour that it can call into action; the dail* cost of maintaining it, and its dail* e9penditure in "or+, are t"o totall* different things8 'he former determines the e9change4)alue of the labour4 po"er, the latter is its use4)alue8 'he fact that half a da*?s labour is necessar* to +eep the labourer ali)e during 6 hours, does not in an* "a* pre)ent him from "or+ing a "hole da*8

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'herefore, the )alue of labour4po"er, and the )alue "hich that labour4po"er creates in the labour4process, are t"o entirel* different magnitudes; and this difference of the t"o )alues "as "hat the capitalist had in )ie", "hen he "as purchasing the labour4po"er8 'he useful Iualities that labour4po"er possesses, and b* )irtue of "hich it ma+es *arn or boots, "ere to him nothing more than a conditio sine Iua non; for in order to create )alue, labour must be e9pended in a useful manner8 Bhat reall* influenced him "as the specific use4)alue "hich this commodit* possesses of being a source not only of value+ but of more value than it has itself$ 'his is the special ser)ice that the capitalist e9pects from labour4po"er, and in this transaction he acts in accordance "ith the @eternal la"sA of the e9change of commodities8 'he seller of labour4po"er, li+e the seller of an* other commodit*, realises its e9change4)alue, and parts "ith its use4)alue8 -e cannot ta+e the one "ithout gi)ing the other8 'he use4)alue of labour4po"er, or in other "ords, labour, belongs Dust as little to its seller, as the use4)alue of oil after it has been sold belongs to the dealer "ho has sold it8 'he o"ner of the mone* has paid the )alue of a da*?s labour4po"er; his, therefore, is the use of it for a da*; a da*?s labour belongs to him8 'he circumstance, that on the one hand the dail* sustenance of labour4po"er costs onl* half a da*?s labour, "hile on the other hand the )er* same labour4po"er can "or+ during a "hole da*, that conseIuentl* the )alue "hich its use during one da* creates, is double "hat he pa*s for that use, this circumstance is, "ithout doubt, a piece of good luc+ for the bu*er, but b* no means an inDur* to the seller8 =ur capitalist foresa" this state of things, and that "as the cause of his laughter8 'he labourer therefore finds, in the "or+shop, the means of production necessar* for "or+ing, not onl* during si9, but during t"el)e hours8 Lust as during the si9 hours? process our 17 lbs8 of cotton absorbed si9 hours? labour, and became 17 lbs8 of *arn, so no", 67 lbs8 of cotton "ill absorb 16 hours? labour and be changed into 67 lbs8 of *arn8 <et us no" e9amine the product of this prolonged process8 'here is no" materialised in this 67 lbs8 of *arn the labour of fi)e da*s, of "hich four da*s are due to the cotton and the lost steel of the spindle, the remaining da* ha)ing been absorbed b* the cotton during the spinning process8 E9pressed in gold, the labour of fi)e da*s is thirt* shillings8 'his is therefore the price of the 67 lbs8 of *arn, gi)ing, as before, eighteenpence as the price of a pound8 /ut the sum of the )alues of the commodities that entered into the process amounts to 67 shillings8 'he )alue of the *arn is :7 shillings8 'herefore the )alue of the product is 1J2 greater than the )alue ad)anced for its production; 67 shillings ha)e been transformed into :7 shillings; a surplus )alue of : shillings has been created8 'he tric+ has at last succeeded; mone* has been con)erted into capital8 E)er* condition of the problem is satisfied, "hile the la"s that regulate the e9change of commodities, ha)e been in no "a* )iolated8 EIui)alent has been e9changed for eIui)alent8 For the capitalist as bu*er paid for each commodit*, for the cotton, the spindle and the labour4po"er, its full )alue8 -e then did "hat is done b* e)er* purchaser of commodities; he consumed their use4)alue8 'he consumption of the labour4po"er, "hich "as also the process of producing commodities, resulted in 67 lbs8 of *arn, ha)ing a )alue of :7 shillings8 'he capitalist, formerl* a bu*er, no" returns to mar+et as a seller, of commodities8 -e sells his *arn at eighteenpence a pound, "hich is its e9act )alue8 Net for all that he "ithdra"s : shillings more from circulation than he originall* thre" into it8 'his metamorphosis, this con)ersion of mone* into capital, ta+es place both "ithin the sphere of circulation and also outside it; "ithin the circulation, because conditioned b* the purchase of the labour4po"er in the mar+et; outside the circulation, because "hat is done "ithin it is onl* a stepping4stone to the production of surplus )alue, a process "hich is entirel* confined to the sphere of production8 'hus @ tout est pour le mieux dans le meilleur des mondes possibles8A G@E)er*thing is for the best in the best of all possible "orlds8A F ;oltaire, CandideH

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/* turning his mone* into commodities that ser)e as the material elements of a ne" product, and as factors in the labour4process, b* incorporating li)ing labour "ith their dead substance, the capitalist at the same time con)erts )alue, i$e$, past, materialised, and dead labour into capital, into )alue big "ith )alue, a li)e monster that is fruitful and multiplies8 >f "e no" compare the t"o processes of producing )alue and of creating surplus )alue, "e see that the latter is nothing but the continuation of the former be*ond a definite point8 >f on the one hand the process be not carried be*ond the point, "here the )alue paid b* the capitalist for the labour4po"er is replaced b* an e9act eIui)alent, it is simpl* a process of producing )alue; if, on the other hand, it be continued be*ond that point, it becomes a process of creating surplus )alue8 >f "e proceed further, and compare the process of producing )alue "ith the labour4process, pure and simple, "e find that the latter consists of the useful labour, the "or+, that produces use4 )alues8 -ere "e contemplate the labour as producing a particular article; "e )ie" it under its Iualitati)e aspect alone, "ith regard to its end and aim8 /ut )ie"ed as a )alue4creating process, the same labour4process presents itself under its Iuantitati)e aspect alone8 -ere it is a Iuestion merel* of the time occupied b* the labourer in doing the "or+; of the period during "hich the labour4po"er is usefull* e9pended8 -ere, the commodities that ta+e part in the process, do not count an* longer as necessar* adDuncts of labour4po"er in the production of a definite, useful obDect8 'he* count merel* as depositories of so much absorbed or materialised labour; that labour, "hether pre)iousl* embodied in the means of production, or incorporated in them for the first time during the process b* the action of labour4po"er, counts in either case onl* according to its duration; it amounts to so man* hours or da*s as the case ma* be8 $oreo)er, onl* so much of the time spent in the production of an* article is counted, as, under the gi)en social conditions, is necessar*8 'he conseIuences of this are )arious8 >n the first place, it becomes necessar* that the labour should be carried on under normal conditions8 >f a self4acting mule is the implement in general use for spinning, it "ould be absurd to suppl* the spinner "ith a distaff and spinning "heel8 'he cotton too must not be such rubbish as to cause e9tra "aste in being "or+ed, but must be of suitable Iualit*8 =ther"ise the spinner "ould be found to spend more time in producing a pound of *arn than is sociall* necessar*, in "hich case the e9cess of time "ould create neither )alue nor mone*8 /ut "hether the material factors of the process are of normal Iualit* or not, depends not upon the labourer, but entirel* upon the capitalist8 'hen again, the labour4po"er itself must be of a)erage efficac*8 >n the trade in "hich it is being emplo*ed, it must possess the a)erage s+ill, handiness and Iuic+ness pre)alent in that trade, and our capitalist too+ good care to bu* labour4po"er of such normal goodness8 'his po"er must be applied "ith the a)erage amount of e9ertion and "ith the usual degree of intensit*; and the capitalist is as careful to see that this is done, as that his "or+men are not idle for a single moment8 -e has bought, the use of the labour4po"er for a definite period, and he insists upon his rights8 -e has no intention of being robbed8 <astl*, and for this purpose our friend has a penal code of his o"n, all "asteful consumption of ra" material or instruments of labour is strictl* forbidden, because "hat is so "asted, represents labour superfluousl* e9pended, labour that does not count in the product or enter into its )alue817 Be no" see, that the difference bet"een labour, considered on the one hand as producing utilities, and on the other hand, as creating )alue, a difference "hich "e disco)ered b* our anal*sis of a commodit*, resol)es itself into a distinction bet"een t"o aspects of the process of production8 'he process of production, considered on the one hand as the unit* of the labour4process and the process of creating )alue, is production of commodities; considered on the other hand as the unit*

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of the labour4process and the process of producing surplus )alue, it is the capitalist process of production, or capitalist production of commodities8 Be stated, on a pre)ious page, that in the creation of surplus )alue it does not in the least matter, "hether the labour appropriated b* the capitalist be simple uns+illed labour of a)erage Iualit* or more complicated s+illed labour8 (ll labour of a higher or more complicated character than a)erage labour is e9penditure of labour4po"er of a more costl* +ind, labour4po"er "hose production has cost more time and labour, and "hich therefore has a higher )alue, than uns+illed or simple labour4po"er8 'his po"er being higher4)alue, its consumption is labour of a higher class, labour that creates in eIual times proportionall* higher )alues than uns+illed labour does8 Bhate)er difference in s+ill there ma* be bet"een the labour of a spinner and that of a De"eller, the portion of his labour b* "hich the De"eller merel* replaces the )alue of his o"n labour4 po"er, does not in an* "a* differ in Iualit* from the additional portion b* "hich he creates surplus )alue8 >n the ma+ing of De"eller*, Dust as in spinning, the surplus )alue results onl* from a Iuantitati)e e9cess of labour, from a lengthening4out of one and the same labour4process, in the one case, of the process of ma+ing De"els, in the other of the process of ma+ing *arn8 18 /ut on the other hand, in e)er* process of creating )alue, the reduction of s+illed labour to a)erage social labour, e$ $, one da* of s+illed to si9 da*s of uns+illed labour, is una)oidable8 12Be therefore sa)e oursel)es a superfluous operation, and simplif* our anal*sis, b* the assumption, that the labour of the "or+man emplo*ed b* the capitalist is uns+illed a)erage labour8

(ha)ter 8* (onstant (a)ita$ and 2aria0$e (a)ita$


'he )arious factors of the labour4process pla* different parts in forming the )alue of the product8 'he labourer adds fresh )alue to the subDect of his labour b* e9pending upon it a gi)en amount of additional labour, no matter "hat the specific character and utilit* of that labour ma* be8 =n the other hand, the )alues of the means of production used up in the process are preser)ed, and present themsel)es afresh as constituent parts of the )alue of the product; the )alues of the cotton and the spindle, for instance, re4appear again in the )alue of the *arn8 'he )alue of the means of production is therefore preser)ed, b* being transferred to the product8 'his transfer ta+es place during the con)ersion of those means into a product, or in other "ords, during the labour4process8 >t is brought about b* labour; but ho"E 'he labourer does not perform t"o operations at once, one in order to add )alue to the cotton, the other in order to preser)e the )alue of the means of production, or, "hat amounts to the same thing, to transfer to the *arn, to the product, the )alue of the cotton on "hich he "or+s, and part of the )alue of the spindle "ith "hich he "or+s8 /ut, b* the )er* act of adding ne" )alue, he preser)es their former )alues8 Since, ho"e)er, the addition of ne" )alue to the subDect of his labour, and the preser)ation of its former )alue, are t"o entirel* distinct results, produced simultaneousl* b* the labourer, during one operation, it is plain that this t"o4fold nature of the result can be e9plained onl* b* the t"o4fold nature of his labour; at one and the same time, it must in one character create )alue, and in another character preser)e or transfer )alue8 Co", in "hat manner does e)er* labourer add ne" labour and conseIuentl* ne" )alueE E)identl*, onl* b* labouring producti)el* in a particular "a*; the spinner b* spinning, the "ea)er b* "ea)ing, the smith b* forging8 /ut, "hile thus incorporating labour generall*, that is )alue, it is b* the particular form alone of the labour, b* the spinning, the "ea)ing and the forging respecti)el*, that the means of production, the cotton and spindle, the *arn and loom, and the iron and an)il become constituent elements of the product, of a ne" use4)alue8 1 Each use4 )alue disappears, but onl* to re4appear under a ne" form in a ne" use4)alue8 Co", "e sa", "hen "e "ere considering the process of creating )alue, that, if a use4)alue be effecti)el* consumed in the production of a ne" use4)alue, the Iuantit* of labour e9pended in the production of the consumed article, forms a portion of the Iuantit* of labour necessar* to produce the ne" use4 )alue; this portion is therefore labour transferred from the means of production to the ne" product8 -ence, the labourer preser)es the )alues of the consumed means of production, or transfers them as portions of its )alue to the product, not b* )irtue of his additional labour, abstractedl* considered, but b* )irtue of the particular useful character of that labour, b* )irtue of its special producti)e form8 >n so far then as labour is such specific producti)e acti)it*, in so far as it is spinning, "ea)ing, or forging, it raises, b* mere contact, the means of production from the dead, ma+es them li)ing factors of the labour4process, and combines "ith them to form the ne" products8 >f the special producti)e labour of the "or+man "ere not spinning, he could not con)ert the cotton into *arn, and therefore could not transfer the )alues of the cotton and spindle to the *arn8 Suppose the same "or+man "ere to change his occupation to that of a Doiner, he "ould still b* a da*?s labour add )alue to the material he "or+s upon8 5onseIuentl*, "e see, first, that the

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addition of ne" )alue ta+es place not b* )irtue of his labour being spinning in particular, or Doinering in particular, but because it is labour in the abstract, a portion of the total labour of societ*; and "e see ne9t, that the )alue added is of a gi)en definite amount, not because his labour has a special utilit*, but because it is e9erted for a definite time8 =n the one hand, then, it is b* )irtue of its general character, as being e9penditure of human labour4po"er in the abstract, that spinning adds ne" )alue to the )alues of the cotton and the spindle; and on the other hand, it is b* )irtue of its special character, as being a concrete, useful process, that the same labour of spinning both transfers the )alues of the means of production to the product, and preser)es them in the product8 -ence at one and the same time there is produced a t"o4fold result8 /* the simple addition of a certain Iuantit* of labour, ne" )alue is added, and b* the Iualit* of this added labour, the original )alues of the means of production are preser)ed in the product8 'his t"o4fold effect, resulting from the t"o4fold character of labour, ma* be traced in )arious phenomena8 <et us assume, that some in)ention enables the spinner to spin as much cotton in 6 hours as he "as able to spin before in :6 hours8 -is labour is no" si9 times as effecti)e as it "as, for the purposes of useful production8 'he product of 6 hours? "or+ has increased si94fold, from 6 lbs8 to :6 lbs8 /ut no" the :6 lbs8 of cotton absorb onl* the same amount of labour as formerl* did the 6 lbs8 =ne4si9th as much ne" labour is absorbed b* each pound of cotton, and conseIuentl*, the )alue added b* the labour to each pound is onl* one4si9th of "hat it formerl* "as8 =n the other hand, in the product, in the :6 lbs8 of *arn, the )alue transferred from the cotton is si9 times as great as before8 /* the 6 hours? spinning, the )alue of the ra" material preser)ed and transferred to the product is si9 times as great as before, although the ne" )alue added b* the labour of the spinner to each pound of the )er* same ra" material is one4si9th "hat it "as formerl*8 'his sho"s that the t"o properties of labour, b* )irtue of "hich it is enabled in one case to preser)e )alue, and in the other to create )alue, are essentiall* different8 =n the one hand, the longer the time necessar* to spin a gi)en "eight of cotton into *arn, the greater is the ne" )alue added to the material; on the other hand, the greater the "eight of the cotton spun in a gi)en time, the greater is the )alue preser)ed, b* being transferred from it to the product8 <et us no" assume, that the producti)eness of the spinner?s labour, instead of )ar*ing, remains constant, that he therefore reIuires the same time as he formerl* did, to con)ert one pound of cotton into *arn, but that the e9change4)alue of the cotton )aries, either b* rising to si9 times its former )alue or falling to one4si9th of that )alue8 >n both these cases, the spinner puts the same Iuantit* of labour into a pound of cotton, and therefore adds as much )alue, as he did before the change in the )alue: he also produces a gi)en "eight of *arn in the same time as he did before8 Ce)ertheless, the )alue that he transfers from the cotton to the *arn is either one4si9th of "hat it "as before the )ariation, or, as the case ma* be, si9 times as much as before8 'he same result occurs "hen the )alue of the instruments of labour rises or falls, "hile their useful efficac* in the process remains unaltered8 (gain, if the technical conditions of the spinning process remain unchanged, and no change of )alue ta+es place in the means of production, the spinner continues to consume in eIual "or+ing4 times eIual Iuantities of ra" material, and eIual Iuantities of machiner* of un)ar*ing )alue8 'he )alue that he preser)es in the product is directl* proportional to the ne" )alue that he adds to the product8 >n t"o "ee+s he incorporates t"ice as much labour, and therefore t"ice as much )alue, as in one "ee+, and during the same time he consumes t"ice as much material, and "ears out t"ice as much machiner*, of double the )alue in each case: he therefore preser)es, in the product of t"o "ee+s, t"ice as much )alue as in the product of one "ee+8 So long as the conditions of production remain the same, the more )alue the labourer adds b* fresh labour, the more )alue he

11:

5hapter 8

transfers and preser)es; but he does so merel* because this addition of ne" )alue ta+es place under conditions that ha)e not )aried and are independent of his o"n labour8 =f course, it ma* be said in one sense, that the labourer preser)es old )alue al"a*s in proportion to the Iuantit* of ne" )alue that he adds8 Bhether the )alue of cotton rise from one shilling to t"o shillings, or fall to si9pence, the "or+man in)ariabl* preser)es in the product of one hour onl* one half as much )alue as he preser)es in t"o hours8 >n li+e manner, if the producti)eness of his o"n labour )aries b* rising or falling, he "ill in one hour spin either more or less cotton, as the case ma* be, than he did before, and "ill conseIuentl* preser)e in the product of one hour, more or less )alue of cotton; but, all the same, he "ill preser)e b* t"o hours? labour t"ice as much )alue as he "ill b* one8 ;alue e9ists onl* in articles of utilit*, in obDects: "e lea)e out of consideration its purel* s*mbolical representation b* to+ens8 ($an himself, )ie"ed as the impersonation of labour4po"er, is a natural obDect, a thing, although a li)ing conscious thing, and labour is the manifestation of this po"er residing in him8! >f therefore an article loses its utilit*, it also loses its )alue8 'he reason "h* means of production do not lose their )alue, at the same time that the* lose their use4 )alue, is this: the* lose in the labour4process the original form of their use4)alue, onl* to assume in the product the form of a ne" use4)alue8 /ut, ho"e)er important it ma* be to )alue, that it should ha)e some obDect of utilit* to embod* itself in, *et it is a matter of complete indifference "hat particular obDect ser)es this purpose; this "e sa" "hen treating of the metamorphosis of commodities8 -ence it follo"s that in the labour4process the means of production transfer their )alue to the product onl* so far as along "ith their use4)alue the* lose also their e9change4)alue8 'he* gi)e up to the product that )alue alone "hich the* themsel)es lose as means of production8 /ut in this respect the material factors of the labour4process do not all beha)e ali+e8 'he coal burnt under the boiler )anishes "ithout lea)ing a trace; so, too, the tallo" "ith "hich the a9les of "heels are greased8 0*e stuffs and other au9iliar* substances also )anish but re4 appear as properties of the product8 &a" material forms the substance of the product, but onl* after it has changed its form8 -ence ra" material and au9iliar* substances lose the characteristic form "ith "hich the* are clothed on entering the labour4process8 >t is other"ise "ith the instruments of labour8 'ools, machines, "or+shops, and )essels, are of use in the labour4process, onl* so long as the* retain their original shape, and are read* each morning to rene" the process "ith their shape unchanged8 (nd Dust as during their lifetime, that is to sa*, during the continued labour4process in "hich the* ser)e, the* retain their shape independent of the product, so, too, the* do after their death8 'he corpses of machines, tools, "or+shops, Pc8, are al"a*s separate and distinct from the product the* helped to turn out8 >f "e no" consider the case of an* instrument of labour during the "hole period of its ser)ice, from the da* of its entr* into the "or+shop, till the da* of its banishment into the lumber room, "e find that during this period its use4)alue has been completel* consumed, and therefore its e9change4)alue completel* transferred to the product8 For instance, if a spinning machine lasts for 17 *ears, it is plain that during that "or+ing period its total )alue is graduall* transferred to the product of the 17 *ears8 'he lifetime of an instrument of labour, therefore, is spent in the repetition of a greater or less number of similar operations8 >ts life ma* be compared "ith that of a human being8 E)er* da* brings a man 6 hours nearer to his gra)e: but ho" man* da*s he has still to tra)el on that road, no man can tell accuratel* b* merel* loo+ing at him8 'his difficult*, ho"e)er, does not pre)ent life insurance offices from dra"ing, b* means of the theor* of a)erages, )er* accurate, and at the same time )er* profitable conclusions8 So it is "ith the instruments of labour8 >t is +no"n b* e9perience ho" long on the a)erage a machine of a particular +ind "ill last8 Suppose its use4)alue in the labour4process to last onl* si9 da*s8 'hen, on the a)erage, it loses each da* one4si9th of its use4)alue, and therefore parts "ith one4si9th of its )alue to the dail* product8 'he "ear and tear of all instruments, their dail* loss of

11

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use4)alue, and the corresponding Iuantit* of )alue the* part "ith to the product, are accordingl* calculated upon this basis8 >t is thus stri+ingl* clear, that means of production ne)er transfer more )alue to the product than the* themsel)es lose during the labour4process b* the destruction of their o"n use4)alue8 >f such an instrument has no )alue to lose, if, in other "ords, it is not the product of human labour, it transfers no )alue to the product8 >t helps to create use4)alue "ithout contributing to the formation of e9change4)alue8 >n this class are included all means of production supplied b* Cature "ithout human assistance, such as land, "ind, "ater, metals in situ, and timber in )irgin forests8 Net another interesting phenomenon here presents itself8 Suppose a machine to be "orth ]1,777, and to "ear out in 1,777 da*s8 'hen one thousandth part of the )alue of the machine is dail* transferred to the da*?s product8 (t the same time, though "ith diminishing )italit*, the machine as a "hole continues to ta+e part in the labour4process8 'hus it appears, that one factor of the labour4process, a means of production, continuall* enters as a "hole into that process, "hile it enters into the process of the formation of )alue b* fractions onl*8 'he difference bet"een the t"o processes is here reflected in their material factors, b* the same instrument of production ta+ing part as a "hole in the labour4process, "hile at the same time as an element in the formation of )alue, it enters onl* b* fractions86 =n the other hand, a means of production ma* ta+e part as a "hole in the formation of )alue, "hile into the labour4process it enters onl* bit b* bit8 Suppose that in spinning cotton, the "aste for e)er* 113 lbs8 used amounts to 13 lbs8, "hich is con)erted, not into *arn, but into @de)il?s dust8A Co", although this 13 lbs8 of cotton ne)er becomes a constituent element of the *arn, *et assuming this amount of "aste to be normal and ine)itable under a)erage conditions of spinning, its )alue is Dust as surel* transferred to the )alue of the *arn, as is the )alue of the 177 lbs8 that form the substance of the *arn8 'he use4)alue of 13 lbs8 of cotton must )anish into dust, before 177 lbs8 of *arn can be made8 'he destruction of this cotton is therefore a necessar* condition in the production of the *arn8 (nd because it is a necessar* condition, and for no other reason, the )alue of that cotton is transferred to the product8 'he same holds good for e)er* +ind of refuse resulting from a labour4process, so tar at least as such refuse cannot be further emplo*ed as a means in the production of ne" and independent use4)alues8 Such an emplo*ment of refuse ma* be seen in the large machine "or+s at $anchester, "here mountains of iron turnings are carted a"a* to the foundr* in the e)ening, in order the ne9t morning to re4appear in the "or+shops as solid masses of iron8 Be ha)e seen that the means of production transfer )alue to the ne" product, so far onl* as during the labour4process the* lose )alue in the shape of their old use4)alue8 'he ma9imum loss of )alue that the* can suffer in the process, is plainl* limited b* the amount of the original )alue "ith "hich the* came into the process, or in other "ords, b* the labour4time necessar* for their production8 'herefore, the means of production can ne)er add more )alue to the product than the* themsel)es possess independentl* of the process in "hich the* assist8 -o"e)er useful a gi)en +ind of ra" material, or a machine, or other means of production ma* be, though it ma* cost ]137, or, sa*, 377 da*s? labour, *et it cannot, under an* circumstances, add to the )alue of the product more than ]1378 >ts )alue is determined not b* the labour4process into "hich it enters as a means of production, but b* that out of "hich it has issued as a product8 >n the labour4process it onl* ser)es as a mere use4)alue, a thing "ith useful properties, and could not, therefore, transfer an* )alue to the product, unless it possessed such )alue pre)iousl*8 : Bhile producti)e labour is changing the means of production into constituent elements of a ne" product, their )alue undergoes a metemps*chosis8 >t deserts the consumed bod*, to occup* the

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ne"l* created one8 /ut this transmigration ta+es place, as it "ere, behind the bac+ of the labourer8 -e is unable to add ne" labour, to create ne" )alue, "ithout at the same time preser)ing old )alues, and this, because the labour he adds must be of a specific useful +ind; and he cannot do "or+ of a useful +ind, "ithout emplo*ing products as the means of production of a ne" product, and thereb* transferring their )alue to the ne" product8 'he propert* therefore "hich labour4 po"er in action, li)ing labour, possesses of preser)ing )alue, at the same time that it adds it, is a gift of Cature "hich costs the labourer nothing, but "hich is )er* ad)antageous to the capitalist inasmuch as it preser)es the e9isting )alue of his capital8 So long as trade is good, the capitalist is too much absorbed in mone*4grubbing to ta+e notice of this gratuitous gift of labour8 ( )iolent interruption of the labour4process b* a crisis, ma+es him sensiti)el* a"are of it8 3 (s regards the means of production, "hat is reall* consumed is their use4)alue, and the consumption of this use4)alue b* labour results in the product8 'here is no consumption of their )alue, 6and it "ould therefore be inaccurate to sa* that it is reproduced8 >t is rather preser)ed; not b* reason of an* operation it undergoes itself in the process; but because the article in "hich it originall* e9ists, )anishes, it is true, but )anishes into some other article8 -ence, in the )alue of the product, there is a reappearance of the )alue of the means of production, but there is, strictl* spea+ing, no reproduction of that )alue8 'hat "hich is produced is a ne" use4)alue in "hich the old e9change4)alue reappears87 >t is other"ise "ith the subDecti)e factor of the labour4process, "ith labour4po"er in action8 Bhile the labourer, b* )irtue of his labour being of a specialised +ind that has a special obDect, preser)es and transfers to the product the )alue of the means of production, he at the same time, b* the mere act of "or+ing, creates each instant an additional or ne" )alue8 Suppose the process of production to be stopped Dust "hen the "or+man has produced an eIui)alent for the )alue of his o"n, labour4po"er, "hen, for e9ample, b* si9 hours? labour, he has added a )alue of three shillings8 'his )alue is the surplus, of the total )alue of the product, o)er the portion of its )alue that is due to the means of production8 >t is the onl* original bit of )alue formed during this process, the onl* portion of the )alue of the product created b* this process8 =f course, "e do not forget that this ne" )alue onl* replaces the mone* ad)anced b* the capitalist in the purchase of the labour4po"er, and spent b* the labourer on the necessaries of life8 Bith regard to the mone* spent, the ne" )alue is merel* a reproduction; but, ne)ertheless, it is an actual, and not, as in the case of the )alue of the means of production, onl* an apparent, reproduction8 'he substitution of one )alue for another, is here effected b* the creation of ne" )alue8 Be +no", ho"e)er, from "hat has gone before, that the labour4process ma* continue be*ond the time necessar* to reproduce and incorporate in the product a mere eIui)alent for the )alue of the labour4po"er8 >nstead of the si9 hours that are sufficient for the latter purpose, the process ma* continue for t"el)e hours8 'he action of labour4po"er, therefore, not onl* reproduces its o"n )alue, but produces )alue o)er and abo)e it8 'his surplus )alue is the difference bet"een the )alue of the product and the )alue of the elements consumed in the formation of that product, in other "ords, of the means of production and the labour4po"er8 /* our e9planation of the different parts pla*ed b* the )arious factors of the labour4process in the formation of the product?s )alue, "e ha)e, in fact, disclosed the characters of the different functions allotted to the different elements of capital in the process of e9panding its o"n )alue8 'he surplus of the total )alue of the product, o)er the sum of the )alues of its constituent factors, is the surplus of the e9panded capital o)er the capital originall* ad)anced8 'he means of production on the one hand, labour4po"er on the other, are merel* the different modes of e9istence "hich the )alue of the original capital assumed "hen from being mone* it "as transformed into the )arious factors of the labour4process8 'hat part of capital then, "hich is

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represented b* the means of production, b* the ra" material, au9iliar* material and the instruments of labour does not, in the process of production, undergo an* Iuantitati)e alteration of )alue8 > therefore call it the constant part of capital, or, more shortl*, constant capital$ =n the other hand, that part of capital, represented b* labour4po"er, does, in the process of production, undergo an alteration of )alue8 >t both reproduces the eIui)alent of its o"n )alue, and also produces an e9cess, a surplus )alue, "hich ma* itself )ar*, ma* be more or less according to circumstances8 'his part of capital is continuall* being transformed from a constant into a )ariable magnitude8 > therefore call it the )ariable part of capital, or, shortl*, variable capital$ 'he same elements of capital "hich, from the point of )ie" of the labour4process, present themsel)es respecti)el* as the obDecti)e and subDecti)e factors, as means of production and labour4po"er, present themsel)es, from the point of )ie" of the process of creating surplus )alue, as constant and )ariable capital8 'he definition of constant capital gi)en abo)e b* no means e9cludes the possibilit* of a change of )alue in its elements8 Suppose the price of cotton to be one da* si9pence a pound, and the ne9t da*, in conseIuence of a failure of the cotton crop, a shilling a pound8 Each pound of the cotton bought at si9pence, and "or+ed up after the rise in )alue, transfers to the product a )alue of one shilling; and the cotton alread* spun before the rise, and perhaps circulating in the mar+et as *arn, li+e"ise transfers to the product t"ice its, original )alue8 >t is plain, ho"e)er, that these changes of )alue are independent of the increment or surplus )alue added to the )alue of the cotton b* the spinning itself8 >f the old cotton had ne)er been spun, it could, after the rise, be resold at a shilling a pound instead of at si9pence8 Further, the fe"er the processes the cotton has gone through, the more certain is this result8 Be therefore find that speculators ma+e it a rule "hen such sudden changes in )alue occur, to speculate in that material on "hich the least possible Iuantit* of labour has been spent: to speculate, therefore, in *arn rather than in cloth, in cotton itself, rather than in *arn8 'he change of )alue in the case "e ha)e been considering, originates, not in the process in "hich the cotton pla*s the part of a means of production, and in "hich it therefore functions as constant capital, but in the process in "hich the cotton itself is produced8 'he )alue of a commodit*, it is true, is determined b* the Iuantit* of labour contained in it, but this Iuantit* is itself limited b* social conditions8 >f the time sociall* necessar* for the production of an* commodit* alters F and a gi)en "eight of cotton represents, after a bad har)est, more labour than after a good one F all pre)iousl* e9isting commodities of the same class are affected, because the* are, as it "ere, onl* indi)iduals of the species, 8 and their )alue at an* gi)en time is measured b* the labour sociall* necessar*, i$e$, b* the labour necessar* for their production under the then e9isting social conditions8 (s the )alue of the ra" material ma* change, so, too, ma* that of the instruments of labour, of the machiner*, Pc8, emplo*ed in the process; and conseIuentl* that portion of the )alue of the product transferred to it from them, ma* also change8 >f in conseIuence of a ne" in)ention, machiner* of a particular +ind can be produced b* a diminished e9penditure of labour, the old machiner* becomes depreciated more or less, and conseIuentl* transfers so much less )alue to the product8 /ut here again, the change in )alue originates outside the process in "hich the machine is acting as a means of production8 =nce engaged in this process, the machine cannot transfer more )alue than it possesses apart from the process8 Lust as a change in the )alue of the means of production, e)en after the* ha)e commenced to ta+e a part in the labour4process, does not alter their character as constant capital, so, too, a change in the proportion of constant to )ariable capital does not affect the respecti)e functions of these t"o +inds of capital8 'he technical conditions of the labour4process ma* be re)olutionised to such an e9tent, that "here formerl* ten men using ten implements of small )alue "or+ed up a relati)el*

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small Iuantit* of ra" material, one man ma* no", "ith the aid of one e9pensi)e machine, "or+ up one hundred times as much ra" material8 >n the latter case "e ha)e an enormous increase in the constant capital, that is represented b* the total )alue of the means of production used, and at the same time a great reduction in the )ariable capital, in)ested in labour4po"er8 Such a re)olution, ho"e)er, alters onl* the Iuantitati)e relation bet"een the constant and the )ariable capital, or the proportions in "hich the total capital is split up into its constant and )ariable constituents; it has not in the least degree affected the essential difference bet"een the t"o8

(ha)ter &* "he 3ate of S%r)$%s 4a$%e


Section 1: The -e%ree of )+ploitation of (abour"Power
'he surplus )alue generated in the process of production b* 5, the capital ad)anced, or in other "ords, the self4e9pansion of the )alue of the capital 5, presents itself for our consideration, in the first place, as a surplus, as the amount b* "hich the )alue of the product e9ceeds the )alue of its constituent elements8 'he capital 5 is made up of t"o components, one, the sum of mone* c laid out upon the means of production, and the other, the sum of mone* ) e9pended upon the labour4po"er; c represents the portion that has become constant capital, and ) the portion that has become )ariable capital8 (t first then, 5 Y c _ ): for e9ample, if ]377 is the capital ad)anced, its components ma* be such that the ]377 Y ] 17 const8 _ ]27 )ar8 Bhen the process of production is finished, "e get a commodit* "hose )alue Y (c _ )! _ s, "here s is the surplus )alue; or ta+ing our former figures, the )alue of this commodit* ma* be (] 17 const8 _ ]27 )ar8! _ ]27 surpl8 'he original capital has no" changed from 5 to 5U, from ]377 to ]3278 'he difference is s or a surplus )alue of ]278 Since the )alue of the constituent elements of the product is eIual to the )alue of the ad)anced capital, it is mere tautolog* to sa*, that the e9cess of the )alue of the product o)er the )alue of its constituent elements, is eIual to the e9pansion of the capital ad)anced or to the surplus )alue produced8 Ce)ertheless, "e must e9amine this tautolog* a little more closel*8 'he t"o things compared are, the )alue of the product and the )alue of its constituents consumed in the process of production8 Co" "e ha)e seen ho" that portion of the constant capital "hich consists of the instruments of labour, transfers to the production onl* a fraction of its )alue, "hile the remainder of that )alue continues to reside in those instruments8 Since this remainder pla*s no part in the formation of )alue, "e ma* at present lea)e it on one side8 'o introduce it into the calculation "ould ma+e no difference8 For instance, ta+ing our former e9ample, c Y ] 17: suppose this sum to consist of ]:16 )alue of ra" material, ] )alue of au9iliar* material, and ]3 )alue of the machiner* "orn a"a* in the process; and suppose that the total )alue of the machiner* emplo*ed is ]1,73 8 =ut of this latter sum, then, "e rec+on as ad)anced for the purpose of turning out the product, the sum of ]3 alone, "hich the machiner* loses b* "ear and tear in the process; for this is all it parts "ith to the product8 Co" if "e also rec+on the remaining ]1,777, "hich still continues in the machiner*, as transferred to the product, "e ought also to rec+on it as part of the )alue ad)anced, and thus ma+e it appear on both sides of our calculation8 1 Be should, in this "a*, get ]1,377 on one side and ]1,327 on the other8 'he difference of these t"o sums, or the surplus )alue, "ould still be ]278 'hroughout this /oo+ therefore, b* constant capital ad)anced for the production of )alue, "e al"a*s mean, unless the conte9t is repugnant thereto, the )alue of the means of production actuall* consumed in the process, and that )alue alone8 'his being so, let us return to the formula 5 Y c _ ), "hich "e sa" "as transformed into 5U Y (c _ )! _ s, 5 becoming 5U8 Be +no" that the )alue of the constant capital is transferred to, and merel* re4appears in the product8 'he ne" )alue actuall* created in the process, the )alue produced, or )alue4product, is therefore not the same as the )alue of the product; it is not, as it "ould at first sight appear (c _ )! _ s or ] 17 const8 _ ]27 )ar8 _ ]27 surpl8; but ) _ s or ]27 )ar8 _ ]27 surpl8, not ]327 but ]1878 >f c Y 7, or in other "ords, if there "ere branches of industr* in

112

5hapter 2

"hich the capitalist could dispense "ith all means of production made b* pre)ious labour, "hether the* be ra" material, au9iliar* material, or instruments of labour, emplo*ing onl* labour4po"er and materials supplied b* Cature, in that case, there "ould be no constant capital to transfer to the product8 'his component of the )alue of the product, i$e8, the ] 17 in our e9ample, "ould be eliminated, but the sum of ]187, the amount of ne" )alue created, or the )alue produced, "hich contains ]27 of surplus )alue, "ould remain Dust as great as if c represented the highest )alue imaginable8 Be should ha)e 5 Y (7 _ )! Y ) or 5U the e9panded capital Y ) _ s and therefore 5U 4 5 Y s as before8 =n the other hand, if s Y 7, or in other "ords, if the labour4po"er, "hose )alue is ad)anced in the form of )ariable capital, "ere to produce onl* its eIui)alent, "e should ha)e 5 Y c _ ) or 5U the )alue of the product Y (c _ )! _ 7 or 5 Y 5U8 'he capital ad)anced "ould, in this case, not ha)e e9panded its )alue8 From "hat has gone before, "e +no" that surplus )alue is purel* the result of a )ariation in the )alue of ), of that portion of the capital "hich is transformed into labour4po"er; conseIuentl*, ) _ s Y ) _ ), or ) plus an increment of )8 /ut the fact that it is ) alone that )aries, and the conditions of that )ariation, are obscured b* the circumstance that in conseIuence of the increase in the )ariable component of the capital, there is also an increase in the sum total of the ad)anced capital8 >t "as originall* ]377 and becomes ]3278 'herefore in order that our in)estigation ma* lead to accurate results, "e must ma+e abstraction from that portion of the )alue of the product, in "hich constant capital alone appears, and conseIuentl* must eIuate the constant capital to 1ero or ma+e c Y 78 'his is merel* an application of a mathematical rule, emplo*ed "hene)er "e operate "ith constant and )ariable magnitudes, related to each other b* the s*mbols of addition and subtraction onl*8 ( further difficult* is caused b* the original form of the )ariable capital8 >n our e9ample, 5U Y ] 17 const8 _ ]27 )ar8 _ ]27 surpl8; but ]27 is a gi)en and therefore a constant Iuantit*; hence it appears absurd to treat it as )ariable8 /ut in fact, the term ]27 )ar8 is here merel* a s*mbol to sho" that this )alue undergoes a process8 'he portion of the capital in)ested in the purchase of labour4po"er is a definite Iuantit* of materialised labour, a constant )alue li+e the )alue of the labour4po"er purchased8 /ut in the process of production the place of the ]27 is ta+en b* the labour4po"er in action, dead labour is replaced b* li)ing labour, something stagnant b* something flo"ing, a constant b* a )ariable8 'he result is the reproduction of ) plus an increment of )8 From the point of )ie" then of capitalist production, the "hole process appears as the spontaneous )ariation of the originall* constant )alue, "hich is transformed into labour4po"er8 /oth the process and its result, appear to be o"ing to this )alue8 >f, therefore, such e9pressions as @]27 )ariable capital,A or @so much self4e9panding )alue,A appear contradictor*, this is onl* because the* bring to the surface a contradiction immanent in capitalist production8 (t first sight it appears a strange proceeding, to eIuate the constant capital to 1ero8 Net it is "hat "e do e)er* da*8 >f, for e9ample, "e "ish to calculate the amount of England?s profits from the cotton industr*, "e first of all deduct the sums paid for cotton to the %nited States, >ndia, Eg*pt and other countries; in other "ords, the )alue of the capital that merel* re4appears in the )alue of the product, is put Y 78 =f course the ratio of surplus )alue not onl* to that portion of the capital from "hich it immediatel* springs, and "hose change of )alue it represents, but also to the sum total of the capital ad)anced is economicall* of )er* great importance8 Be shall, therefore, in the third boo+, treat of this ratio e9hausti)el*8 >n order to enable one portion of a capital to e9pand its )alue b* being con)erted into labour4po"er, it is necessar* that another portion be con)erted into means of production8 >n order that )ariable capital ma* perform its function, constant capital must be ad)anced in proper proportion, a proportion gi)en b* the special technical conditions of each

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labour4process8 'he circumstance, ho"e)er, that retorts and other )essels, are necessar* to a chemical process, does not compel the chemist to notice them in the result of his anal*sis8 >f "e loo+ at the means of production, in their relation to the creation of )alue, and to the )ariation in the Iuantit* of )alue, apart from an*thing else, the* appear simpl* as the material in "hich labour4po"er, the )alue4creator, incorporates itself8 Ceither the nature, nor the )alue of this material is of an* importance8 'he onl* reIuisite is that there be a sufficient suppl* to absorb the labour e9pended in the process of production8 'hat suppl* once gi)en, the material ma* rise or fall in )alue, or e)en be, as land and the sea, "ithout an* )alue in itself; but this "ill ha)e no influence on the creation of )alue or on the )ariation in the Iuantit* of )alue8 6 >n the first place then "e eIuate the constant capital to 1ero8 'he capital ad)anced is conseIuentl* reduced from c _ ) to ), and instead of the )alue of the product (c _ )! _ s "e ha)e no" the )alue produced () _ s!8 Gi)en the ne" )alue produced Y ]187, "hich sum conseIuentl* represents the "hole labour e9pended during the process, then subtracting from it ]27 the )alue of the )ariable capital, "e ha)e remaining ]27, the amount of the surplus )alue8 'his sum of ]27 or s e9presses the absolute Iuantit* of surplus )alue produced8 'he relati)e Iuantit* produced, or the increase per cent of the )ariable capital, is determined, it is plain, b* the ratio of the surplus )alue to the )ariable capital, or is e9pressed b* sJ)8 >n our e9ample this ratio is 27J27, "hich gi)es an increase of 177`8 'his relati)e increase in the )alue of the )ariable capital, or the relati)e magnitude of the surplus )alue, > call, @'he rate of surplus )alue8A : Be ha)e seen that the labourer, during one portion of the labour4process, produces onl* the )alue of his labour4po"er, that is, the )alue of his means of subsistence8 Co" since his "or+ forms part of a s*stem, based on the social di)ision of labour, he does not directl* produce the actual necessaries "hich he himself consumes; he produces instead a particular commodit*, *arn for e9ample, "hose )alue is eIual to the )alue of those necessaries or of the mone* "ith "hich the* can be bought8 'he portion of his da*?s labour de)oted to this purpose, "ill be greater or less, in proportion to the )alue of the necessaries that he dail* reIuires on an a)erage, or, "hat amounts to the same thing, in proportion to the labour4time reIuired on an a)erage to produce them8 >f the )alue of those necessaries represent on an a)erage the e9penditure of si9 hours? labour, the "or+man must on an a)erage "or+ for si9 hours to produce that )alue8 >f instead of "or+ing for the capitalist, he "or+ed independentl* on his o"n account, he "ould, other things being eIual, still be obliged to labour for the same number of hours, in order to produce the )alue of his labour4po"er, and thereb* to gain the means of subsistence necessar* for his conser)ation or continued reproduction8 /ut as "e ha)e seen, during that portion of his da*?s labour in "hich he produces the )alue of his labour4po"er, sa* three shillings, he produces onl* an eIui)alent for the )alue of his labour4po"er alread* ad)anced b* the capitalist; the ne" )alue created onl* replaces the )ariable capital ad)anced8 >t is o"ing to this fact, that the production of the ne" )alue of three shillings ta+es the semblance of a mere reproduction8 'hat portion of the "or+ing da*, then, during "hich this reproduction ta+es place, > call @ necessaryA labour time, and the labour e9pended during that time > call @necessaryA labour83 Cecessar*, as regards the labourer, because independent of the particular social form of his labour; necessar*, as regards capital, and the "orld of capitalists, because on the continued e9istence of the labourer depends their e9istence also8 0uring the second period of the labour4process, that in "hich his labour is no longer necessar* labour, the "or+man, it is true, labours, e9pends labour4po"er; but his labour, being no longer necessar* labour, he creates no )alue for himself8 -e creates surplus )alue "hich, for the capitalist, has all the charms of a creation out of nothing8 'his portion of the "or+ing da*, > name surplus labour4time, and to the labour e9pended during that time, > gi)e the name of surplus labour8 >t is e)er* bit as important, for a correct understanding of surplus )alue, to concei)e it as a

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mere congelation of surplus labour4time, as nothing but materialised surplus labour, as it is, for a proper comprehension of )alue, to concei)e it as a mere congelation of so man* hours of labour, as nothing but materialised labour8 'he essential difference bet"een the )arious economic forms of societ*, bet"een, for instance, a societ* based on sla)e4labour, and one based on "age4labour, lies onl* in the mode in "hich this surplus labour is in each case e9tracted from the actual producer, the labourer86 Since, on the one hand, the )alues of the )ariable capital and of the labour4po"er purchased b* that capital are eIual, and the )alue of this labour4po"er determines the necessar* portion of the "or+ing da*; and since, on the other hand, the surplus )alue is determined b* the surplus portion of the "or+ing da*, it follo"s that surplus )alue bears the same ratio to )ariable capital, that surplus labour does to necessar* labour, or in other "ords, the rate of surplus )alue, sJ) Y (surplus labour!J(necessar* labour!8 /oth ratios, sJ) and (surplus labour!J(necessar* labour!, e9press the same thing in different "a*s; in the one case b* reference to materialised, incorporated labour, in the other b* reference to li)ing, fluent labour8 'he rate of surplus )alue is therefore an e9act e9pression for the degree of e9ploitation of labour4 po"er b* capital, or of the labourer b* the capitalist8 7 Be assumed in our e9ample, that the )alue of the product ] 17 const8 _ ]27 )ar8 _ ]27 surpl8, and that the capital ad)anced Y ]3778 Since the surplus )alue Y ]27, and the ad)anced capital Y ]377, "e should, according to the usual "a* of rec+oning, get as the rate of surplus )alue (generall* confounded "ith rate of profits! 18`, a rate so lo" as possibl* to cause a pleasant surprise to $r8 5are* and other harmonisers8 /ut in truth, the rate of surplus )alue is not eIual to sJ5 or sJ(c_)!, but to sJ): thus it is not 27J377 but 27J27 or 177`, "hich is more than fi)e times the apparent degree of e9ploitation8 (lthough, in the case "e ha)e supposed, "e are ignorant of the actual length of the "or+ing da*, and of the duration in da*s or "ee+s of the labour4process, as also of the number of labourers emplo*ed, *et the rate of surplus )alue sJ) accuratel* discloses to us, b* means of its eIui)alent e9pression, surplus labourJnecessar* labour the relation bet"een the t"o parts of the "or+ing da*8 'his relation is here one of eIualit*, the rate being 177`8 -ence, it is plain, the labourer, in our e9ample, "or+s one half of the da* for himself, the other half for the capitalist8 'he method of calculating the rate of surplus )alue is therefore, shortl*, as follo"s8 Be ta+e the total )alue of the product and put the constant capital "hich merel* re4appears in it, eIual to 1ero8 Bhat remains, is the onl* )alue that has, in the process of producing the commodit*, been actuall* created8 >f the amount of surplus )alue be gi)en, "e ha)e onl* to deduct it from this remainder, to find the )ariable capital8 (nd vice vers%+ if the latter be gi)en, and "e reIuire to find the surplus )alue8 >f both be gi)en, "e ha)e onl* to perform the concluding operation, )i18, to calculate sJ), the ratio of the surplus )alue to the ) )ariable capital8 'hough the method is so simple, *et it ma* not be amiss, b* means of a fe" e9amples, to e9ercise the reader in the application of the no)el principles underl*ing it8 First "e "ill ta+e the case of a spinning mill containing 17,777 mule spindles, spinning Co8 :6 *arn from (merican cotton, and producing 1 lb8 of *arn "ee+l* per spindle8 Be assume the "aste to be 6`: under these circumstances 17,677 lbs8 of cotton are consumed "ee+l*, of "hich 677 lbs8 go to "aste8 'he price of the cotton in (pril, 1871, "as 7ed8 per lb8; the ra" material therefore costs in round numbers ]: 68 'he 17,777 spindles, including preparation4machiner*, and moti)e po"er, cost, "e "ill assume, ]1 per spindle, amounting to a total of ]17,7778 'he "ear and tear "e put at 17`, or ]1,777 *earl* Y ]67 "ee+l*8 'he rent of the building "e suppose to be ]:77 a *ear, or ]6 a "ee+8 5oal consumed (for 177 horse4po"er indicated, at lbs8 of coal per horse4po"er per hour during 67 hours, and inclusi)e of that consumed in heating the mill!, 11

166

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tons a "ee+ at 8s8 6d8 a ton, amounts to about ] [ a "ee+: gas, ]1 a "ee+, oil, Pc8, ] [ a "ee+8 'otal cost of the abo)e au9iliar* materials, ]17 "ee+l*8 'herefore the constant portion of the )alue of the "ee+?s product is ]:788 Bages amount to ]36 a "ee+8 'he price of the *arn is 16fd8 per8 lb8 "hich gi)es for the )alue of 17,777 lbs8 the sum of ]3178 'he surplus )alue is therefore in this case ]317 4 ] :7 Y ]878 Be put the constant part of the )alue of the product Y 7, as it pla*s no part in the creation of )alue8 'here remains ]1:6 as the "ee+l* )alue created, "hich Y ]36 )ar8 _ ]87 surpl8 'he rate of surplus )alue is therefore 87J36 Y 13: 11J1:`8 >n a "or+ing da* of 17 hours "ith a)erage labour the result is: necessar* labour Y : :1J:: hours, and surplus labour Y 6 6J::88 =ne more e9ample8 Lacob gi)es the follo"ing calculation for the *ear 18138 ="ing to the pre)ious adDustment of se)eral items it is )er* imperfect; ne)ertheless for our purpose it is sufficient8 >n it he assumes the price of "heat to be 8s8 a Iuarter, and the a)erage *ield per acre to be 66 bushels8 ;(<%E #&=0%5E0 #E& (5&E Seed ]1 2s8 7d8 'ithes, &ates, and ta9es, $anure ]6 17s8 7d8 &ent Bages ]: 17s8 7d8 Farmer?s #rofit and >nterest '='(< ]7 2s8 7d8 '='(< ]1 1s8 7d8 ]1 8s8 7d8 ]1 6s8 7d8 ]: 11s 7d8

(ssuming that the price of the product is the same as its )alue, "e here find the surplus )alue distributed under the )arious heads of profit, interest, rent, Pc8 Be ha)e nothing to do "ith these in detail; "e simpl* add them together, and the sum is a surplus )alue of ]: 11s8 7d8 'he sum of ]: 12s8 7d8, paid for seed and manure, is constant capital, and "e put it eIual to 1ero8 'here is left the sum of ]: 17s8 7d8, "hich is the )ariable capital ad)anced: and "e see that a ne" )alue of ]: 17s8 7d _ ]: 11s8 7d8 has been produced in its place8 'herefore sJ) Y ]: 11s8 7d8 J ]: 17s8 7d8, gi)ing a rate of surplus )alue of more than 177`8 'he labourer emplo*s more than one half of his "or+ing da* in producing the surplus )alue, "hich different persons, under different prete9ts, share amongst themsel)es82

Section ': The .epresentation of the Components of the Value of the Product b Correspondin% Proportional Parts of the Product Itself
<et us no" return to the e9ample b* "hich "e "ere sho"n ho" the capitalist con)erts mone* into capital8 'he product of a "or+ing da* of 16 hours is 67 lbs8 of *arn, ha)ing a )alue of :7s8 Co less than 8J17ths of this )alue, or 6 s8, is due to mere re4appearance in it, of the )alue of the means of production (67 lbs8 of cotton, )alue 67s8, and spindle "orn a"a*, s8!: it is therefore constant capital8 'he remaining 6J17ths or 6s8 is the ne" )alue created during the spinning process: of this one half replaces the )alue of the da*?s labour4po"er, or the )ariable capital, the remaining half constitutes a surplus )alue of :s8 'he total )alue then of the 67 lbs8 of *arn is made up as follo"s: :7s8 )alue of *arn Y 6 s8 const8 _ :s8 )ar8 _ :s8 surpl8

16:

5hapter 2

Since the "hole of this )alue is contained in the 67 lbs8 of *arn produced, it follo"s that the )arious component parts of this )alue, can be represented as being contained respecti)el* in corresponding parts of the product8 >f the )alue of :7s8 is contained in 67 lbs8 of *arn, then 8J17ths of this )alue, or the 6 s8 that form its constant part, is contained in 8J17ths of the product or in 16 lbs8 of *arn8 =f the latter 1: 1J: lbs8 represent the )alue of the ra" material, the 67s8 "orth of cotton spun, and 6 6J: lbs8 represent the s8 "orth of spindle, Pc8, "orn a"a* in the process8 -ence the "hole of the cotton used up in spinning the 67 lbs8 of *arn, is represented b* 1: 1J: lbs8 of *arn8 'his latter "eight of *arn contains, it is true, b* "eight, no more than 1: 1J: lbs8 of cotton, "orth 1: 1J: shillings; but the 6 6J: shillings additional )alue contained in it, are the eIui)alent for the cotton consumed in spinning the remaining 6 6J: lbs8 of *arn8 'he effect is the same as if these 6 6J: lbs8 of *arn contained no cotton at all, and the "hole 67 lbs8 of cotton "ere concentrated in the 1: 1J: lbs8 of *arn8 'he latter "eight, on the other hand, does not contain an atom either of the )alue of the au9iliar* materials and implements, or of the )alue ne"l* created in the process8 >n the same "a*, the 6 6J: lbs8 of *arn, in "hich the s8, the remainder of the constant capital, is embodied, represents nothing but the )alue of the au9iliar* materials and instruments of labour consumed in producing the 67 lbs8 of *arn8 Be ha)e, therefore, arri)ed at this result: although eight4tenths of the product, or 16 lbs8 of *arn, is, in its character of an article of utilit*, Dust as much the fabric of the spinner?s labour, as the remainder of the same product, *et "hen )ie"ed in this conne9ion, it does not contain, and has not absorbed an* labour e9pended during the process of spinning8 >t is Dust as if the cotton had con)erted itself into *arn, "ithout help; as if the shape it had assumed "as mere tric+er* and deceit: for so soon as our capitalist sells it for 6 s8, and "ith the mone* replaces his means of production, it becomes e)ident that this 16 lbs8 of *arn is nothing more than so much cotton and spindle4"aste in disguise8 =n the other hand, the remaining 6J17 ths of the product, or lbs of *arn, represent nothing but the ne" )alue of 6s8, created during the 16 hours? spinning process8 (ll the )alue transferred to those lbs, from the ra" material and instruments of labour consumed, "as, so to sa*, intercepted in order to be incorporated in the 16 lbs8 first spun8 >n this case, it is as if the spinner had spun lbs8 of *arn out of air, or, as if he had spun them "ith the aid of cotton and spindles, that, being the spontaneous gift of Cature, transferred no )alue to the product8 =f this lbs8 of *arn, in "hich the "hole of the )alue ne"l* created during the process, is condensed, one half represents the eIui)alent for the )alue of the labour consumed, or the :s8 )ariable capital, the other half represents the :s8 surplus )alue8 Since 16 "or+ing4hours of the spinner are embodied in 6s8, it follo"s that in *arn of the )alue of :7s8, there must be embodied 67 "or+ing4hours8 (nd this Iuantit* of labour4time does in fact e9ist in the 67 lbs of *arn; for in 8J17ths or 16 lbs there are materialised the 8 hours of labour e9pended, before the commencement of the spinning process, on the means of production; and in the remaining 6J17ths or lbs there are materialised the 16 hours? "or+ done during the process itself8 =n a former page "e sa" that the )alue of the *arn is eIual to the sum of the ne" )alue created during the production of that *arn plus the )alue pre)iousl* e9isting in the means of production8 >t has no" been sho"n ho" the )arious component parts of the )alue of the product, parts that differ functionall* from each other, ma* be represented b* corresponding proportional parts of the product itself8

16

5hapter 2

'o split up in this manner the product into different parts, of "hich one represents onl* the labour pre)iousl* spent on the means of production, or the constant capital, another, onl* the necessar* labour spent during the process of production, or the )ariable capital, and another and last part, onl* the surplus labour e9pended during the same process, or the surplus )alue; to do this, is, as "ill be seen later on from its application to complicated and hitherto unsol)ed problems, no less important than it is simple8 >n the preceding in)estigation "e ha)e treated the total product as the final result, read* for use, of a "or+ing da* of 16 hours8 Be can ho"e)er follo" this total product through all the stages of its production; and in this "a* "e shall arri)e at the same result as before, if "e represent the partial products, gi)en off at the different stages, as functionall* different parts of the final or total product8 'he spinner produces in 16 hours 67 lbs8 of *arn, or in 1 hour 1g lbs; conseIuentl* he produces in 8 hours 1:g lbs8, or a partial product eIual in )alue to all the cotton that is spun in a "hole da*8 >n li+e manner the partial product of the ne9t period of 1 hour and :6 minutes, is 6g lbs8 of *arn: this represents the )alue of the instruments of labour that are consumed in 16 hours8 >n the follo"ing hour and 16 minutes, the spinner produces 6 lbs8 of *arn "orth : shillings, a )alue eIual to the "hole )alue he creates in his 6 hours? necessar* labour8 Finall*, in the last hour and 16 minutes he produces another 6 lbs8 of *arn, "hose )alue is eIual to the surplus )alue, created b* his surplus labour during half a da*8 'his method of calculation ser)es the English manufacturer for e)er*4da* use; it sho"s, he "ill sa*, that in the first 8 hours, or g of the "or+ing da*, he gets bac+ the )alue of his cotton; and so on for the remaining hours8 >t is also a perfectl* correct method: being in fact the first method gi)en abo)e "ith this difference, that instead of being applied to space, in "hich the different parts of the completed product lie side b* side, it deals "ith time, in "hich those parts are successi)el* produced8 /ut it can also be accompanied b* )er* barbarian notions, more especiall* in the heads of those "ho are as much interested, practicall*, in the process of ma+ing )alue beget )alue, as the* are in misunderstanding that process theoreticall*8 Such people ma* get the notion into their heads, that our spinner, for e9ample, produces or replaces in the first 8 hours of his "or+ing da* the value of the cotton; in the follo"ing hour and :6 minutes the value of the instruments of labour "orn a"a*; in the ne9t hour and 16 minutes the value of the "ages; and that he de)otes to the production of surplus )alue for the manufacturer, onl* that "ell +no"n @last hour8A >n this "a* the poor spinner is made to perform the t"o4fold miracle not onl* of producing cotton, spindles, steam4engine, coal, oil, Pc8, at the same time that he spins "ith them, but also of turning one "or+ing da* into fi)e; for, in the e9ample "e are considering, the production of the ra" material and instruments of labour demands four "or+ing da*s of t"el)e hours each, and their con)ersion into *arn reIuires another such da*8 'hat the lo)e of lucre induces an eas* belief in such miracles, and that s*cophant doctrinaires are ne)er "anting to pro)e them, is )ouched for b* the follo"ing incident of historical celebrit*8

Section *: Senior/s 0(ast 1our2


=ne fine morning, in the *ear 18:6, Cassau B8 Senior, "ho ma* be called the bel4esprit of English economists, "ell +no"n, ali+e for his economic @science,A and for his beautiful st*le, "as summoned from =9ford to $anchester, to learn in the latter place, the #olitical Econom* that he taught in the former8 'he manufacturers elected him as their champion, not onl* against the ne"l* passed Factor* (ct, but against the still more menacing 'en4hours? agitation8 Bith their usual practical acuteness, the* had found out4 that the learned #rofessor @"anted a good deal of finishing;A it "as this disco)er* that caused them to "rite for him8 =n his side the #rofessor

163

5hapter 2

has embodied the lecture he recei)ed from the $anchester manufacturers, in a pamphlet, entitled: @<etters on the Factor* (ct, as it affects the cotton manufacture8A <ondon, 18:78 -ere "e find, amongst others, the follo"ing edif*ing passage: @%nder the present la", no mill in "hich persons under 18 *ears of age are emplo*ed, 888 can be "or+ed more than 11[ hours a da*, that is, 16 hours for 3 da*s in the "ee+, and nine on Saturda*8 @Co" the follo"ing anal*sis (Q! "ill sho" that in a mill so "or+ed, the "hole net profit is deri)ed from the last hour8 > "ill suppose a manufacturer to in)est ]177,777: F ]87,777 in his mill and machiner*, and ]67,777 in ra" material and "ages8 'he annual return of that mill, supposing the capital to be turned once a *ear, and gross profits to be 13 per cent8, ought to be goods "orth ]13,7778888 =f this ]113,777, each of the t"ent*4three half4hours of "or+ produces 34113ths or one t"ent*4third8 =f these 6:46:rds (constituting the "hole ]113,777! t"ent*, that is to sa* ]177,777 out of the ]113,777, simpl* replace the capital; F one t"ent*4 third (or ]3,777 out of the ]113,777! ma+es up for the deterioration of the mill and machiner*8 'he remaining 646:rds, that is, the last t"o of the t"ent*4three half4hours of e)er* da*, produce the net profit of 17 per cent8 >f, therefore (prices remaining the same!, the factor* could be +ept at "or+ thirteen hours instead of ele)en and a half, "ith an addition of about ]6,677 to the circulating capital, the net profit "ould be more than doubled8 =n the other hand, if the hours of "or+ing "ere reduced b* one hour per da* (prices remaining the same!, the net profit "ould be destro*ed F if the* "ere reduced b* one hour and a half, e)en the ross profit "ould be destro*ed8A17 (nd the #rofessor calls this an @anal*sisQA >f, gi)ing credence to the out4cries of the manufacturers, he belie)ed that the "or+men spend the best part of the da* in the production, i8e8, the reproduction or replacement of the )alue of the buildings, machiner*, cotton, coal, Pc8, then his anal*sis "as superfluous8 -is ans"er "ould simpl* ha)e been: F GentlemenQ if *ou "or+ *our mills for 17 hours instead of 11[, then, other things being eIual, the dail* consumption of cotton, machiner*, Pc8, "ill decrease in proportion8 Nou gain Dust as much as *ou lose8 Nour "or+4people "ill in future spend one hour and a half less time in reproducing or replacing the capital that has been ad)anced8 F >f, on the other hand, he did not belie)e them "ithout further inIuir*, but, as being an e9pert in such matters, deemed an anal*sis necessar*, then he ought, in a Iuestion that is concerned e9clusi)el* "ith the relations of net profit to the length of the "or+ing da*, before all things to ha)e as+ed the manufacturers, to be careful not to lump together machiner*, "or+shops, ra" material, and labour, but to be good enough to place the constant capital, in)ested in buildings, machiner*, ra" material, Pc8, on one side of the account, and the capital ad)anced in "ages on the other side8 >f the #rofessor then found, that in accordance "ith the calculation of the manufacturers, the "or+man reproduced or replaced his "ages in 6 half4 hours, in that case, he should ha)e continued his anal*sis thus: (ccording to *our figures, the "or+man in the last hour but one produces his "ages, and in the last hour *our surplus )alue or net profit8 Co", since in eIual periods he produces eIual )alues, the produce of the last hour but one, must ha)e the same )alue as that of the last hour8 Further, it is onl* "hile he labours that he produces an* )alue at all, and the amount of his labour is measured b* his labour4time8 'his *ou sa*, amounts to 11[ hours a da*8 -e emplo*s one portion of these 11[ hours, in producing or replacing his "ages, and the remaining portion in producing *our net profit8 /e*ond this he does absolutel* nothing8 /ut since, on *our assumption, his "ages, and the surplus )alue he *ields, are of eIual )alue, it is clear that he produces his "ages in

166

5hapter 2

3e hours, and *our net profit in the other 3e hours8 (gain, since the )alue of the *arn produced in 6 hours, is eIual to the sum of the )alues of his "ages and of *our net profit, the measure of the )alue of this *arn must be 11[ "or+ing4hours, of "hich 3e hours measure the )alue of the *arn produced in the last hour but one, and 3e, the )alue of the *arn produced in the last hour8 Be no" come to a tic+lish point; therefore, attentionQ 'he last "or+ing4hour but one is, li+e the first, an ordinar* "or+ing4hour, neither more nor less8 -o" then can the spinner produce in one hour, in the shape of *arn, a )alue that embodies 3e hours? labourE 'he truth is that he performs no such miracle8 'he use4)alue produced b* him in one hour, is a definite Iuantit* of *arn8 'he )alue of this *arn is measured b* 3e "or+ing4hours, of "hich e "ere, "ithout an* assistance from him, pre)iousl* embodied in the means of production, in the cotton, the machiner*, and so on; the remaining one hour alone is added b* him8 'herefore since his "ages are produced in 3e hours, and the *arn produced in one hour also contains 3e hours? "or+, there is no "itchcraft in the result, that the )alue created b* his 3e hours? spinning, is eIual to the )alue of the product spun in one hour8 Nou are altogether on the "rong trac+, if *ou thin+ that he loses a single moment of his "or+ing da*, in reproducing or replacing the )alues of the cotton, the machiner*, and so on8 =n the contrar*, it is because his labour con)erts the cotton and spindles into *arn, because he spins, that the )alues of the cotton and spindles go o)er to the *arn of their o"n accord8 'his result is o"ing to the Iualit* of his labour, not to its Iuantit*8 >t is true, he "ill in one hour transfer to the *arn more )alue, in the shape of cotton, than he "ill in half an hour; but that is onl* because in one hour he spins up more cotton than in half an hour8 Nou see then, *our assertion, that the "or+man produces, in the last hour but one, the )alue of his "ages, and in the last hour *our net profit, amounts to no more than this, that in the *arn produced b* him in 6 "or+ing4hours, "hether the* are the 6 first or the 6 last hours of the "or+ing da*, in that *arn, there are incorporated 11[ "or+ing4hours, or Dust a "hole da*?s "or+, i$e$, t"o hours of his o"n "or+ and 2[ hours of other people?s8 (nd m* assertion that, in the first 3e hours, he produces his "ages, and in the last 3e hours *our net profit, amounts onl* to this, that *ou pa* him for the former, but not for the latter8 >n spea+ing of pa*ment of labour, instead of pa*ment of labour4 po"er, > onl* tal+ *our o"n slang8 Co", gentlemen, if *ou compare the "or+ing4time *ou pa* for, "ith that "hich *ou do not pa* for, *ou "ill find that the* are to one another, as half a da* is to half a da*; this gi)es a rate of 177`, and a )er* prett* percentage it is8 Further, there is not the least doubt, that if *ou ma+e *ou @handsA toil for 1: hours, instead of 11[, and, as ma* be e9pected from *ou, treat the "or+ done in that e9tra one hour and a half, as pure surplus labour, then the latter "ill be increased from 3e hours? labour to 7f hours? labour, and the rate of surplus )alue from 177` to 166 6J6:`8 So that *ou are altogether too sanguine, in e9pecting that b* such an addition of 1[ hours to the "or+ing da*, the rate "ill rise from 177` to 677` and more, in other "ords that it "ill be @more than doubled8A =n the other hand4man?s heart is a "onderful thing, especiall* "hen carried in the purse F *ou ta+e too pessimist a )ie", "hen *ou fear, that "ith a reduction of the hours of labour from 11[ to 17, the "hole of *our net profit "ill go to the dogs8 Cot at all8 (ll other conditions remaining the same, the surplus labour "ill fall from 3e hours to e hours, a period that still gi)es a )er* profitable rate of surplus )alue, namel* 86 1 J6:`8 /ut this dreadful @last hour,A about "hich *ou ha)e in)ented more stories than ha)e the millenarians about the da* of Dudgment, is @all bosh8A >f it goes, it "ill cost neither *ou, *our net profit, nor the bo*s and girls "hom *ou emplo*, their @purit* of mind8A 11 Bhene)er *our @last hourA stri+es in earnest, thin+ of the =9ford #rofessor8 (nd no", gentlemen, @fare"ell, and ma* "e meet again in *onder better "orld, but not before8A Senior in)ented the battle cr* of the @last hourA in 18:68 16 >n the London Economist of the 13th (pril, 18 8, the same cr* "as again raised b* Lames Bilson, an economic mandarin of high standing: this time in opposition to the 17 hours? bill8

167

5hapter 2

Section ,: Surplus"Produce
'he portion of the product that represents the surplus )alue, (one tenth of the 67 lbs8, or 6 lbs8 of *arn, in the e9ample gi)en in Sec8 6! "e call @surplus4produce8A Lust as the rate of surplus )alue is determined b* its relation, not to the sum total of the capital, but to its )ariable part; in li+e manner, the relati)e Iuantit* of surplus4produce is determined b* the ratio that this produce bears, not to the remaining part of the total product, but to that part of it in "hich is incorporated the necessar* labour8 Since the production of surplus )alue is the chief end and aim of capitalist production, it is clear, that the greatness of a man?s or a nation?s "ealth should be measured, not b* the absolute Iuantit* produced, but b* the relati)e magnitude of the surplus4produce8 1: 'he sum of the necessar* labour and the surplus labour, i8e8, of the periods of time during "hich the "or+man replaces the )alue of his labour4po"er, and produces the surplus )alue, this sum constitutes the actual time during "hich he "or+s, i$e$, the "or+ing da*8

(ha)ter 1'* "he 5or6in# da+


Section 1: The (imits of the 3orkin% da
Be started "ith the supposition that labour4po"er is bought and sold at its )alue8 >ts )alue, li+e that of all other commodities, is determined b* the "or+ing4time necessar* to its production8 >f the production of the a)erage dail* means of subsistence of the labourer ta+es up 6 hours, he must "or+, on the a)erage, 6 hours e)er* da*, to produce his dail* labour4po"er, or to reproduce the )alue recei)ed as the result of its sale8 'he necessar* part of his "or+ing da* amounts to 6 hours, and is, therefore, caeteris paribus Gother things being eIualH, a gi)en Iuantit*8 /ut "ith this, the e9tent of the "or+ing da* itself is not *et gi)en8 <et us assume that the line (FFF/ represents the length of the necessar* "or+ing4time, sa* 6 hours8 >f the labour be prolonged 1, :, or 6 hours be*ond (FF/, "e ha)e : other lines: Bor+ing da* >8 Bor+ing da* >>8 Bor+ing da* >>>8 (FFF/F58 (FFF/FF58 (FFF/FFF58 representing : different "or+ing da*s of 7, 2, and 16 hours8 'he e9tension /FF5 of the line (FF/ represents the length of the surplus labour8 (s the "or+ing da* is (FF/ _ /FF5 or (FF5, it )aries "ith the )ariable Iuantit* /FF58 Since (FF/ is constant, the ratio of /FF5 to (FF/ can al"a*s be calculated8 >n "or+ing da* >, it is 1J6, in "or+ing da* >>, :J6, in "or+ing da* >>> 6J6 of (FF/8 Since further the ratio (surplus "or+ing4time!J(necessar* "or+ing4time!, determines the rate of the surplus )alue, the latter is gi)en b* the ratio of /F45 to (F4/8 >t amounts in the : different "or+ing da*s respecti)el* to 16 6J:, 37 and 177 per cent8 =n the other hand, the rate of surplus )alue alone "ould not gi)e us the e9tent of the "or+ing da*8 >f this rate, e$ 8, "ere 177 per cent8, the "or+ing da* might be of 8, 17, 16, or more hours8 >t "ould indicate that the 6 constituent parts of the "or+ing da*, necessar*4labour and surplus labour time, "ere eIual in e9tent, but not ho" long each of these t"o constituent parts "as8 'he "or+ing da* is thus not a constant, but a )ariable Iuantit*8 =ne of its parts, certainl*, is determined b* the "or+ing4time reIuired for the reproduction of the labour4po"er of the labourer himself8 /ut its total amount )aries "ith the duration of the surplus labour8 'he "or+ing da* is, therefore, determinable, but is, per se, indeterminate81 (lthough the "or+ing da* is not a fi9ed, but a fluent Iuantit*, it can, on the other hand, onl* )ar* "ithin certain limits8 'he minimum limit is, ho"e)er, not determinable; of course, if "e ma+e the e9tension line /F45 or the surplus labour Y 7, "e ha)e a minimum limit, i$e8, the part of the da* "hich the labourer must necessaril* "or+ for his o"n maintenance8 =n the basis of capitalist production, ho"e)er, this necessar* labour can form a part onl* of the "or+ing da*; the "or+ing da* itself can ne)er be reduced to this minimum8 =n the other hand, the "or+ing da* has a ma9imum limit8 >t cannot be prolonged be*ond a certain point8 'his ma9imum limit is conditioned b* t"o things8 First, b* the ph*sical bounds of labour4po"er8 Bithin the 6 hours of the natural da* a man can e9pend onl* a definite Iuantit* of his )ital force8 ( horse, in li+e manner, can onl* "or+ from da* to da*, 8 hours8 0uring part of the da* this force must rest, sleep; during another part the man has to satisf* other ph*sical needs, to feed, "ash, and clothe himself8 /esides these purel* ph*sical limitations, the e9tension of the "or+ing da* encounters moral ones8 'he labourer needs time for satisf*ing his intellectual and social "ants, the e9tent and number of "hich are conditioned b* the general state of social ad)ancement8 'he )ariation of the

162

5hapter 17

"or+ing da* fluctuates, therefore, "ithin ph*sical and social bounds8 /ut both these limiting conditions are of a )er* elastic nature, and allo" the greatest latitude8 So "e find "or+ing da*s of 8, 17, 16, 1 , 16, 18 hours, i8e8, of the most different lengths8 'he capitalist has bought the labour4po"er at its da*4rate8 'o him its use4)alue belongs during one "or+ing da*8 -e has thus acIuired the right to ma+e the labourer "or+ for him during one da*8 /ut, "hat is a "or+ing da*E 6 (t all e)ents, less than a natural da*8 /* ho" muchE 'he capitalist has his o"n )ie"s of this ultima /hule Gthe outermost limitH, the necessar* limit of the "or+ing da*8 (s capitalist, he is onl* capital personified8 -is soul is the soul of capital8 /ut capital has one single life impulse, the tendenc* to create )alue and surplus )alue, to ma+e its constant factor, the means of production, absorb the greatest possible amount of surplus labour8 : 5apital is dead labour, that, )ampire4li+e, onl* li)es b* suc+ing li)ing labour, and li)es the more, the more labour it suc+s8 'he time during "hich the labourer "or+s, is the time during "hich the capitalist consumes the labour4po"er he has purchased of him8 >f the labourer consumes his disposable time for himself, he robs the capitalist8 3 'he capitalist then ta+es his stand on the la" of the e9change of commodities8 -e, li+e all other bu*ers, see+s to get the greatest possible benefit out of the use4)alue of his commodit*8 Suddenl* the )oice of the labourer, "hich had been stifled in the storm and stress of the process of production, rises: 'he commodit* that > ha)e sold to *ou differs from the cro"d of other commodities, in that its use creates )alue, and a )alue greater than its o"n8 'hat is "h* *ou bought it8 'hat "hich on *our side appears a spontaneous e9pansion of capital, is on mine e9tra e9penditure of labour4po"er8 Nou and > +no" on the mar+et onl* one la", that of the e9change of commodities8 (nd the consumption of the commodit* belongs not to the seller "ho parts "ith it, but to the bu*er, "ho acIuires it8 'o *ou, therefore, belongs the use of m* dail* labour4po"er8 /ut b* means of the price that *ou pa* for it each da*, > must be able to reproduce it dail*, and to sell it again8 (part from natural e9haustion through age, Pc8, > must be able on the morro" to "or+ "ith the same normal amount of force, health and freshness as to4da*8 Nou preach to me constantl* the gospel of @sa)ingA and @abstinence8A GoodQ > "ill, li+e a sensible sa)ing o"ner, husband m* sole "ealth, labour4po"er, and abstain from all foolish "aste of it8 > "ill each da* spend, set in motion, put into action onl* as much of it as is compatible "ith its normal duration, and health* de)elopment8 /* an unlimited e9tension of the "or+ing da*, *ou ma* in one da* use up a Iuantit* of labour4 po"er greater than > can restore in three8 Bhat *ou gain in labour > lose in substance8 'he use of m* labour4po"er and the spoliation of it are Iuite different things8 >f the a)erage time that (doing a reasonable amount of "or+! an a)erage labourer can li)e, is :7 *ears, the )alue of m* labour4 po"er, "hich *ou pa* me from da* to da* is 1J(:63h:7! or 1J17237 of its total )alue8 /ut if *ou consume it in 17 *ears, *ou pa* me dail* 1J17237 instead of 1J:637 of its total )alue, i$e8, onl* 1J: of its dail* )alue, and *ou rob me, therefore, e)er* da* of 6J: of the )alue of m* commodit*8 Nou pa* me for one da*?s labour4po"er, "hilst *ou use that of : da*s8 'hat is against our contract and the la" of e9changes8 > demand, therefore, a "or+ing da* of normal length, and > demand it "ithout an* appeal to *our heart, for in mone* matters sentiment is out of place8 Nou ma* be a model citi1en, perhaps a member of the Societ* for the #re)ention of 5ruelt* to (nimals, and in the odour of sanctit* to boot; but the thing that *ou represent face to face "ith me has no heart in its breast8 'hat "hich seems to throb there is m* o"n heart4beating8 > demand the normal "or+ing da* because >, li+e e)er* other seller, demand the )alue of m* commodit*8 6 Be see then, that, apart from e9tremel* elastic bounds, the nature of the e9change of commodities itself imposes no limit to the "or+ing da*, no limit to surplus labour8 'he capitalist

1:7

5hapter 17

maintains his rights as a purchaser "hen he tries to ma+e the "or+ing da* as long as possible, and to ma+e, "hene)er possible, t"o "or+ing da*s out of one8 =n the other hand, the peculiar nature of the commodit* sold implies a limit to its consumption b* the purchaser, and the labourer maintains his right as seller "hen he "ishes to reduce the "or+ing da* to one of definite normal duration8 'here is here, therefore, an antinom*, right against right, both eIuall* bearing the seal of the la" of e9changes8 /et"een eIual rights force decides8 -ence is it that in the histor* of capitalist production, the determination of "hat is a "or+ing da*, presents itself as the result of a struggle, a struggle bet"een collecti)e capital, i$e$+ the class of capitalists, and collecti)e labour, i$e$+ the "or+ing4class8

Section ': The 4reed for Surplus"(abor5 $anufacturer and Bo ard


5apital has not in)ented surplus labour8 Bhere)er a part of societ* possesses the monopol* of the means of production, the labourer, free or not free, must add to the "or+ing4time necessar* for his o"n maintenance an e9tra "or+ing4time in order to produce the means of subsistence for the o"ners of the means of production7, "hether this proprietor be the (thenian ijkb\ ljijmb\ G"ell4 to4do manH, Etruscan theocrat, civis Romanus G&oman citi1enH, Corman baron, (merican sla)e4 o"ner, Ballachian /o*ard, modern landlord or capitalist8 8 >t is, ho"e)er, clear that in an* gi)en economic formation of societ*, "here not the e9change4)alue but the use4)alue of the product predominates, surplus labour "ill be limited b* a gi)en set of "ants "hich ma* be greater or less, and that here no boundless thirst for surplus labour arises from the nature of the production itself8 -ence in antiIuit* o)er4"or+ becomes horrible onl* "hen the obDect is to obtain e9change4)alue in its specific independent mone*4form; in the production of gold and sil)er8 5ompulsor* "or+ing to death is here the recognised form of o)er4"or+8 =nl* read 0iodorus Siculus8 2 Still these are e9ceptions in antiIuit*8 /ut as soon as people, "hose production still mo)es "ithin the lo"er forms of sla)e4labour, cor)Re4labour, Pc8, are dra"n into the "hirlpool of an international mar+et dominated b* the capitalistic mode of production, the sale of their products for e9port becoming their principal interest, the ci)ilised horrors of o)er4"or+ are grafted on the barbaric horrors of sla)er*, serfdom, Pc8 -ence the negro labour in the Southern States of the (merican %nion preser)ed something of a patriarchal character, so long as production "as chiefl* directed to immediate local consumption8 /ut in proportion, as the e9port of cotton became of )ital interest to these states, the o)er4"or+ing of the negro and sometimes the using up of his life in 7 *ears of labour became a factor in a calculated and calculating s*stem8 >t "as no longer a Iuestion of obtaining from him a certain Iuantit* of useful products8 >t "as no" a Iuestion of production of surplus labour itself: So "as it also "ith the cor)Re, e8g8, in the 0anubian #rincipalities (no" &oumania!8 'he comparison of the greed for surplus labour in the 0anubian #rincipalities "ith the same greed in English factories has a special interest, because surplus labour in the cor)Re has an independent and palpable form8 Suppose the "or+ing da* consists of 6 hours of necessar* labour, and 6 hours of surplus labour8 'hen the free labourer gi)es the capitalist e)er* "ee+ 6 9 6 or :6 hours of surplus labour8 >t is the same as if he "or+ed : da*s in the "ee+ for himself, and : da*s in the "ee+ gratis for the capitalist8 /ut this is not e)ident on the surface8 Surplus labour and necessar* labour glide one into the other8 > can, therefore, e9press the same relationship b* sa*ing, e8g8, that the labourer in e)er* minute "or+s :7 seconds for himself, and :7 for the capitalist, etc8 >t is other"ise "ith the cor)Re8 'he necessar* labour "hich the Ballachian peasant does for his o"n maintenance is distinctl* mar+ed off from his surplus labour on behalf of the /o*ard8 'he one he does on his

1:1

5hapter 17

o"n field, the other on the seignorial estate8 /oth parts of the labour4time e9ist, therefore, independentl*, side b* side one "ith the other8 >n the cor)Re the surplus labour is accuratel* mar+ed off from the necessar* labour8 'his, ho"e)er, can ma+e no difference "ith regard to the Iuantitati)e relation of surplus labour to necessar* labour8 'hree da*s? surplus labour in the "ee+ remain three da*s that *ield no eIui)alent to the labourer himself, "hether it be called cor)Re or "age4labour8 /ut in the capitalist the greed for surplus labour appears in the straining after an unlimited e9tension of the "or+ing da*, in the /o*ard more simpl* in a direct hunting after da*s of cor)Re817 >n the 0anubian #rincipalities the cor)Re "as mi9ed up "ith rents in +ind and other appurtenances of bondage, but it formed the most important tribute paid to the ruling class8 Bhere this "as the case, the cor)Re rarel* arose from serfdom; serfdom much more freIuentl* on the other hand too+ origin from the cor)Re8 11 'his is "hat too+ place in the &oumanian pro)inces8 'heir original mode of production "as based on communit* of the soil, but not in the Sla)onic or >ndian form8 #art of the land "as culti)ated in se)eralt* as freehold b* the members of the communit*, another part F a er publicus 3 "as culti)ated b* them in common8 'he products of this common labour ser)ed partl* as a reser)e fund against bad har)ests and other accidents, partl* as a public store for pro)iding the costs of "ar, religion, and other common e9penses8 >n course of time militar* and clerical dignitaries usurped, along "ith the common land, the labour spent upon it8 'he labour of the free peasants on their common land "as transformed into cor)Re for the thie)es of the common land8 'his cor)Re soon de)eloped into a ser)ile relationship e9isting in point of fact, not in point of la", until &ussia, the liberator of the "orld, made it legal under presence of abolishing serfdom8 'he code of the cor)Re, "hich the &ussian General .isseleff proclaimed in 18:1, "as of course dictated b* the /o*ards themsel)es8 'hus &ussia conIuered "ith one blo" the magnates of the 0anubian pro)inces, and the applause of liberal cretins throughout Europe8 (ccording to the @&nglement organiIue,A as this code of the cor)Re is called, e)er* Ballachian peasant o"es to the so4called landlord, besides a mass of detailed pa*ments in +ind: (45, 16 da*s of general labour; (65, one da* of field labour; (75, one da* of "ood carr*ing8 >n all, 1 da*s in the *ear8 Bith deep insight into #olitical Econom*, ho"e)er, the "or+ing da* is not ta+en in its ordinar* sense, but as the "or+ing da* necessar* to the production of an a)erage dail* product; and that a)erage dail* product is determined in so craft* a "a* that no 5*clops "ould be done "ith it in 6 hours8 >n dr* "ords, the &Rglement itself declares "ith true &ussian iron* that b* 16 "or+ing da*s one must understand the product of the manual labour of :6 da*s, b* 1 da* of field labour : da*s, and b* 1 da* of "ood carr*ing in li+e manner three times as much8 >n all, 6 cor)Re da*s8 'o this had to be added the so4called Dobagie, ser)ice due to the lord for e9traordinar* occasions8 >n proportion to the si1e of its population, e)er* )illage has to furnish annuall* a definite contingent to the Dobagie8 'his additional cor)Re is estimated at 1 da*s for each Ballachian peasant8 'hus the prescribed cor)Re amounts to 36 "or+ing da*s *earl*8 /ut the agricultural *ear in Ballachia numbers in conseIuence of the se)ere climate onl* 617 da*s, of "hich 7 for Sunda*s and holida*s, :7 on an a)erage for bad "eather, together 77 da*s, do not count8 1 7 "or+ing da*s remain8 'he ratio of the cor)Re to the necessar* labour 36J8 or 66 6J: ` gi)es a much smaller rate of surplus )alue than that "hich regulates the labour of the English agricultural or factor* labourer8 'his is, ho"e)er, onl* the legall* prescribed cor)Re8 (nd in a spirit *et more @liberalA than the English Factor* (cts, the @&nglement organiIueA has +no"n ho" to facilitate its o"n e)asion8 (fter it has made 36 da*s out of 16, the nominal da*?s "or+ of each of the 36 cor)Re da*s is again so arranged that a portion of it must fall on the ensuing da*8 >n one da*, e8g8, must be "eeded an e9tent of land, "hich, for this "or+, especiall* in mai1e plantations, needs t"ice as much time8 'he legal da*?s "or+ for some +inds of agricultural labour

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5hapter 17

is interpretable in such a "a* that the da* begins in $a* and ends in =ctober8 >n $olda)ia conditions are still harder8 @'he 16 cor)Re da*s of the W&nglement organiIue? cried a /o*ard drun+ "ith )ictor*, amount to :63 da*s in the *ear8A16 >f the &nglement organiIue of the 0anubian pro)inces "as a positi)e e9pression of the greed for surplus labour "hich e)er* paragraph legalised, the English Factor* (cts are the negati)e e9pression of the same greed8 'hese acts curb the passion of capital for a limitless draining of labour4po"er, b* forcibl* limiting the "or+ing da* b* state regulations, made b* a state that is ruled b* capitalist4and landlord8 (part from the "or+ing4class mo)ement that dail* gre" more threatening, the limiting of factor* labour "as dictated b* the same necessit* "hich spread guano o)er the English fields8 'he same blind eagerness for plunder that in the one case e9hausted the soil, had, in the other, torn up b* the roots the li)ing force of the nation8 #eriodical epidemics spea+ on this point as clearl* as the diminishing militar* standard in German* and France8 1: 'he Factor* (ct of 1837 no" in force (1867! allo"s for the a)erage "or+ing da* 17 hours, i8e8, for the first 3 da*s 16 hours from 6 a8m8 to 6 p8m8, including [ an hour for brea+fast, and an hour for dinner, and thus lea)ing 17[ "or+ing4hours, and 8 hours for Saturda*, from 6 a8m8 to 6 p8m8, of "hich [ an hour is subtracted for brea+fast8 67 "or+ing4hours are left, 17[ for each of the first 3 da*s, 7[ for the last81 5ertain guardians of these la"s are appointed, Factor* >nspectors, directl* under the -ome Secretar*, "hose reports are published half4*earl*, b* order of #arliament8 'he* gi)e regular and official statistics of the capitalistic greed for surplus labour8 <et us listen, for a moment, to the Factor* >nspectors8 13 @'he fraudulent mill4o"ner begins "or+ a Iuarter of an hour (sometimes more, sometimes less! before 6 a8m8, and lea)es off a Iuarter of an hour (sometimes more, sometimes less! after 6 p8m8 -e ta+es 3 minutes from the beginning and from the end of the half hour nominall* allo"ed for brea+fast, and 17 minutes at the beginning and end of the hour nominall* allo"ed for dinner8 -e "or+s for a Iuarter of an hour (sometimes more, sometimes less! after 6 p8m8 on Saturda*8 'hus his gain is F /efore 6 a8m8, 13 minutes8 (fter 6 p8m8, 13 V (t brea+fast time, 17 V (t dinner time, 67 V Fi)e da*s F :77 minutes, 67 V =n Saturda* before 6 a8m8, 13 minutes8 (t brea+fast time, 17 V (fter 6 p8m8, 13 V 7 minutes8 'otal "ee+l*, : 7 minutes8 =r 3 hours and 7 minutes "ee+l*, "hich multiplied b* 37 "or+ing "ee+s in the *ear (allo"ing t"o for holida*s and occasional stoppages! is eIual to 67 "or+ing da*s8A16 @Fi)e minutes a da*?s increased "or+, multiplied b* "ee+s, are eIual to t"o and a half da*s of produce in the *ear8A17

1::

5hapter 17

@(n additional hour a da* gained b* small instalments before 6 a8m8, after 6 p8m8, and at the beginning and end of the times nominall* fi9ed for meals, is nearl* eIui)alent to "or+ing 1: months in the *ear8A18 5rises during "hich production is interrupted and the factories "or+ @short time,A i8e8, for onl* a part of the "ee+, naturall* do not affect the tendenc* to e9tend the "or+ing da*8 'he less business there is, the more profit has to be made on the business done8 'he less time spent in "or+, the more of that time has to be turned into surplus labour4time8 'hus the Factor* >nspector?s report on the period of the crisis from 1837 to 1838: @>t ma* seem inconsistent that there should be an* o)er"or+ing at a time "hen trade is so bad; but that )er* badness leads to the transgression b* unscrupulous men, the* get the e9tra profit of it8 888 >n the last half *ear, sa*s <eonard -orner, 166 mills in m* district ha)e been gi)en up; 1 : "ere found standing,A *et, o)er4 "or+ is continued be*ond the legal hours8A12 @For a great part of the time,A sa*s $r8 -o"ell, @o"ing to the depression of trade, man* factories "ere altogether closed, and a still greater number "ere "or+ing short time8 > continue, ho"e)er, to recei)e about the usual number of complaints that half, or three4Iuarters of an hour in the da*, are snatched from the "or+ers b* encroaching upon the times professedl* allo"ed for rest and refreshment8A 67 'he same phenomenon "as reproduced on a smaller scale during the frightful cotton4crises from 1861 to 1863861 @>t is sometimes ad)anced b* "a* of e9cuse, "hen persons are found at "or+ in a factor*, either at a meal hour, or at some illegal time, that the* "ill not lea)e the mill at the appointed hour, and that compulsion is necessar* to force them to cease "or+ Gcleaning their machiner*, Pc8H, especiall* on Saturda* afternoons8 /ut, if the hands remain in a factor* after the machiner* has ceased to re)ol)e 888 the* "ould not ha)e been so emplo*ed if sufficient time had been set apart speciall* for cleaning, Pc8, either before 6 a8m8 8sic$!9 or before 6 p8m8 on Saturda* afternoons8A 66 @'he profit to be gained b* it (o)er4"or+ing in )iolation of the (ct! appears to be, to man*, a greater temptation than the* can resist; the* calculate upon the chance of not being found out; and "hen the* see the small amount of penalt* and costs, "hich those "ho ha)e been con)icted ha)e had to pa*, the* find that if the* should be detected there "ill still be a considerable balance of gain8888 6: >n cases "here the additional time is gained b* a multiplication of small thefts in the course of the da*, there are insuperable difficulties to the inspectors ma+ing out a case8A 6 'hese @small theftsA of capital from the labourer?s meal and recreation time, the factor* inspectors also designate as @pett* pilferings of minutes,A 63@snatching a fe" minutes,A66 or, as the labourers technicall* called them, @nibbling and cribbling at meal4times8A 67 >t is e)ident that in this atmosphere the formation of surplus )alue b* surplus labour, is no secret8 @>f *ou allo" me,A said a highl* respectable master to me, @to "or+ onl* ten minutes in the da* o)er4time, *ou put one thousand a *ear in m* poc+et8A 68 @$oments are the elements of profit8A62 Cothing is from this point of )ie" more characteristic than the designation of the "or+ers "ho "or+ full time as @full4timers,A and the children under 1: "ho are onl* allo"ed to "or+ 6 hours

1:

5hapter 17

as @half4timers8A 'he "or+er is here nothing more than personified labour4time8 (ll indi)idual distinctions are merged in those of @full4timersA and @half4timersA :7

Section *: Branches of )n%lish Industr 3ithout (e%al (imits to )+ploitation


Be ha)e hitherto considered the tendenc* to the e9tension of the "or+ing da*, the "ere4"olf?s hunger for surplus labour in a department "here the monstrous e9actions, not surpassed, sa*s an English bourgeois economist, b* the cruelties of the Spaniards to the (merican red4s+ins :1, caused capital at last to be bound b* the chains of legal regulations8 Co", let us cast a glance at certain branches of production in "hich the e9ploitation of labour is either free from fetters to this da*, or "as so *esterda*8 $r8 /roughton 5harlton, count* magistrate, declared, as chairman of a meeting held at the (ssembl* &ooms, Cottingham, on the 1 th Lanuar*, 1867, @that there "as an amount of pri)ation and suffering among that portion of the population connected "ith the lace trade, un+no"n in other parts of the +ingdom, indeed, in the ci)ilised "orld 8888 5hildren of nine or ten *ears are dragged from their sIualid beds at t"o, three, or four o?cloc+ in the morning and compelled to "or+ for a bare subsistence until ten, ele)en, or t"el)e at night, their limbs "earing a"a*, their frames d"indling, their faces "hitening, and their humanit* absolutel* sin+ing into a stone4li+e torpor, utterl* horrible to contemplate8888 Be are not surprised that $r8 $allett, or an* other manufacturer, should stand for"ard and protest against discussion8888 'he s*stem, as the &e)8 $ontagu ;alp* describes it, is one of unmitigated sla)er*, sociall*, ph*sicall*, morall*, and spirituall*8888 Bhat can be thought of a to"n "hich holds a public meeting to petition that the period of labour for men shall be diminished to eighteen hours a da*E 8888 Be declaim against the ;irginian and 5arolinian cotton4planters8 >s their blac+4 mar+et, their lash, and their barter of human flesh more detestable than this slo" sacrifice of humanit* "hich ta+es place in order that )eils and collars ma* be fabricated for the benefit of capitalistsEA :6 'he potteries of Staffordshire ha)e, during the last 66 *ears, been the subDect of three parliamentar* inIuiries8 'he result is embodied in $r8 Scri)en?s &eport of 18 1 to the @5hildren?s Emplo*ment 5ommissioners,A in the report of 0r8 Greenho" of 1867 published b* order of the medical officer of the #ri)* 5ouncil (#ublic -ealth, :rd &eport, 116411:!, lastl*, in the report of $r8 <onge of 1866 in the @First &eport of the 5hildren?s Emplo*ment 5ommission, of the 1:th Lune, 186:8A For m* purpose it is enough to ta+e, from the reports of 1867 and 186:, some depositions of the e9ploited children themsel)es8 From the children "e ma* form an opinion as to the adults, especiall* the girls and "omen, and that in a branch of industr* b* the side of "hich cotton4spinning appears an agreeable and healthful occupation8 :: Billiam Bood, 2 *ears old, "as 7 *ears and 17 months "hen he began to "or+8 -e @ran mouldsA (carried read*4moulded articles into the dr*ing4room, after"ards bringing bac+ the empt* mould! from the beginning8 -e came to "or+ e)er* da* in the "ee+ at 6 a8m8, and left off about 2 p8m8 @> "or+ till 2 o?cloc+ at night si9 da*s in the "ee+8 > ha)e done so se)en or eight "ee+s8A Fifteen hours of labour for a child 7 *ears oldQ L8 $urra*, 16 *ears of age, sa*s: @> turn Digger, and run moulds8 > come at 68 Sometimes > come at 8 > "or+ed all night last night, till 6 o?cloc+ this morning8 > ha)e not been in bed since the night before last8 'here "ere eight or nine other bo*s "or+ing last night8 (ll but one

1:3

5hapter 17

ha)e come this morning8 > get : shillings and si9pence8 > do not get an* more for "or+ing at night8 > "or+ed t"o nights last "ee+8A Fern*hough, a bo* of ten: @> ha)e not al"a*s an hour (for dinner!8 > ha)e onl* half an hour sometimes; on 'hursda*, Frida*, and Saturda*8A : 0r8 Greenho" states that the a)erage duration of life in the potter* districts of Sto+e4on4'rent, and Bolstanton is e9traordinaril* short8 (lthough in the district of Sto+e, onl* :686` and in Bolstanton onl* :78 ` of the adult male population abo)e 67 are emplo*ed in the potteries, among the men of that age in the first district more than half, in the second, nearl* 6J3 of the "hole deaths are the result of pulmonar* diseases among the potters8 0r8 /oothro*d, a medical practitioner at -anle*, sa*s: @Each successi)e generation of potters is more d"arfed and less robust than the preceding one8A >n li+e manner another doctor, $r8 $?/ean: @Since he began to practice among the potters 63 *ears ago, he had obser)ed a mar+ed degeneration especiall* sho"n in diminution of stature and breadth8A 'hese statements are ta+en from the report of 0r8 Greenho" in 18678 :3 From the report of the 5ommissioners in 186:, the follo"ing: 0r8 L8 '8 (rledge, senior ph*sician of the Corth Staffordshire >nfirmar*, sa*s: @'he potters as a class, both men and "omen, represent a degenerated population, both ph*sicall* and morall*8 'he* are, as a rule, stunted in gro"th, ill4shaped, and freIuentl* ill4formed in the chest; the* become prematurel* old, and are certainl* short4li)ed; the* are phlegmatic and bloodless, and e9hibit their debilit* of constitution b* obstinate attac+s of d*spepsia, and disorders of the li)er and +idne*s, and b* rheumatism8 /ut of all diseases the* are especiall* prone to chest4 disease, to pneumonia, phthisis, bronchitis, and asthma8 =ne form "ould appear peculiar to them, and is +no"n as potter?s asthma, or potter?s consumption8 Scrofula attac+ing the glands, or bones, or other parts of the bod*, is a disease of t"o4thirds or more of the potters 8888 'hat the Wdegenerescence? of the population of this district is not e)en greater than it is, is due to the constant recruiting from the adDacent countr*, and intermarriages "ith more health* races8A :6 $r8 5harles #arsons, late house surgeon of the same institution, "rites in a letter to 5ommissioner <onge, amongst other things: @> can onl* spea+ from personal obser)ation and not from statistical data, but > do not hesitate to assert that m* indignation has been aroused again and again at the sight of poor children "hose health has been sacrificed to gratif* the a)arice of either parents or emplo*ers8A -e enumerates the causes of the diseases of the potters, and sums them up in the phrase, @long hours8A 'he report of the 5ommission trusts that @a manufacture "hich has assumed so prominent a place in the "hole "orld, "ill not long be subDect to the remar+ that its great success is accompanied "ith the ph*sical deterioration, "idespread bodil* suffering, and earl* death of the "or+people 888 b* "hose labour and s+ill such great results ha)e been achie)ed8A :7 (nd all that holds of the potteries in England is true of those in Scotland8 :8 'he manufacture of lucifer matches dates from 18::, from the disco)er* of the method of appl*ing phosphorus to the match itself8 Since 18 3 this manufacture has rapidl* de)eloped in

1:6

5hapter 17

England, and has e9tended especiall* amongst the thic+l* populated parts of <ondon as "ell as in $anchester, /irmingham, <i)erpool, /ristol, Cor"ich, Ce"castle and Glasgo"8 Bith it has spread the form of loc+Da", "hich a ;ienna ph*sician in 18 3 disco)ered to be a disease peculiar to lucifer4matchma+ers8 -alf the "or+ers are children under thirteen, and *oung persons under eighteen8 'he manufacture is on account of its unhealthiness and unpleasantness in such bad odour that onl* the most miserable part of the labouring class, half4star)ed "ido"s and so forth, deli)er up their children to it, @the ragged, half4star)ed, untaught children8A :2 =f the "itnesses that 5ommissioner Bhite e9amined (186:!, 677 "ere under 18, 37 under 17, 17 onl* 8, and 3 onl* 6 *ears old8 ( range of the "or+ing da* from 16 to 1 or 13 hours, night4 labour, irregular meal4times, meals for the most part ta+en in the )er* "or+rooms that are pestilent "ith phosphorus8 0ante "ould ha)e found the "orst horrors of his >nferno surpassed in this manufacture8 >n the manufacture of paper4hangings the coarser sorts are printed b* machine; the finer b* hand (bloc+4printing!8 'he most acti)e business months are from the beginning of =ctober to the end of (pril8 0uring this time the "or+ goes on fast and furious "ithout intermission from 6 a8m8 to 17 p8m8 or further into the night8 L8 <each deposes: @<ast "inter si9 out of nineteen girls "ere a"a* from ill4health at one time from o)er4"or+8 > ha)e to ba"l at them to +eep them a"a+e8A B8 0uff*: @> ha)e seen "hen the children could none of them +eep their e*es open for the "or+; indeed, none of us could8A L8 <ightbourne: @(m 1: Be "or+ed last "inter till 2 (e)ening!, and the "inter before till 178 > used to cr* "ith sore feet e)er* night last "inter8A G8 (psden: @'hat bo* of mine "hen he "as 7 *ears old > used to carr* him on m* bac+ to and fro through the sno", and he used to ha)e 16 hours a da* 888 > ha)e often +nelt do"n to feed him as he stood b* the machine, for he could not lea)e it or stop8A Smith, the managing partner of a $anchester factor*: @Be (he means his @handsA "ho "or+ for @usA! "or+ on "ith no stoppage for meals, so that da*?s "or+ of 17[ hours is finished b* 8:7 p8m8, and all after that is o)er4time8A 7 (0oes this $r8 Smith ta+e no meals himself during 17[ hoursE! @Be (this same Smith! seldom lea)e off "or+ing before 6 p8m8 (he means lea)e off the consumption of @ourA labour4po"er machines!, so that "e (iterum 5rispinus! are reall* "or+ing o)er4time the "hole *ear round8 For all these, children and adults ali+e (136 children and *oung persons and 1 7 adults!, the a)erage "or+ for the last 18 months has been at the )er* least 7 da*s, 3 hours, or 78 1J6 hours a "ee+8 For the si9 "ee+s ending $a* 6nd this *ear (1866!, the a)erage "as higher F 8 da*s or 8 hours a "ee+8A Still this same $r8 Smith, "ho is so e9tremel* de)oted to the pluralis ma:estatis Gthe &o*al @"e,A i8e8, spea+ing on behalf of his subDectsH, adds "ith a smile, V$achine4"or+ is not great8A So the emplo*ers in the bloc+4printing sa*: @-and labour is more health* than machine "or+8A =n the "hole, manufacturers declare "ith indignation against the proposal @to stop the machines at least during meal4times8A @( clause,A sa*s $r8 =tle*, manager of a "all4paper factor* in the /orough, @"hich allo"ed "or+ bet"een, sa* 6 a8m8 and 2 p8m8 in "ould suit us (Q! )er* "ell, but the factor* hours, 6 a8m8 to 6 p8m8, are not suitable8 =ur machine is al"a*s stopped for dinner8 (Bhat generosit*Q! 'here is no "aste of paper and colour to spea+ of8 /ut,A he adds s*mpatheticall*, @> can understand the loss of time not being li+ed8A

1:7

5hapter 17

'he report of the 5ommission opines "ith nao)etR that the fear of some @leading firmsA of losing time, i$e$+ the time for appropriating the labour of others, and thence losing profit is not a sufficient reason for allo"ing children under 1:, and *oung persons under 18, "or+ing 16 to 16 hours per da*, to lose their dinner, nor for gi)ing it to them as coal and "ater are supplied to the steam4engine, soap to "ool, oil to the "heel F as merel* au9iliar* material to the instruments of labour, during the process of production itself8 1 Co branch of industr* in England ("e do not ta+e into account the ma+ing of bread b* machiner* recentl* introduced! has preser)ed up to the present da* a method of production so archaic, so F as "e see from the poets of the &oman Empire F pre4christian, as ba+ing8 /ut capital, as "as said earlier, is at first indifferent as to the technical character of the labour4process; it begins b* ta+ing it Dust as it finds it8 'he incredible adulteration of bread, especiall* in <ondon, "as first re)ealed b* the -ouse of 5ommons 5ommittee @on the adulteration of articles of foodA (1833436!, and 0r8 -assall?s "or+, @(dulterations detected8A 6 'he conseIuence of these re)elations "as the (ct of (ugust 6th, 1867, @for pre)enting the adulteration of articles of food and drin+,A an inoperati)e la", as it naturall* sho"s the tenderest consideration for e)er* Free4trader "ho determines b* the bu*ing or selling of adulterated commodities @to turn an honest penn*8A :'he 5ommittee itself formulated more or less nao)el* its con)iction that Free4trade meant essentiall* trade "ith adulterated, or as the English ingeniousl* put it, @sophisticatedA goods8 >n fact this +ind of sophistr* +no"s better than #rotagoras ho" to ma+e "hite blac+, and blac+ "hite, and better than the Eleatics ho" to demonstrate ad oculos Gbefore *our o"n e*esH that e)er*thing is onl* appearance8 (t all e)ents the 5ommittee had directed the attention of the public to its @dail* bread,A and therefore to the ba+ing trade8 (t the same time in public meetings and in petitions to #arliament rose the cr* of the <ondon Dourne*men ba+ers against their o)er4"or+, Pc8 'he cr* "as so urgent that $r8 -8 S8 'remenheere, also a member of the 5ommission of 186: se)eral times mentioned, "as appointed &o*al 5ommissioner of >nIuir*8 -is report8 3 together "ith the e)idence gi)en, roused not the heart of the public but its stomach8 Englishmen, al"a*s "ell up in the /ible, +ne" "ell enough that man, unless b* electi)e grace a capitalist, or landlord, or sinecurist, is commanded to eat his bread in the s"eat of his bro", but the* did not +no" that he had to eat dail* in his bread a certain Iuantit* of human perspiration mi9ed "ith the discharge of abscesses, cob"ebs, dead blac+4beetles, and putrid German *east, "ithout counting alum, sand, and other agreeable mineral ingredients8 Bithout an* regard to his holiness, Free4trade, the free ba+ing4 trade "as therefore placed under the super)ision of the State inspectors (5lose of the #arliamentar* session of 186:!, and b* the same (ct of #arliament, "or+ from 2 in the e)ening to 3 in the morning "as forbidden for Dourne*men ba+ers under 188 'he last clause spea+s )olumes as to the o)er4"or+ in this old4fashioned, homel* line of business8 @'he "or+ of a <ondon Dourne*man ba+er begins, as a rule, at about ele)en at night8 (t that hour he Wma+es the dough,? F a laborious process, "hich lasts from half an hour to three Iuarters of an hour, according to the si1e of the batch or the labour besto"ed upon it8 -e then lies do"n upon the +neading4board, "hich is also the co)ering of the trough in "hich the dough is Wmade?; and "ith a sac+ under him, and another rolled up as a pillo", he sleeps for about a couple of hours8 -e is then engaged in a rapid and continuous labour for about fi)e hours F thro"ing out the dough, Wscaling it off,? moulding it, putting it into the o)en, preparing and ba+ing rolls and fanc* bread, ta+ing the batch bread out of the o)en, and up into the shop, Pc8, Pc8 'he temperature of a ba+ehouse ranges from about

1:8

5hapter 17

73 to up"ards of 27 degrees, and in the smaller ba+ehouses appro9imates usuall* to the higher rather than to the lo"er degree of heat8 Bhen the business of ma+ing the bread, rolls, Pc8, is o)er, that of its distribution begins, and a considerable proportion of the Dourne*men in the trade, after "or+ing hard in the manner described during the night, are upon their legs for man* hours during the da*, carr*ing bas+ets, or "heeling hand4carts, and sometimes again in the ba+ehouse, lea)ing off "or+ at )arious hours bet"een 1 and 6 p8m8 according to the season of the *ear, or the amount and nature of their master?s business; "hile others are again engaged in the ba+ehouse in Wbringing out? more batches until late in the afternoon8 6888 0uring "hat is called Wthe <ondon season,? the operati)es belonging to the Wfull4priced? ba+ers at the Best End of the to"n, generall* begin "or+ at 11 p8m8, and are engaged in ma+ing the bread, "ith one or t"o short (sometimes )er* short! inter)als of rest, up to 8 o?cloc+ the ne9t morning8 'he* are then engaged all da* long, up to , 3, 6, and as late as 7 o?cloc+ in the e)ening carr*ing out bread, or sometimes in the afternoon in the ba+ehouse again, assisting in the biscuit4ba+ing8 'he* ma* ha)e, after the* ha)e done their "or+, sometimes fi)e or si9, sometimes onl* four or fi)e hours? sleep before the* begin again8 =n Frida*s the* al"a*s begin sooner, some about ten o?cloc+, and continue in some cases, at "or+, either in ma+ing or deli)ering the bread up to 8 p8m8 on Saturda* night, but more generall* up to or 3 o?cloc+, Sunda* morning8 =n Sunda*s the men must attend t"ice or three times during the da* for an hour or t"o to ma+e preparations for the ne9t da*?s bread8888 'he men emplo*ed b* the underselling masters ("ho sell their bread under the Wfull price,? and "ho, as alread* pointed out, comprise three4fourths of the <ondon ba+ers! ha)e not onl* to "or+ on the a)erage longer hours, but their "or+ is almost entirel* confined to the ba+ehouse8 'he underselling masters generall* sell their bread888 in the shop8 >f the* send it out, "hich is not common, e9cept as suppl*ing chandlers? shops, the* usuall* emplo* other hands for that purpose8 >t is not their practice to deli)er bread from house to house8 'o"ards the end of the "ee+ 888 the men begin on 'hursda* night at 17 o?cloc+, and continue on "ith onl* slight intermission until late on Saturda* e)ening8A 7 E)en the bourgeois intellect understands the position of the @undersellingA masters8 @'he unpaid labour of the men "as made the source "hereb* the competition "as carried on8A 8 (nd the @full4pricedA ba+er denounces his underselling competitors to the 5ommission of >nIuir* as thie)es of foreign labour and adulterators8 @'he* onl* e9ist no" b* first defrauding the public, and ne9t getting 18 hours? "or+ out of their men for 16 hours? "ages8A 2 'he adulteration of bread and the formation of a class of ba+ers that sells the bread belo" the full price, date from the beginning of the 18th centur*, from the time "hen the corporate character of the trade "as lost, and the capitalist in the form of the miller or flour4factor, rises behind the nominal master ba+er837 'hus "as laid the foundation of capitalistic production in this trade, of the unlimited e9tension of the "or+ing da* and of night4labour, although the latter onl* since 186 gained a serious footing, e)en in <ondon8 31 (fter "hat has Dust been said, it "ill be understood that the &eport of the 5ommission classes Dourne*men ba+ers among the short4li)ed labourers, "ho, ha)ing b* good luc+ escaped the normal decimation of the children of the "or+ing4class, rarel* reach the age of 68 Ce)ertheless, the ba+ing trade is al"a*s o)er"helmed "ith applicants8 'he sources of the suppl* of these

1:2

5hapter 17

labour4po"ers to <ondon are Scotland, the "estern agricultural districts of England, and German*8 >n the *ears 1838467, the Dourne*men ba+ers in >reland organised at their o"n e9pense great meetings to agitate against night and Sunda* "or+8 'he public F e8g8, at the 0ublin meeting in $a*, 1867 F too+ their part "ith >rish "armth8 (s a result of this mo)ement, da*4labour alone "as successfull* established in Be9ford, .il+enn*, 5lonmel, Baterford, Pc8 @>n <imeric+, "here the grie)ances of the Dourne*men are demonstrated to be e9cessi)e, the mo)ement has been defeated b* the opposition of the master ba+ers, the miller ba+ers being the greatest opponents8 'he e9ample of <imeric+ led to a retrogression in Ennis and 'ipperar*8 >n 5or+, "here the strongest possible demonstration of feeling too+ place, the masters, b* e9ercising their po"er of turning the men out of emplo*ment, ha)e defeated the mo)ement8 >n 0ublin, the master ba+ers ha)e offered the most determined opposition to the mo)ement, and b* discountenancing as much as possible the Dourne*men promoting it, ha)e succeeded in leading the men into acIuiescence in Sunda* "or+ and night4"or+, contrar* to the con)ictions of the men8A 36 'he 5ommittee of the English Go)ernment, "hich Go)ernment, in >reland, is armed to the teeth, and generall* +no"s ho" to sho" it, remonstrates in mild, though funereal, tones "ith the implacable master ba+ers of 0ublin, <imeric+, 5or+, Pc8: @'he 5ommittee belie)e that the hours of labour are limited b* natural la"s, "hich cannot be )iolated "ith impunit*8 'hat for master ba+ers to induce their "or+men, b* the fear of losing emplo*ment, to )iolate their religious con)ictions and their better feelings, to disobe* the la"s of the land, and to disregard public opinion (this all refers to Sunda* labour!, is calculated to pro)o+e ill4feeling bet"een "or+men and masters, 888 and affords an e9ample dangerous to religion, moralit*, and social order8888 'he 5ommittee belie)e that an* constant "or+ be*ond 16 hours a4da* encroaches on the domestic and pri)ate life of the "or+ing4man, and so leads to disastrous moral results, interfering "ith each man?s home, and the discharge of his famil* duties as a son, a brother, a husband, a father8 'hat "or+ be*ond 16 hours has a tendenc* to undermine the health of the "or+ingman, and so leads to premature old age and death, to the great inDur* of families of "or+ing4men, thus depri)ed of the care and support of the head of the famil* "hen most reIuired8A 3: So far, "e ha)e dealt "ith >reland8 =n the other side of the channel, in Scotland, the agricultural labourer, the ploughman, protests against his 1:41 hours? "or+ in the most inclement climate, "ith hours? additional "or+ on Sunda* (in this land of SabbatariansQ!, 3 "hilst, at the same time, three rail"a* men are standing before a <ondon coroner?s Dur* F a guard, an engine4dri)er, a signalman8 ( tremendous rail"a* accident has hurried hundreds of passengers into another "orld8 'he negligence of the emplo*ee is the cause of the misfortune8 'he* declare "ith one )oice before the Dur* that ten or t"el)e *ears before, their labour onl* lasted eight hours a4da*8 0uring the last fi)e or si9 *ears it had been scre"ed up to 1 , 18, and 67 hours, and under a speciall* se)ere pressure of holida*4ma+ers, at times of e9cursion trains, it often lasted for 7 or 37 hours "ithout a brea+8 'he* "ere ordinar* men, not 5*clops8 (t a certain point their labour4 po"er failed8 'orpor sei1ed them8 'heir brain ceased to thin+, their e*es to see8 'he thoroughl* @respectableA /ritish Dur*men ans"ered b* a )erdict that sent them to the ne9t assi1es on a charge of manslaughter, and, in a gentle @riderA to their )erdict, e9pressed the pious hope that the capitalistic magnates of the rail"a*s "ould, in future, be more e9tra)agant in the purchase of a

1 7

5hapter 17

sufficient Iuantit* of labour4po"er, and more @abstemious,A more @self4den*ing,A more @thrift*,A in the draining of paid labour4po"er8 33 From the motle* cro"d of labourers of all callings, ages, se9es, that press on us more busil* than the souls of the slain on %l*sses, on "hom F "ithout referring to the /lue boo+s under their arms F "e see at a glance the mar+ of o)er4"or+, let us ta+e t"o more figures "hose stri+ing contrast pro)es that before capital all men are ali+e F a milliner and a blac+smith8 >n the last "ee+ of Lune, 186:, all the <ondon dail* papers published a paragraph "ith the @sensationalA heading, @0eath from simple o)er4"or+8A >t dealt "ith the death of the milliner, $ar* (nne Bal+le*, 67 *ears of age, emplo*ed in a highl*4respectable dressma+ing establishment, e9ploited b* a lad* "ith the pleasant name of Elise8 'he old, often4told stor*, 36 "as once more recounted8 'his girl "or+ed, on an a)erage, 16[ hours, during the season often :7 hours, "ithout a brea+, "hilst her failing labour4po"er "as re)i)ed b* occasional supplies of sherr*, port, or coffee8 >t "as Dust no" the height of the season8 >t "as necessar* to conDure up in the t"in+ling of an e*e the gorgeous dresses for the noble ladies bidden to the ball in honour of the ne"l*4imported #rincess of Bales8 $ar* (nne Bal+le* had "or+ed "ithout intermission for 66[ hours, "ith 67 other girls, :7 in one room, that onl* afforded 1J: of the cubic feet of air reIuired for them8 (t night, the* slept in pairs in one of the stifling holes into "hich the bedroom "as di)ided b* partitions of board8 37 (nd this "as one of the best milliner* establishments in <ondon8 $ar* (nne Bal+le* fell ill on the Frida*, died on Sunda*, "ithout, to the astonishment of $adame Elise, ha)ing pre)iousl* completed the "or+ in hand8 'he doctor, $r8 .e*s, called too late to the death4bed, dul* bore "itness before the coroner?s Dur* that @$ar* (nne Bal+le* had died from long hours of "or+ in an o)er4cro"ded "or+4 room, and a too small and badl* )entilated bedroom8A >n order to gi)e the doctor a lesson in good manners, the coroner?s Dur* thereupon brought in a )erdict that @the deceased had died of apople9*, but there "as reason to fear that her death had been accelerated b* o)er4"or+ in an o)er4cro"ded "or+room, Pc8A @=ur "hite sla)es,A cried the Mornin ;tar, the organ of the Free4traders, 5obden and /right, @our "hite sla)es, "ho are toiled into the gra)e, for the most part silentl* pine and die8A 38 @>t is not in dressma+ers? rooms that "or+ing to death is the order of the da*, but in a thousand other places; in e)er* place > had almost said, "here Wa thri)ing business? has to be done8888 Be "ill ta+e the blac+smith as a t*pe8 >f the poets "ere true, there is no man so heart*, so merr*, as the blac+smith; he rises earl* and stri+es his spar+s before the sun; he eats and drin+s and sleeps as no other man8 Bor+ing in moderation, he is, in fact, in one of the best of human positions, ph*sicall* spea+ing8 /ut "e follo" him into the cit* or to"n, and "e see the stress of "or+ on that strong man, and "hat then is his position in the death4rate of his countr*8 >n $ar*lebone, blac+smiths die at the rate of :1 per thousand per annum, or 11 abo)e the mean of the male adults of the countr* in its entiret*8 'he occupation, instincti)e almost as a portion of human art, unobDectionable as a branch of human industr*, is made b* mere e9cess of "or+, the destro*er of the man8 -e can stri+e so man* blo"s per da*, "al+ so man* steps, breathe so man* breaths, produce so much "or+, and li)e an a)erage, sa* of fift* *ears; he is made to stri+e so man* more blo"s, to "al+ so man* more steps, to breathe so man* more breaths per da*, and to increase altogether a fourth of his life8 -e meets the effort; the result is, that producing for a limited time a fourth more "or+, he dies at :7 for 378A 32

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5hapter 17

Section ,: -a and 6i%ht 3ork7 The .ela S stem


5onstant capital, the means of production, considered from the standpoint of the creation of surplus )alue, onl* e9ist to absorb labour, and "ith e)er* drop of labour a proportional Iuantit* of surplus labour8 Bhile the* fail to do this, their mere e9istence causes a relati)e loss to the capitalist, for the* represent during the time the* lie fallo", a useless ad)ance of capital8 (nd this loss becomes positi)e and absolute as soon as the intermission of their emplo*ment necessitates additional outla* at the recommencement of "or+8 'he prolongation of the "or+ing da* be*ond the limits of the natural da*, into the night, onl* acts as a palliati)e8 >t Iuenches onl* in a slight degree the )ampire thirst for the li)ing blood of labour8 'o appropriate labour during all the 6 hours of the da* is, therefore, the inherent tendenc* of capitalist production8 /ut as it is ph*sicall* impossible to e9ploit the same indi)idual labour4po"er constantl* during the night as "ell as the da*, to o)ercome this ph*sical hindrance, an alternation becomes necessar* bet"een the "or+people "hose po"ers are e9hausted b* da*, and those "ho are used up b* night8 'his alternation ma* be effected in )arious "a*s; e8g8, it ma* be so arranged that part of the "or+ers are one "ee+ emplo*ed on da*4"or+, the ne9t "ee+ on night4"or+8 >t is "ell +no"n that this rela* s*stem, this alternation of t"o sets of "or+ers, held full s"a* in the full4blooded *outh4time of the English cotton manufacture, and that at the present time it still flourishes, among others, in the cotton spinning of the $osco" district8 'his 6 hours? process of production e9ists to4da* as a s*stem in man* of the branches of industr* of Great /ritain that are still @free,A in the blast4 furnaces, forges, plate4rolling mills, and other metallurgical establishments in England, Bales, and Scotland8 'he "or+ing4time here includes, besides the 6 hours of the 6 "or+ing da*s, a great part also of the 6 hours of Sunda*8 'he "or+ers consist of men and "omen, adults and children of both se9es8 'he ages of the children and *oung persons run through all intermediate grades, from 8 (in some cases from 6! to 188 67 >n some branches of industr*, the girls and "omen "or+ through the night together "ith the males8 61 #lacing on one side the generall* inDurious influence of night4labour, 66 the duration of the process of production, unbro+en during the 6 hours, offers )er* "elcome opportunities of e9ceeding the limits of the normal "or+ing da*, e8g8, in the branches of industr* alread* mentioned, "hich are of an e9ceedingl* fatiguing nature; the official "or+ing da* means for each "or+er usuall* 16 hours b* night or da*8 /ut the o)er4"or+ be*ond this amount is in man* cases, to use the "ords of the English official report, @trul* fearful8A 6: @>t is impossible,A the report continues, @for an* mind to realise the amount of "or+ described in the follo"ing passages as being performed b* bo*s of from 2 to 16 *ears of age 888 "ithout coming irresistibl* to the conclusion that such abuses of the po"er of parents and of emplo*ers can no longer be allo"ed to e9ist8A 6 V'he practice of bo*s "or+ing at all b* da* and night turns either in the usual course of things, or at pressing times, seems ine)itabl* to open the door to their not unfreIuentl* "or+ing undul* long hours8 'hese hours are, indeed, in some cases, not onl* cruell* but e)en incredibl* long for children8 (mongst a number of bo*s it "ill, of course, not unfreIuentl* happen that one or more are from some cause absent8 Bhen this happens, their place is made up b* one or more bo*s, "ho "or+ in the other turn8 'hat this is a "ell understood s*stem is plain 888 from the ans"er of the manager of some large rolling4mills, "ho, "hen > as+ed him

1 6

5hapter 17

ho" the place of the bo*s absent from their turn "as made up, W> daresa*, sir, *ou +no" that as "ell as > do,? and admitted the fact8A 63 @(t a rolling4mill "here the proper hours "ere from 6 a8m8 to 3[ p8m8, a bo* "or+ed about four nights e)er* "ee+ till 8[ p8m8 at least 888 and this for si9 months8 (nother, at 2 *ears old, sometimes made three 164hour shifts running, and, "hen 17, has made t"o da*s and t"o nights running8A ( third, @no" 17 888 "or+ed from 6 a8m8 till 16 p8m8 three nights, and till 2 p8m8 the other nights8A @(nother, no" 1:, 888 "or+ed from 6 p8m8 till 16 noon ne9t da*, for a "ee+ together, and sometimes for three shifts together, e8g8, from $onda* morning till 'uesda* night8A @(nother, no" 16, has "or+ed in an iron foundr* at Sta)el* from 6 a8m8 till 16 p8m8 for a fortnight on end; could not do it an* more8A @George (llins"orth, age 2, came here as cellar4bo* last Frida*; ne9t morning "e had to begin at :, so > stopped here all night8 <i)e fi)e miles off8 Slept on the floor of the furnace, o)er head, "ith an apron under me, and a bit of a Dac+et o)er me8 'he t"o other da*s > ha)e been here at 6 a8m8 (*eQ it is hot in here8 /efore > came here > "as nearl* a *ear at the same "or+ at some "or+s in the countr*8 /egan there, too, at : on Saturda* morning F al"a*s did, but "as )er* gain GnearH home, and could sleep at home8 =ther da*s > began at 6 in the morning, and gi?en o)er at 6 or 7 in the e)ening,A Pc8 66 <et us no" hear ho" capital itself regards this 6 hours? s*stem8 'he e9treme forms of the s*stem, its abuse in the @cruel and incredibleA e9tension of the "or+ing da* are naturall* passed o)er in silence8 5apital onl* spea+s of the s*stem in its @normalA form8 $essrs8 Ca*lor P ;ic+ers, steel manufacturers, "ho emplo* bet"een 677 and 777 persons, among "hom onl* 17 per cent are under 18, and of those, onl* 67 bo*s under 18 "or+ in night sets, thus e9press themsel)es: @'he bo*s do not suffer from the heat8 'he temperature is probabl* from 86p to 27p8888 (t the forges and in the rolling mills the hands "or+ night and da*, in rela*s, but all the other parts of the "or+ are da*4"or+, i$e$+ from 6 a8m8 to 6 p8m8 >n the forge the hours are from 16 to 168 Some of the hands al"a*s "or+ in the night, "ithout an* alternation of da* and night "or+8888 Be do not find an* difference in the health of those "ho "or+ regularl* b* night and those "ho "or+ b* da*, and probabl* people can sleep better if the* ha)e the same period of rest than if it is changed8888 (bout 67 of the bo*s under the age of 18 "or+ in the night sets8888 Be could not "ell do "ithout lads under 18 "or+ing b* night8 'he obDection "ould be the increase in the cost of production8888 S+illed hands and the heads in e)er* department are difficult to get, but of lads "e could get an* number8888 /ut from the small proportion of bo*s that "e emplo*, the subDect (i$e8, of restrictions on night4"or+! is of little importance or interest to us8A 67 $r8 L8 Ellis, one of the firm of $essrs8 Lohn /ro"n P 5o8, steel and iron "or+s, emplo*ing about :,777 men and bo*s, part of "hose operations, namel*, iron and hea)ier steel "or+, goes on night and da* b* rela*s, states @that in the hea)ier steel "or+ one or t"o bo*s are emplo*ed to a score or t"o men8A 'heir concern emplo*s up"ards of 377 bo*s under 18, of "hom about 1J: or 177 are under the age of 1:8 Bith reference to the proposed alteration of the la", $r8 Ellis sa*s: @> do not thin+ it "ould be )er* obDectionable to reIuire that no person under the age of 18 should "or+ more than 16 hours in the 6 8 /ut "e do not thin+ that an* line could be dra"n o)er the age of 16, at "hich bo*s could be dispensed "ith for night4"or+8 /ut "e "ould sooner be pre)ented from emplo*ing bo*s under the

1 :

5hapter 17

age of 1:, or e)en so high as 1 , at all, than not be allo"ed to emplo* bo*s that "e do ha)e at night8 'hose bo*s "ho "or+ in the da* sets must ta+e their turn in the night sets also8 because the men could not "or+ in the night sets onl*; it "ould ruin their health8888 Be thin+, ho"e)er, that night4"or+ in alternate "ee+s is no harm8A ($essrs8 Ca*lor P ;ic+ers, on the other hand, in conformit* "ith the interest of their business, considered that periodicall* changed night4labour might possibl* do more harm than continual night4labour8! @Be find the men "ho do it, as "ell as the others "ho do other "or+ onl* b* da*8888 =ur obDections to not allo"ing bo*s under 18 to "or+ at night, "ould be on account of the increase of e9pense, but this is the onl* reason8A (Bhat c*nical nao)etRQ! @Be thin+ that the increase "ould be more than the trade, "ith due regard to its being successfull* carried out, could fairl* bear8 (Bhat meal*4mouthed phraseolog*Q! <abour is scarce here, and might fall short if there "ere such a regulation8A (i$e$+ Ellis /ro"n P 5o8 might fall into the fatal perple9it* of being obliged to pa* labour4po"er its full )alue8! 68 'he @5*clops Steel and >ron Bor+s,A of $essrs8 5ammell P 5o8, are concocted on the same large scale as those of the abo)e4mentioned Lohn /ro"n P 5o8 'he managing director had handed in his e)idence to the Go)ernment 5ommissioner, $r8 Bhite, in "riting8 <ater he found it con)enient to suppress the $S8 "hen it had been returned to him for re)ision8 $r8 Bhite, ho"e)er, has a good memor*8 -e remembered Iuite clearl* that for the $essrs8 5*clops the forbidding of the night4labour of children and *oung persons @"ould be impossible, it "ould be tantamount to stopping their "or+s,A and *et their business emplo*s little more than 6` of bo*s under 18, and less than 1` under 1:8 62 =n the same subDect $r8 E8 F8 Sanderson, of the firm of Sanderson, /ros8, P 5o8, steel rolling4 mills and forges, (ttercliffe, sa*s: @Great difficult* "ould be caused b* pre)enting bo*s under 18 from "or+ing at night8 'he chief "ould be the increase of cost from emplo*ing men instead of bo*s8 > cannot sa* "hat this "ould be, but probabl* it "ould not be enough to enable the manufacturers to raise the price of steel, and conseIuentl* it "ould fall on them, as of course the men ("hat Iueer4headed fol+Q! "ould refuse to pa* it8A $r8 Sanderson does not +no" ho" much he pa*s the children, but @perhaps the *ounger bo*s get from s8 to 3s8 a "ee+8888 'he bo*s? "or+ is of a +ind for "hich the strength of the bo*s is generall* (Wgenerall*,? of course not al"a*s! Iuite sufficient, and conseIuentl* there "ould be no gain in the greater strength of the men to counterbalance the loss, or it "ould be onl* in the fe" cases in "hich the metal is hea)*8 'he men "ould not li+e so "ell not to ha)e bo*s under them, as men "ould be less obedient8 /esides, bo*s must begin *oung to learn the trade8 <ea)ing da*4"or+ alone open to bo*s "ould not ans"er this purpose8A (nd "h* notE Bh* could not bo*s learn their handicraft in the da*4timeE Nour reasonE @="ing to the men "or+ing da*s and nights in alternate "ee+s, the men "ould be separated half the time from their bo*s, and "ould lose half the profit "hich the* ma+e from them8 'he training "hich the* gi)e to an apprentice is considered as part of the return for the bo*s? labour, and thus enables the man to get it at a cheaper rate8 Each man "ould "ant half of this profit8A

5hapter 17

>n other "ords, $essrs8 Sanderson "ould ha)e to pa* part of the "ages of the adult men out of their o"n poc+ets instead of b* the night4"or+ of the bo*s8 $essrs8 Sanderson?s profit "ould thus fall to some e9tent, and this is the good Sandersonian reason "h* bo*s cannot learn their handicraft in the da*877 >n addition to this, it "ould thro" night4labour on those "ho "or+ed instead of the bo*s, "hich the* "ould not be able to stand8 'he difficulties in fact "ould be so great that the* "ould )er* li+el* lead to the gi)ing up of night4"or+ altogether, and @as far as the "or+ itself is concerned,A sa*s E8 F8 Sanderson, @this "ould suit as "ell, but F @/ut $essrs8 Sanderson ha)e something else to ma+e besides steel8 Steel4ma+ing is simpl* a prete9t for surplus )alue ma+ing8 'he smelting furnaces, rolling4mills, Pc8, the buildings, machiner*, iron, coal, Pc8, ha)e something more to do than transform themsel)es into steel8 'he* are there to absorb surplus labour, and naturall* absorb more in 6 hours than in 168 >n fact the* gi)e, b* grace of God and la", the Sandersons a cheIue on the "or+ing4time of a certain number of hands for all the 6 hours of the da*, and the* lose their character as capital, are therefore a pure loss for the Sandersons, as soon as their function of absorbing labour is interrupted8 @/ut then there "ould be the loss from so much e9pensi)e machiner*, l*ing idle half the time, and to get through the amount of "or+ "hich "e are able to do on the present s*stem, "e should ha)e to double our premises and plant, "hich "ould double the outla*8A /ut "h* should these Sandersons pretend to a pri)ilege not enDo*ed b* the other capitalists "ho onl* "or+ during the da*, and "hose buildings, machiner*, ra" material, therefore lie @idleA during the nightE E8 F8 Sanderson ans"ers in the name of all the Sandersons: @>t is true that there is this loss from machiner* l*ing idle in those manufactories in "hich "or+ onl* goes on b* da*8 /ut the use of furnaces "ould in)ol)e a further loss in our case8 >f the* "ere +ept up there "ould be a "aste of fuel (instead of, as no", a "aste of the li)ing substance of the "or+ers!, and if the* "ere not, there "ould be loss of time in la*ing the fires and getting the heat up ("hilst the loss of sleeping time, e)en to children of 8 is a gain of "or+ing4time for the Sanderson tribe!, and the furnaces themsel)es "ould suffer from the changes of temperature8A (Bhilst those same furnaces suffer nothing from the da* and night change of labour8! 71

Section 8: The Stru%%le for a 6ormal 3orkin% -a 7 Compulsor (aws for the )+tension of the 3orkin% -a from the $iddle of the 1,th to the )nd of the 19th Centur
@Bhat is a "or+ing da*E Bhat is the length of time during "hich capital ma* consume the labour4po"er "hose dail* )alue it bu*sE -o" far ma* the "or+ing da* be e9tended be*ond the "or+ing4time necessar* for the reproduction of labour4po"er itselfEA >t has been seen that to these Iuestions capital replies: the "or+ing da* contains the full 6 hours, "ith the deduction of the fe" hours of repose "ithout "hich labour4po"er absolutel* refuses its ser)ices again8 -ence it is self4e)ident that the labourer is nothing else, his "hole life through, than labour4po"er, that therefore all his disposable time is b* nature and la" labour4time, to be de)oted to the self4 e9pansion of capital8 'ime for education, for intellectual de)elopment, for the fulfilling of social functions and for social intercourse, for the free4pla* of his bodil* and mental acti)it*, e)en the rest time of Sunda* (and that in a countr* of SabbatariansQ! 76 F moonshineQ /ut in its blind unrestrainable passion, its "ere4"olf hunger for surplus labour, capital o)ersteps not onl* the

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5hapter 17

moral, but e)en the merel* ph*sical ma9imum bounds of the "or+ing da*8 >t usurps the time for gro"th, de)elopment, and health* maintenance of the bod*8 >t steals the time reIuired for the consumption of fresh air and sunlight8 >t higgles o)er a meal4time, incorporating it "here possible "ith the process of production itself, so that food is gi)en to the labourer as to a mere means of production, as coal is supplied to the boiler, grease and oil to the machiner*8 >t reduces the sound sleep needed for the restoration, reparation, refreshment of the bodil* po"ers to Dust so man* hours of torpor as the re)i)al of an organism, absolutel* e9hausted, renders essential8 >t is not the normal maintenance of the labour4po"er "hich is to determine the limits of the "or+ing da*; it is the greatest possible dail* e9penditure of labour4po"er, no matter ho" diseased, compulsor*, and painful it ma* be, "hich is to determine the limits of the labourers? period of repose8 5apital cares nothing for the length of life of labour4po"er8 (ll that concerns it is simpl* and solel* the ma9imum of labour4po"er, that can be rendered fluent in a "or+ing da*8 >t attains this end b* shortening the e9tent of the labourer?s life, as a greed* farmer snatches increased produce from the soil b* robbing it of its fertilit*8 'he capitalistic mode of production (essentiall* the production of surplus )alue, the absorption of surplus labour!, produces thus, "ith the e9tension of the "or+ing da*, not onl* the deterioration of human labour4po"er b* robbing it of its normal, moral and ph*sical, conditions of de)elopment and function8 >t produces also the premature e9haustion and death of this labour4 po"er itself87: >t e9tends the labourer?s time of production during a gi)en period b* shortening his actual life4time8 /ut the )alue of the labour4po"er includes the )alue of the commodities necessar* for the reproduction of the "or+er, or for the +eeping up of the "or+ing4class8 >f then the unnatural e9tension of the "or+ing da*, that capital necessaril* stri)es after in its unmeasured passion for self4e9pansion, shortens the length of life of the indi)idual labourer, and therefore the duration of his labour4po"er, the forces used up ha)e to be replaced at a more rapid rate and the sum of the e9penses for the reproduction of labour4po"er "ill be greater; Dust as in a machine the part of its )alue to be reproduced e)er* da* is greater the more rapidl* the machine is "orn out8 >t "ould seem therefore that the interest capital itself points in the direction of a normal "or+ing da*8 'he sla)e4o"ner bu*s his labourer as he bu*s his horse8 >f he loses his sla)e, he loses capital that can onl* be restored b* ne" outla* in the sla)e4mart8 /ut @the rice4grounds of Georgia, or the s"amps of the $ississippi ma* be fatall* inDurious to the human constitution; but the "aste of human life "hich the culti)ation of these districts necessitates, is not so great that it cannot be repaired from the teeming preser)es of ;irginia and .entuc+*8 5onsiderations of econom*, moreo)er, "hich, under a natural s*stem, afford some securit* for humane treatment b* identif*ing the master?s interest "ith the sla)e?s preser)ation, "hen once trading in sla)es is practiced, become reasons for rac+ing to the uttermost the toil of the sla)e; for, "hen his place can at once be supplied from foreign preser)es, the duration of his life becomes a matter of less moment than its producti)eness "hile it lasts8 >t is accordingl* a ma9im of sla)e management, in sla)e4importing countries, that the most effecti)e econom* is that "hich ta+es out of the human chattel in the shortest space of time the utmost amount of e9ertion it is capable of putting forth8 >t is in tropical culture, "here annual profits often eIual the "hole capital of plantations, that negro life is most rec+lessl* sacrificed8 >t is the agriculture of the Best >ndies, "hich has been for centuries prolific of fabulous "ealth, that has engulfed millions of the (frican race8 >t is in 5uba, at this da*, "hose re)enues are rec+oned b* millions, and

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"hose planters are princes, that "e see in the ser)ile class, the coarsest fare, the most e9hausting and unremitting toil, and e)en the absolute destruction of a portion of its numbers e)er* *ear8A7 Mutato nomine de te fabula narratur G>t is of *ou that the stor* is told F -oraceH8 For sla)e4trade read labour4mar+et, for .entuc+* and ;irginia, >reland and the agricultural districts of England, Scotland, and Bales, for (frica, German*8 Be heard ho" o)er4"or+ thinned the ran+s of the ba+ers in <ondon8 Ce)ertheless, the <ondon labour4mar+et is al"a*s o)er4stoc+ed "ith German and other candidates for death in the ba+eries8 #otter*, as "e sa", is one of the shortest4li)ed industries8 >s there an* "ant therefore of pottersE Losiah Bedg"ood, the in)entor of modern potter*, himself originall* a common "or+man, said in 1783 before the -ouse of 5ommons that the "hole trade emplo*ed from 13,777 to 67,777 people8 73 >n the *ear 1861 the population alone of the to"n centres of this industr* in Great /ritain numbered 171,:768 @'he cotton trade has e9isted for ninet* *ears8888 >t has e9isted for three generations of the English race, and > belie)e > ma* safel* sa* that during that period it has destro*ed nine generations of factor* operati)es8A 76 Co doubt in certain epochs of fe)erish acti)it* the labour4mar+et sho"s significant gaps8 >n 18: , e$ 8 /ut then the manufacturers proposed to the #oor <a" 5ommissioners that the* should send the @surplus4populationA of the agricultural districts to the north, "ith the e9planation @that the manufacturers "ould absorb and use it up8A 77 (gents "ere appointed "ith the consent of the #oor <a" 5ommissioners8 888 (n office "as set up in $anchester, to "hich lists "ere sent of those "or+people in the agricultural districts "anting emplo*ment, and their names "ere registered in boo+s8 'he manufacturers attended at these offices, and selected such persons as the* chose; "hen the* had selected such persons as their W"ants reIuired?, the* ga)e instructions to ha)e them for"arded to $anchester, and the* "ere sent, tic+eted li+e bales of goods, b* canals, or "ith carriers, others tramping on the road, and man* of them "ere found on the "a* lost and half4star)ed8 'his s*stem had gro"n up unto a regular trade8 'his -ouse "ill hardl* belie)e it, but > tell them, that this traffic in human flesh "as as "ell +ept up, the* "ere in effect as regularl* sold to these G$anchesterH manufacturers as sla)es are sold to the cotton4gro"er in the %nited States8888 >n 1867, Wthe cotton trade "as at its 1enith8? 888 'he manufacturers again found that the* "ere short of hands8888 'he* applied to the Wflesh agents, as the* are called8 'hose agents sent to the southern do"ns of England, to the pastures of 0orsetshire, to the glades of 0e)onshire, to the people tending +ine in Biltshire, but the* sought in )ain8 'he surplus4 population "as Wabsorbed8?A 'he <ury =uardian said, on the completion of the French treat*, that @17,777 additional hands could be absorbed b* <ancashire, and that :7,777 or 7,777 "ill be needed8A (fter the @flesh agents and sub4agentsA had in )ain sought through the agricultural districts, @a deputation came up to <ondon, and "aited on the right hon8 gentleman G$r8 ;illiers, #resident of the #oor <a" /oardH "ith a )ie" of obtaining poor children from certain union houses for the mills of <ancashire8A 78 Bhat e9perience sho"s to the capitalist generall* is a constant e9cess of population, i8e8, an e9cess in relation to the momentar* reIuirements of surplus labour4absorbing capital, although this e9cess is made up of generations of human beings stunted, short4li)ed, s"iftl* replacing each other, pluc+ed, so to sa*, before maturit*8 72 (nd, indeed, e9perience sho"s to the intelligent obser)er "ith "hat s"iftness and grip the capitalist mode of production, dating, historicall*

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spea+ing, onl* from *esterda*, has sei1ed the )ital po"er of the people b* the )er* root F sho"s ho" the degeneration of the industrial population is onl* retarded b* the constant absorption of primiti)e and ph*sicall* uncorrupted elements from the countr* F sho"s ho" e)en the countr* labourers, in spite of fresh air and the principle of natural selection, that "or+s so po"erfull* amongst them, and onl* permits the sur)i)al of the strongest, are alread* beginning to die off8 87 5apital that has such good reasons for den*ing the sufferings of the legions of "or+ers that surround it, is in practice mo)ed as much and as little b* the sight of the coming degradation and final depopulation of the human race, as b* the probable fall of the earth into the sun8 >n e)er* stoc+Dobbing s"indle e)er* one +no"s that some time or other the crash must come, but e)er* one hopes that it ma* fall on the head of his neighbour, after he himself has caught the sho"er of gold and placed it in safet*8 Apr>s moi le d?lu e! 8After me+ the flood9 is the "atch"ord of e)er* capitalist and of e)er* capitalist nation8 -ence 5apital is rec+less of the health or length of life of the labourer, unless under compulsion from societ*8 81 'o the out4cr* as to the ph*sical and mental degradation, the premature death, the torture of o)er4"or+, it ans"ers: =ught these to trouble us since the* increase our profitsE /ut loo+ing at things as a "hole, all this does not, indeed, depend on the good or ill "ill of the indi)idual capitalist8 Free competition brings out the inherent la"s of capitalist production, in the shape of e9ternal coerci)e la"s ha)ing po"er o)er e)er* indi)idual capitalist886 'he establishment of a normal "or+ing da* is the result of centuries of struggle bet"een capitalist and labourer8 'he histor* of this struggle sho"s t"o opposed tendencies8 5ompare, e8g8, the English factor* legislation of our time "ith the English labour Statutes from the 1 th centur* to "ell into the middle of the 18th8 8: Bhilst the modern Factor* (cts compulsoril* shortened the "or+ing da*, the earlier statutes tried to lengthen it b* compulsion8 =f course the pretensions of capital in embr*o F "hen, beginning to gro", it secures the right of absorbing a &uantum sufficit Gsufficient Iuantit*H of surplus labour, not merel* b* the force of economic relations, but b* the help of the State F appear )er* modest "hen put face to face "ith the concessions that, gro"ling and struggling, it has to ma+e in its adult condition8 >t ta+es centuries ere the @freeA labourer, than+s to the de)elopment of capitalistic production, agrees, i$e$+ is compelled b* social conditions, to sell the "hole of his acti)e life8 his )er* capacit* for "or+, for the price of the necessaries of life, his birth4right for a mess of pottage8 -ence it is natural that the lengthening of the "or+ing da*, "hich capital, from the middle of the 1 th to the end of the 17th centur*, tries to impose b* State4measures on adult labourers, appro9imatel* coincides "ith the shortening of the "or+ing da* "hich, in the second half of the 12th centur*, has here and there been effected b* the State to pre)ent the coining of children?s blood into capital8 'hat "hich to4da*, e$ 8, in the State of $assachusetts, until recentl* the freest State of the Corth4(merican &epublic, has been proclaimed as the statutor* limit of the labour of children under 16, "as in England, e)en in the middle of the 17th centur*, the normal "or+ing da* of able4bodied artisans, robust labourers, athletic blac+smiths88 'he first @Statute of <abourersA (6: Ed"ard >>>8, 1: 2! found its immediate prete9t (not its cause, for legislation of this +ind lasts centuries after the prete9t for it has disappeared! in the great plague that decimated the people, so that, as a 'or* "riter sa*s, @'he difficult* of getting men to "or+ on reasonable terms (i$e8, at a price that left their emplo*ers a reasonable Iuantit* of surplus labour! gre" to such a height as to be Iuite intolerable8A 83&easonable "ages "ere, therefore, fi9ed b* la" as "ell as the limits of the "or+ing da*8 'he latter point, the onl* one that here interests us, is repeated in the Statute of 1 26 (-enr* ;>>8!8 'he "or+ing da* for all artificers and field labourers from $arch to September ought, according to this statute ("hich, ho"e)er, could not be enforced!, to last from 3 in the morning to bet"een 7 and 8 in the e)ening8 /ut the meal4 times consist of 1 hour for brea+fast, 1[ hours for dinner, and [ an hour for @noon4meate,A i8e8,

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e9actl* t"ice as much as under the factor* acts no" in force8 86 >n "inter, "or+ "as to last from 3 in the morning until dar+, "ith the same inter)als8 ( statute of Eli1abeth of 1366 lea)es the length of the "or+ing da* for all labourers @hired for dail* or "ee+l* "ageA untouched, but aims at limiting the inter)als to 6[ hours in the summer, or to 6 in the "inter8 0inner is onl* to last 1 hour, and the @afternoon4sleep of half an hourA is onl* allo"ed bet"een the middle of $a* and the middle of (ugust8 For e)er* hour of absence 1d8 is to be subtracted from the "age8 >n practice, ho"e)er, the conditions "ere much more fa)ourable to the labourers than in the statute4 boo+8 Billiam #ett*, the father of #olitical Econom*, and to some e9tent the founder of Statistics, sa*s in a "or+ that he published in the last third of the 17th centur*: @<abouring4men (then meaning field4labourers! "or+ 17 hours per diem, and ma+e 67 meals per "ee+, )i18, : a da* for "or+ing da*s, and 6 on Sunda*s; "hereb* it is plain, that if the* could fast on Frida* nights, and dine in one hour and an half, "hereas the* ta+e t"o, from ele)en to one; thereb* thus "or+ing 1J67 more, and spending 1J67 less, the abo)e4mentioned (ta9! might be raised8A 87 Bas not 0r8 (ndre" %re right in cr*ing do"n the 16 hours? bill of 18:: as a retrogression to the times of the dar+ agesE >t is true these regulations contained in the statute mentioned b* #ett*, appl* also to apprentices8 /ut the condition of child4labour, e)en at the end of the 17th centur*, is seen from the follo"ing complaint: @?'is not their practice (in German*! as "ith us in this +ingdom, to bind an apprentice for se)en *ears; three or four is their common standard: and the reason is, because the* are educated from their cradle to something of emplo*ment, "hich renders them the more apt and docile, and conseIuentl* the more capable of attaining to a ripeness and Iuic+er proficienc* in business8 Bhereas our *outh, here in England, being bred to nothing before the* come to be apprentices, ma+e a )er* slo" progress and reIuire much longer time "herein to reach the perfection of accomplished artists8A88 Still, during the greater part of the 18th centur*, up to the epoch of $odern >ndustr* and machinism, capital in England had not succeeded in sei1ing for itself, b* the pa*ment of the "ee+l* )alue of labour4po"er, the "hole "ee+ of the labourer, "ith the e9ception, ho"e)er, of the agricultural labourers8 'he fact that the* could li)e for a "hole "ee+ on the "age of four da*s, did not appear to the labourers a sufficient reason that the* should "or+ the other t"o da*s for the capitalist8 =ne part* of English economists, in the interest of capital, denounces this obstinac* in the most )iolent manner, another part* defends the labourers8 <et us listen, e$ $+ to the contest bet"een #ostleth"a*t "hose 0ictionar* of 'rade then had the same reputation as the +indred "or+s of $ac5ulloch and $acGregor to4da*, and the author (alread* Iuoted! of the @Essa* on 'rade and 5ommerce8A 82 #ostleth"a*t sa*s among other things: @Be cannot put an end to those fe" obser)ations, "ithout noticing that trite remar+ in the mouth of too man*; that if the industrious poor can obtain enough to maintain themsel)es in fi)e da*s, the* "ill not "or+ the "hole si98 Bhence the* infer the necessit* of e)en the necessaries of life being made dear b* ta9es, or an* other means, to compel the "or+ing artisan and manufacturer to labour the "hole si9 da*s in the "ee+, "ithout ceasing8 > must beg lea)e to differ in sentiment from those great politicians, "ho contend for the perpetual sla)er* of the "or+ing people of this +ingdom; the* forget the )ulgar adage, all "or+ and no pla*8 -a)e not the English boasted of the ingenuit* and de9terit* of her "or+ing artists and manufacturers "hich ha)e heretofore gi)en credit and reputation to /ritish "ares

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in generalE Bhat has this been o"ing toE 'o nothing more probabl* than the rela9ation of the "or+ing people in their o"n "a*8 Bere the* obliged to toil the *ear round, the "hole si9 da*s in the "ee+, in a repetition of the same "or+, might it not blunt their ingenuit*, and render them stupid instead of alert and de9terous; and might not our "or+men lose their reputation instead of maintaining it b* such eternal sla)er*E 888 (nd "hat sort of "or+manship could "e e9pect from such hard4dri)en animalsE 888 $an* of them "ill e9ecute as much "or+ in four da*s as a Frenchman "ill in fi)e or si98 /ut if Englishmen are to be eternal drudges, Wtis to be feared the* "ill degenerate belo" the Frenchmen8 (s our people are famed for bra)er* in "ar, do "e not sa* that it is o"ing to good English roast beef and pudding in their bellies, as "ell as their constitutional spirit of libert*E (nd "h* ma* not the superior ingenuit* and de9terit* of, our artists and manufacturers, be o"ing to that freedom and libert* to direct themsel)es in their o"n "a*, and > hope "e shall ne)er ha)e them depri)ed of such pri)ileges and that good li)ing from "hence their ingenuit* no less than their courage ma* proceed8A27 'hereupon the author of the @Essa* on 'rade and 5ommerceA replies: @>f the ma+ing of e)er* se)enth da* an holida* is supposed to be of di)ine institution, as it implies the appropriating the other si9 da*s to labourA (he means capital as "e shall soon see! @surel* it "ill not be thought cruel to enforce it 8888 'hat man+ind in general, are naturall* inclined to ease and indolence, "e fatall* e9perience to be true, from the conduct of our manufacturing populace, "ho do not labour, upon an a)erage, abo)e four da*s in a "ee+, unless pro)isions happen to be )er* dear8888 #ut all the necessaries of the poor under one denomination; for instance, call them all "heat, or suppose that 888 the bushel of "heat shall cost fi)e shillings and that he (a manufacturer! earns a shilling b* his labour, he then "ould be obliged to "or+ fi)e da*s onl* in a "ee+8 >f the bushel of "heat should cost but four shillings, he "ould be obliged to "or+ but four da*s; but as "ages in this +ingdom are much higher in proportion to the price of necessaries 888 the manufacturer, "ho labours four da*s, has a surplus of mone* to li)e idle "ith the rest of the "ee+ 8 888 > hope > ha)e said enough to ma+e it appear that the moderate labour of si9 da*s in a "ee+ is no sla)er*8 =ur labouring people do this, and to all appearance are the happiest of all our labouring poor, 21 but the 0utch do this in manufactures, and appear to be a )er* happ* people8 'he French do so, "hen holida*s do not inter)ene826 /ut our populace ha)e adopted a notion, that as Englishmen the* enDo* a birthright pri)ilege of being more free and independent than in an* countr* in Europe8 Co" this idea, as far as it ma* affect the bra)er* of our troops, ma* be of some use; but the less the manufacturing poor ha)e of it, certainl* the better for themsel)es and for the State8 'he labouring people should ne)er thin+ themsel)es independent of their superiors8888 >t is e9tremel* dangerous to encourage mobs in a commercial state li+e ours, "here, perhaps, se)en parts out of eight of the "hole, are people "ith little or no propert*8 'he cure "ill not be perfect, till our manufacturing poor are contented to labour si9 da*s for the same sum "hich the* no" earn in four da*s8A 2: 'o this end, and for @e9tirpating idleness debaucher* and e9cess,A promoting a spirit of industr*, @lo"ering the price of labour in our manufactories, and easing the lands of the hea)* burden of poor?s rates,A our @faithful Ec+artA of capital proposes this appro)ed de)ice: to shut up such labourers as become dependent on public support, in a "ord, paupers, in @an ideal 1or"house$@

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Such ideal "or+house must be made a @-ouse of 'error,A and not an as*lum for the poor, @"here the* are to be plentifull* fed, "arml* and decentl* clothed, and "here the* do but little "or+8A 2 >n this @-ouse of 'error,A this @ideal "or+house, the poor shall "or+ 1 hours in a da*, allo"ing proper time for meals, in such manner that there shall remain 16 hours of neat4labour8A 23 '"el)e "or+ing4hours dail* in the >deal Bor+house, in the @-ouse of 'errorA of 1777Q 6: *ears later, in 18::, "hen the English #arliament reduced the "or+ing da* for children of 1: to 18, in four branches of industr* to 16 full hours, the Dudgment da* of English >ndustr* had da"nedQ >n 1836, "hen <ouis /onaparte sought to secure his position "ith the bourgeoisie b* tampering "ith the legal "or+ing da*, the French "or+ing people cried out "ith one )oice @the la" that limits the "or+ing da* to 16 hours is the one good that has remained to us of the legislation of the &epublicQA 26 (t ,Trich the "or+ of children o)er 17, is limited to 16 hours; in (argau in 1866, the "or+ of children bet"een 1: and 16, "as reduced from 16[ to 16 hours; in (ustria in 1867, for children bet"een 1 and 16, the same reduction "as made8 27 @Bhat a progress,A since 1777Q $acaula* "ould shout "ith e9ultationQ 'he @-ouse of 'errorA for paupers of "hich the capitalistic soul of 1777 onl* dreamed, "as realised a fe" *ears later in the shape of a gigantic @Bor+houseA for the industrial "or+er himself8 >t is called the Factor*8 (nd the ideal this time fades before the realit*8

Section :: The Stru%%le for a 6ormal 3orkin% -a 7 Compulsor (imitation b (aw of the 3orkin%"Time7 )n%lish Factor ;cts5 1<**
(fter capital had ta+en centuries in e9tending the "or+ing da* to its normal ma9imum limit, and then be*ond this to the limit of the natural da* of 16 hours, 28 there follo"ed on the birth of machinism and modern industr* in the last third of the 18th centur*, a )iolent encroachment li+e that of an a)alanche in its intensit* and e9tent8 (ll bounds of morals and nature, age and se9, da* and night, "ere bro+en do"n8 E)en the ideas of da* and night, of rustic simplicit* in the old statutes, became so confused that an English Dudge, as late as 1867, needed a Iuite 'almudic sagacit* to e9plain @Dudiciall*A "hat "as da* and "hat "as night8 22 5apital celebrated its orgies8 (s soon as the "or+ing4class, stunned at first b* the noise and turmoil of the ne" s*stem of production, reco)ered, in some measure, its senses, its resistance began, and first in the nati)e land of machinism, in England8 For :7 *ears, ho"e)er, the concessions conIuered b* the "or+people "ere purel* nominal8 #arliament passed 3 labour <a"s bet"een 1876 and 18::, but "as shre"d enough not to )ote a penn* for their carr*ing out, for the reIuisite officials, Pc8 177 'he* remained a dead letter8 @'he fact is, that prior to the (ct of 18::, *oung persons and children "ere "or+ed all night, all da*, or both ad libitum8A171 ( normal "or+ing da* for modern industr* onl* dates from the Factor* (ct of 18::, "hich included cotton, "ool, fla9, and sil+ factories8 Cothing is more characteristic of the spirit of capital than the histor* of the English Factor* (cts from 18:: to 186 8 'he (ct of 18:: declares the ordinar* factor* "or+ing da* to be from half4past fi)e in the morning to half4past eight in the e)ening and "ithin these limits, a period of 13 hours, it is la"ful to emplo* *oung persons (i$e8, persons bet"een 1: and 18 *ears of age!, at an* time of the da*, pro)ided no one indi)idual *oung person should "or+ more than 16 hours in an* one da*, e9cept in certain cases especiall* pro)ided for8 'he 6th section of the (ct pro)ided8 @'hat there shall be allo"ed in the course of e)er* da* not less than one and a half hours for meals to e)er* such person restricted as hereinbefore pro)ided8A 'he emplo*ment of children under 2, "ith

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e9ceptions mentioned later "as forbidden; the "or+ of children bet"een 2 and 1: "as limited to 8 hours a da*, night4"or+, i$e8, according to this (ct, "or+ bet"een 8::7 p8m8 and 3::7 a8m8, "as forbidden for all persons bet"een 2 and 188 'he la"4ma+ers "ere so far from "ishing to trench on the freedom of capital to e9ploit adult labour4po"er, or, as the* called it, @the freedom of labour,A that the* created a special s*stem in order to pre)ent the Factor* (cts from ha)ing a conseIuence so outrageous8 @'he great e)il of the factor* s*stem as at present conducted,A sa*s the first report of the 5entral /oard of the 5ommission of Lune 68th 18::, @has appeared to us to be that it entails the necessit* of continuing the labour of children to the utmost length of that of the adults8 'he onl* remed* for this e)il, short of the limitation of the labour of adults "hich "ould, in our opinion, create an e)il greater than that "hich is sought to be remedied, appears to be the plan of "or+ing double sets of children8A 888 %nder the name of S*stem of &ela*s, this @planA "as therefore carried out, so that, e8g8, from 38:7 a8m8 until 18:7 in the afternoon, one set of children bet"een 2 and 1:, and from 18:7 p8m8 to 88:7 in the e)ening another set "ere @put to,A Pc8 >n order to re"ard the manufacturers for ha)ing, in the most barefaced "a*, ignored all the (cts as to children?s labour passed during the last t"ent*4t"o *ears, the pill "as *et further gilded for them8 #arliament decreed that after $arch 1st, 18: , no child under 11, after $arch 1st 18:3, no child under 16, and after $arch 1st, 18:6, no child under 1: "as to "or+ more than eight hours in a factor*8 'his @liberalism,A so full of consideration for @capital,A "as the more note"orth* as 0r8 Farre, Sir (8 5arlisle, Sir /8 /rodie, Sir 58 /ell, $r8 Guthrie, Pc8, in a "ord, the most distinguished ph*sicians and surgeons in <ondon, had declared in their e)idence before the -ouse of 5ommons, that there "as danger in dela*8 0r8 Farre e9pressed himself still more coarsel*8 @<egislation is necessar* for the pre)ention of death, in an* form in "hich it can be prematurel* inflicted, and certainl* this (i8e8, the factor* method! must be )ie"ed as a most cruel mode of inflicting it8A 'hat same @reformedA #arliament, "hich in its delicate consideration for the manufacturers, condemned children under 1:, for *ears to come, to 76 hours of "or+ per "ee+ in the Factor* -ell, on the other hand, in the Emancipation (ct, "hich also administered freedom drop b* drop, forbade the planters, from the outset, to "or+ an* negro sla)e more than 3 hours a "ee+8 /ut in no "ise conciliated, capital no" began a nois* agitation that "ent on for se)eral *ears8 >t turned chiefl* on the age of those "ho, under the name of children, "ere limited to 8 hours? "or+, and "ere subDect to a certain amount of compulsor* education8 (ccording to capitalistic anthropolog*, the age of childhood ended at 17, or at the outside, at 118 'he more nearl* the time approached for the coming into full force of the Factor* (ct, the fatal *ear 18:6, the more "ildl* raged the mob of manufacturers8 'he* managed, in fact, to intimidate the go)ernment to such an e9tent that in 18:3 it proposed to lo"er the limit of the age of childhood from 1: to 168 >n the meantime the pressure from "ithout gre" more threatening8 5ourage failed the -ouse of 5ommons8 >t refused to thro" children of 1: under the Luggernaut 5ar of capital for more than 8 hours a da*, and the (ct of 18:: came into full operation8 >t remained unaltered until Lune, 18 8 >n the ten *ears during "hich it regulated factor* "or+, first in part, and then entirel*, the official reports of the factor* inspectors teem "ith complaints as to the impossibilit* of putting the (ct into force8 (s the la" of 18:: left it optional "ith the lords of capital during the 13 hours, from 38:7 a8m8 to 88:7 p8m8, to ma+e e)er* @*oung person,A and e)er* @childA begin, brea+ off, resume, or end his 16 or 8 hours at an* moment the* li+ed, and also permitted them to assign to

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different persons, different times for meals, these gentlemen soon disco)ered a ne" @s*stem of rela*s,A b* "hich the labour4horses "ere not changed at fi9ed stations, but "ere constantl* re4 harnessed at changing stations8 Be do not pause longer on the beaut* of this s*stem, as "e shall ha)e to return to it later8 /ut this much is clear at the first glance: that this s*stem annulled the "hole Factor* (ct, not onl* in the spirit, but in the letter8 -o" could factor* inspectors, "ith this comple9 boo++eeping in respect to each indi)idual child or *oung person, enforce the legall* determined "or+4time and the granting of the legal mealtimesE >n a great man* of the factories, the old brutalities soon blossomed out again unpunished8 >n an inter)ie" "ith the -ome Secretar* (18 !, the factor* inspectors demonstrated the impossibilit* of an* control under the ne"l* in)ented rela* s*stem8176 >n the meantime, ho"e)er, circumstances had greatl* changed8 'he factor* hands, especiall* since 18:8, had made the 'en -ours? /ill their economic, as the* had made the 5harter their political, election4cr*8 Some of the manufacturers, e)en, "ho had managed their factories in conformit* "ith the (ct of 18::, o)er"helmed #arliament "ith memorials on the immoral competition of their false brethren "hom greater impudence, or more fortunate local circumstances, enabled to brea+ the la"8 $oreo)er, ho"e)er much the indi)idual manufacturer might gi)e the rein to his old lust for gain, the spo+esmen and political leaders of the manufacturing class ordered a change of front and of speech to"ards the "or+people8 'he* had entered upon the contest for the repeal of the 5orn <a"s, and needed the "or+ers to help them to )ictor*8 'he* promised therefore, not onl* a double4si1ed loaf of bread, but the enactment of the 'en -ours? /ill in the Free4trade millennium8 17: 'hus the* still less dared to oppose a measure intended onl* to ma+e the la" of 18:: a realit*8 'hreatened in their holiest interest, the rent of land, the 'ories thundered "ith philanthropic indignation against the @nefarious practicesA 17 of their foes8 'his "as the origin of the additional Factor* (ct of Lune 7th, 18 8 >t came into effect on September 17th, 18 8 >t places under protection a ne" categor* of "or+ers, )i18, the "omen o)er 188 'he* "ere placed in e)er* respect on the same footing as the *oung persons, their "or+ time limited to t"el)e hours, their night4labour forbidden, Pc8 For the first time, legislation sa" itself compelled to control directl* and officiall* the labour of adults8 >n the Factor* &eport of 18 4 18 3, it is said "ith iron*: @Co instances ha)e come to m* +no"ledge of adult "omen ha)ing e9pressed an* regret at their ri hts being thus far interfered "ith8A 173 'he "or+ing4time of children under 1: "as reduced to 61, and in certain circumstances to 7 hours a4 da*8176 'o get rid of the abuses of the @spurious rela* s*stem,A the la" established besides others the follo"ing important regulations: F @'hat the hours of "or+ of children and *oung persons shall be rec+oned from the time "hen an* child or *oung person shall begin to "or+ in the morning8A So that if (, e$ $+ begins "or+ at 8 in the morning, and / at 17, /?s "or+4da* must ne)ertheless end at the same hour as (?s8 @'he time shall be regulated b* a public cloc+,A for e9ample, the nearest rail"a* cloc+, b* "hich the factor* cloc+ is to be set8 'he occupier is to hang up a @legibleA printed notice stating the hours for the beginning and ending of "or+ and the times allo"ed for the se)eral meals8 5hildren beginning "or+ before 16 noon ma* not be again emplo*ed after 1 p8m8 'he afternoon shift must therefore consist of other children than those emplo*ed in the morning8 =f the hour and a half for meal4times, @one hour thereof at the least shall be gi)en before three of the cloc+ in the afternoon 888 and at the same period of the da*8 Co child or *oung person shall be emplo*ed more than fi)e hours before 1 p8m8 "ithout an inter)al for meal4time of

13:

5hapter 17

at least :7 minutes8 Co child or *oung person Gor femaleH shall be emplo*ed or allo"ed to remain in an* room in "hich an* manufacturing process is then G i$e8, at mealtimesH carried on,A Pc8 >t has been seen that these minutiae, "hich, "ith militar* uniformit*, regulate b* stro+e of the cloc+ the times, limits, pauses of the "or+ "ere not at all the products of #arliamentar* fanc*8 'he* de)eloped graduall* out of circumstances as natural la"s of the modern mode of production8 'heir formulation, official recognition, and proclamation b* the State, "ere the result of a long struggle of classes8 =ne of their first conseIuences "as that in practice the "or+ing da* of the adult males in factories became subDect to the same limitations, since in most processes of production the co4operation of the children8 *oung persons, and "omen is indispensable8 =n the "hole, therefore, during the period from 18 to 18 7, the 16 hours? "or+ing da* became general and uniform in all branches of industr* under the Factor* (ct8 'he manufacturers, ho"e)er, did not allo" this @progressA "ithout a compensating @retrogression8A (t their instigation the -ouse of 5ommons reduced the minimum age for e9ploitable children from 2 to 8, in order to assure that additional suppl* of factor* children "hich is due to capitalists, according to di)ine and human la"8 177 'he *ears 18 64 7 are epoch4ma+ing in the economic histor* of England8 'he &epeal of the 5orn <a"s, and of the duties on cotton and other ra" material; Free4trade proclaimed as the guiding star of legislation; in a "ord, the arri)al of the millennium8 =n the other hand, in the same *ears, the 5hartist mo)ement and the 17 hours? agitation reached their highest point8 'he* found allies in the 'ories panting for re)enge8 0espite the fanatical opposition of the arm* of perDured Free4 traders, "ith /right and 5obden at their head, the 'en -ours? /ill, struggled for so long, "ent through #arliament8 'he ne" Factor* (ct of Lune 8th, 18 7, enacted that on Lul* 1st, 18 7, there should be a preliminar* shortening of the "or+ing da* for @*oung personsA (from 1: to 18!, and all females to 11 hours, but that on $a* 1st, 18 8, there should be a definite limitation of the "or+ing da* to 17 hours8 >n other respects, the (ct onl* amended and completed the (cts of 18:: and 18 8 5apital no" entered upon a preliminar* campaign in order to hinder the (ct from coming into full force on $a* 1st, 18 88 (nd the "or+ers themsel)es, under the presence that the* had been taught b* e9perience, "ere to help in the destruction of their o"n "or+8 'he moment "as cle)erl* chosen8 @>t must be remembered, too, that there has been more than t"o *ears of great suffering (in conseIuence of the terrible crisis of 18 64 7! among the factor* operati)es, from man* mills ha)ing "or+ed short time, and man* being altogether closed8 ( considerable number of the operati)es must therefore be in )er* narro" circumstances man*, it is to be feared, in debt; so that it might fairl* ha)e been presumed that at the present time the* "ould prefer "or+ing the longer time, in order to ma+e up for past losses, perhaps to pa* off debts, or get their furniture out of pa"n, or replace that sold, or to get a ne" suppl* of clothes for themsel)es and their families8A178 'he manufacturers tried to aggra)ate the natural effect of these circumstances b* a general reduction of "ages b* 17`8 'his "as done so to sa*, to celebrate the inauguration of the ne" Free4trade era8 'hen follo"ed a further reduction of 8 1J:` as soon as the "or+ing da* "as shortened to 11, and a reduction of double that amount as soon as it "as finall* shortened to 17 hours8 Bhere)er, therefore, circumstances allo"ed it, a reduction of "ages of at least 63` too+ place8172 %nder such fa)ourabl* prepared conditions the agitation among the factor* "or+ers for the repeal of the (ct of 18 7 "as begun8 Ceither lies, briber*, nor threats "ere spared in this

13

5hapter 17

attempt8 /ut all "as in )ain8 5oncerning the half4do1en petitions in "hich "or+people "ere made to complain of @their oppression b* the (ct,A the petitioners themsel)es declared under oral e9amination, that their signatures had been e9torted from them8 @'he* felt themsel)es oppressed, but not e9actl* b* the Factor* (ct8A117 /ut if the manufacturers did not succeed in ma+ing the "or+people spea+ as the* "ished, the* themsel)es shrie+ed all the louder in press and #arliament in the name of the "or+people8 'he* denounced the Factor* >nspectors as a +ind of re)olutionar* commissioners li+e those of the French Cational 5on)ention ruthlessl* sacrificing the unhapp* factor* "or+ers to their humanitarian crotchet8 'his manoeu)re also failed8 Factor* >nspector <eonard -orner conducted in his o"n person, and through his sub4inspectors, man* e9aminations of "itnesses in the factories of <ancashire8 (bout 77` of the "or+people e9amined declared in fa)our of 17 hours, a much smaller percentage in fa)our of 11, and an altogether insignificant minorit* for the old 16 hours8111 (nother @friendl*A dodge "as to ma+e the adult males "or+ 16 to 13 hours, and then to bla1on abroad this fact as the best proof of "hat the proletariat desired in its heart of hearts8 /ut the @ruthlessA Factor* >nspector <eonard -orner "as again to the fore8 'he maDorit* of the @o)er4 timesA declared: @'he* "ould much prefer "or+ing ten hours for less "ages, but that the* had no choice; that so man* "ere out of emplo*ment (so man* spinners getting )er* lo" "ages b* ha)ing to "or+ as piecers, being unable to do better!, that if the* refused to "or+ the longer time, others "ould immediatel* get their places, so that it "as a Iuestion "ith them of agreeing to "or+ the longer time, or of being thro"n out of emplo*ment altogether8A116 'he preliminar* campaign of capital thus came to grief, and the 'en -ours? (ct came into force $a* 1st, 18 88 /ut mean"hile the fiasco of the 5hartist part* "hose leaders "ere imprisoned, and "hose organisation "as dismembered, had sha+en the confidence of the English "or+ing4 class in its o"n strength8 Soon after this the Lune insurrection in #aris and its blood* suppression united, in England as on the 5ontinent, all fractions of the ruling classes, landlords and capitalists, stoc+4e9change "ol)es and shop4+eepers, #rotectionists and Freetraders, go)ernment and opposition, priests and freethin+ers, *oung "hores and old nuns, under the common cr* for the sal)ation of #ropert*, &eligion, the Famil* and Societ*8 'he "or+ing4class "as e)er*"here proclaimed, placed under a ban, under a )irtual la" of suspects8 'he manufacturers had no need an* longer to restrain themsel)es8 'he* bro+e out in open re)olt not onl* against the 'en -ours? (ct, but against the "hole of the legislation that since 18:: had aimed at restricting in some measure the @freeA e9ploitation of labour4po"er8 >t "as a pro4sla)er* rebellion in miniature, carried on for o)er t"o *ears "ith a c*nical rec+lessness, a terrorist energ* all the cheaper because the rebel capitalist ris+ed nothing e9cept the s+in of his @hands8A 'o understand that "hich follo"s "e must remember that the Factor* (cts of 18::, 18 , and 18 7 "ere all three in force so far as the one did not amend the other: that not one of these limited the "or+ing da* of the male "or+er o)er 18, and that since 18:: the 13 hours from 38:7 a8m8 to 88:7 p8m8 had remained the legal @da*,A "ithin the limits of "hich at first the 16, and later the 17 hours? labour of *oung persons and "omen had to be performed under the prescribed conditions8 'he manufacturers began b* here and there discharging a part of, in man* cases half of the *oung persons and "omen emplo*ed b* them, and then, for the adult males, restoring the almost obsolete night4"or+8 'he 'en -ours? (ct, the* cried, lea)es no other alternati)e8 11: 'heir second step dealt "ith the legal pauses for meals8 <et us hear the Factor* >nspectors8 @Since the restriction of the hours of "or+ to ten, the factor* occupiers maintain, although the* ha)e not *et practicall* gone the "hole length, that supposing the

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hours of "or+ to be from 2 a8m8 to 7 p8m8 the* fulfil the pro)isions of the statutes b* allo"ing an hour before 2 a8m8 and half an hour after 7 p8m8 Gfor mealsH8 >n some cases the* no" allo" an hour, or half an hour for dinner, insisting at the same time, that the* are not bound to allo" an* part of the hour and a half in the course of the factor* "or+ing da*8A11 'he manufacturers maintained therefore that the scrupulousl* strict pro)isions of the (ct of 18 "ith regard to meal4 times onl* ga)e the operati)es permission to eat and drin+ before coming into, and after lea)ing the factor* F i8e8, at home8 (nd "h* should not the "or+people eat their dinner before 2 in the morningE 'he cro"n la"*ers, ho"e)er, decided that the prescribed meal4times @must be in the inter)al during the "or+ing4hours, and that it "ill not be la"ful to "or+ for 17 hours continuousl*, from 2 a8m8 to 7 p8m8, "ithout an* inter)al8A 113 (fter these pleasant demonstrations, 5apital preluded its re)olt b* a step "hich agreed "ith the letter of the la" of 18 , and "as therefore legal8 'he (ct of 18 certainl* prohibited the emplo*ment after 1 p8m8 of such children, from 8 to 1:, as had been emplo*ed before noon8 /ut it did not regulate in an* "a* the 6[ hours? "or+ of the children "hose "or+4time began at 16 midda* or later8 5hildren of 8 might, if the* began "or+ at noon, be emplo*ed from 16 to 1, 1 hour; from 6 to in the afternoon, 6 hours; from 3 to 88:7 in the e)ening, :[ hours; in all, the legal 6[ hours8 =r better still8 >n order to ma+e their "or+ coincide "ith that of the adult male labourers up to 88:7 p8m8, the manufacturers onl* had to gi)e them no "or+ till 6 in the afternoon, the* could then +eep them in the factor* "ithout intermission till 88:7 in the e)ening8 @(nd it is no" e9pressl* admitted that the practice e9ists in England from the desire of mill4o"ners to ha)e their machiner* at "or+ for more than 17 hours a4 da*, to +eep the children at "or+ "ith male adults after all the *oung persons and "omen ha)e left, and until 88:7 p8m8 if the factor*4o"ners choose8A 116 Bor+men and factor* inspectors protested on h*gienic and moral grounds, but 5apital ans"ered: @$* deeds upon m* headQ > cra)e the la", 'he penalt* and forfeit of m* bond8A >n fact, according to statistics laid before the -ouse of 5ommons on Lul* 66th, 1837, in spite of all protests, on Lul* 13th, 1837, :,7 6 children "ere subDected to this @practiceA in 637 factories8117 Still, this "as not enough8 'he <*n9 e*e of 5apital disco)ered that the (ct of 18 did not allo" 3 hours? "or+ before mid4da* "ithout a pause of at least :7 minutes for refreshment, but prescribed nothing of the +ind for "or+ after mid4da*8 'herefore, it claimed and obtained the enDo*ment not onl* of ma+ing children of 8 drudge "ithout intermission from 6 to 88:7 p8m8, but also of ma+ing them hunger during that time8 @(*, his breast8 So sa*s the bond8A 'his Sh*loc+4clinging118 to the letter of the la" of 18 , so far as it regulated children?s labour, "as but to lead up to an open re)olt against the same la", so far as it regulated the labour of @*oung persons and "omen8A >t "ill be remembered that the abolition of the @false rela* s*stemA "as the chief aim and obDect of that la"8 'he masters began their re)olt "ith the simple declaration that the sections of the (ct of 18 "hich prohibited the ad libitum use of *oung persons and "omen in such short fractions of the da* of 13 hours as the emplo*er chose, "ere @comparati)el* harmlessA so long as the "or+4time "as fi9ed at 16 hours8 /ut under the 'en -ours? (ct the* "ere a @grie)ous hardship8A 112 'he* informed the inspectors in the coolest

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manner that the* should place themsel)es abo)e the letter of the la", and re4introduce the old s*stem on their o"n account8167 'he* "ere acting in the interests of the ill4ad)ised operati)es themsel)es, @in order to be able to pa* them higher "ages8A V'his "as the onl* possible plan b* "hich to maintain, under the 'en -ours? (ct, the industrial supremac* of Great /ritain8A @#erhaps it ma* be a little difficult to detect irregularities under the rela* s*stem; but "hat of thatE >s the great manufacturing interest of this countr* to be treated as a secondar* matter in order to sa)e some little trouble to >nspectors and Sub4>nspectors of FactoriesEA 161 (ll these shifts naturall* "ere of no a)ail8 'he Factor* >nspectors appealed to the <a" 5ourts8 /ut soon such a cloud of dust in the "a* of petitions from the masters o)er"helmed the -ome Secretar*, Sir George Gre*, that in a circular of (ugust 3th, 18 8, he recommends the inspectors not @to la* informations against mill4o"ners for a breach of the letter of the (ct, or for emplo*ment of *oung persons b* rela*s in cases in "hich there is no reason to belie)e that such *oung persons ha)e been actuall* emplo*ed for a longer period than that sanctioned b* la"8A -ereupon, Factor* >nspector L8 Stuart allo"ed the so4called rela* s*stem during the 13 hours of the factor* da* throughout Scotland, "here it soon flourished again as of old8 'he English Factor* >nspectors, on the other hand, declared that the -ome Secretar* had no po"er dictatoriall* to suspend the la", and continued their legal proceedings against the pro4sla)er* rebellion8 /ut "hat "as the good of summoning the capitalists "hen the 5ourts in this case the countr* magistrates F 5obbett?s @Great %npaidA F acIuitted themE >n these tribunals, the masters sat in Dudgment on themsel)es (n e9ample8 =ne Es+rigge, cotton4spinner, of the firm of .ersha", <eese, P 5o8, had laid before the Factor* >nspector of his district the scheme of a rela* s*stem intended for his mill8 &ecei)ing a refusal, he at first +ept Iuiet8 ( fe" months later, an indi)idual named &obinson, also a cotton4spinner, and if not his $an Frida*, at all e)ents related to Es+rigge, appeared before the borough magistrates of Stoc+port on a charge of introducing the identical plan of rela*s in)ented b* Es+rigge8 Four Lustices sat, among them three cottonspinners, at their head this same ine)itable Es+rigge8 Es+rigge acIuitted &obinson, and no" "as of opinion that "hat "as right for &obinson "as fair for Es+rigge8 Supported b* his o"n legal decision, he introduced the s*stem at once into his o"n factor*8 166 =f course, the composition of this tribunal "as in itself a )iolation of the la"816: 'hese Dudicial farces, e9claims >nspector -o"ell, @urgentl* call for a remed* F either that the la" should be so altered as to be made to conform to these decisions, or that it should be administered b* a less fallible tribunal, "hose decisions "ould conform to the la" 888 "hen these cases are brought for"ard8 > long for a stipendiar* magistrate8A16 'he cro"n la"*ers declared the masters? interpretation of the (ct of 18 8 absurd8 /ut the Sa)iours of Societ* "ould not allo" themsel)es to be turned from their purpose8 <eonard -orner reports, @-a)ing endea)oured to enforce the (ct 888 b* ten prosecutions in se)en magisterial di)isions, and ha)ing been supported b* the magistrates in one case onl* 888 > considered it useless to prosecute more for this e)asion of the la"8 'hat part of the (ct of 18 8 "hich "as framed for securing uniformit* in the hours of "or+, 888 is thus no longer in force in m* district (<ancashire!8 Ceither ha)e the sub4inspectors or m*self an* means of satisf*ing oursel)es, "hen "e inspect a

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mill "or+ing b* shifts, that the *oung persons and "omen are not "or+ing more than 17 hours a4da*8888 >n a return of the :7th (pril, 888 of millo"ners "or+ing b* shifts, the number amounts to 11 , and has been for some time rapidl* increasing8 >n general, the time of "or+ing the mill is e9tended to 1:[ hours? from 6 a8m8 to 7[ p8m8, 8888 in some instances it amounts to 13 hours, from 3[ a8m8 to 8[ p8m8A 163 (lread*, in 0ecember, 18 8, <eonard -orner had a list of 63 manufacturers and 62 o)erloo+ers "ho unanimousl* declared that no s*stem of super)ision could, under this rela* s*stem, pre)ent enormous o)er4"or+8166 Co", the same children and *oung persons "ere shifted from the spinning4room to the "ea)ing4room, no", during 13 hours, from one factor* to another8 167 -o" "as it possible to control a s*stem "hich, @under the guise of rela*s, is some one of the man* plans for shuffling Wthe hands? about in endless )ariet*, and shifting the hours of "or+ and of rest for different indi)iduals throughout the da*, so that *ou ma* ne)er ha)e one complete set of hands "or+ing together in the same room at the same time8A 168 /ut altogether independentl* of actual o)er4"or+, this so4called rela* s*stem "as an offspring of capitalistic fantas*, such as Fourier, in his humorous s+etches of @5ourses Seances,A has ne)er surpassed, e9cept that the @attraction of labourA "as changed into the attraction of capital8 <oo+, for e9ample, at those schemes of the masters "hich the @respectableA press praised as models of @"hat a reasonable degree of care and method can accomplish8A 'he personnel of the "or+people "as sometimes di)ided into from 16 to 1 categories, "hich themsel)es constantl* changed and recharged their constituent parts8 0uring the 13 hours of the factor* da*, capital dragged in the labourer no" for :7 minutes, no" for an hour, and then pushed him out again, to drag him into the factor* and to thrust him out afresh, hounding him hither and thither, in scattered shreds of time, "ithout e)er losing hold of him until the full 17 hours? "or+ "as done8 (s on the stage, the same persons had to appear in turns in the different scenes of the different acts8 /ut as an actor during the "hole course of the pla* belongs to the stage, so the operati)es, during 13 hours, belonged to the factor*, "ithout rec+oning the time for going and coming8 'hus the hours of rest "ere turned into hours of enforced idleness, "hich dro)e the *ouths to the pot4house, and the girls to the brothel8 (t e)er* ne" tric+ that the capitalist, from da* to da*, hit upon for +eeping his machiner* going 16 or 13 hours "ithout increasing the number of his hands, the "or+er had to s"allo" his meals no" in this fragment of time, no" in that8 (t the time of the 17 hours? agitation, the masters cried out that the "or+ing mob petitioned in the hope of obtaining 16 hours? "ages for 17 hours? "or+8 Co" the* re)ersed the medal8 'he* paid 17 hours? "ages for 16 or 13 hours? lordship o)er labour4po"er8 162 'his "as the gist of the matter, this the masters? interpretation of the 17 hours? la"Q 'hese "ere the same unctuous Free4traders, perspiring "ith the lo)e of humanit*, "ho for full 17 *ears, during the (nti45orn <a" agitation, had preached to the operati)es, b* a rec+oning of pounds, shillings, and pence, that "ith free importation of corn, and "ith the means possessed b* English industr*, 17 hours? labour "ould be Iuite enough to enrich the capitalists81:7 'his re)olt of capital, after t"o *ears "as at last cro"ned "ith )ictor* b* a decision of one of the four highest 5ourts of Lustice in England, the 5ourt of E9cheIuer, "hich in a case brought before it on Februar* 8th, 1837, decided that the manufacturers "ere certainl* acting against the sense of the (ct of 18 , but that this (ct itself contained certain "ords that rendered it meaningless8 @/* this decision, the 'en -ours? (ct "as abolished8A 1:1 ( cro"d of masters, "ho until then had been afraid of using the rela* s*stem for *oung persons and "omen, no" too+ it up heart and soul81:6 /ut on this apparentl* decisi)e )ictor* of capital, follo"ed at once a re)ulsion8 'he "or+people had hitherto offered a passi)e, although infle9ible and unremitting resistance8 'he* no" protested

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in <ancashire and Nor+shire in threatening meetings8 'he pretended 'en -ours? (ct "as thus simple humbug, parliamentar* cheating, had ne)er e9istedQ 'he Factor* >nspectors urgentl* "arned the Go)ernment that the antagonism of classes had arri)ed at an incredible tension8 Some of the masters themsel)es murmured: @=n account of the contradictor* decisions of the magistrates, a condition of things altogether abnormal and anarchical obtains8 =ne la" holds in Nor+shire, another in <ancashire, one la" in one parish of <ancashire, another in its immediate neighbourhood8 'he manufacturer in large to"ns could e)ade the la", the manufacturer in countr* districts could not find the people necessar* for the rela* s*stem, still less for the shifting of hands from one factor* to another,A Pc8 (nd the first birthright of capital is eIual e9ploitation of labour4po"er b* all capitalists8 %nder these circumstances a compromise bet"een masters and men "as effected that recei)ed the seal of #arliament in the additional Factor* (ct of (ugust 3th, 18378 'he "or+ing da* for @*oung persons and "omen,A "as raised from 17 to 17[ hours for the first fi)e da*s of the "ee+, and shortened to 7[ on the Saturda*8 'he "or+ "as to go on bet"een 6 a8m8 and 6 p8m8 1::, "ith pauses of not less than 1[ hours for meal4times, these meal4times to be allo"ed at one and the same time for all, and conformabl* to the conditions of 18 8 /* this an end "as put to the rela* s*stem once for all81: For children?s labour, the (ct of 18 remained in force8 =ne set of masters, this time as before, secured to itself special seigneurial rights o)er the children of the proletariat8 'hese "ere the sil+ manufacturers8 >n 18:: the* had ho"led out in threatening fashion, @if the libert* of "or+ing children of an* age for 17 hours a da* "ere ta+en a"a*, it "ould stop their "or+s8A1:3 >t "ould be impossible for them to bu* a sufficient number of children o)er 1:8 'he* e9torted the pri)ilege the* desired8 'he prete9t "as sho"n on subseIuent in)estigation to be a deliberate lie8 1:6 >t did not, ho"e)er, pre)ent them, during 17 *ears, from spinning sil+ 17 hours a da* out of the blood of little children "ho had to be placed upon stools for the performance of their "or+8 1:7 'he (ct of 18 certainl* @robbedA them of the @libert*A of emplo*ing children under 11 longer than 6[ hours a da*8 /ut it secured to them, on the other hand, the pri)ilege of "or+ing children bet"een 11 and 1:, 17 hours a da*, and of annulling in their case the education made compulsor* for all other factor* children8 'his time the prete9t "as @the delicate te9ture of the fabric in "hich the* "ere emplo*ed, reIuiring a lightness of touch, onl* to be acIuired b* their earl* introduction to these factories8A 1:8 'he children "ere slaughtered out4and4out for the sa+e of their delicate fingers, as in Southern &ussia the horned cattle for the sa+e of their hide and tallo"8 (t length, in 1837, the pri)ilege granted in 18 , "as limited to the departments of sil+4t"isting and sil+4"inding8 /ut here, to ma+e amends to capital bereft of its @freedom,A the "or+4lime for children from 11 to 1: "as raised from 17 to 17[ hours8 #rete9t: @<abour in sil+ mills "as lighter than in mills for other fabrics, and less li+el* in other respects also to be preDudicial to health8A 1:2 =fficial medical inIuiries pro)ed after"ards that, on the contrar*, @the a)erage death4rate is e9ceedingl* high in the sil+ districts and amongst the female part of the population is higher e)en than it is in the cotton districts of <ancashire8A1 7 0espite the protests of the Factor* >nspector, rene"ed e)er* 6 months, the mischief continues to this hour8 1 1 'he (ct of 1837 changed the 13 hours? time from 6 a8m8 to 88:7 p8m8, into the 16 hours from 6 a8m8 to 6 p8m8 for @*oung persons and "omenA onl*8 >t did not, therefore, affect children "ho

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could al"a*s be emplo*ed for half an hour before and 6[ hours after this period, pro)ided the "hole of their labour did not e9ceed 6[ hours8 Bhilst the bill "as under discussion, the Factor* >nspectors laid before #arliament statistics of the infamous abuses due to this anomal*8 'o no purpose8 >n the bac+ground lur+ed the intention of scre"ing up, during prosperous *ears, the "or+ing da* of adult males to 13 hours b* the aid of the children8 'he e9perience of the three follo"ing *ears sho"ed that such an attempt must come to grief against the resistance of the adult male operati)es8 'he (ct of 1837 "as therefore finall* completed in 183: b* forbidding the @emplo*ment of children in the morning before and in the e)ening after *oung persons and "omen8A -enceforth "ith a fe" e9ceptions the Factor* (ct of 1837 regulated the "or+ing da* of all "or+ers in the branches of industr* that come under it8 1 6 Since the passing of the first Factor* (ct half a centur* had elapsed81 : Factor* legislation for the first time "ent be*ond its original sphere in the @#rint"or+s? (ct of 18 38A 'he displeasure "ith "hich capital recei)ed this ne" @e9tra)aganceA spea+s through e)er* line of the (ct8 >t limits the "or+ing da* for children from 8 to 1:, and for "omen to 16 hours, bet"een 6 a8m8 and 17 p8m8, "ithout an* legal pause for meal4times8 >t allo"s males o)er 1: to be "or+ed at "ill da* and night81 >t is a #arliamentar* abortion81 3 -o"e)er, the principle had triumphed "ith its )ictor* in those great branches of industr* "hich form the most characteristic creation of the modern mode of production8 'heir "onderful de)elopment from 183: to 1867, hand4in4hand "ith the ph*sical and moral regeneration of the factor* "or+ers, struc+ the most purblind8 'he masters from "hom the legal limitation and regulation had been "rung step b* step after a ci)il "ar of half a centur*, themsel)es referred ostentatiousl* to the contrast "ith the branches of e9ploitation still @free8A 1 6 'he #harisees of @#olitical Econom*A no" proclaimed the discernment of the necessit* of a legall* fi9ed "or+ing da* as a characteristic ne" disco)er* of their @science8A 1 7 >t "ill be easil* understood that after the factor* magnates had resigned themsel)es and become reconciled to the ine)itable, the po"er of resistance of capital graduall* "ea+ened, "hilst at the same time the po"er of attac+ of the "or+ing4class gre" "ith the number of its allies in the classes of societ* not immediatel* interested in the Iuestion8 -ence the comparati)el* rapid ad)ance since 18678 'he d*e4"or+s and bleach4"or+s all came under the Factor* (ct of 1837 in 1867; 1 8 lace and stoc+ing manufactures in 18618 >n conseIuence of the first report of the 5ommission on the emplo*ment of children (186:! the same fate "as shared b* the manufacturers of all earthen"ares (not merel* potter*!, <ucifer4 matches, percussion caps, cartridges, carpets, fustian4cutting, and man* processes included under the name of @finishing8A >n the *ear 186: bleaching in the open air 1 2 and ba+ing "ere placed under special (cts, b* "hich, in the former, the labour of *oung persons and "omen during the night4time (from 8 in the e)ening to 6 in the morning!, and in the latter, the emplo*ment of Dourne*men ba+ers under 18, bet"een 2 in the e)ening and 3 in the morning "ere forbidden8 Be shall return to the later proposals of the same 5ommission, "hich threatened to depri)e of their @freedomA all the important branches of English >ndustr*, "ith the e9ception of agriculture, mines, and the means of transport8137

Section 9: The Stru%%le for a 6ormal 3orkin% -a 7 .eaction of the )n%lish Factor ;cts on Other Countries
'he reader "ill bear in mind that the production of surplus )alue, or the e9traction of surplus labour, is the specific end and aim, the sum and substance, of capitalist production, Iuite apart

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from an* changes in the mode of production, "hich ma* arise from the subordination of labour to capital8 -e "ill remember that as far as "e ha)e at present gone onl* the independent labourer, and therefore onl* the labourer legall* Iualified to act for himself, enters as a )endor of a commodit* into a contract "ith the capitalist8 >f, therefore, in our historical s+etch, on the one hand, modern industr*, on the other, the labour of those "ho are ph*sicall* and legall* minors, pla* important parts, the former "as to us onl* a special department, and the latter onl* a speciall* stri+ing e9ample of labour e9ploitation8 Bithout, ho"e)er, anticipating the subseIuent de)elopment of our inIuir*, from the mere conne9ion of the historic facts before us it follo"s: !irst8 'he passion of capital for an unlimited and rec+less e9tension of the "or+ing da*, is first gratified in the industries earliest re)olutionised b* "ater4po"er, steam, and machiner*, in those first creations of the modern mode of production, cotton, "ool, fla9, and sil+ spinning, and "ea)ing8 'he changes in the material mode of production, and the corresponding changes in the social relations of the producers131 ga)e rise first to an e9tra)agance be*ond all bounds, and then in opposition to this, called forth a control on the part of Societ* "hich legall* limits, regulates, and ma+es uniform the "or+ing da* and its pauses8 'his control appears, therefore, during the first half of the nineteenth centur* simpl* as e9ceptional legislation8 136 (s soon as this primiti)e dominion of the ne" mode of production "as conIuered, it "as found that, in the meantime, not onl* had man* other branches of production been made to adopt the same factor* s*stem, but that manufactures "ith more or less obsolete methods, such as potteries, glass4ma+ing, Pc8, that old4 fashioned handicrafts, li+e ba+ing, and, finall*, e)en that the so4called domestic industries, such as nail4ma+ing,13: had long since fallen as completel* under capitalist e9ploitation as the factories themsel)es8 <egislation "as, therefore, compelled to graduall* get rid of its e9ceptional character, or "here, as in England, it proceeds after the manner of the &oman 5asuists, to declare an* house in "hich "or+ "as done to be a factor*813 ;econd8 'he histor* of the regulation of the "or+ing da* in certain branches of production, and the struggle still going on in others in regard to this regulation, pro)e conclusi)el* that the isolated labourer, the labourer as @freeA )endor of his labour4po"er, "hen capitalist production has once attained a certain stage, succumbs "ithout an* po"er of resistance8 'he creation of a normal "or+ing da* is, therefore, the product of a protracted ci)il "ar, more or less dissembled, bet"een the capitalist class and the "or+ing4class8 (s the contest ta+es place in the arena of modern industr*, it first brea+s out in the home of that industr* F England8 133 'he English factor* "or+ers "ere the champions, not onl* of the English, but of the modern "or+ing4class generall*, as their theorists "ere the first to thro" do"n the gauntlet to the theor* of capital8 136 -ence, the philosopher of the Factor*, %re, denounces as an ineffable disgrace to the English "or+ing4class that the* inscribed @the sla)er* of the Factor* (ctsA on the banner "hich the* bore against capital, manfull* stri)ing for @perfect freedom of labour8A 137 France limps slo"l* behind England8 'he Februar* re)olution "as necessar* to bring into the "orld the 16 hours? la",138 "hich is much more deficient than its English original8 For all that, the French re)olutionar* method has its special ad)antages8 >t once for all commands the same limit to the "or+ing da* in all shops and factories "ithout distinction, "hilst English legislation reluctantl* *ields to the pressure of circumstances, no" on this point, no" on that, and is getting lost in a hopelessl* be"ildering tangle of contradictor* enactments8 132 =n the other hand, the French la" proclaims as a principle that "hich in England "as onl* "on in the name of children, minors, and "omen, and has been onl* recentl* for the first time claimed as a general right8 167 >n the %nited States of Corth (merica, e)er* independent mo)ement of the "or+ers "as paral*sed so long as sla)er* disfigured a part of the &epublic8 <abour cannot emancipate itself in the "hite s+in "here in the blac+ it is branded8 /ut out of the death of sla)er* a ne" life at once

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arose8 'he first fruit of the 5i)il Bar "as the eight hours? agitation, that ran "ith the se)en4 leagued boots of the locomoti)e from the (tlantic to the #acific, from Ce" England to 5alifornia8 'he General 5ongress of labour at /altimore ((ugust 16th, 1866! declared: @'he first and great necessit* of the present, to free the labour of this countr* from capitalistic sla)er*, is the passing of a la" b* "hich eight hours shall be the normal "or+ing da* in all States of the (merican %nion8 Be are resol)ed to put forth all our strength until this glorious result is attained8A 161 (t the same time, the 5ongress of the >nternational Bor+ing $en?s (ssociation at Gene)a, on the proposition of the <ondon General 5ouncil, resol)ed that @the limitation of the "or+ing da* is a preliminar* condition "ithout "hich all further attempts at impro)ement and emancipation must pro)e aborti)e888 the 5ongress proposes eight hours as the legal limit of the "or+ing da*8A 'hus the mo)ement of the "or+ing4class on both sides of the (tlantic, that had gro"n instincti)el* out of the conditions of production themsel)es, endorsed the "ords of the English Factor* >nspector, &8 L8 Saunders @Further steps to"ards a reformation of societ* can ne)er be carried out "ith an* hope of success, unless the hours of labour be limited, and the prescribed limit strictl* enforced8A166 >t must be ac+no"ledged that our labourer comes out of the process of production other than he entered8 >n the mar+et he stood as o"ner of the commodit* @labour4po"erA face to face "ith other o"ners of commodities, dealer against dealer8 'he contract b* "hich he sold to the capitalist his labour4po"er pro)ed, so to sa*, in blac+ and "hite that he disposed of himself freel*8 'he bargain concluded, it is disco)ered that he "as no @free agent,A that the time for "hich he is free to sell his labour4po"er is the time for "hich he is forced to sell it, 16: that in fact the )ampire "ill not lose its hold on him @so long as there is a muscle, a ner)e, a drop of blood to be e9ploited8A16 For @protectionA against @the serpent of their agonies,A the labourers must put their heads together, and, as a class, compel the passing of a la", an all4po"erful social barrier that shall pre)ent the )er* "or+ers from selling8 b* )oluntar* contract "ith capital, themsel)es and their families into sla)er* and death8 163 >n place of the pompous catalogue of the @inalienable rights of manA comes the modest $agna 5harta of a legall* limited "or+ing da*, "hich shall ma+e clear @"hen the time "hich the "or+er sells is ended, and "hen his o"n begins8A Kuantum mutatus ab illoQ GBhat a great change from that timeQ F ;irgilH 166

(ha)ter 11* 3ate and Mass of S%r)$%s 2a$%e


>n this chapter, as hitherto, the )alue of labour4po"er, and therefore the part of the "or+ing da* necessar* for the reproduction or maintenance of that labour4po"er, are supposed to be gi)en, constant magnitudes8 'his premised, "ith the rate, the mass is at the same time gi)en of the surplus )alue that the indi)idual labourer furnishes to the capitalist in a definite period of time8 >f, e$ $, the necessar* labour amounts to 6 hours dail*, e9pressed in a Iuantum of gold Y : shillings, then :s8 is the dail* )alue of one labour4po"er or the )alue of the capital ad)anced in the bu*ing of one labour4po"er8 >f, further, the rate of surplus )alue be Y 177`, this )ariable capital of :s8 produces a mass of surplus )alue of :s8, or the labourer supplies dail* a mass of surplus labour eIual to 6 hours8 /ut the )ariable capital of a capitalist is the e9pression in mone* of the total )alue of all the labour4po"ers that he emplo*s simultaneousl*8 >ts )alue is, therefore, eIual to the a)erage )alue of one labour4po"er, multiplied b* the number of labour4po"ers emplo*ed8 Bith a gi)en )alue of labour4po"er, therefore, the magnitude of the )ariable capital )aries directl* as the number of labourers emplo*ed simultaneousl*8 >f the dail* )alue of one labour4po"er Y :s8, then a capital of :77s8 must be ad)anced in order to e9ploit dail* 177 labour4po"ers, of n times :s8, in order to e9ploit dail* n labour4po"ers8 >n the same "a*, if a )ariable capital of :s8, being the dail* )alue of one labour4po"er, produce a dail* surplus )alue of :s8, a )ariable capital of :77s8 "ill produce a dail* surplus )alue of :77s8, and one of n times :s8 a dail* surplus )alue of n h :s8 'he mass of the surplus )alue produced is therefore eIual to the surplus )alue "hich the "or+ing da* of one labourer supplies multiplied b* the number of labourers emplo*ed8 /ut as further the mass of surplus )alue "hich a single labourer produces, the )alue of labour4po"er being gi)en, is determined b* the rate of the surplus )alue, this la" follo"s: the mass of the surplus )alue produced is eIual to the amount of the )ariable capital ad)anced, multiplied b* the rate of surplus )alue, in other "ords: it is determined b* the compound ratio bet"een the number of labour4po"ers e9ploited simultaneousl* b* the same capitalist and the degree of e9ploitation of each indi)idual labour4po"er8 <et the mass of the surplus )alue be S, the surplus )alue supplied b* the indi)idual labourer in the a)erage da* s the )ariable capital dail* ad)anced in the purchase of one indi)idual labour4po"er ), the sum total of the )ariable capital ;, the )alue of an a)erage labour4po"er #, its degree of e9ploitation (aUJa! (surplus labourJnecessar*4labour! and the number of labourers emplo*ed n; "e "ould ha)e:

SY

h; q (sJ)! # h (aUJa! h n

>t is al"a*s supposed, not onl* that the )alue of an a)erage labour4po"er is constant, but that the labourers emplo*ed b* a capitalist are reduced to a)erage labourers8 'here are e9ceptional cases in "hich the surplus )alue produced does not increase in proportion to the number of labourers e9ploited, but then the )alue of the labour4po"er does not remain constant8 >n the production of a definite mass of surplus )alue, therefore the decrease of one factor ma* be compensated b* the increase of the other8 >f the )ariable capital diminishes, and at the same time the rate of surplus )alue increases in the same ratio, the mass of surplus )alue produced remains

16:

5hapter 11

unaltered8 >f on our earlier assumption the capitalist must ad)ance :77s8, in order to e9ploit 177 labourers a da*, and if the rate of surplus )alue amounts to 37`, this )ariable capital of :77s8 *ields a surplus )alue of 137s8 or of 177 h : "or+ing hours8 >f the rate of surplus )alue doubles, or the "or+ing da*, instead of being e9tended from 6 to 2, is e9tended from 6 to 16 hours and at the same time )ariable capital is lessened b* half, and reduced to 137s8, it *ields also a surplus )alue of 137s8 or 37 h 6 "or+ing hours8 0iminution of the )ariable capital ma* therefore be compensated b* a proportionate rise in the degree of e9ploitation of labour4po"er, or the decrease in the number of the labourers emplo*ed b* a proportionate e9tension of the "or+ing da*8 Bithin certain limits therefore the suppl* of labour e9ploitable b* capital is independent of the suppl* of labourers81 =n the contrar*, a fall in the rate of surplus )alue lea)es unaltered the mass of the surplus )alue produced, if the amount of the )ariable capital, or number of the labourers emplo*ed, increases in the same proportion8 Ce)ertheless, the compensation of a decrease in the number of labourers emplo*ed, or of the amount of )ariable capital ad)anced b* a rise in the rate of surplus )alue, or b* the lengthening of the "or+ing da*, has impassable limits8 Bhate)er the )alue of labour4po"er ma* be, "hether the "or+ing time necessar* for the maintenance of the labourer is 6 or 17 hours, the total )alue that a labourer can produce, da* in, da* out, is al"a*s less than the )alue in "hich 6 hours of labour are embodied, less than 16s8, if 16s8 is the mone* e9pression for 6 hours of realised labour8 >n our former assumption, according to "hich 6 "or+ing hours are dail* necessar* in order to reproduce the labour4po"er itself or to replace the )alue of the capital ad)anced in its purchase, a )ariable capital of 1,377s8, that emplo*s 377 labourers at a rate of surplus )alue of 177` "ith a 16 hours? "or+ing da*, produces dail* a surplus )alue of 1,377s8 or of 6 h 377 "or+ing hours8 ( capital of :77s8 that emplo*s 177 labourers a da* "ith a rate of surplus )alue of 677` or "ith a "or+ing da* of 18 hours, produces onl* a mass of surplus )alue of 677s8 or 16 h 177 "or+ing hours; and its total )alue4product, the eIui)alent of the )ariable capital ad)anced plus the surplus )alue, can, da* in, da* out, ne)er reach the sum of 1,677s8 or 6 h 177 "or+ing hours8 'he absolute limit of the a)erage "or+ing da* F this being b* nature al"a*s less than 6 hours F sets an absolute limit to the compensation of a reduction of )ariable capital b* a higher rate of surplus )alue, or of the decrease of the number of labourers e9ploited b* a higher degree of e9ploitation of labour4po"er8 'his palpable la" is of importance for the clearing up of man* phenomena, arising from a tendenc* (to be "or+ed out later on! of capital to reduce as much as possible the number of labourers emplo*ed b* it, or its )ariable constituent transformed into labour4po"er, in contradiction to its other tendenc* to produce the greatest possible mass of surplus )alue8 =n the other hand, if the mass of labour4po"er emplo*ed, or the amount of )ariable capital, increases, but not in proportion to the fall in the rate of surplus )alue, the mass of the surplus )alue produced, falls8 ( third la" results from the determination, of the mass of the surplus )alue produced, b* the t"o factors: rate of surplus )alue and amount of )ariable capital ad)anced8 'he rate of surplus )alue, or the degree of e9ploitation of labour4po"er, and the )alue of labour4po"er, or the amount of necessar* "or+ing time being gi)en, it is self e)ident that the greater the )ariable capital, the greater "ould be the mass of the )alue produced and of the surplus )alue8 >f the limit of the "or+ing da* is gi)en, and also the limit of its necessar* constituent, the mass of )alue and surplus )alue that an indi)idual capitalist produces, is clearl* e9clusi)el* dependent on the mass of labour that he sets in motion8 /ut this, under the conditions supposed abo)e, depends on the mass of labour4po"er, or the number of labourers "hom he e9ploits, and this number in its turn is determined b* the amount of the )ariable capital ad)anced8 Bith a gi)en rate of surplus )alue, and a gi)en )alue of labour4po"er, therefore, the masses of surplus )alue produced )ar* directl* as the amounts of the )ariable capitals ad)anced8 Co" "e +no" that the capitalist di)ides his

16

5hapter 11

capital into t"o parts8 =ne part he la*s out in means of production8 'his is the constant part of his capital8 'he other part he la*s out in li)ing labour4po"er8 'his part forms his )ariable capital8 =n the basis of the same mode of social production, the di)ision of capital into constant and )ariable differs in different branches of production, and "ithin the same branch of production, too, this relation changes "ith changes in the technical conditions and in the social combinations of the processes of production8 /ut in "hate)er proportion a gi)en capital brea+s up into a constant and a )ariable part, "hether the latter is to the former as 1:6 or 1:17 or 1:9, the la" Dust laid do"n is not affected b* this8 For, according to our pre)ious anal*sis, the )alue of the constant capital reappears in the )alue of the product, but does not enter into the ne"l* produced )alue, the ne"l* created )alue product8 'o emplo* 1,777 spinners, more ra" material, spindles, Pc8, are, of course, reIuired, than to emplo* 1778 'he )alue of these additional means of production ho"e)er ma* rise, fall, remain unaltered, be large or small; it has no influence on the process of creation of surplus )alue b* means of the labour4po"ers that put them in motion8 'he la" demonstrated abo)e no", therefore, ta+es this form: the masses of )alue and of surplus )alue produced b* different capitals F the )alue of labour4po"er being gi)en and its degree of e9ploitation being eIual F )ar* directl* as the amounts of the )ariable constituents of these capitals, i$e$, as their constituents transformed into li)ing labour4po"er8 'his la" clearl* contradicts all e9perience based on appearance8 E)er*one +no"s that a cotton spinner, "ho, rec+oning the percentage on the "hole of his applied capital, emplo*s much constant and little )ariable capital, does not, on account of this, poc+et less profit or surplus )alue than a ba+er, "ho relati)el* sets in motion much )ariable and little constant capital8 For the solution of this apparent contradiction, man* intermediate terms are as *et "anted, as from the standpoint of elementar* algebra man* intermediate terms are "anted to understand that 7J7 ma* represent an actual magnitude8 5lassical econom*, although not formulating the la", holds instincti)el* to it, because it is a necessar* conseIuence of the general la" of )alue8 >t tries to rescue the la" from collision "ith contradictor* phenomena b* a )iolent abstraction8 >t "ill be seen later6 ho" the school of &icardo has come to grief o)er this stumbling bloc+8 ;ulgar econom* "hich, indeed, @has reall* learnt nothing,A here as e)er*"here stic+s to appearances in opposition to the la" "hich regulates and e9plains them8 >n opposition to Spino1a, it belie)es that @ignorance is a sufficient reason8A 'he labour "hich is set in motion b* the total capital of a societ*, da* in, da* out, ma* be regarded as a single collecti)e "or+ing da*8 >f, e$ $, the number of labourers is a million, and the a)erage "or+ing da* of a labourer is 17 hours, the social "or+ing da* consists of ten million hours8 Bith a gi)en length of this "or+ing da*, "hether its limits are fi9ed ph*sicall* or sociall*, the mass of surplus )alue can onl* be increased b* increasing the number of labourers, i$e$, of the labouring population8 'he gro"th of population here forms the mathematical limit to the production of surplus )alue b* the total social capital8 =n the contrar*, "ith a gi)en amount of population, this limit is formed b* the possible lengthening of the "or+ingda*8 : >t "ill, ho"e)er, be seen in the follo"ing chapter that this la" onl* holds for the form of surplus )alue dealt "ith up to the present8 From the treatment of the production of surplus )alue, so far, it follo"s that not e)er* sum of mone*, or of )alue, is at pleasure transformable into capital8 'o effect this transformation, in fact, a certain minimum of mone* or of e9change4)alue must be presupposed in the hands of the indi)idual possessor of mone* or commodities8 'he minimum of )ariable capital is the cost price of a single labour4po"er, emplo*ed the "hole *ear through, da* in, da* out, for the production of surplus )alue8 >f this labourer "ere in possession of his o"n means of production, and "ere satisfied to li)e as a labourer, he need not "or+ be*ond the time necessar* for the reproduction of his means of subsistence, sa* 8 hours a da*8 -e "ould, besides, onl* reIuire the means of

163

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production sufficient for 8 "or+ing hours8 'he capitalist, on the other hand, "ho ma+es him do, besides these 8 hours, sa* hours? surplus labour, reIuires an additional sum of mone* for furnishing the additional means of production8 =n our supposition, ho"e)er, he "ould ha)e to emplo* t"o labourers in order to li)e, on the surplus )alue appropriated dail*, as "ell as, and no better than a labourer, i8e8, to be able to satisf* his necessar* "ants8 >n this case the mere maintenance of life "ould be the end of his production, not the increase of "ealth; but this latter is implied in capitalist production8 'hat he ma* li)e onl* t"ice as "ell as an ordinar* labourer, and besides turn half of the surplus )alue produced into capital, he "ould ha)e to raise, "ith the number of labourers, the minimum of the capital ad)anced 8 times8 =f course he can, li+e his labourer, ta+e to "or+ himself, participate directl* in the process of production, but he is then onl* a h*brid bet"een capitalist and labourer, a @small master8A ( certain stage of capitalist production necessitates that the capitalist be able to de)ote the "hole of the time during "hich he functions as a capitalist, i$e$, as personified capital, to the appropriation and therefore control of the labour of others, and to the selling of the products of this labour8 'he guilds of the middle ages therefore tried to pre)ent b* force the transformation of the master of a trade into a capitalist, b* limiting the number of labourers that could be emplo*ed b* one master "ithin a )er* small ma9imum8 'he possessor of mone* or commodities actuall* turns into a capitalist in such cases onl* "here the minimum sum ad)anced for production greatl* e9ceeds the ma9imum of the middle ages8 -ere, as in natural science, is sho"n the correctness of the la" disco)ered b* -egel (in his @<ogicA!, that merel* Iuantitati)e differences be*ond a certain point pass into Iualitati)e changes83 'he minimum of the sum of )alue that the indi)idual possessor of mone* or commodities must command, in order to metamorphose himself into a capitalist, changes "ith the different stages of de)elopment of capitalist production, and is at gi)en stages different in different spheres of production, according to their special and technical conditions8 5ertain spheres of production demand, e)en at the )er* outset of capitalist production, a minimum of capital that is not as *et found in the hands of single indi)iduals8 'his gi)es rise partl* to state subsidies to pri)ate persons, as in France in the time of 5lobber, and as in man* German states up to our o"n epoch, partl* to the formation of societies "ith legal monopol* for the e9ploitation of certain branches of industr* and commerce, the forerunners of our modern Doint stoc+ companies8 6 Bithin the process of production, as "e ha)e seen, capital acIuired the command o)er labour, i$e$, o)er functioning labour4po"er or the labourer himself8 #ersonified capital, the capitalist ta+es care that the labourer does his "or+ regularl* and "ith the proper degree of intensit*8 5apital further de)eloped into a coerci)e relation, "hich compels the "or+ing class to do more "or+ than the narro" round of its o"n life4"ants prescribes8 (s a producer of the acti)it* of others, as a pumper4out of surplus labour and e9ploiter of labour4po"er, it surpasses in energ*, disregard of bounds, rec+lessness and efficienc*, all earlier s*stems of production based on directl* compulsor* labour8 (t first, capital subordinates labour on the basis of the technical conditions in "hich it historicall* finds it8 >t does not, therefore, change immediatel* the mode of production8 'he production of surplus )alue F in the form hitherto considered b* us F b* means of simple e9tension of the "or+ing da*, pro)ed, therefore, to be independent of an* change in the mode of production itself8 >t "as not less acti)e in the old4fashioned ba+eries than in the modern cotton factories8 >f "e consider the process of production from the point of )ie" of the simple labour process, the labourer stands in relation to the means of production, not in their Iualit* as capital, but as the mere means and material of his o"n intelligent producti)e acti)it*8 >n tanning, e$ $, he deals "ith the s+ins as his simple obDect of labour8 >t is not the capitalist "hose s+in he tans8 /ut it is

166

5hapter 11

different as soon as "e deal "ith the process of production from the point of )ie" of the process of creation of surplus )alue8 'he means of production are at once changed into means for the absorption of the labour of others8 >t is no" no longer the labourer that emplo*s the means of production, but the means of production that emplo* the labourer8 >nstead of being consumed b* him as material elements of his producti)e acti)it*, the* consume him as the ferment necessar* to their o"n life4process, and the life4process of capital consists onl* in its mo)ement as )alue constantl* e9panding, constantl* multipl*ing itself8 Furnaces and "or+shops that stand idle b* night, and absorb no li)ing labour, are @a mere lossA to the capitalist8 -ence, furnaces and "or+shops constitute la"ful claims upon the night4labour of the "or+4people8 'he simple transformation of mone* into the material factors of the process of production, into means of production, transforms the latter into a title and a right to the labour and surplus labour of others8 (n e9ample "ill sho", in conclusion, ho" this sophistication, peculiar to and characteristic of capitalist production, this complete in)ersion of the relation bet"een dead and li)ing labour, bet"een )alue and the force that creates )alue, mirrors itself in the consciousness of capitalists8 0uring the re)olt of the English factor* lords bet"een 18 8 and 1837, @the head of one of the oldest and most respectable houses in the Best of Scotland, $essrs8 5arlile Sons P 5o8, of the linen and cotton thread factor* at #aisle*, a compan* "hich has no" e9isted for about a centur*, "hich "as in operation in 1736, and four generations of the same famil* ha)e conducted itA 888 this @)er* intelligent gentlemanA then "rote a letter 7 in the =las o1 Daily Mail of (pril 63th, 18 2, "ith the title, @'he rela* s*stem,A in "hich among other things the follo"ing grotesIuel* nao)e passage occurs: @<et us no" 888 see "hat e)ils "ill attend the limiting to 17 hours the "or+ing of the factor*8888 'he* amount to the most serious damage to the millo"ner?s prospects and propert*8 >f he (i8e8, his @handsA! "or+ed 16 hours before, and is limited to 17, then e)er* 16 machines or spindles in his establishment shrin+ to 17, and should the "or+s be disposed of, the* "ill be )alued onl* as 17, so that a si9th part "ould thus be deducted from the )alue of e)er* factor* in the countr*8A8 'o this Best of Scotland bourgeois brain, inheriting the accumulated capitalistic Iualities of @four generations8A the )alue of the means of production, spindles, Pc8, is so inseparabl* mi9ed up "ith their propert*, as capital, to e9pand their o"n )alue, and to s"allo" up dail* a definite Iuantit* of the unpaid labour of others, that the head of the firm of 5arlile P 5o8 actuall* imagines that if he sells his factor*, not onl* "ill the )alue of the spindles be paid to him, but, in addition, their po"er of anne9ing surplus )alue, not onl* the labour "hich is embodied in them, and is necessar* to the production of spindles of this +ind, but also the surplus labour "hich the* help to pump out dail* from the bra)e Scots of #aisle*, and for that )er* reason he thin+s that "ith the shortening of the "or+ing da* b* 6 hours, the selling4price of 16 spinning machines d"indles to that of 17Q

Part ,: Production of .elati=e Surplus Value


(ha)ter 12* "he (once)t of 3e$ati4e S%r)$%s 2a$%e
'hat portion of the "or+ing da* "hich merel* produces an eIui)alent for the )alue paid b* the capitalist for his labour4po"er, has, up to this point, been treated b* us as a constant magnitude, and such in fact it is, under gi)en conditions of production and at a gi)en stage in the economic de)elopment of societ*8 /e*ond this, his necessar* labour4time, the labourer, "e sa", could continue to "or+ for 6, :, , 6, Pc8, hours8 'he rate of surplus )alue and the length of the "or+ing da* depended on the magnitude of this prolongation8 'hough the necessar* labour4time "as constant, "e sa", on the other hand, that the total "or+ing da* "as )ariable8 Co" suppose "e ha)e a "or+ing da* "hose length, and "hose apportionment bet"een necessar* labour and surplus labour, are gi)en8 <et the "hole line a c, aFbFc represent, for e9ample, a "or+ing da* of 16 hours; the portion of a b 17 hours of necessar* labour, and the portion b c 6 hours of surplus labour8 -o" no" can the production of surplus )alue be increased, i8e8, ho" can the surplus labour be prolonged, "ithout, or independentl* of, an* prolongation of a cE (lthough the length of a c is gi)en, b c appears to be capable of prolongation, if not b* e9tension be*ond its end c, "hich is also the end of the "or+ing da* a c, *et, at all e)ents, b* pushing bac+ its starting4point b in the direction of a8 (ssume that bUFb in the line abUbc is eIual to half of b c aFFFbUFbFFc or to one hour?s labour4time8 >f no", in a c, the "or+ing da* of 16 hours, "e mo)e the point b to bU, b c becomes bU c; the surplus labour increases b* one half, from 6 hours to : hours, although the "or+ing da* remains as before at 16 hours8 'his e9tension of the surplus labour4time from b c to bU c, from 6 hours to : hours, is, ho"e)er, e)identl* impossible, "ithout a simultaneous contraction of the necessar* labour4time from a b into a bU, from 17 hours to 2 hours8 'he prolongation of the surplus labour "ould correspond to a shortening of the necessar* labour; or a portion of the labour4time pre)iousl* consumed, in realit*, for the labourer?s o"n benefit, "ould be con)erted into labour4time for the benefit of the capitalist8 'here "ould be an alteration, not in the length of the "or+ing da*, but in its di)ision into necessar* labour4time and surplus labour4 time8 =n the other hand, it is e)ident that the duration of the surplus labour is gi)en, "hen the length of the "or+ing da*, and the )alue of labour4po"er, are gi)en8 'he )alue of labour4po"er, i8e8, the labour4time reIuisite to produce labour4po"er, determines the labour4time necessar* for the reproduction of that )alue8 >f one "or+ing4hour be embodied in si9pence, and the )alue of a da*?s labour4po"er be fi)e shillings, the labourer must "or+ 17 hours a da*, in order to replace the )alue paid b* capital for his labour4po"er, or to produce an eIui)alent for the )alue of his dail* necessar* means of subsistence8 Gi)en the )alue of these means of subsistence, the )alue of his labour4po"er is gi)en;1 and gi)en the )alue of his labour4po"er, the duration of his necessar* labour4time is gi)en8 'he duration of the surplus labour, ho"e)er, is arri)ed at, b* subtracting the

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necessar* labour4time from the total "or+ing da*8 'en hours subtracted from t"el)e, lea)e t"o, and it is not eas* to see, ho", under the gi)en conditions, the surplus labour can possibl* be prolonged be*ond t"o hours8 Co doubt, the capitalist can, instead of fi)e shillings, pa* the labourer four shillings and si9pence or e)en less8 For the reproduction of this )alue of four shillings and si9pence, nine hours? labour4time "ould suffice; and conseIuentl* three hours of surplus labour, instead of t"o, "ould accrue to the capitalist, and the surplus )alue "ould rise from one shilling to eighteen4pence8 'his result, ho"e)er, "ould be obtained onl* b* lo"ering the "ages of the labourer belo" the )alue of his labour4po"er8 Bith the four shillings and si9pence "hich he produces in nine hours, he commands one4tenth less of the necessaries of life than before, and conseIuentl* the proper reproduction of his labour4po"er is crippled8 'he surplus labour "ould in this case be prolonged onl* b* an o)erstepping of its normal limits; its domain "ould be e9tended onl* b* a usurpation of part of the domain of necessar* labour4time8 0espite the important part "hich this method pla*s in actual practice, "e are e9cluded from considering it in this place, b* our assumption, that all commodities, including labour4po"er, are bought and sold at their full )alue8 Granted this, it follo"s that the labour4time necessar* for the production of labour4po"er, or for the reproduction of its )alue, cannot be lessened b* a fall in the labourer?s "ages belo" the )alue of his labour4po"er, but onl* b* a fall in this )alue itself8 Gi)en the length of the "or+ing da*, the prolongation of the surplus labour must of necessit* originate in the curtailment of the necessar* labour4time; the latter cannot arise from the former8 >n the e9ample "e ha)e ta+en, it is necessar* that the )alue of labour4po"er should actuall* fall b* one4tenth, in order that the necessar* labour4time ma* be diminished b* one4tenth, i8e8, from ten hours to nine, and in order that the surplus labour ma* conseIuentl* be prolonged from t"o hours to three8 Such a fall in the )alue of labour4po"er implies, ho"e)er, that the same necessaries of life "hich "ere formerl* produced in ten hours, can no" be produced in nine hours8 /ut this is impossible "ithout an increase in the producti)eness of labour8 For e9ample, suppose a shoe4ma+er, "ith gi)en tools, ma+es in one "or+ing da* of t"el)e hours, one pair of boots8 >f he must ma+e t"o pairs in the same time, the producti)eness of his labour must be doubled; and this cannot be done, e9cept b* an alteration in his tools or in his mode of "or+ing, or in both8 -ence, the conditions of production, i8e8, his mode of production, and the labour4process itself, must be re)olutionised8 /* increase in the producti)eness of labour, "e mean, generall*, an alteration in the labour4process, of such a +ind as to shorten the labour4time sociall* necessar* for the production of a commodit*, and to endo" a gi)en Iuantit* of labour "ith the po"er of producing a greater Iuantit* of use4 )alue86 -itherto in treating of surplus )alue, arising from a simple prolongation of the "or+ing da*, "e ha)e assumed the mode of production to be gi)en and in)ariable8 /ut "hen surplus )alue has to be produced b* the con)ersion of necessar* labour into surplus labour, it b* no means suffices for capital to ta+e o)er the labour4process in the form under "hich it has been historicall* handed do"n, and then simpl* to prolong the duration of that process8 'he technical and social conditions of the process, and conseIuentl* the )er* mode of production must be re)olutionised, before the producti)eness of labour can be increased8 /* that means alone can the )alue of labour4po"er be made to sin+, and the portion of the "or+ing da* necessar* for the reproduction of that )alue, be shortened8 'he surplus )alue produced b* prolongation of the "or+ing da*, > call absolute surplus value8 =n the other hand, the surplus )alue arising from the curtailment of the necessar* labour4time, and from the corresponding alteration in the respecti)e lengths of the t"o components of the "or+ing da*, > call relative surplus value8 >n order to effect a fall in the )alue of labour4po"er, the increase in the producti)eness of labour must sei1e upon those branches of industr* "hose products determine the )alue of labour4po"er,

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and conseIuentl* either belong to the class of customar* means of subsistence, or are capable of suppl*ing the place of those means8 /ut the )alue of a commodit* is determined, not onl* b* the Iuantit* of labour "hich the labourer directl* besto"s upon that commodit*, but also b* the labour contained in the means of production8 For instance, the )alue of a pair of boots depends not onl* on the cobbler?s labour, but also on the )alue of the leather, "a9, thread, Pc8 -ence, a fall in the )alue of labour4po"er is also brought about b* an increase in the producti)eness of labour, and b* a corresponding cheapening of commodities in those industries "hich suppl* the instruments of labour and the ra" material, that form the material elements of the constant capital reIuired for producing the necessaries of life8 /ut an increase in the producti)eness of labour in those branches of industr* "hich suppl* neither the necessaries of life, nor the means of production for such necessaries, lea)es the )alue of labour4po"er undisturbed8 'he cheapened commodit*, of course, causes onl* a pro tanto fall in the )alue of labour4po"er, a fall proportional to the e9tent of that commodit*?s emplo*ment in the reproduction of labour4 po"er8 Shirts, for instance, are a necessar* means of subsistence, but are onl* one out of man*8 'he totalit* of the necessaries of life consists, ho"e)er, of )arious commodities, each the product of a distinct industr*; and the )alue of each of those commodities enters as a component part into the )alue of labour4po"er8 'his latter )alue decreases "ith the decrease of the labour4time necessar* for its reproduction; the total decrease being the sum of all the different curtailments of labour4time effected in those )arious and distinct industries8 'his general result is treated, here, as if it "ere the immediate result directl* aimed at in each indi)idual case8 Bhene)er an indi)idual capitalist cheapens shirts, for instance, b* increasing the producti)eness of labour he b* no means necessaril* aims at reducing the )alue of labour4po"er and shortening, pro tanto the necessar* labour4time8 /ut it is onl* in so far as he ultimatel* contributes to this result, that he assists in raising the general rate of surplus )alue8 : 'he general and necessar* tendencies of capital must be distinguished from their forms of manifestation8 >t is not our intention to consider, here, the "a* in "hich the la"s, immanent in capitalist production, manifest themsel)es in the mo)ements of indi)idual masses of capital, "here the* assert themsel)es as coerci)e la"s of competition, and are brought home to the mind and consciousness of the indi)idual capitalist as the directing moti)es of his operations8 /ut this much is clear; a scientific anal*sis of competition is not possible, before "e ha)e a conception of the inner nature of capital, Dust as the apparent motions of the hea)enl* bodies are not intelligible to an* but him, "ho is acIuainted "ith their real motions, motions "hich are not directl* perceptible b* the senses8 Ce)ertheless, for the better comprehension of the production of relati)e surplus )alue, "e ma* add the follo"ing remar+s, in "hich "e assume nothing more than the results "e ha)e alread* obtained8 >f one hour?s labour is embodied in si9pence, a )alue of si9 shillings "ill be produced in a "or+ing da* of 16 hours8 Suppose, that "ith the pre)ailing producti)eness of labour, 16 articles are produced in these 16 hours8 <et the )alue of the means of production used up in each article be si9pence8 %nder these circumstances, each article costs one shilling: si9pence for the )alue of the means of production, and si9pence for the )alue ne"l* added in "or+ing "ith those means8 Co" let some one capitalist contri)e to double the producti)eness of labour, and to produce in the "or+ing da* of 16 hours, 6 instead of 16 such articles8 'he )alue of the means of production remaining the same, the )alue of each article "ill fall to ninepence, made up of si9pence for the )alue of the means of production and threepence for the )alue ne"l* added b* the labour8 0espite the doubled producti)eness of labour, the da*?s labour creates, as before, a ne" )alue of si9 shillings and no more, "hich, ho"e)er, is no" spread o)er t"ice as man* articles8 =f this )alue each article no" has embodied in it 1J6 th, instead of 1J16th, threepence instead of si9pence; or, "hat amounts to the same thing, onl* half an hour?s instead of a "hole hour?s labour4time, is no"

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added to the means of production "hile the* are being transformed into each article8 'he indi)idual )alue of these articles is no" belo" their social )alue; in other "ords, the* ha)e cost less labour4time than the great bul+ of the same article produced under the a)erage social conditions8 Each article costs, on an a)erage, one shilling, and represents 6 hours of social labour; but under the altered mode of production it costs onl* ninepence, or contains onl* 1[ hours? labour8 'he real )alue of a commodit* is, ho"e)er, not its indi)idual )alue, but its social )alue; that is to sa*, the real )alue is not measured b* the labour4time that the article in each indi)idual case costs the producer, but b* the labour4time sociall* reIuired for its production8 >f therefore, the capitalist "ho applies the ne" method, sells his commodit* at its social )alue of one shilling, he sells it for threepence abo)e its indi)idual )alue, and thus realises an e9tra surplus )alue of threepence8 =n the other hand, the "or+ing da* of 16 hours is, as regards him, no" represented b* 6 articles instead of 168 -ence, in order to get rid of the product of one "or+ing da*, the demand must be double "hat it "as, i8e8, the mar+et must become t"ice as e9tensi)e8 =ther things being eIual, his commodities can command a more e9tended mar+et onl* b* a diminution of their prices8 -e "ill therefore sell them abo)e their indi)idual but under their social )alue, sa* at tenpence each8 /* this means he still sIuee1es an e9tra surplus )alue of one penn* out of each8 'his augmentation of surplus )alue is poc+eted b* him, "hether his commodities belong or not to the class of necessar* means of subsistence that participate in determining the general )alue of labour4po"er8 -ence, independentl* of this latter circumstance, there is a moti)e for each indi)idual capitalist to cheapen his commodities, b* increasing the producti)eness of labour8 Ce)ertheless, e)en in this case, the increased production of surplus )alue arises from the curtailment of the necessar* labour4time, and from the corresponding prolongation of the surplus labour8 <et the necessar* labour4time amount to 17 hours, the )alue of a da*?s labour4po"er to fi)e shillings, the surplus labour4time to 6 hours, and the dail* surplus )alue to one shilling8 /ut the capitalist no" produces 6 articles, "hich he sells at tenpence a4piece, ma+ing t"ent* shillings in all8 Since the )alue of the means of production is t"el)e shillings, 1 6J3 of these articles merel* replace the constant capital ad)anced8 'he labour of the 16 hours? "or+ing da* is represented b* the remaining 2 :J3 articles8 Since the price of the labour4po"er is fi)e shillings, 6 articles represent the necessar* labour4time, and : :J3 articles the surplus labour8 'he ratio of the necessar* labour to the surplus labour, "hich under a)erage social conditions "as 3:1, is no" onl* 3::8 'he same result ma* be arri)ed at in the follo"ing "a*8 'he )alue of the product of the "or+ing da* of 16 hours is t"ent* shillings8 =f this sum, t"el)e shillings belong to the )alue of the means of production, a )alue that merel* re4appears8 'here remain eight shillings, "hich are the e9pression in mone*, of the )alue ne"l* created during the "or+ing da*8 'his sum is greater than the sum in "hich a)erage social labour of the same +ind is e9pressed: t"el)e hours of the latter labour are e9pressed b* si9 shillings onl*8 'he e9ceptionall* producti)e labour operates as intensified labour; it creates in eIual periods of time greater )alues than a)erage social labour of the same +ind8 (See 5h8 >8 Sect 68 p8 8! /ut our capitalist still continues to pa* as before onl* fi)e shillings as the )alue of a da*?s labour4po"er8 -ence, instead of 17 hours, the labourer need no" "or+ onl* 7[ hours, in order to reproduce this )alue8 -is surplus labour is, therefore, increased b* 6[ hours, and the surplus )alue he produces gro"s from one, into three shillings8 -ence, the capitalist "ho applies the impro)ed method of production, appropriates to surplus labour a greater portion of the "or+ing da*, than the other capitalists in the same trade8 -e does indi)iduall*, "hat the "hole bod* of capitalists engaged in producing relati)e surplus )alue, do collecti)el*8 =n the other hand, ho"e)er, this e9tra surplus )alue )anishes, so soon as the ne" method of production has become general, and has conseIuentl* caused the difference bet"een the indi)idual )alue of the cheapened commodit* and its social )alue to )anish8 'he la" of the determination of )alue b* labour4time, a la" "hich brings under its s"a* the indi)idual capitalist

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"ho applies the ne" method of production, b* compelling him to sell his goods under their social )alue, this same la", acting as a coerci)e la" of competition, forces his competitors to adopt the ne" method83 'he general rate of surplus )alue is, therefore, ultimatel* affected b* the "hole process, onl* "hen the increase in the producti)eness of labour, has sei1ed upon those branches of production that are connected "ith, and has cheapened those commodities that form part of, the necessar* means of subsistence, and are therefore elements of the )alue of labour4po"er8 'he )alue of commodities is in in)erse ratio to the producti)eness of labour8 (nd so, too, is the )alue of labour4po"er, because it depends on the )alues of commodities8 &elati)e surplus )alue is, on the contrar*, directl* proportional to that producti)eness8 >t rises "ith rising and falls "ith falling producti)eness8 'he )alue of mone* being assumed to be constant, an a)erage social "or+ing da* of 16 hours al"a*s produces the same ne" )alue, si9 shillings, no matter ho" this sum ma* be apportioned bet"een surplus )alue and "ages8 /ut if, in conseIuence of increased producti)eness, the )alue of the necessaries of life fall, and the )alue of a da*?s labour4po"er be thereb* reduced from fi)e shillings to three, the surplus )alue increases from one shilling to three8 'en hours "ere necessar* for the reproduction of the )alue of the labour4po"er; no" onl* si9 are reIuired8 Four hours ha)e been set free, and can be anne9ed to the domain of surplus labour8 -ence there is immanent in capital an inclination and constant tendenc*, to heighten the producti)eness of labour, in order to cheapen commodities, and b* such cheapening to cheapen the labourer himself86 'he )alue of a commodit* is, in itself, of no interest to the capitalist8 Bhat alone interests him, is the surplus )alue that d"ells in it, and is realisable b* sale8 &ealisation of the surplus )alue necessaril* carries "ith it the refunding of the )alue that "as ad)anced8 Co", since relati)e surplus )alue increases in direct proportion to the de)elopment of the producti)eness of labour, "hile, on the other hand, the )alue of commodities diminishes in the same proportion; since one and the same process cheapens commodities, and augments the surplus )alue contained in them; "e ha)e here the solution of the riddle: "h* does the capitalist, "hose sole concern is the production of e9change4)alue, continuall* stri)e to depress the e9change4)alue of commoditiesE ( riddle "ith "hich Kuesna*, one of the founders of #olitical Econom*, tormented his opponents, and to "hich the* could gi)e him no ans"er8 @Nou ac+no"ledge,A he sa*s, @that the more e9penses and the cost of labour can, in the manufacture of industrial products, be reduced "ithout inDur* to production, the more ad)antageous is such reduction, because it diminishes the price of the finished article8 (nd *et, *ou belie)e that the production of "ealth, "hich arises from the labour of the "or+people, consists in the augmentation of the e9change4)alue of their products8A 7 'he shortening of the "or+ing da* is, therefore, b* no means "hat is aimed at, in capitalist production, "hen labour is economised b* increasing its producti)eness8 8 >t is onl* the shortening of the labour4time, necessar* for the production of a definite Iuantit* of commodities, that is aimed at8 'he fact that the "or+man, "hen the producti)eness of his labour has been increased, produces, sa* 17 times as man* commodities as before, and thus spends one4tenth as much labour4time on each, b* no means pre)ents him from continuing to "or+ 16 hours as before, nor from producing in those 16 hours 1,677 articles instead of 1678 Ca*, more, his "or+ing da* ma* be prolonged at the same time, so as to ma+e him produce, sa* 1, 77 articles in 1 hours8 >n the treatises, therefore, of economists of the stamp of $ac5ulloch, %re, Senior, and tutti &uanti Gthe li+eH, "e ma* read upon one page, that the labourer o"es a debt of gratitude to capital for de)eloping his producti)eness, because the necessar* labour4time is thereb* shortened, and on the ne9t page, that he must pro)e his gratitude b* "or+ing in future for 13 hours instead of 178 'he obDect of all de)elopment of the producti)eness of labour, "ithin the limits of capitalist

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production, is to shorten that part of the "or+ing da*, during "hich the "or+man must labour for his o"n benefit, and b* that )er* shortening, to lengthen the other part of the da*, during "hich he is at libert* to "or+ gratis for the capitalist8 -o" far this result is also attainable, "ithout cheapening commodities, "ill appear from an e9amination of the particular modes of producing relati)e surplus )alue, to "hich e9amination "e no" proceed8

(ha)ter 1 * (o1o)eration
5apitalist production onl* then reall* begins, as "e ha)e alread* seen, "hen each indi)idual capital emplo*s simultaneousl* a comparati)el* large number of labourers; "hen conseIuentl* the labour4process is carried on on an e9tensi)e scale and *ields, relati)el*, large Iuantities of products8 ( greater number of labourers "or+ing together, at the same time, in one place (or, if *ou "ill, in the same field of labour!, in order to produce the same sort of commodit* under the mastership of one capitalist, constitutes, both historicall* and logicall*, the starting4point of capitalist production8 Bith regard to the mode of production itself, manufacture, in its strict meaning, is hardl* to be distinguished, in its earliest stages, from the handicraft trades of the guilds, other"ise than b* the greater number of "or+men simultaneousl* emplo*ed b* one and the same indi)idual capital8 'he "or+shop of the medie)al master handicraftsman is simpl* enlarged8 (t first, therefore, the difference is purel* Iuantitati)e8 Be ha)e sho"n that the surplus )alue produced b* a gi)en capital is eIual to the surplus )alue produced b* each "or+man multiplied b* the number of "or+men simultaneousl* emplo*ed8 'he number of "or+men in itself does nor affect, either the rate of surplus )alue, or the degree of e9ploitation of labour4po"er8 >f a "or+ing da* of 16 hours be embodied in si9 shillings, 1,677 such da*s "ill be embodied in 1,677 times 6 shillings8 >n one case 16 h 1,677 "or+ing4hours, and in the other 16 such hours are incorporated in the product8 >n the production of )alue a number of "or+men ran+ merel* as so man* indi)idual "or+men; and it therefore ma+es no difference in the )alue produced "hether the 1,677 men "or+ separatel*, or united under the control of one capitalist8 Ce)ertheless, "ithin certain limits, a modification ta+es place8 'he labour realised in )alue, is labour of an a)erage social Iualit*; is conseIuentl* the e9penditure of a)erage labour4po"er8 (n* a)erage magnitude, ho"e)er, is merel* the a)erage of a number of separate magnitudes all of one +ind, but differing as to Iuantit*8 >n e)er* industr*, each indi)idual labourer, be he #eter or #aul, differs from the a)erage labourer8 'hese indi)idual differences, or @errorsA as the* are called in mathematics, compensate one another, and )anish, "hene)er a certain minimum number of "or+men are emplo*ed together8 'he celebrated sophist and s*cophant, Edmund /ur+e, goes so far as to ma+e the follo"ing assertion, based on his practical obser)ations as a farmer; )i18, that @in so small a platoonA as that of fi)e farm labourers, all indi)idual differences in the labour )anish, and that conseIuentl* an* gi)en fi)e adult farm labourers ta+en together, "ill in the same time do as much "or+ as an* other fi)e8 1 /ut, ho"e)er that ma* be, it is clear, that the collecti)e "or+ing da* of a large number of "or+men simultaneousl* emplo*ed, di)ided b* the number of these "or+men, gi)es one da* of a)erage social labour8 For e9ample, let the "or+ing da* of each indi)idual be 16 hours8 'hen the collecti)e "or+ing da* of 16 men simultaneousl* emplo*ed, consists of 1 hours; and although the labour of each of the do1en men ma* de)iate more or less from a)erage social labour, each of them reIuiring a different time for the same operation, *et since the "or+ing da* of each is one4t"elfth of the collecti)e "or+ing da* of 1 hours, it possesses the Iualities of an a)erage social "or+ing da*8 From the point of )ie", ho"e)er, of the capitalist "ho emplo*s these 16 men, the "or+ing da* is that of the "hole do1en8 Each indi)idual man?s da* is an aliIuot part of the collecti)e "or+ing da*, no matter "hether the 16 men assist one another in their "or+, or "hether the conne9ion bet"een their operations consists merel* in the fact, that the men are all "or+ing for the same capitalist8 /ut if the 16 men are emplo*ed in si9 pairs, b* as man* different small masters, it "ill be Iuite a matter of chance, "hether each of

17

5hapter 1:

these masters produces the same )alue, and conseIuentl* "hether he realises the general rate of surplus )alue8 0e)iations "ould occur in indi)idual cases8 >f one "or+man reIuired considerabl* more time for the production of a commodit* than is sociall* necessar*, the duration of the necessar* labour4time "ould, in his case, sensibl* de)iate from the labour4time sociall* necessar* on an a)erage; and conseIuentl* his labour "ould not count as a)erage labour, nor his labour4 po"er as a)erage labour4po"er8 >t "ould either be not saleable at all, or onl* at something belo" the a)erage )alue of labour4po"er8 ( fi9ed minimum of efficienc* in all labour is therefore assumed, and "e shall see, later on, that capitalist production pro)ides the means of fi9ing this minimum8 Ce)ertheless, this minimum de)iates from the a)erage, although on the other hand the capitalist has to pa* the a)erage )alue of labour4po"er8 =f the si9 small masters, one "ould therefore sIuee1e out more than the a)erage rate of surplus )alue, another less8 'he ineIualities "ould be compensated for the societ* at large, but not for the indi)idual masters8 'hus the la"s of the production of )alue are onl* full* realised for the indi)idual producer, "hen he produces as a capitalist, and emplo*s a number of "or+men together, "hose labour, b* its collecti)e nature, is at once stamped as a)erage social labour8 6 E)en "ithout an alteration in the s*stem of "or+ing, the simultaneous emplo*ment of a large number of labourers effects a re)olution in the material conditions of the labour4process8 'he buildings in "hich the* "or+, the store4houses for the ra" material, the implements and utensils used simultaneousl* or in turns b* the "or+men; in short, a portion of the means of production, are no" consumed in common8 =n the one hand, the e9change4)alue of these means of production is not increased; for the e9change4)alue of a commodit* is not raised b* its use4)alue being consumed more thoroughl* and to greater ad)antage8 =n the other hand, the* are used in common, and therefore on a larger scale than before8 ( room "here t"ent* "ea)ers "or+ at t"ent* looms must be larger than the room of a single "ea)er "ith t"o assistants8 /ut it costs less labour to build one "or+shop for t"ent* persons than to build ten to accommodate t"o "ea)ers each; thus the )alue of the means of production that are concentrated for use in common on a large scale does not increase in direct proportion to the e9pansion and to the increased useful effect of those means8 Bhen consumed in common, the* gi)e up a smaller part of their )alue to each single product; partl* because the total )alue the* part "ith is spread o)er a greater Iuantit* of products, and partl* because their )alue, though absolutel* greater, is, ha)ing regard to their sphere of action in the process, relati)el* less than the )alue of isolated means of production8 ="ing to this, the )alue of a part of the constant capital falls, and in proportion to the magnitude of the fall, the total )alue of the commodit* also falls8 'he effect is the same as if the means of production had cost less8 'he econom* in their application is entirel* o"ing to their being consumed in common b* a large number of "or+men8 $oreo)er, this character of being necessar* conditions of social labour, a character that distinguishes them from the dispersed and relati)el* more costl* means of production of isolated, independent labourers, or small masters, is acIuired e)en "hen the numerous "or+men assembled together do not assist one another, but merel* "or+ side b* side8 ( portion of the instruments of labour acIuires this social character before the labour4process itself does so8 Econom* in the use of the means of production has to be considered under t"o aspects8 First, as cheapening commodities, and thereb* bringing about a fall in the )alue of labour4po"er8 Secondl*, as altering the ratio of the surplus )alue to the total capital ad)anced, i8e8, to the sum of the )alues of the constant and )ariable capital8 'he latter aspect "ill not be considered until "e come to the third boo+, to "hich, "ith the obDect of treating them in their proper conne9ion, "e also relegate man* other points that relate to the present Iuestion8 'he march of our anal*sis compels this splitting up of the subDect4matter, a splitting up that is Iuite in +eeping "ith the spirit of capitalist production8 For since, in this mode of production, the "or+man finds the instruments

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of labour e9isting independentl* of him as another man?s propert*, econom* in their use appears, "ith regard to him, to be a distinct operation, one that does not concern him, and "hich, therefore, has no conne9ion "ith the methods b* "hich his o"n personal producti)eness is increased8 Bhen numerous labourers "or+ together side b* side, "hether in one and the same process, or in different but connected processes, the* are said to co4operate, or to "or+ in co4operation8 : Lust as the offensi)e po"er of a sIuadron of ca)alr*, or the defensi)e po"er of a regiment of infantr* is essentiall* different from the sum of the offensi)e or defensi)e po"ers of the indi)idual ca)alr* or infantr* soldiers ta+en separatel*, so the sum total of the mechanical forces e9erted b* isolated "or+men differs from the social force that is de)eloped, "hen man* hands ta+e part simultaneousl* in one and the same undi)ided operation, such as raising a hea)* "eight, turning a "inch, or remo)ing an obstacle8 >n such cases the effect of the combined labour could either not be produced at all b* isolated indi)idual labour, or it could onl* be produced b* a great e9penditure of time, or on a )er* d"arfed scale8 Cot onl* ha)e "e here an increase in the producti)e po"er of the indi)idual, b* means of co4operation, but the creation of a ne" po"er, namel*, the collecti)e po"er of masses83 (part from the ne" po"er that arises from the fusion of man* forces into one single force, mere social contact begets in most industries an emulation and a stimulation of the animal spirits that heighten the efficienc* of each indi)idual "or+man8 -ence it is that a do1en persons "or+ing together "ill, in their collecti)e "or+ing da* of 1 hours, produce far more than t"el)e isolated men each "or+ing 16 hours, or than one man "ho "or+s t"el)e da*s in succession8 6 'he reason of this is that man is, if not as (ristotle contends, a political, 7 at all e)ents a social animal8 (lthough a number of men ma* be occupied together at the same time on the same, or the same +ind of "or+, *et the labour of each, as a part of the collecti)e labour, ma* correspond to a distinct phase of the labour4process, through all "hose phases, in conseIuence of co4operation, the subDect of their labour passes "ith greater speed8 For instance, if a do1en masons place themsel)es in a ro", so as to pass stones from the foot of a ladder to its summit, each of them does the same thing; ne)ertheless, their separate acts form connected parts of one total operation; the* are particular phases, "hich must be gone through b* each stone; and the stones are thus carried up Iuic+er b* the 6 hands of the ro" of men than the* could be if each man "ent separatel* up and do"n the ladder "ith his burden8 8 'he obDect is carried o)er the same distance in a shorter time8 (gain, a combination of labour occurs "hene)er a building, for instance, is ta+en in hand on different sides simultaneousl*; although here also the co4operating masons are doing the same, or the same +ind of "or+8 'he 16 masons, in their collecti)e "or+ing da* of 1 hours, ma+e much more progress "ith the building than one mason could ma+e "or+ing for 16 da*s, or 1 hours8 'he reason is, that a bod* of men "or+ing in concert has hands and e*es both before and behind, and is, to a certain degree, omnipresent8 'he )arious parts of the "or+ progress simultaneousl*8 >n the abo)e instances "e ha)e laid stress upon the point that the men do the same, or the same +ind of "or+, because this, the most simple form of labour in common, pla*s a great part in co4 operation, e)en in its most full* de)eloped stage8 >f the "or+ be complicated, then the mere number of the men "ho co4operate allo"s of the )arious operations being apportioned to different hands, and, conseIuentl*, of being carried on simultaneousl*8 'he time necessar* for the completion of the "hole "or+ is thereb* shortened8 2 >n man* industries, there are critical periods, determined b* the nature of the process, during "hich certain definite results must be obtained8 For instance, if a floc+ of sheep has to be shorn, or a field of "heat to be cut and har)ested, the Iuantit* and Iualit* of the product depends on the

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"or+ being begun and ended "ithin a certain time8 >n these cases, the time that ought to be ta+en b* the process is prescribed, Dust as it is in herring fishing8 ( single person cannot car)e a "or+ing da* of more than, sa* 16 hours, out of the natural da*, but 177 men co4operating e9tend the "or+ing da* to 1,677 hours8 'he shortness of the time allo"ed for the "or+ is compensated for b* the large mass of labour thro"n upon the field of production at the decisi)e moment8 'he completion of the tas+ "ithin the proper time depends on the simultaneous application of numerous combined "or+ing da*s; the amount of useful effect depends on the number of labourers; this number, ho"e)er, is al"a*s smaller than the number of isolated labourers reIuired to do the same amount of "or+ in the same period8 17 >t is o"ing to the absence of this +ind of co4 operation that, in the "estern part of the %nited States, Iuantities of corn, and in those parts of East >ndia "here English rule has destro*ed the old communities, Iuantities of cotton, are *earl* "asted811 =n the one hand, co4operation allo"s of the "or+ being carried on o)er an e9tended space; it is conseIuentl* imperati)el* called for in certain underta+ings, such as draining, constructing d*+es, irrigation "or+s, and the ma+ing of canals, roads and rail"a*s8 =n the other hand, "hile e9tending the scale of production, it renders possible a relati)e contraction of the arena8 'his contraction of arena simultaneous "ith, and arising from, e9tension of scale, "hereb* a number of useless e9penses are cut do"n, is o"ing to the conglomeration of labourers, to the aggregation of )arious processes, and to the concentration of the means of production8 16 'he combined "or+ing da* produces, relati)el* to an eIual sum of isolated "or+ing da*s, a greater Iuantit* of use4)alues, and, conseIuentl*, diminishes the labour4time necessar* for the production of a gi)en useful effect8 Bhether the combined "or+ing da*, in a gi)en case, acIuires this increased producti)e po"er, because it heightens the mechanical force of labour, or e9tends its sphere of action o)er a greater space, or contracts the field of production relati)el* to the scale of production, or at the critical moment sets large masses of labour to "or+, or e9cites emulation bet"een indi)iduals and raises their animal spirits, or impresses on the similar operations carried on b* a number of men the stamp of continuit* and man*4sidedness, or performs simultaneousl* different operations, or economises the means of production b* use in common, or lends to indi)idual labour the character of a)erage social labour "hiche)er of these be the cause of the increase, the special producti)e po"er of the combined "or+ing da* is, under all circumstances, the social producti)e po"er of labour, or the producti)e po"er of social labour8 'his po"er is due to co4operation itself8 Bhen the labourer co4operates s*stematicall* "ith others, he strips off the fetters of his indi)idualit*, and de)elops the capabilities of his species8 1: (s a general rule, labourers cannot co4operate "ithout being brought together: their assemblage in one place is a necessar* condition of their co4operation8 -ence "age4labourers cannot co4 operate, unless the* are emplo*ed simultaneousl* b* the same capital, the same capitalist, and unless therefore their labour4po"ers are bought simultaneousl* b* him8 'he total )alue of these labour4po"ers, or the amount of the "ages of these labourers for a da*, or a "ee+, as the case ma* be, must be read* in the poc+et of the capitalist, before the "or+men are assembled for the process of production8 'he pa*ment of :77 "or+men at once, though onl* for one da*, reIuires a greater outla* of capital, than does the pa*ment of a smaller number of men, "ee+ b* "ee+, during a "hole *ear8 -ence the number of the labourers that co4operate, or the scale of co4 operation, depends, in the first instance, on the amount of capital that the indi)idual capitalist can spare for the purchase of labour4po"er; in other "ords, on the e9tent to "hich a single capitalist has command o)er the means of subsistence of a number of labourers8 (nd as "ith the )ariable, so it is "ith the constant capital8 For e9ample, the outla* on ra" material is :7 times as great, for the capitalist "ho emplo*s :77 men, as it is for each of the :7

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capitalists "ho emplo* 17 men8 'he )alue and Iuantit* of the instruments of labour used in common do not, it is true, increase at the same rate as the number of "or+men, but the* do increase )er* considerabl*8 -ence, concentration of large masses of the means of production in the hands of indi)idual capitalists, is a material condition for the co4operation of "age4labourers, and the e9tent of the co4operation or the scale of production, depends on the e9tent of this concentration8 Be sa" in a former chapter, that a certain minimum amount of capital "as necessar*, in order that the number of labourers simultaneousl* emplo*ed, and, conseIuentl*, the amount of surplus )alue produced, might suffice to liberate the emplo*er himself from manual labour, to con)ert him from a small master into a capitalist, and thus formall* to establish capitalist production8 Be no" see that a certain minimum amount is a necessar* condition for the con)ersion of numerous isolated and independent processes into one combined social process8 Be also sa" that at first, the subDection of labour to capital "as onl* a formal result of the fact, that the labourer, instead of "or+ing for himself, "or+s for and conseIuentl* under the capitalist8 /* the co4operation of numerous "age4labourers, the s"a* of capital de)elops into a reIuisite for carr*ing on the labour4process itself, into a real reIuisite of production8 'hat a capitalist should command on the field of production, is no" as indispensable as that a general should command on the field of battle8 (ll combined labour on a large scale reIuires, more or less, a directing authorit*, in order to secure the harmonious "or+ing of the indi)idual acti)ities, and to perform the general functions that ha)e their origin in the action of the combined organism, as distinguished from the action of its separate organs8 ( single )iolin pla*er is his o"n conductor; an orchestra reIuires a separate one8 'he "or+ of directing, superintending, and adDusting, becomes one of the functions of capital, from the moment that the labour under the control of capital, becomes co4operati)e8 =nce a function of capital, it acIuires special characteristics8 'he directing moti)e, the end and aim of capitalist production, is to e9tract the greatest possible amount of surplus )alue,1 and conseIuentl* to e9ploit labour4po"er to the greatest possible e9tent8 (s the number of the co4operating labourers increases, so too does their resistance to the domination of capital, and "ith it, the necessit* for capital to o)ercome this resistance b* counterpressure8 'he control e9ercised b* the capitalist is not onl* a special function, due to the nature of the social labour4process, and peculiar to that process, but it is, at the same time, a function of the e9ploitation of a social labour4process, and is conseIuentl* rooted in the una)oidable antagonism bet"een the e9ploiter and the li)ing and labouring ra" material he e9ploits8 (gain, in proportion to the increasing mass of the means of production, no" no longer the propert* of the labourer, but of the capitalist, the necessit* increases for some effecti)e control o)er the proper application of those means8 13 $oreo)er, the co4operation of "age labourers is entirel* brought about b* the capital that emplo*s them8 'heir union into one single producti)e bod* and the establishment of a conne9ion bet"een their indi)idual functions, are matters foreign and e9ternal to them, are not their o"n act, but the act of the capital that brings and +eeps them together8 -ence the conne9ion e9isting bet"een their )arious labours appears to them, ideall*, in the shape of a preconcei)ed plan of the capitalist, and practicall* in the shape of the authorit* of the same capitalist, in the shape of the po"erful "ill of another, "ho subDects their acti)it* to his aims8 >f, then, the control of the capitalist is in substance t"o4fold b* reason of the t"o4fold nature of the process of production itself, "hich, on the one hand, is a social process for producing use4)alues, on the other, a process for creating surplus )alue in form that control is despotic8 (s co4operation e9tends its scale, this despotism ta+es forms peculiar to itself8 Lust as at

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first the capitalist is relie)ed from actual labour so soon as his capital has reached that minimum amount "ith "hich capitalist production, as such, begins, so no", he hands o)er the "or+ of direct and constant super)ision of the indi)idual "or+men, and groups of "or+men, to a special +ind of "age4labourer8 (n industrial arm* of "or+men, under the command of a capitalist, reIuires, li+e a real arm*, officers (managers!, and sergeants (foremen, o)erloo+ers!, "ho, "hile the "or+ is being done, command in the name of the capitalist8 'he "or+ of super)ision becomes their established and e9clusi)e function8 Bhen comparing the mode of production of isolated peasants and artisans "ith production b* sla)e4labour, the political economist counts this labour of superintendence among the faux frais of production816 /ut, "hen considering the capitalist mode of production, he, on the contrar*, treats the "or+ of control made necessar* b* the co4 operati)e character of the labour4process as identical "ith the different "or+ of control, necessitated b* the capitalist character of that process and the antagonism of interests bet"een capitalist and labourer817 >t is not because he is a leader of industr* that a man is a capitalist; on the contrar*, he is a leader of industr* because he is a capitalist8 'he leadership of industr* is an attribute of capital, Dust as in feudal times the functions of general and Dudge, "ere attributes of landed propert*818 'he labourer is the o"ner of his labour4po"er until he has done bargaining for its sale "ith the capitalist; and he can sell no more than "hat he has i8e8, his indi)idual, isolated labour4po"er8 'his state of things is in no "a* altered b* the fact that the capitalist, instead of bu*ing the labour4po"er of one man, bu*s that of 177, and enters into separate contracts "ith 177 unconnected men instead of "ith one8 -e is at libert* to set the 177 men to "or+, "ithout letting them co4operate8 -e pa*s them the )alue of 177 independent labour4po"ers, but he does not pa* for the combined labour4po"er of the hundred8 /eing independent of each other, the labourers are isolated persons, "ho enter into relations "ith the capitalist, but not "ith one another8 'his co4 operation begins onl* "ith the labour4process, but the* ha)e then ceased to belong to themsel)es8 =n entering that process, the* become incorporated "ith capital8 (s co4operators, as members of a "or+ing organism, the* are but special modes of e9istence of capital8 -ence, the producti)e po"er de)eloped b* the labourer "hen "or+ing in co4operation, is the producti)e po"er of capital8 'his po"er is de)eloped gratuitousl*, "hene)er the "or+men are placed under gi)en conditions, and it is capital that places them under such conditions8 /ecause this po"er costs capital nothing, and because, on the other hand, the labourer himself does not de)elop it before his labour belongs to capital, it appears as a po"er "ith "hich capital is endo"ed b* Cature a producti)e po"er that is immanent in capital8 'he colossal effects of simple co4operation are to be seen in the gigantic structures of the ancient (siatics, Eg*ptians, Etruscans, Pc8 @>t has happened in times past that these =riental States, after suppl*ing the e9penses of their ci)il and militar* establishments, ha)e found themsel)es in possession of a surplus "hich the* could appl* to "or+s of magnificence or utilit* and in the construction of these their command o)er the hands and arms of almost the entire non4agricultural population has produced stupendous monuments "hich still indicate their po"er8 'he teeming )alle* of the Cile 888 produced food for a s"arming non4agricultural population, and this food, belonging to the monarch and the priesthood, afforded the means of erecting the might* monuments "hich filled the land8888 >n mo)ing the colossal statues and )ast masses of "hich the transport creates "onder, human labour almost alone, "as prodigall* used8888 'he number of the labourers and the concentration of their efforts sufficed8 Be see might* coral reefs rising from the depths of the ocean into islands and firm land, *et each indi)idual depositor is pun*, "ea+, and contemptible8 'he non4

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agricultural labourers of an (siatic monarch* ha)e little but their indi)idual bodil* e9ertions to bring to the tas+, but their number is their strength, and the po"er of directing these masses ga)e rise to the palaces and temples, the p*ramids, and the armies of gigantic statues of "hich the remains astonish and perple9 us8 >t is that confinement of the re)enues "hich feed them, to one or a fe" hands, "hich ma+es such underta+ings possible8A12 'his po"er of (siatic and Eg*ptian +ings, Etruscan theocrats, Pc8, has in modern societ* been transferred to the capitalist, "hether he be an isolated, or as in Doint4stoc+ companies, a collecti)e capitalist8 5o4operation, such as "e find it at the da"n of human de)elopment, among races "ho li)e b* the chase,67 or, sa*, in the agriculture of >ndian communities, is based, on the one hand, on o"nership in common of the means of production, and on the other hand, on the fact, that in those cases, each indi)idual has no more torn himself off from the na)el4string of his tribe or communit*, than each bee has freed itself from conne9ion "ith the hi)e8 Such co4operation is distinguished from capitalistic co4operation b* both of the abo)e characteristics8 'he sporadic application of co4 operation on a large scale in ancient times, in the middle ages, and in modern colonies, reposes on relations of dominion and ser)itude, principall* on sla)er*8 'he capitalistic form, on the contrar*, pre4supposes from first to last, the free "age4labourer, "ho sells his labour4po"er to capital8 -istoricall*, ho"e)er, this form is de)eloped in opposition to peasant agriculture and to the carr*ing on of independent handicrafts "hether in guilds or not8 61 From the standpoint of these, capitalistic co4operation does not manifest itself as a particular historical form of co4operation, but co4operation itself appears to be a historical form peculiar to, and specificall* distinguishing, the capitalist process of production8 Lust as the social producti)e po"er of labour that is de)eloped b* co4operation, appears to be the producti)e po"er of capital, so co4operation itself, contrasted "ith the process of production carried on b* isolated independent labourers, or e)en b* small emplo*ers, appears to be a specific form of the capitalist process of production8 >t is the first change e9perienced b* the actual labour4process, "hen subDected to capital8 'his change ta+es place spontaneousl*8 'he simultaneous emplo*ment of a large number of "age4labourers, in one and the same process, "hich is a necessar* condition of this change, also forms the starting4point of capitalist production8 'his point coincides "ith the birth of capital itself8 >f then, on the one hand, the capitalist mode of production presents itself to us historicall*, as a necessar* condition to the transformation of the labour4process into a social process, so, on the other hand, this social form of the labour4process presents itself, as a method emplo*ed b* capital for the more profitable e9ploitation of labour, b* increasing that labour?s producti)eness8 >n the elementar* form, under "hich "e ha)e hitherto )ie"ed it, co4operation is a necessar* concomitant of all production on a large scale, but it does not, in itself, represent a fi9ed form characteristic of a particular epoch in the de)elopment of the capitalist mode of production8 (t the most it appears to do so, and that onl* appro9imatel*, in the handicraft4li+e beginnings of manufacture,66 and in that +ind of agriculture on a large scale, "hich corresponds to the epoch of manufacture, and is distinguished from peasant agriculture, mainl* b* the number of the labourers simultaneousl* emplo*ed, and b* the mass of the means of production concentrated for their use8 Simple co4operation is al"a*s the pre)ailing form, in those branches of production in "hich capital operates on a large scale, and di)ision of labour and machiner* pla* but a subordinate part8

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5o4operation e)er constitutes the fundamental form of the capitalist mode of production, ne)ertheless the elementar* form of co4operation continues to subsist as a particular form of capitalist production side b* side "ith the more de)eloped forms of that mode of production8

(ha)ter 1-* 7i4ision of /a0o%r and Man%fact%re


Section 1: Two"Fold Ori%in of $anufacture
'hat co4operation "hich is based on di)ision of labour, assumes its t*pical form in manufacture, and is the pre)alent characteristic form of the capitalist process of production throughout the manufacturing period properl* so called8 'hat period, roughl* spea+ing, e9tends from the middle of the 16th to the last third of the 18th centur*8 $anufacture ta+es its rise in t"o "a*s: (18! /* the assemblage, in one "or+shop under the control of a single capitalist, of labourers belonging to )arious independent handicrafts, but through "hose hands a gi)en article must pass on its "a* to completion8 ( carriage, for e9ample, "as formerl* the product of the labour of a great number of independent artificers, such as "heel"rights, harness4ma+ers, tailors, loc+smiths, upholsterers, turners, fringe4ma+ers, gla1iers, painters, polishers, gilders, Pc8 >n the manufacture of carriages, ho"e)er, all these different artificers are assembled in one building "here the* "or+ into one another?s hands8 >t is true that a carriage cannot be gilt before it has been made8 /ut if a number of carriages are being made simultaneousl*, some ma* be in the hands of the gilders "hile others are going through an earlier process8 So far, "e are still in the domain of simple co4 operation, "hich finds its materials read* to hand in the shape of men and things8 /ut )er* soon an important change ta+es place8 'he tailor, the loc+smith, and the other artificers, being no" e9clusi)el* occupied in carriage4ma+ing, each graduall* loses, through "ant of practice, the abilit* to carr* on, to its full e9tent, his old handicraft8 /ut, on the other hand, his acti)it* no" confined in one groo)e, assumes the form best adapted to the narro"ed sphere of action8 (t first, carriage manufacture is a combination of )arious independent handicrafts8 /* degrees, it becomes the splitting up of carriage4ma+ing into its )arious detail processes, each of "hich cr*stallises into the e9clusi)e function of a particular "or+man, the manufacture, as a "hole, being carried on b* the men in conDunction8 >n the same "a*, cloth manufacture, as also a "hole series of other manufactures, arose b* combining different handicrafts together under the control of a single capitalist81 (68! $anufacture also arises in a "a* e9actl* the re)erse of this namel*, b* one capitalist emplo*ing simultaneousl* in one "or+shop a number of artificers, "ho all do the same, or the same +ind of "or+, such as ma+ing paper, t*pe, or needles8 'his is co4operation in its most elementar* form8 Each of these artificers ("ith the help, perhaps, of one or t"o apprentices!, ma+es the entire commodit*, and he conseIuentl* performs in succession all the operations necessar* for its production8 -e still "or+s in his old handicraft4li+e "a*8 /ut )er* soon e9ternal circumstances cause a different use to be made of the concentration of the "or+men on one spot, and of the simultaneousness of their "or+8 (n increased Iuantit* of the article has perhaps to be deli)ered "ithin a gi)en time8 'he "or+ is therefore re4distributed8 >nstead of each man being allo"ed to perform all the )arious operations in succession, these operations are changed into disconnected, isolated ones, carried on side b* side; each is assigned to a different artificer, and the "hole of them together are performed simultaneousl* b* the co4operating "or+men8 'his accidental repartition gets repeated, de)elops ad)antages of its o"n, and graduall* ossifies into a s*stematic di)ision of labour8 'he commodit*, from being the indi)idual product of an

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independent artificer, becomes the social product of a union of artificers, each of "hom performs one, and onl* one, of the constituent partial operations8 'he same operations "hich, in the case of a paperma+er belonging to a German Guild, merged one into the other as the successi)e acts of one artificer, became in the 0utch paper manufacture so man* partial operations carried on side b* side b* numerous co4operating labourers8 'he needlema+er of the Curemberg Guild "as the cornerstone on "hich the English needle manufacture "as raised8 /ut "hile in Curemberg that single artificer performed a series of perhaps 67 operations one after another, in England it "as not long before there "ere 67 needlema+ers side b* side, each performing one alone of those 67 operations, and in conseIuence of further e9perience, each of those 67 operations "as again split up, isolated, and made the e9clusi)e function of a separate "or+man8 'he mode in "hich manufacture arises, its gro"th out of handicrafts, is therefore t"o4fold8 =n the one hand, it arises from the union of )arious independent handicrafts, "hich become stripped of their independence and specialised to such an e9tent as to be reduced to mere supplementar* partial processes in the production of one particular commodit*8 =n the other hand, it arises from the co4operation of artificers of one handicraft; it splits up that particular handicraft into its )arious detail operations, isolating, and ma+ing these operations independent of one another up to the point "here each becomes the e9clusi)e function of a particular labourer8 =n the one hand, therefore, manufacture either introduces di)ersion of labour into a process of production, or further de)elops that di)ision; on the other hand, it unites together handicrafts that "ere formerl* separate8 /ut "hate)er ma* ha)e been its particular starting4point, its final form is in)ariabl* the same a producti)e mechanism "hose parts are human beings8 For a proper understanding of the di)ision of labour in manufacture, it is essential that the follo"ing points be firml* grasped8 First, the decomposition of a process of production into its )arious successi)e steps coincides, here, strictl* "ith the resolution of a handicraft into its successi)e manual operations8 Bhether comple9 or simple, each operation has to be done b* hand, retains the character of a handicraft, and is therefore dependent on the strength, s+ill, Iuic+ness, and sureness, of the indi)idual "or+man in handling his tools8 'he handicraft continues to be the basis8 'his narro" technical basis e9cludes a reall* scientific anal*sis of an* definite process of industrial production, since it is still a condition that each detail process gone through b* the product must be capable of being done b* hand and of forming, in its "a*, a separate handicraft8 >t is Dust because handicraft s+ill continues, in this "a*, to be the foundation of the process of production, that each "or+man becomes e9clusi)el* assigned to a partial function, and that for the rest of his life, his labour4po"er is turned into the organ of this detail function8 Secondl*, this di)ision of labour is a particular sort of co4operation, and man* of its disad)antages spring from the general character of co4operation, and not from this particular form of it8

Section ': The -etail (abourer and his Implements


>f "e no" go more into detail, it is, in the first place, clear that a labourer "ho all his life performs one and the same simple operation, con)erts his "hole bod* into the automatic, specialised implement of that operation8 5onseIuentl*, he ta+es less time in doing it, than the artificer "ho performs a "hole series of operations in succession8 /ut the collecti)e labourer, "ho constitutes the li)ing mechanism of manufacture, is made up solel* of such specialised detail labourers8 -ence, in comparison "ith the independent handicraft, more is produced in a gi)en time, or the producti)e po"er of labour is increased8 6 $oreo)er, "hen once this fractional "or+ is

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established as the e9clusi)e function of one person, the methods it emplo*s become perfected8 'he "or+man?s continued repetition of the same simple act, and the concentration of his attention on it, teach him b* e9perience ho" to attain the desired effect "ith the minimum of e9ertion8 /ut since there are al"a*s se)eral generations of labourers li)ing at one time, and "or+ing together at the manufacture of a gi)en article, the technical s+ill, the tric+s of the trade thus acIuired, become established, and are accumulated and handed do"n8 : $anufacture, in fact, produces the s+ill of the detail labourer, b* reproducing, and s*stematicall* dri)ing to an e9treme "ithin the "or+shop, the naturall* de)eloped differentiation of trades "hich it found read* to hand in societ* at large8 =n the other hand, the con)ersion of fractional "or+ into the life4calling of one man, corresponds to the tendenc* sho"n b* earlier societies, to ma+e trades hereditar*; either to petrif* them into castes, or "hene)er definite historical conditions beget in the indi)idual a tendenc* to )ar* in a manner incompatible "ith the nature of castes, to ossif* them into guilds8 5astes and guilds arise from the action of the same natural la", that regulates the differentiation of plants and animals into species and )arieties, e9cept that, "hen a certain degree of de)elopment has been reached, the heredit* of castes and the e9clusi)eness of guilds are ordained as a la" of societ*8 @'he muslins of 0a++a in fineness, the calicoes and other piece goods of 5oromandel in brilliant and durable colours, ha)e ne)er been surpassed8 Net the* are produced "ithout capital, machiner*, di)ision of labour, or an* of those means "hich gi)e such facilities to the manufacturing interest of Europe8 'he "ea)er is merel* a detached indi)idual, "or+ing a "eb "hen ordered of a customer, and "ith a loom of the rudest construction, consisting sometimes of a fe" branches or bars of "ood, put roughl* together8 'here is e)en no e9pedient for rolling up the "arp; the loom must therefore be +ept stretched to its full length, and becomes so incon)enientl* large, that it cannot be contained "ithin the hut of the manufacturer, "ho is therefore compelled to pl* his trade in the open air, "here it is interrupted b* e)er* )icissitude of the "eather8A 3 >t is onl* the special s+ill accumulated from generation to generation, and transmitted from father to son, that gi)es to the -indu, as it does to the spider, this proficienc*8 (nd *et the "or+ of such a -indu "ea)er is )er* complicated, compared "ith that of a manufacturing labourer8 (n artificer, "ho performs one after another the )arious fractional operations in the production of a finished article, must at one time change his place, at another his tools8 'he transition from one operation to another interrupts the flo" of his labour, and creates, so to sa*, gaps in his "or+ing da*8 'hese gaps close up so soon as he is tied to one and the same operation all da* long; the* )anish in proportion as the changes in his "or+ diminish8 'he resulting increased producti)e po"er is o"ing either to an increased e9penditure of labour4po"er in a gi)en time i8e8, to increased intensit* of labour or to a decrease in the amount of labour4po"er unproducti)el* consumed8 'he e9tra e9penditure of po"er, demanded b* e)er* transition from rest to motion, is made up for b* prolonging the duration of the normal )elocit* "hen once acIuired8 =n the other hand, constant labour of one uniform +ind disturbs the intensit* and flo" of a man?s animal spirits, "hich find recreation and delight in mere change of acti)it*8 'he producti)eness of labour depends not onl* on the proficienc* of the "or+man, but on the perfection of his tools8 'ools of the same +ind, such as +ni)es, drills, gimlets8 hammers, Pc8, ma* be emplo*ed in different processes; and the same tool ma* ser)e )arious purposes in a single process8 /ut so soon as the different operations of a labour4process are disconnected the one from the other, and each fractional operation acIuires in the hands of the detail labourer a suitable and peculiar form, alterations become necessar* in the implements that pre)iousl* ser)ed more than

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one purpose8 'he direction ta+en b* this change is determined b* the difficulties e9perienced in conseIuence of the unchanged form of the implement8 $anufacture is characterised b* the differentiation of the instruments of labour a differentiation "hereb* implements of a gi)en sort acIuire fi9ed shapes, adapted to each particular application, and b* the specialisation of those instruments, gi)ing to each special implement its full pla* onl* in the hands of a specific detail labourer8 >n /irmingham alone 377 )arieties of hammers are produced, and not onl* is each adapted to one particular process, but se)eral )arieties often ser)e e9clusi)el* for the different operations in one and the same process8 'he manufacturing period simplifies, impro)es, and multiplies the implements of labour, b* adapting them to the e9clusi)el* special functions of each detail labourer86 >t thus creates at the same time one of the material conditions for the e9istence of machiner*, "hich consists of a combination of simple instruments8 'he detail labourer and his implements are the simplest elements of manufacture8 <et us no" turn to its aspect as a "hole8

Section *: The Two Fundamental Forms of $anufacture: 1etero%eneous $anufacture5 Serial $anufacture
'he organisation of manufacture has t"o fundamental forms "hich, in spite of occasional blending, are essentiall* different in +ind, and, moreo)er, pla* )er* distinct parts in the subseIuent transformation of manufacture into modern industr* carried on b* machiner*8 'his double character arises from the nature of the article produced8 'his article either results from the mere mechanical fitting together of partial products made independentl*, or o"es its completed shape to a series of connected processes and manipulations8 ( locomoti)e, for instance, consists of more than 3,777 independent parts8 >t cannot, ho"e)er, ser)e as an e9ample of the first +ind of genuine manufacture, for it is a structure produced b* modern mechanical industr*8 /ut a "atch can; and Billiam #ett* used it to illustrate the di)ision of labour in manufacture8 Formerl* the indi)idual "or+ of a Curemberg artificer, the "atch has been transformed into the social product of an immense number of detail labourers, such as mainspring ma+ers, dial ma+ers, spiral spring ma+ers, De"elled hole ma+ers, rub* le)er ma+ers, hand ma+ers, case ma+ers, scre" ma+ers, gilders, "ith numerous subdi)isions, such as "heel ma+ers (brass and steel separate!, pin ma+ers, mo)ement ma+ers, ache)eur de pignon (fi9es the "heels on the a9les, polishes the facets, Pc8!, pi)ot ma+ers, planteur de finissage (puts the "heels and springs in the "or+s!, finisseur de barillet (cuts teeth in the "heels, ma+es the holes of the right si1e, Pc8!, escapement ma+ers, c*linder ma+ers for c*linder escapements, escapement "heel ma+ers, balance "heel ma+ers, raIuette ma+ers (apparatus for regulating the "atch!, the planteur d?Rchappement (escapement ma+er proper!; then the repasseur de barillet (finishes the bo9 for the spring, Pc8!, steel polishers, "heel polishers, scre" polishers, figure painters, dial enamellers (melt the enamel on the copper!, fabricant de pendants (ma+es the ring b* "hich the case is hung!, finisseur de charninre (puts the brass hinge in the co)er, Pc8!, faiseur de secret (puts in the springs that open the case!, gra)eur, ciseleur, polisseur de borte, Pc8, Pc8, and last of all the repasseur, "ho fits together the "hole "atch and hands it o)er in a going state8 =nl* a fe" parts of the "atch pass through se)eral hands; and all these membra disDecta come together for the first time in the hand that binds them into one mechanical "hole8 'his e9ternal relation bet"een the finished product, and its )arious and di)erse elements ma+es it, as "ell in this case as in the case of all similar finished articles, a matter of chance "hether the detail labourers are brought together in one "or+shop or not8 'he detail operations ma* further be carried on li+e so man*

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independent handicrafts, as the* are in the 5antons of ;aud and CeufchMtel; "hile in Gene)a there e9ist large "atch manufactories "here the detail labourers directl* co4operate under the control of a single capitalist8 (nd e)en in the latter case the dial, the springs, and the case, are seldom made in the factor* itself8 'o carr* on the trade as a manufacture, "ith concentration of "or+men, is, in the "atch trade, profitable onl* under e9ceptional conditions, because competition is greater bet"een the labourers "ho desire to "or+ at home, and because the splitting up of the "or+ into a number of heterogeneous processes, permits but little use of the instruments of labour in common, and the capitalist, b* scattering the "or+, sa)es the outla* on "or+shops, Pc87 Ce)ertheless the position of this detail labourer "ho, though he "or+s at home, does so for a capitalist (manufacturer, Rtablisseur!, is )er* different from that of the independent artificer, "ho "or+s for his o"n customers88 'he second +ind of manufacture, its perfected form, produces articles that go through connected phases of de)elopment, through a series of processes step b* step, li+e the "ire in the manufacture of needles, "hich passes through the hands of 76 and sometimes e)en 26 different detail "or+men8 >n so far as such a manufacture, "hen first started, combines scattered handicrafts, it lessens the space b* "hich the )arious phases of production are separated from each other8 'he time ta+en in passing from one stage to another is shortened, so is the labour that effectuates this passage8 2 >n comparison "ith a handicraft, producti)e po"er is gained, and this gain is o"ing to the general co4operati)e character of manufacture8 =n the other hand, di)ision of labour, "hich is the distinguishing principle of manufacture, reIuires the isolation of the )arious stages of production and their independence of each other8 'he establishment and maintenance of a conne9ion bet"een the isolated functions necessitates the incessant transport of the article from one hand to another, and from one process to another8 From the standpoint of modern mechanical industr*, this necessit* stands forth as a characteristic and costl* disad)antage, and one that is immanent in the principle of manufacture817 >f "e confine our attention to some particular lot of ra" materials, of rags, for instance, in paper manufacture, or of "ire in needle manufacture, "e percei)e that it passes in succession through a series of stages in the hands of the )arious detail "or+men until completion8 =n the other hand, if "e loo+ at the "or+shop as a "hole, "e see the ra" material in all the stages of its production at the same time8 'he collecti)e labourer, "ith one set of his man* hands armed "ith one +ind of tools, dra"s the "ire, "ith another set, armed "ith different tools, he, at the same time, straightens it, "ith another, he cuts it, "ith another, points it, and so on8 'he different detail processes, "hich "ere successi)e in time, ha)e become simultaneous, go on side b* side in space8 -ence, production of a greater Iuantum of finished commodities in a gi)en time8 11 'his simultaneit*, it is true, is due to the general co4operati)e form of the process as a "hole; but $anufacture not onl* finds the conditions for co4operation read* to hand, it also, to some e9tent, creates them b* the sub4di)ision of handicraft labour8 =n the other hand, it accomplishes this social organisation of the labour4process onl* b* ri)eting each labourer to a single fractional detail8 Since the fractional product of each detail labourer is, at the same time, onl* a particular stage in the de)elopment of one and the same finished article, each labourer, or each group of labourers, prepares the ra" material for another labourer or group8 'he result of the labour of the one is the starting4point for the labour of the other8 'he one "or+man therefore gi)es occupation directl* to the other8 'he labour4time necessar* in each partial process, for attaining the desired effect, is learnt b* e9perience; and the mechanism of $anufacture, as a "hole, is based on the assumption that a gi)en result "ill be obtained in a gi)en time8 >t is onl* on this assumption that the )arious

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supplementar* labour4processes can proceed uninterruptedl*, simultaneousl*, and side b* side8 >t is clear that this direct dependence of the operations, and therefore of the labourers, on each other, compels each one of them to spend on his "or+ no more than the necessar* time, and thus a continuit*, uniformit*, regularit*, order,16 and e)en intensit* of labour, of Iuite a different +ind, is begotten than is to be found in an independent handicraft or e)en in simple co4operation8 'he rule, that the labour4time e9pended on a commodit* should not e9ceed that "hich is sociall* necessar* for its production, appears, in the production of commodities generall*, to be established b* the mere effect of competition; since, to e9press oursel)es superficiall*, each single producer is obliged to sell his commodit* at its mar+et4price8 >n $anufacture, on the contrar*, the turning out of a gi)en Iuantum of product in a gi)en time is a technical la" of the process of production itself81: 0ifferent operations ta+e, ho"e)er, uneIual periods, and *ield therefore, in eIual times uneIual Iuantities of fractional products8 >f, therefore, the same labourer has, da* after da*, to perform the same operation, there must be a different number of labourers for each operation; for instance, in t*pe manufacture, there are four founders and t"o brea+ers to one rubber: the founder casts 6,777 t*pe an hour, the brea+er brea+s up ,777, and the rubber polishes 8,7778 -ere "e ha)e again the principle of co4operation in its simplest form, the simultaneous emplo*ment of man* doing the same thing; onl* no", this principle is the e9pression of an organic relation8 'he di)ision of labour, as carried out in $anufacture, not onl* simplifies and multiplies the Iualitati)el* different parts of the social collecti)e labourer, but also creates a fi9ed mathematical relation or ratio "hich regulates the Iuantitati)e e9tent of those parts i8e8, the relati)e number of labourers, or the relati)e si1e of the group of labourers, for each detail operation8 >t de)elops, along "ith the Iualitati)e sub4di)ision of the social labour4process, a Iuantitati)e rule and proportionalit* for that process8 Bhen once the most fitting proportion has been e9perimentall* established for the numbers of the detail labourers in the )arious groups "hen producing on a gi)en scale, that scale can be e9tended onl* b* emplo*ing a multiple of each particular group8 1 'here is this to boot, that the same indi)idual can do certain +inds of "or+ Dust as "ell on a large as on a small scale; for instance, the labour of superintendence, the carriage of the fractional product from one stage to the ne9t, Pc8 'he isolation of such functions, their allotment to a particular labourer, does not become ad)antageous till after an increase in the number of labourers emplo*ed; but this increase must affect e)er* group proportionall*8 'he isolated group of labourers to "hom an* particular detail function is assigned, is made up of homogeneous elements, and is one of the constituent parts of the total mechanism8 >n man* manufactures, ho"e)er, the group itself is an organised bod* of labour, the total mechanism being a repetition or multiplication of these elementar* organisms8 'a+e, for instance, the manufacture of glass bottles8 >t ma* be resol)ed into three essentiall* different stages8 First, the preliminar* stage, consisting of the preparation of the components of the glass, mi9ing the sand and lime, Pc8, and melting them into a fluid mass of glass8 13 ;arious detail labourers are emplo*ed in this first stage, as also in the final one of remo)ing the bottles from the dr*ing furnace, sorting and pac+ing them, Pc8 >n the middle, bet"een these t"o stages, comes the glass melting proper, the manipulation of the fluid mass8 (t each mouth of the furnace, there "or+s a group, called @the hole,A consisting of one bottlema+er or finisher, one blo"er, one gatherer, one putter4up or "hetter4off, and one ta+er4in8 'hese fi)e detail "or+ers are so man* special organs of a single "or+ing organism that acts onl* as a "hole, and therefore can operate onl* b* the direct co4operation of the "hole fi)e8 'he "hole bod* is paral*sed if but one of its members be "anting8 /ut a glass furnace has se)eral openings (in England from to 6!, each of "hich contains an earthen"are melting4pot full of molten glass, and emplo*s a similar fi)e4membered

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group of "or+ers8 'he organisation of each group is based on di)ision of labour, but the bond bet"een the different groups is simple co4operation, "hich, b* using in common one of the means of production, the furnace, causes it to be more economicall* consumed8 Such a furnace, "ith its 46 groups, constitutes a glass house; and a glass manufactor* comprises a number of such glass houses, together "ith the apparatus and "or+men reIuisite for the preparator* and final stages8 Finall*, Dust as $anufacture arises in part from the combination of )arious handicrafts, so, too, it de)elops into a combination of )arious manufactures8 'he larger English glass manufacturers, for instance, ma+e their o"n earthen"are melting4pots, because, on the Iualit* of these depends, to a great e9tent, the success or failure of the process8 'he manufacture of one of the means of production is here united "ith that of the product8 =n the other hand, the manufacture of the product ma* be united "ith other manufactures, of "hich that product is the ra" material, or "ith the products of "hich it is itself subseIuentl* mi9ed8 'hus, "e find the manufacture of flint glass combined "ith that of glass cutting and brass founding; the latter for the metal settings of )arious articles of glass8 'he )arious manufactures so combined form more or less separate departments of a larger manufacture, but are at the same time independent processes, each "ith its o"n di)ision of labour8 >n spite of the man* ad)antages offered b* this combination of manufactures, it ne)er gro"s into a complete technical s*stem on its o"n foundation8 'hat happens onl* on its transformation into an industr* carried on b* machiner*8 Earl* in the manufacturing period, the principle of lessening the necessar* labour4time in the production of commodities16, "as accepted and formulated: and the use of machines, especiall* for certain simple first processes that ha)e to be conducted on a )er* large scale, and "ith the application of great force, sprang up here and there8 'hus, at an earl* period in paper manufacture, the tearing up of the rags "as done b* paper4mills; and in metal "or+s, the pounding of the ores "as effected b* stamping mills8 17 'he &oman Empire had handed do"n the elementar* form of all machiner* in the "ater4"heel8 18 'he handicraft period beIueathed to us the great in)entions of the compass, of gunpo"der, of t*pe4printing, and of the automatic cloc+8 /ut, on the "hole, machiner* pla*ed that subordinate part "hich (dam Smith assigns to it in comparison "ith di)ision of labour8 12 'he sporadic use of machiner* in the 17th centur* "as of the greatest importance, because it supplied the great mathematicians of that time "ith a practical basis and stimulant to the creation of the science of mechanics8 'he collecti)e labourer, formed b* the combination of a number of detail labourers, is the machiner* speciall* characteristic of the manufacturing period8 'he )arious operations that are performed in turns b* the producer of a commodit*, and coalesce one "ith another during the progress of production, la* claim to him in )arious "a*s8 >n one operation he must e9ert more strength, in another more s+ill, in another more attention; and the same indi)idual does not possess all these Iualities in an eIual degree8 (fter $anufacture has once separated, made independent, and isolated the )arious operations, the labourers are di)ided, classified, and grouped according to their predominating Iualities8 >f their natural endo"ments are, on the one hand, the foundation on "hich the di)ision of labour is built up, on the other hand, $anufacture, once introduced, de)elops in them ne" po"ers that are b* nature fitted onl* for limited and special functions8 'he collecti)e labourer no" possesses, in an eIual degree of e9cellence, all the Iualities reIuisite for production, and e9pends them in the most economical manner, b* e9clusi)el* emplo*ing all his organs, consisting of particular labourers, or groups of labourers, in performing their special functions867 'he one4sidedness and the deficiencies of the detail labourer become perfections "hen he is a part of the collecti)e labourer8 61 'he habit of doing onl* one

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thing con)erts him into a ne)er failing instrument, "hile his conne9ion "ith the "hole mechanism compels him to "or+ "ith the regularit* of the parts of a machine8 66 Since the collecti)e labourer has functions, both simple and comple9, both high and lo", his members, the indi)idual labour4po"ers, reIuire different degrees of training, and must therefore ha)e different )alues8 $anufacture, therefore, de)elops a hierarch* of labour4po"ers, to "hich there corresponds a scale of "ages8 >f, on the one hand, the indi)idual labourers are appropriated and anne9ed for life b* a limited function; on the other hand, the )arious operations of the hierarch* are parcelled out among the labourers according to both their natural and their acIuired capabilities86: E)er* process of production, ho"e)er, reIuires certain simple manipulations, "hich e)er* man is capable of doing8 'he* too are no" se)ered from their conne9ion "ith the more pregnant moments of acti)it*, and ossified into e9clusi)e functions of speciall* appointed labourers8 -ence, $anufacture begets, in e)er* handicraft that it sei1es upon, a class of so4called uns+illed labourers, a class "hich handicraft industr* strictl* e9cluded8 >f it de)elops a one4sided specialit* into a perfection, at the e9pense of the "hole of a man?s "or+ing capacit*, it also begins to ma+e a specialit* of the absence of all de)elopment8 (longside of the hierarchic gradation there steps the simple separation of the labourers into s+illed and uns+illed8 For the latter, the cost of apprenticeship )anishes; for the former, it diminishes, compared "ith that of artificers, in conseIuence of the functions being simplified8 >n both cases the )alue of labour4 po"er falls86 (n e9ception to this la" holds good "hene)er the decomposition of the labour4 process begets ne" and comprehensi)e functions, that either had no place at all, or onl* a )er* modest one, in handicrafts8 'he fall in the )alue of labour4po"er, caused b* the disappearance or diminution of the e9penses of apprenticeship, implies a direct increase of surplus )alue for the benefit of capital; for e)er*thing that shortens the necessar* labour4time reIuired for the reproduction of labour4po"er, e9tends the domain of surplus labour8

Section ,: -i=ision of (abour in $anufacture5 and -i=ision of (abour in Societ


Be first considered the origin of $anufacture, then its simple elements, then the detail labourer and his implements, and finall*, the totalit* of the mechanism8 Be shall no" lightl* touch upon the relation bet"een the di)ision of labour in manufacture, and the social di)ision of labour, "hich forms the foundation of all production of commodities8 >f "e +eep labour alone in )ie", "e ma* designate the separation of social production into its main di)isions or enera F )i18, agriculture, industries, Pc8, as di)ision of labour in general, and the splitting up of these families into species and sub4species, as di)ision of labour in particular, and the di)ision of labour "ithin the "or+shop as di)ision of labour in singular or in detail8 63 0i)ision of labour in a societ*, and the corresponding t*ing do"n of indi)iduals to a particular calling, de)elops itself, Dust as does the di)ision of labour in manufacture, from opposite starting4 points8 Bithin a famil*,66 and after further de)elopment "ithin a tribe, there springs up naturall* a di)ision of labour, caused b* differences of se9 and age, a di)ision that is conseIuentl* based on a purel* ph*siological foundation, "hich di)ision enlarges its materials b* the e9pansion of the communit*, b* the increase of population, and more especiall*, b* the conflicts bet"een different tribes, and the subDugation of one tribe b* another8 =n the other hand, as > ha)e before remar+ed, the e9change of products springs up at the points "here different families, tribes, communities, come in contact; for, in the beginning of ci)ilisation, it is not pri)ate indi)iduals but families, tribes, Pc8, that meet on an independent footing8 0ifferent communities find different means of production, and different means of subsistence in their natural en)ironment8 -ence, their modes of production, and of li)ing, and their products are different8 >t is this spontaneousl* de)eloped

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difference "hich, "hen different communities come in contact, calls forth the mutual e9change of products, and the conseIuent gradual con)ersion of those products into commodities8 E9change does not create the differences bet"een the spheres of production, but brings "hat are alread* different into relation, and thus con)erts them into more or less inter4dependent branches of the collecti)e production of an enlarged societ*8 >n the latter case, the social di)ision of labour arises from the e9change bet"een spheres of production, that are originall* distinct and independent of one another8 >n the former, "here the ph*siological di)ision of labour is the starting4point, the particular organs of a compact "hole gro" loose, and brea+ off, principall* o"ing to the e9change of commodities "ith foreign communities, and then isolate themsel)es so far, that the sole bond, still connecting the )arious +inds of "or+, is the e9change of the products as commodities8 >n the one case, it is the ma+ing dependent "hat "as before independent; in the other case, the ma+ing independent "hat "as before dependent8 'he foundation of e)er* di)ision of labour that is "ell de)eloped, and brought about b* the e9change of commodities, is the separation bet"een to"n and countr*8 67 >t ma* be said, that the "hole economic histor* of societ* is summed up in the mo)ement of this antithesis8 Be pass it o)er, ho"e)er, for the present8 Lust as a certain number of simultaneousl* emplo*ed labourers are the material pre4reIuisites for di)ision of labour in manufacture, so are the number and densit* of the population, "hich here correspond to the agglomeration in one "or+shop, a necessar* condition for the di)ision of labour in societ*868 Ce)ertheless, this densit* is more or less relati)e8 ( relati)el* thinl* populated countr*, "ith "ell4de)eloped means of communication, has a denser population than a more numerousl* populated countr*, "ith badl*4de)eloped means of communication; and in this sense the Corthern States of the (merican %nion, for instance, are more thic+l* populated than >ndia8 62 Since the production and the circulation of commodities are the general pre4reIuisites of the capitalist mode of production, di)ision of labour in manufacture demands, that di)ision of labour in societ* at large should pre)iousl* ha)e attained a certain degree of de)elopment8 >n)ersel*, the former di)ision reacts upon and de)elops and multiplies the latter8 Simultaneousl*, "ith the differentiation of the instruments of labour, the industries that produce these instruments, become more and more differentiated8:7 >f the manufacturing s*stem sei1e upon an industr*, "hich, pre)iousl*, "as carried on in conne9ion "ith others, either as a chief or as a subordinate industr*, and b* one producer, these industries immediatel* separate their conne9ion, and become independent8 >f it sei1e upon a particular stage in the production of a commodit*, the other stages of its production become con)erted into so man* independent industries8 >t has alread* been stated, that "here the finished article consists merel* of a number of parts fitted together, the detail operations ma* re4establish themsel)es as genuine and separate handicrafts8 >n order to carr* out more perfectl* the di)ision of labour in manufacture, a single branch of production is, according to the )arieties of its ra" material, or the )arious forms that one and the same ra" material ma* assume, split up into numerous, and to some e9tent, entirel* ne" manufactures8 (ccordingl*, in France alone, in the first half of the 18th centur*, o)er 177 different +inds of sil+ stuffs "ere "o)en, and, in ()ignon, it "as la", that @e)er* apprentice should de)ote himself to onl* one sort of fabrication, and should not learn the preparation of se)eral +inds of stuff at once8A 'he territorial di)ision of labour, "hich confines special branches of production to special districts of a countr*, acIuires fresh stimulus from the manufacturing s*stem, "hich e9ploits e)er* special ad)antage8:1 'he 5olonial s*stem and the opening out of the mar+ets of the "orld, both of "hich are included in the general conditions of e9istence of the manufacturing period, furnish rich material for de)eloping the di)ision of labour in societ*8 >t is not the place, here, to go on to sho" ho" di)ision of labour sei1es upon, not onl* the economic, but e)er* other sphere of societ*, and e)er*"here la*s the foundation of that all engrossing s*stem of specialising and

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sorting men, that de)elopment in a man of one single facult* at the e9pense of all other faculties, "hich caused (8 Ferguson, the master of (dam Smith, to e9claim: @Be ma+e a nation of -elots, and ha)e no free citi1ens8A:6 /ut, in spite of the numerous analogies and lin+s connecting them, di)ision of labour in the interior of a societ*, and that in the interior of a "or+shop, differ not onl* in degree, but also in +ind8 'he analog* appears most indisputable "here there is an in)isible bond uniting the )arious branches of trade8 For instance the cattle4breeder produces hides, the tanner ma+es the hides into leather, and the shoema+er, the leather into boots8 -ere the thing produced b* each of them is but a step to"ards the final form, "hich is the product of all their labours combined8 'here are, besides, all the )arious industries that suppl* the cattle4breeder, the tanner, and the shoema+er "ith the means of production8 Co" it is Iuite possible to imagine, "ith (dam Smith, that the difference bet"een the abo)e social di)ision of labour, and the di)ision in manufacture, is merel* subDecti)e, e9ists merel* for the obser)er, "ho, in a manufacture, can see "ith one glance, all the numerous operations being performed on one spot, "hile in the instance gi)en abo)e, the spreading out of the "or+ o)er great areas, and the great number of people emplo*ed in each branch of labour, obscure the conne9ion8:: /ut "hat is it that forms the bond bet"een the independent labours of the cattle4breeder, the tanner, and the shoema+erE >t is the fact that their respecti)e products are commodities8 Bhat, on the other hand, characterises di)ision of labour in manufacturesE 'he fact that the detail labourer produces no commodities8 : >t is onl* the common product of all the detail labourers that becomes a commodit*8 :3 0i)ision of labour in societ* is brought about b* the purchase and sale of the products of different branches of industr*, "hile the conne9ion bet"een the detail operations in a "or+shop, is due to the sale of the labour4po"er of se)eral "or+men to one capitalist, "ho applies it as combined labour4po"er8 'he di)ision of labour in the "or+shop implies concentration of the means of production in the hands of one capitalist; the di)ision of labour in societ* implies their dispersion among man* independent producers of commodities8 Bhile "ithin the "or+shop, the iron la" of proportionalit* subDects definite numbers of "or+men to definite functions, in the societ* outside the "or+shop, chance and caprice ha)e full pla* in distributing the producers and their means of production among the )arious branches of industr*8 'he different spheres of production, it is true, constantl* tend to an eIuilibrium: for, on the one hand, "hile each producer of a commodit* is bound to produce a use4 )alue, to satisf* a particular social "ant, and "hile the e9tent of these "ants differs Iuantitati)el*, still there e9ists an inner relation "hich settles their proportions into a regular s*stem, and that s*stem one of spontaneous gro"th; and, on the other hand, the la" of the )alue of commodities ultimatel* determines ho" much of its disposable "or+ing4time societ* can e9pend on each particular class of commodities8 /ut this constant tendenc* to eIuilibrium, of the )arious spheres of production, is e9ercised, onl* in the shape of a reaction against the constant upsetting of this eIuilibrium8 'he a priori s*stem on "hich the di)ision of labour, "ithin the "or+shop, is regularl* carried out, becomes in the di)ision of labour "ithin the societ*, an a posteriori, nature4imposed necessit*, controlling the la"less caprice of the producers, and perceptible in the barometrical fluctuations of the mar+et4prices8 0i)ision of labour "ithin the "or+shop implies the undisputed authorit* of the capitalist o)er men, that are but parts of a mechanism that belongs to him8 'he di)ision of labour "ithin the societ* brings into contact independent commodit*4producers, "ho ac+no"ledge no other authorit* but that of competition, of the coercion e9erted b* the pressure of their mutual interests; Dust as in the animal +ingdom, the bellum omnium contra omnes G"ar of all against all F -obbesH more or less preser)es the conditions of e9istence of e)er* species8 'he same bourgeois mind "hich praises di)ision of labour in the "or+shop, life4long anne9ation of the labourer to a partial operation, and his complete subDection to capital, as being an organisation of labour that increases its producti)eness

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that same bourgeois mind denounces "ith eIual )igour e)er* conscious attempt to sociall* control and regulate the process of production, as an inroad upon such sacred things as the rights of propert*, freedom and unrestricted pla* for the bent of the indi)idual capitalist8 >t is )er* characteristic that the enthusiastic apologists of the factor* s*stem ha)e nothing more damning to urge against a general organisation of the labour of societ*, than that it "ould turn all societ* into one immense factor*8 >f, in a societ* "ith capitalist production, anarch* in the social di)ision of labour and despotism in that of the "or+shop are mutual conditions the one of the other, "e find, on the contrar*, in those earlier forms of societ* in "hich the separation of trades has been spontaneousl* de)eloped, then cr*stallised, and finall* made permanent b* la", on the one hand, a specimen of the organisation of the labour of societ*, in accordance "ith an appro)ed and authoritati)e plan, and on the other, the entire e9clusion of di)ision of labour in the "or+shop, or at all e)ents a mere d"arfli+e or sporadic and accidental de)elopment of the same8 :6 'hose small and e9tremel* ancient >ndian communities, some of "hich ha)e continued do"n to this da*, are based on possession in common of the land, on the blending of agriculture and handicrafts, and on an unalterable di)ision of labour, "hich ser)es, "hene)er a ne" communit* is started, as a plan and scheme read* cut and dried8 =ccup*ing areas of from 177 up to se)eral thousand acres, each forms a compact "hole producing all it reIuires8 'he chief part of the products is destined for direct use b* the communit* itself, and does not ta+e the form of a commodit*8 -ence, production here is independent of that di)ision of labour brought about, in >ndian societ* as a "hole, b* means of the e9change of commodities8 >t is the surplus alone that becomes a commodit*, and a portion of e)en that, not until it has reached the hands of the State, into "hose hands from time immemorial a certain Iuantit* of these products has found its "a* in the shape of rent in +ind8 'he constitution of these communities )aries in different parts of >ndia8 >n those of the simplest form, the land is tilled in common, and the produce di)ided among the members8 (t the same time, spinning and "ea)ing are carried on in each famil* as subsidiar* industries8 Side b* side "ith the masses thus occupied "ith one and the same "or+, "e find the @chief inhabitant,A "ho is Dudge, police, and ta94gatherer in one; the boo+4+eeper, "ho +eeps the accounts of the tillage and registers e)er*thing relating thereto; another official, "ho prosecutes criminals, protects strangers tra)elling through and escorts them to the ne9t )illage; the boundar* man, "ho guards the boundaries against neighbouring communities; the "ater4o)erseer, "ho distributes the "ater from the common tan+s for irrigation; the /rahmin, "ho conducts the religious ser)ices; the schoolmaster, "ho on the sand teaches the children reading and "riting; the calendar4/rahmin, or astrologer, "ho ma+es +no"n the luc+* or unluc+* da*s for seed4time and har)est, and for e)er* other +ind of agricultural "or+; a smith and a carpenter, "ho ma+e and repair all the agricultural implements; the potter, "ho ma+es all the potter* of the )illage; the barber, the "asherman, "ho "ashes clothes, the sil)ersmith, here and there the poet, "ho in some communities replaces the sil)ersmith, in others the schoolmaster8 'his do1en of indi)iduals is maintained at the e9pense of the "hole communit*8 >f the population increases, a ne" communit* is founded, on the pattern of the old one, on unoccupied land8 'he "hole mechanism discloses a s*stematic di)ision of labour; but a di)ision li+e that in manufactures is impossible, since the smith and the carpenter, Pc8, find an unchanging mar+et, and at the most there occur, according to the si1es of the )illages, t"o or three of each, instead of one8 :7 'he la" that regulates the di)ision of labour in the communit* acts "ith the irresistible authorit* of a la" of Cature, at the same time that each indi)idual artificer, the smith, the carpenter, and so on, conducts in his "or+shop all the operations of his handicraft in the traditional "a*, but independentl*, and "ithout recognising an* authorit* o)er him8 'he simplicit* of the organisation for production in these self4sufficing communities that constantl* reproduce themsel)es in the same form, and

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"hen accidentall* destro*ed, spring up again on the spot and "ith the same name :8 this simplicit* supplies the +e* to the secret of the unchangeableness of (siatic societies, an unchangeableness in such stri+ing contrast "ith the constant dissolution and refounding of (siatic States, and the ne)er4ceasing changes of d*nast*8 'he structure of the economic elements of societ* remains untouched b* the storm4clouds of the political s+*8 'he rules of the guilds, as > ha)e said before, b* limiting most strictl* the number of apprentices and Dourne*men that a single master could emplo*, pre)ented him from becoming a capitalist8 $oreo)er, he could not emplo* his Dourne*men in man* other handicrafts than the one in "hich he "as a master8 'he guilds 1ealousl* repelled e)er* encroachment b* the capital of merchants, the onl* form of free capital "ith "hich the* came in contact8 ( merchant could bu* e)er* +ind of commodit*, but labour as a commodit* he could not bu*8 -e e9isted onl* on sufferance, as a dealer in the products of the handicrafts8 >f circumstances called for a further di)ision of labour, the e9isting guilds split themsel)es up into )arieties, or founded ne" guilds b* the side of the old ones; all this, ho"e)er, "ithout concentrating )arious handicrafts in a single "or+shop8 -ence, the guild organisation, ho"e)er much it ma* ha)e contributed b* separating, isolating, and perfecting the handicrafts, to create the material conditions for the e9istence of manufacture, e9cluded di)ision of labour in the "or+shop8 =n the "hole, the labourer and his means of production remained closel* united, li+e the snail "ith its shell, and thus there "as "anting the principal basis of manufacture, the separation of the labourer from his means of production, and the con)ersion of these means into capital8 Bhile di)ision of labour in societ* at large, "hether such di)ision be brought about or not b* e9change of commodities, is common to economic formations of societ* the most di)erse, di)ision of labour in the "or+shop, as practised b* manufacture, is a special creation of the capitalist mode of production alone8

Section 8: The Capitalistic Character of $anufacture


(n increased number of labourers under the control of one capitalist is the natural starting4point, as "ell of co4operation generall*, as of manufacture in particular8 /ut the di)ision of labour in manufacture ma+es this increase in the number of "or+men a technical necessit*8 'he minimum number that an* gi)en capitalist is bound to emplo* is here prescribed b* the pre)iousl* established di)ision of labour8 =n the other hand, the ad)antages of further di)ision are obtainable onl* b* adding to the number of "or+men, and this can be done onl* b* adding multiples of the )arious detail groups8 /ut an increase in the )ariable component of the capital emplo*ed necessitates an increase in its constant component, too, in the "or+shops, implements, Pc8, and, in particular, in the ra" material, the call for "hich gro"s Iuic+er than the number of "or+men8 'he Iuantit* of it consumed in a gi)en time, b* a gi)en amount of labour, increases in the same ratio as does the producti)e po"er of that labour in conseIuence of its di)ision8 -ence, it is a la", based on the )er* nature of manufacture, that the minimum amount of capital, "hich is bound to be in the hands of each capitalist, must +eep increasing; in other "ords, that the transformation into capital of the social means of production and subsistence must +eep e9tending8:2 >n manufacture, as "ell as in simple co4operation, the collecti)e "or+ing organism is a form of e9istence of capital8 'he mechanism that is made up of numerous indi)idual detail labourers belongs to the capitalist8 -ence, the producti)e po"er resulting from a combination of labours appears to be the producti)e po"er of capital8 $anufacture proper not onl* subDects the pre)iousl* independent "or+man to the discipline and command of capital, but, in addition,

12:

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creates a hierarchic gradation of the "or+men themsel)es8 Bhile simple co4operation lea)es the mode of "or+ing b* the indi)idual for the most part unchanged, manufacture thoroughl* re)olutionises it, and sei1es labour4po"er b* its )er* roots8 >t con)erts the labourer into a crippled monstrosit*, b* forcing his detail de9terit* at the e9pense of a "orld of producti)e capabilities and instincts; Dust as in the States of <a #lata the* butcher a "hole beast for the sa+e of his hide or his tallo"8 Cot onl* is the detail "or+ distributed to the different indi)iduals, but the indi)idual himself is made the automatic motor of a fractional operation, 7 and the absurd fable of $enenius (grippa, "hich ma+es man a mere fragment of his o"n bod*, becomes realised8 1 >f, at first, the "or+man sells his labour4po"er to capital, because the material means of producing a commodit* fail him, no" his )er* labour4po"er refuses its ser)ices unless it has been sold to capital8 >ts functions can be e9ercised onl* in an en)ironment that e9ists in the "or+shop of the capitalist after the sale8 /* nature unfitted to ma+e an*thing independentl*, the manufacturing labourer de)elops producti)e acti)it* as a mere appendage of the capitalist?s "or+shop8 6 (s the chosen people bore in their features the sign manual of Leho)ah, so di)ision of labour brands the manufacturing "or+man as the propert* of capital8 'he +no"ledge, the Dudgement, and the "ill, "hich, though in e)er so small a degree, are practised b* the independent peasant or handicraftsman, in the same "a* as the sa)age ma+es the "hole art of "ar consist in the e9ercise of his personal cunning these faculties are no" reIuired onl* for the "or+shop as a "hole8 >ntelligence in production e9pands in one direction, because it )anishes in man* others8 Bhat is lost b* the detail labourers, is concentrated in the capital that emplo*s them8 : >t is a result of the di)ision of labour in manufactures, that the labourer is brought face to face "ith the intellectual potencies of the material process of production, as the propert* of another, and as a ruling po"er8 'his separation begins in simple co4operation, "here the capitalist represents to the single "or+man, the oneness and the "ill of the associated labour8 >t is de)eloped in manufacture "hich cuts do"n the labourer into a detail labourer8 >t is completed in modern industr*, "hich ma+es science a producti)e force distinct from labour and presses it into the ser)ice of capital8 >n manufacture, in order to ma+e the collecti)e labourer, and through him capital, rich in social producti)e po"er, each labourer must be made poor in indi)idual producti)e po"ers8 @>gnorance is the mother of industr* as "ell as of superstition8 &eflection and fanc* are subDect to err; but a habit of mo)ing the hand or the foot is independent of either8 $anufactures, accordingl*, prosper most "here the mind is least consulted, and "here the "or+shop ma* 888 be considered as an engine, the parts of "hich are men8A 3 (s a matter of fact, some fe" manufacturers in the middle of the 18th centur* preferred, for certain operations that "ere trade secrets, to emplo* half4idiotic persons8 6 @'he understandings of the greater part of men,A sa*s (dam Smith, @are necessaril* formed b* their ordinar* emplo*ments8 'he man "hose "hole life is spent in performing a fe" simple operations 888 has no occasion to e9ert his understanding888 -e generall* becomes as stupid and ignorant as it is possible for a human creature to become8A (fter describing the stupidit* of the detail labourer he goes on: @'he uniformit* of his stationar* life naturall* corrupts the courage of his mind888 >t corrupts e)en the acti)it* of his bod* and renders him incapable of e9erting his strength "ith )igour and perse)erance in an* other emplo*ments than that to "hich he has been bred8 -is de9terit* at his o"n particular trade seems in this manner to be acIuired at the e9pense of his intellectual, social, and martial

12

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)irtues8 /ut in e)er* impro)ed and ci)ilised societ*, this is the state into "hich the labouring poor, that is, the great bod* of the people, must necessaril* fall8A 7 For pre)enting the complete deterioration of the great mass of the people b* di)ision of labour, (8 Smith recommends education of the people b* the State, but prudentl*, and in homeopathic doses8 G8 Garnier, his French translator and commentator, "ho, under the first French Empire, Iuite naturall* de)eloped into a senator, Iuite as naturall* opposes him on this point8 Education of the masses, he urges, )iolates the first la" of the di)ision of labour, and "ith it @our "hole social s*stem "ould be proscribed8A V<i+e all other di)isions of labour,A he sa*s, @that bet"een hand labour and head labour 8 is more pronounced and decided in proportion as societ* (he rightl* uses this "ord, for capital, landed propert* and their State! becomes richer8 'his di)ision of labour, li+e e)er* other, is an effect of past, and a cause of future progress888 ought the go)ernment then to "or+ in opposition to this di)ision of labour, and to hinder its natural courseE =ught it to e9pend a part of the public mone* in the attempt to confound and blend together t"o classes of labour, "hich are stri)ing after di)ision and separationEA 2 Some crippling of bod* and mind is inseparable e)en from di)ision of labour in societ* as a "hole8 Since, ho"e)er, manufacture carries this social separation of branches of labour much further, and also, b* its peculiar di)ision, attac+s the indi)idual at the )er* roots of his life 37, it is the first to afford the materials for, and to gi)e a start to, industrial patholog*8 @'o subdi)ide a man is to e9ecute him, if he deser)es the sentence, to assassinate him if he does not888 'he subdi)ision of labour is the assassination of a people8A 31 5o4operation based on di)ision of labour, in other "ords, manufacture, commences as a spontaneous formation8 So soon as it attains some consistence and e9tension, it becomes the recognised methodical and s*stematic form of capitalist production8 -istor* sho"s ho" the di)ision of labour peculiar to manufacture, strictl* so called, acIuires the best adapted form at first b* e9perience, as it "ere behind the bac+s of the actors, and then, li+e the guild handicrafts, stri)es to hold fast that form "hen once found, and here and there succeeds in +eeping it for centuries8 (n* alteration in this form, e9cept in tri)ial matters, is solel* o"ing to a re)olution in the instruments of labour8 $odern manufacture "here)er it arises > do not here allude to modern industr* based on machiner* either finds the disDecta membra poetae read* to hand, and onl* "aiting to be collected together, as is the case in the manufacture of clothes in large to"ns, or it can easil* appl* the principle of di)ision, simpl* b* e9clusi)el* assigning the )arious operations of a handicraft (such as boo+4binding! to particular men8 >n such cases, a "ee+?s e9perience is enough to determine the proportion bet"een the numbers of the hands necessar* for the )arious functions836 /* decomposition of handicrafts, b* specialisation of the instruments of labour, b* the formation of detail labourers, and b* grouping and combining the latter into a single mechanism, di)ision of labour in manufacture creates a Iualitati)e gradation, and a Iuantitati)e proportion in the social process of production; it conseIuentl* creates a definite organisation of the labour of societ*, and thereb* de)elops at the same time ne" producti)e forces in the societ*8 >n its specific capitalist form and under the gi)en conditions, it could ta+e no other form than a capitalistic one manufacture is but a particular method of begetting relati)e surplus )alue, or of augmenting at the e9pense of the labourer the self4e9pansion of capital usuall* called social "ealth, @Bealth of Cations,A Pc8 >t increases the social producti)e po"er of labour, not onl* for the benefit of the capitalist instead of for that of the labourer, but it does this b* crippling the indi)idual labourers8 >t creates ne" conditions for the lordship of capital o)er labour8 >f, therefore, on the one hand, it

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presents itself historicall* as a progress and as a necessar* phase in the economic de)elopment of societ*, on the other hand, it is a refined and ci)ilised method of e9ploitation8 #olitical Econom*, "hich as an independent science, first sprang into being during the period of manufacture, )ie"s the social di)ision of labour onl* from the standpoint of manufacture, 3: and sees in it onl* the means of producing more commodities "ith a gi)en Iuantit* of labour, and, conseIuentl*, of cheapening commodities and hurr*ing on the accumulation of capital8 >n most stri+ing contrast "ith this accentuation of Iuantit* and e9change4)alue, is the attitude of the "riters of classical antiIuit*, "ho hold e9clusi)el* b* Iualit* and use4)alue8 3 >n conseIuence of the separation of the social branches of production, commodities are better made, the )arious bents and talents of men select a suitable field, 33 and "ithout some restraint no important results can be obtained an*"here836 -ence both product and producer are impro)ed b* di)ision of labour8 >f the gro"th of the Iuantit* produced is occasionall* mentioned, this is onl* done "ith reference to the greater abundance of use4)alues8 'here is not a "ord alluding to e9change4)alue or to the cheapening of commodities8 'his aspect, from the standpoint of use4)alue alone, is ta+en as "ell b* #lato,37 "ho treats di)ision of labour as the foundation on "hich the di)ision of societ* into classes is based, as b* Oenophon 38, "ho "ith characteristic bourgeois instinct, approaches more nearl* to di)ision of labour "ithin the "or+shop8 #lato?s &epublic, in so far as di)ision of labour is treated in it, as the formati)e principle of the State, is merel* the (thenian idealisation of the Eg*ptian s*stem of castes, Eg*pt ha)ing ser)ed as the model of an industrial countr* to man* of his contemporaries also, amongst others to >socrates, 32 and it continued to ha)e this importance to the Gree+s of the &oman Empire8 67 0uring the manufacturing period proper, i8e8, the period during "hich manufacture is the predominant form ta+en b* capitalist production, man* obstacles are opposed to the full de)elopment of the peculiar tendencies of manufacture8 (lthough manufacture creates, as "e ha)e alread* seen, a simple separation of the labourers into s+illed and uns+illed, simultaneousl* "ith their hierarchic arrangement in classes, *et the number of the uns+illed labourers, o"ing to the preponderating influence of the s+illed, remains )er* limited8 (lthough it adapts the detail operations to the )arious degrees of maturit*, strength, and de)elopment of the li)ing instruments of labour, thus conducing to e9ploitation of "omen and children, *et this tendenc* as a "hole is "rec+ed on the habits and the resistance of the male labourers8 (lthough the splitting up of handicrafts lo"ers the cost of forming the "or+man, and thereb* lo"ers his )alue, *et for the more difficult detail "or+, a longer apprenticeship is necessar*, and, e)en "here it "ould be superfluous, is Dealousl* insisted upon b* the "or+men8 >n England, for instance, "e find the la"s of apprenticeship, "ith their se)en *ears? probation, in full force do"n to the end of the manufacturing period; and the* are not thro"n on one side till the ad)ent of $odern >ndustr*8 Since handicraft s+ill is the foundation of manufacture, and since the mechanism of manufacture as a "hole possesses no frame"or+, apart from the labourers themsel)es, capital is constantl* compelled to "restle "ith the insubordination of the "or+men8 @/* the infirmit* of human nature,A sa*s friend %re, @it happens that the more s+ilful the "or+man, the more self4"illed and intractable he is apt to become, and of course the less fit a component of a mechanical s*stem in "hich 888 he ma* do great damage to the "holeA61 -ence throughout the "hole manufacturing period there runs the complaint of "ant of discipline among the "or+men668 (nd had "e not the testimon* of contemporar* "riters, the simple facts, that during the period bet"een the 16th centur* and the epoch of $odern >ndustr*, capital failed to become the master of the "hole disposable "or+ing4time of the manufacturing labourers, that manufactures are short4li)ed, and change their localit* from one countr* to another "ith the

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emigrating or immigrating "or+men, these facts "ould spea+ )olumes8 @=rder must in one "a* or another be established,A e9claims in 1777 the oft4cited author of the @Essa* on 'rade and 5ommerce8A @=rder,A re4echoes 0r8 (ndre" %re 66 *ears later, @=rderA "as "anting in manufacture based on @the scholastic dogma of di)ision of labour,A and @(r+"right created order8A (t the same time manufacture "as unable, either to sei1e upon the production of societ* to its full e9tent, or to re)olutionise that production to its )er* core8 >t to"ered up as an economic "or+ of art, on the broad foundation of the to"n handicrafts, and of the rural domestic industries8 (t a gi)en stage in its de)elopment, the narro" technical basis on "hich manufacture rested, came into conflict "ith reIuirements of production that "ere created b* manufacture itself8 =ne of its most finished creations "as the "or+shop for the production of the instruments of labour themsel)es, including especiall* the complicated mechanical apparatus then alread* emplo*ed8 ( machine4factor*, sa*s %re, @displa*ed the di)ision of labour in manifold gradations the file, the drill, the lathe, ha)ing each its different "or+man in the order of s+ill8A (#8 618! 'his "or+shop, the product of the di)ision of labour in manufacture, produced in its turn machines8 >t is the* that s"eep a"a* the handicraftsman?s "or+ as the regulating principle of social production8 'hus, on the one hand, the technical reason for the life4long anne9ation of the "or+man to a detail function is remo)ed8 =n the other hand, the fetters that this same principle laid on the dominion of capital, fall a"a*8

(ha)ter 1!* Machiner+ and Modern 8nd%str+


Section 1 : The -e=elopment of $achiner
Lohn Stuart $ill sa*s in his @#rinciples of #olitical Econom*V: @>t is Iuestionable if all the mechanical in)entions *et made ha)e lightened the da*?s toil of an* human being8A 1 'hat is, ho"e)er, b* no means the aim of the capitalistic application of machiner*8 <i+e e)er* other increase in the producti)eness of labour, machiner* is intended to cheapen commodities, and, b* shortening that portion of the "or+ing da*, in "hich the labourer "or+s for himself, to lengthen the other portion that he gi)es, "ithout an eIui)alent, to the capitalist8 >n short, it is a means for producing surplus )alue8 >n manufacture, the re)olution in the mode of production begins "ith the labour4po"er, in modern industr* it begins "ith the instruments of labour8 =ur first inIuir* then is, ho" the instruments of labour are con)erted from tools into machines, or "hat is the difference bet"een a machine and the implements of a handicraftE Be are onl* concerned here "ith stri+ing and general characteristics; for epochs in the histor* of societ* are no more separated from each other b* hard and fast lines of demarcation, than are geological epochs8 $athematicians and mechanicians, and in this the* are follo"ed b* a fe" English economists, call a tool a simple machine, and a machine a comple9 tool8 'he* see no essential difference bet"een them, and e)en gi)e the name of machine to the simple mechanical po"ers, the le)er, the inclined plane, the scre", the "edge, Pc8 6 (s a matter of fact, e)er* machine is a combination of those simple po"ers, no matter ho" the* ma* be disguised8 From the economic standpoint this e9planation is "orth nothing, because the historical element is "anting8 (nother e9planation of the difference bet"een tool and machine is that in the case of a tool, man is the moti)e po"er, "hile the moti)e po"er of a machine is something different from man, as, for instance, an animal, "ater, "ind, and so on8 : (ccording to this, a plough dra"n b* o9en, "hich is a contri)ance common to the most different epochs, "ould be a machine, "hile 5laussen?s circular loom, "hich, "or+ed b* a single labourer, "ea)es 26,777 pic+s per minute, "ould be a mere tool8 Ca*, this )er* loom, though a tool "hen "or+ed b* hand, "ould, if "or+ed b* steam, be a machine8 (nd since the application of animal po"er is one of man?s earliest in)entions, production b* machiner* "ould ha)e preceded production b* handicrafts8 Bhen in 17:3, Lohn B*att brought out his spinning machine, and began the industrial re)olution of the 18th centur*, not a "ord did he sa* about an ass dri)ing it instead of a man, and *et this part fell to the ass8 -e described it as a machine @to spin "ithout fingers8A (ll full* de)eloped machiner* consists of three essentiall* different parts, the motor mechanism, the transmitting mechanism, and finall* the tool or "or+ing machine8 'he motor mechanism is that "hich puts the "hole in motion8 >t either generates its o"n moti)e po"er, li+e the steam4 engine, the caloric engine, the electromagnetic machine, Pc8, or it recei)es its impulse from some alread* e9isting natural force, li+e the "ater4"heel from a head of "ater, the "ind4mill from "ind, Pc8 'he transmitting mechanism, composed of fl*4"heels, shafting, toothed "heels, pullies, straps, ropes, bands, pinions, and gearing of the most )aried +inds, regulates the motion, changes its form8 "here necessar*, as for instance, from linear to circular, and di)ides and distributes it among the "or+ing machines8 'hese t"o first parts of the "hole mechanism are there, solel* for putting the "or+ing machines in motion, b* means of "hich motion the subDect

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of labour is sei1ed upon and modified as desired8 'he tool or "or+ing machine is that part of the machiner* "ith "hich the industrial re)olution of the 18th centur* started8 (nd to this da* it constantl* ser)es as such a starting4point, "hene)er a handicraft, or a manufacture, is turned into an industr* carried on b* machiner*8 =n a closer e9amination of the "or+ing machine proper, "e find in it, as a general rule, though often, no doubt, under )er* altered forms, the apparatus and tools used b* the handicraftsman or manufacturing "or+man; "ith this difference, that instead of being human implements, the* are the implements of a mechanism, or mechanical implements8 Either the entire machine is onl* a more or less altered mechanical edition of the old handicraft tool, as, for instance, the po"er4 loom,3 or the "or+ing parts fitted in the frame of the machine are old acIuaintances, as spindles are in a mule, needles in a stoc+ing4loom, sa"s in a sa"ing4machine, and +ni)es in a chopping machine8 'he distinction bet"een these tools and the bod* proper of the machine, e9ists from their )er* birth; for the* continue for the most part to be produced b* handicraft, or b* manufacture, and are after"ards fitted into the bod* of the machine, "hich is the product of machiner*86 'he machine proper is therefore a mechanism that, after being set in motion, performs "ith its tools the same operations that "ere formerl* done b* the "or+man "ith similar tools8 Bhether the moti)e po"er is deri)ed from man, or from some other machine, ma+es no difference in this respect8 From the moment that the tool proper is ta+en from man, and fitted into a mechanism, a machine ta+es the place of a mere implement8 'he difference stri+es one at once, e)en in those cases "here man himself continues to be the prime mo)er8 'he number of implements that he himself can use simultaneousl*, is limited b* the number of his o"n natural instruments of production, b* the number of his bodil* organs8 >n German*, the* tried at first to ma+e one spinner "or+ t"o spinning4"heels, that is, to "or+ simultaneousl* "ith both hands and both feet8 'his "as too difficult8 <ater, a treddle spinning4"heel "ith t"o spindles "as in)ented, but adepts in spinning, "ho could spin t"o threads at once, "ere almost as scarce as t"o4headed men8 'he Lenn*, on the other hand, e)en at its )er* birth, spun "ith 16418 spindles, and the stoc+ing4loom +nits "ith man* thousand needles at once8 'he number of tools that a machine can bring into pla* simultaneousl*, is from the )er* first emancipated from the organic limits that hedge in the tools of a handicraftsman8 >n man* manual implements the distinction bet"een man as mere moti)e po"er, and man as the "or+man or operator properl* so called, is brought into stri+ing contrast8 For instance, the foot is merel* the prime mo)er of the spinning4"heel, "hile the hand, "or+ing "ith the spindle, and dra"ing and t"isting, performs the real operation of spinning8 >t is this last part of the handicraftsman?s implement that is first sei1ed upon b* the industrial re)olution, lea)ing to the "or+man, in addition to his ne" labour of "atching the machine "ith his e*es and correcting its mista+es "ith his hands, the merel* mechanical part of being the mo)ing po"er8 =n the other hand, implements, in regard to "hich man has al"a*s acted as a simple moti)e po"er, as, for instance, b* turning the cran+ of a mill, 7 b* pumping, b* mo)ing up and do"n the arm of a bello"s, b* pounding "ith a mortar, Pc8, such implements soon call for the application of animals, "ater8 and "ind as moti)e po"ers8 -ere and there, long before the period of manufacture, and also, to some e9tent, during that period, these implements pass o)er into machines, but "ithout creating an* re)olution in the mode of production8 >t becomes e)ident, in the period of modern industr*, that these implements, e)en under their form of manual tools, are alread* machines8 For instance, the pumps "ith "hich the 0utch, in 18:647, emptied the <a+e of -arlem, "ere constructed on the principle of ordinar* pumps; the onl* difference being, that their pistons "ere dri)en b* c*clopean steam4engines, instead of b* men8 'he common and )er* imperfect bello"s of the blac+smith is, in England, occasionall* con)erted into a blo"ing4engine, b* connecting its arm "ith a steam4engine8 'he steam4engine itself, such as it "as at its

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in)ention, during the manufacturing period at the close of the 17th centur*, and such as it continued to be do"n to 1787,2 did not gi)e rise to an* industrial re)olution8 >t "as, on the contrar*, the in)ention of machines that made a re)olution in the form of steam4engines necessar*8 (s soon as man, instead of "or+ing "ith an implement on the subDect of his labour, becomes merel* the moti)e po"er of an implement4machine, it is a mere accident that moti)e po"er ta+es the disguise of human muscle; and it ma* eIuall* "ell ta+e the form of "ind, "ater or steam8 =f course, this does not pre)ent such a change of form from producing great technical alterations in the mechanism that "as originall* constructed to be dri)en b* man alone8 Co"4a4 da*s, all machines that ha)e their "a* to ma+e, such as se"ing4machines, bread4ma+ing machines, Pc8, are, unless from their )er* nature their use on a small scale is e9cluded, constructed to be dri)en both b* human and b* purel* mechanical moti)e po"er8 'he machine, "hich is the starting4point of the industrial re)olution, supersedes the "or+man, "ho handles a single tool, b* a mechanism operating "ith a number of similar tools, and set in motion b* a single moti)e po"er, "hate)er the form of that po"er ma* be8 17 -ere "e ha)e the machine, but onl* as an elementar* factor of production b* machiner*8 >ncrease in the si1e of the machine, and in the number of its "or+ing tools, calls for a more massi)e mechanism to dri)e it; and this mechanism reIuires, in order to o)ercome its resistance, a mightier mo)ing po"er than that of man, apart from the fact that man is a )er* imperfect instrument for producing uniform continued motion8 /ut assuming that he is acting simpl* as a motor, that a machine has ta+en the place of his tool, it is e)ident that he can be replaced b* natural forces8 =f all the great motors handed do"n from the manufacturing period, horse4po"er is the "orst, partl* because a horse has a head of his o"n, partl* because he is costl*, and the e9tent to "hich he is applicable in factories is )er* restricted8 11 Ce)ertheless the horse "as e9tensi)el* used during the infanc* of modern industr*8 'his is pro)ed, as "ell b* the complaints of contemporar* agriculturists, as b* the term @horse4po"er,A "hich has sur)i)ed to this da* as an e9pression for mechanical force8 Bind "as too inconstant and uncontrollable, and besides, in England, the birthplace of modern industr*, the use of "ater po"er preponderated e)en during the manufacturing period8 >n the 17th centur* attempts had alread* been made to turn t"o pairs of millstones "ith a single "ater4"heel8 /ut the increased si1e of the gearing "as too much for the "ater po"er, "hich had no" become insufficient, and this "as one of the circumstances that led to a more accurate in)estigation of the la"s of friction8 >n the same "a* the irregularit* caused b* the moti)e po"er in mills that "ere put in motion b* pushing and pulling a le)er, led to the theor*, and the application, of the fl*4 "heel, "hich after"ards pla*s so important a part in modern industr*8 16 >n this "a*, during the manufacturing period, "ere de)eloped the first scientific and technical elements of $odern $echanical >ndustr*8 (r+"right?s throstle spinning mill "as from the )er* first turned b* "ater8 /ut for all that, the use of "ater, as the predominant moti)e po"er, "as beset "ith difficulties8 >t could not be increased at "ill, it failed at certain seasons of the *ear, and, abo)e all, it "as essentiall* local81: Cot till the in)ention of Batt?s second and so4called double4acting steam4 engine, "as a prime mo)er found, that begot its o"n force b* the consumption of coal and "ater, "hose po"er "as entirel* under man?s control, that "as mobile and a means of locomotion, that "as urban and not, li+e the "ater"heel, rural, that permitted production to be concentrated in to"ns instead of, li+e the "ater4"heels, being scattered up and do"n the countr*, 1 that "as of uni)ersal technical application, and, relati)el* spea+ing, little affected in its choice of residence b* local circumstances8 'he greatness of Batt?s genius sho"ed itself in the specification of the patent that he too+ out in (pril, 178 8 >n that specification his steam4engine is described, not as an in)ention for a specific purpose, but as an agent uni)ersall* applicable in $echanical >ndustr*8 >n it he points out applications, man* of "hich, as for instance, the steam4hammer, "ere not

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introduced till half a centur* later8 Ce)ertheless he doubted the use of steam4engines in na)igation8 -is successors, /oulton and Batt, sent to the e9hibition of 1831 steam4engines of colossal si1e for ocean steamers8 (s soon as tools had been con)erted from being manual implements of man into implements of a mechanical apparatus, of a machine, the moti)e mechanism also acIuired an independent form, entirel* emancipated from the restraints of human strength8 'hereupon the indi)idual machine, that "e ha)e hitherto been considering, sin+s into a mere factor in production b* machiner*8 =ne moti)e mechanism "as no" able to dri)e man* machines at once8 'he moti)e mechanism gro"s "ith the number of the machines that are turned simultaneousl*, and the transmitting mechanism becomes a "ide4spreading apparatus8 Be no" proceed to distinguish the co4operation of a number of machines of one +ind from a comple9 s*stem of machiner*8 >n the one case, the product is entirel* made b* a single machine, "hich performs all the )arious operations pre)iousl* done b* one handicraftsman "ith his tool; as, for instance, b* a "ea)er "ith his loom; or b* se)eral handicraftsman successi)el*, either separatel* or as members of a s*stem of $anufacture813 For e9ample, in the manufacture of en)elopes, one man folded the paper "ith the folder, another laid on the gum, a third turned the flap o)er, on "hich the de)ice is impressed, a fourth embossed the de)ice, and so on; and for each of these operations the en)elope had to change hands8 =ne single en)elope machine no" performs all these operations at once, and ma+es more than :,777 en)elopes in an hour8 >n the <ondon e9hibition of 1866, there "as an (merican machine for ma+ing paper cornets8 >t cut the paper, pasted, folded, and finished :77 in a minute8 -ere, the "hole process, "hich, "hen carried on as $anufacture, "as split up into, and carried out b*, a series of operations, is completed b* a single machine, "or+ing a combination of )arious tools8 Co", "hether such a machine be merel* a reproduction of a complicated manual implement, or a combination of )arious simple implements specialised b* $anufacture, in either case, in the factor*, i$e8, in the "or+shop in "hich machiner* alone is used, "e meet again "ith simple co4operation; and, lea)ing the "or+man out of consideration for the moment, this co4 operation presents itself to us, in the first instance, as the conglomeration in one place of similar and simultaneousl* acting machines8 'hus, a "ea)ing factor* is constituted of a number of po"er4looms, "or+ing side b* side, and a se"ing factor* of a number of se"ing4machines all in the same building8 /ut there is here a technical oneness in the "hole s*stem, o"ing to all the machines recei)ing their impulse simultaneousl*, and in an eIual degree, from the pulsations of the common prime mo)er, b* the intermediar* of the transmitting mechanism; and this mechanism, to a certain e9tent, is also common to them all, since onl* particular ramifications of it branch off to each machine8 Lust as a number of tools, then, form the organs of a machine, so a number of machines of one +ind constitute the organs of the moti)e mechanism8 ( real machiner* s*stem, ho"e)er, does not ta+e the place of these independent machines, until the subDect of labour goes through a connected series of detail processes, that are carried out b* a chain of machines of )arious +inds, the one supplementing the other8 -ere "e ha)e again the co4 operation b* di)ision of labour that characterises $anufacture; onl* no", it is a combination of detail machines8 'he special tools of the )arious detail "or+men, such as those of the beaters, cambers, spinners, Pc8, in the "oollen manufacture, are no" transformed into the tools of specialised machines, each machine constituting a special organ, "ith a special function, in the s*stem8 >n those branches of industr* in "hich the machiner* s*stem is first introduced, $anufacture itself furnishes, in a general "a*, the natural basis for the di)ision, and conseIuent organisation, of the process of production8 16 Ce)ertheless an essential difference at once manifests itself8 >n $anufacture it is the "or+men "ho, "ith their manual implements, must,

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either singl* or in groups, carr* on each particular detail process8 >f, on the one hand, the "or+man becomes adapted to the process, on the other, the process "as pre)iousl* made suitable to the "or+man8 'his subDecti)e principle of the di)ision of labour no longer e9ists in production b* machiner*8 -ere, the process as a "hole is e9amined obDecti)el*, in itself, that is to sa*, "ithout regard to the Iuestion of its e9ecution b* human hands, it is anal*sed into its constituent phases; and the problem, ho" to e9ecute each detail process, and bind them all into a "hole, is sol)ed b* the aid of machines, chemistr*, Pc8 17 /ut, of course, in this case also, theor* must be perfected b* accumulated e9perience on a large scale8 Each detail machine supplies ra" material to the machine ne9t in order; and since the* are all "or+ing at the same time, the product is al"a*s going through the )arious stages of its fabrication, and is also constantl* in a state of transition, from one phase to another8 Lust as in $anufacture, the direct co4operation of the detail labourers establishes a numerical proportion bet"een the special groups, so in an organised s*stem of machiner*, "here one detail machine is constantl* +ept emplo*ed b* another, a fi9ed relation is established bet"een their numbers, their si1e, and their speed8 'he collecti)e machine, no" an organised s*stem of )arious +inds of single machines, and of groups of single machines, becomes more and more perfect, the more the process as a "hole becomes a continuous one, i8e8, the less the ra" material is interrupted in its passage from its first phase to its last; in other "ords, the more its passage from one phase to another is effected, not b* the hand of man, but b* the machiner* itself8 >n $anufacture the isolation of each detail process is a condition imposed b* the nature of di)ision of labour, but in the full* de)eloped factor* the continuit* of those processes is, on the contrar*, imperati)e8 ( s*stem of machiner*, "hether it reposes on the mere co4operation of similar machines, as in "ea)ing, or on a combination of different machines, as in spinning, constitutes in itself a huge automaton, "hene)er it is dri)en b* a self4acting prime mo)er8 /ut although the factor* as a "hole be dri)en b* its steam4engine, *et either some of the indi)idual machines ma* reIuire the aid of the "or+man for some of their mo)ements (such aid "as necessar* for the running in of the mule carriage, before the in)ention of the self4acting mule, and is still necessar* in fine4 spinning mills!; or, to enable a machine to do its "or+, certain parts of it ma* reIuire to be handled b* the "or+man li+e a manual tool; this "as the case in machine4ma+ers? "or+shops, before the con)ersion of the slide rest into a self4actor8 (s soon as a machine e9ecutes, "ithout man?s help, all the mo)ements reIuisite to elaborate the ra" material, needing onl* attendance from him, "e ha)e an automatic s*stem of machiner*, and one that is susceptible of constant impro)ement in its details8 Such impro)ements as the apparatus that stops a dra"ing frame, "hene)er a sli)er brea+s, and the self4acting stop, that stops the po"er4loom so soon as the shuttle bobbin is emptied of "eft, are Iuite modern in)entions8 (s an e9ample, both of continuit* of production, and of the carr*ing out of the automatic principle, "e ma* ta+e a modern paper mill8 >n the paper industr* generall*, "e ma* ad)antageousl* stud* in detail not onl* the distinctions bet"een modes of production based on different means of production, but also the conne9ion of the social conditions of production "ith those modes: for the old German paper4 ma+ing furnishes us "ith a sample of handicraft production; that of -olland in the 17th and of France in the 18th centur* "ith a sample of manufacturing in the strict sense; and that of modern England "ith a sample of automatic fabrication of this article8 /esides these, there still e9ist, in >ndia and 5hina, t"o distinct antiIue (siatic forms of the same industr*8 (n organised s*stem of machines, to "hich motion is communicated b* the transmitting mechanism from a central automaton, is the most de)eloped form of production b* machiner*8 -ere "e ha)e, in the place of the isolated machine, a mechanical monster "hose bod* fills "hole factories, and "hose demon po"er, at first )eiled under the slo" and measured motions of his giant limbs, at length brea+s out into the fast and furious "hirl of his countless "or+ing organs8

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'here "ere mules and steam4engines before there "ere an* labourers, "hose e9clusi)e occupation it "as to ma+e mules and steam4engines; Dust as men "ore clothes before there "ere such people as tailors8 'he in)entions of ;aucanson, (r+"right, Batt, and others, "ere, ho"e)er, practicable, onl* because those in)entors found, read* to hand, a considerable number of s+illed mechanical "or+men, placed at their disposal b* the manufacturing period8 Some of these "or+men "ere independent handicraftsman of )arious trades, others "ere grouped together in manufactures, in "hich, as before4mentioned, di)ision of labour "as strictl* carried out8 (s in)entions increased in number, and the demand for the ne"l* disco)ered machines gre" larger, the machine4ma+ing industr* split up, more and more, into numerous independent branches, and di)ision of labour in these manufactures "as more and more de)eloped8 -ere, then, "e see in $anufacture the immediate technical foundation of modern industr*8 $anufacture produced the machiner*, b* means of "hich modern industr* abolished the handicraft and manufacturing s*stems in those spheres of production that it first sei1ed upon8 'he factor* s*stem "as therefore raised, in the natural course of things, on an inadeIuate foundation8 Bhen the s*stem attained to a certain degree of de)elopment, it had to root up this read*4made foundation, "hich in the meantime had been elaborated on the old lines, and to build up for itself a basis that should correspond to its methods of production8 Lust as the indi)idual machine retains a d"arfish character, so long as it is "or+ed b* the po"er of man alone, and Dust as no s*stem of machiner* could be properl* de)eloped before the steam4engine too+ the place of the earlier moti)e po"ers, animals, "ind, and e)en "ater; so, too, modern industr* "as crippled in its complete de)elopment, so long as its characteristic instrument of production, the machine, o"ed its e9istence to personal strength and personal s+ill, and depended on the muscular de)elopment, the +eenness of sight, and the cunning of hand, "ith "hich the detail "or+men in manufactures, arid the manual labourers in handicrafts, "ielded their d"arfish implements8 'hus, apart from the dearness of the machines made in this "a*, a circumstance that is e)er present to the mind of the capitalist, the e9pansion of industries carried on b* means of machiner*, and the in)asion b* machiner* of fresh branches of production, "ere dependent on the gro"th of a class of "or+men, "ho, o"ing to the almost artistic nature of their emplo*ment, could increase their numbers onl* graduall*, and not b* leaps and bounds8 /ut besides this, at a certain stage of its de)elopment, modern industr* became technologicall* incompatible "ith the basis furnished for it b* handicraft and $anufacture8 'he increasing si1e of the prime mo)ers, of the transmitting mechanism, and of the machines proper, the greater complication, multiformit* and regularit* of the details of these machines, as the* more and more departed from the model of those originall* made b* manual labour, and acIuired a form, untrammelled e9cept b* the conditions under "hich the* "or+ed,18 the perfecting of the automatic s*stem, and the use, e)er* da* more una)oidable, of a more refractor* material, such as iron instead of "ood4the solution of all these problems, "hich sprang up b* the force of circumstances, e)er*"here met "ith a stumbling4bloc+ in the personal restrictions, "hich e)en the collecti)e labourer of $anufacture could not brea+ through, e9cept to a limited e9tent8 Such machines as the modern h*draulic press, the modern po"er4loom, and the modern carding engine, could ne)er ha)e been furnished b* $anufacture8 ( radical change in the mode of production in one sphere of industr* in)ol)es a similar change in other spheres8 'his happens at first in such branches of industr* as are connected together b* being separate phases of a process, and *et are isolated b* the social di)ision of labour, in such a "a*, that each of them produces an independent commodit*8 'hus spinning b* machiner* made "ea)ing b* machiner* a necessit*, and both together made the mechanical and chemical re)olution that too+ place in bleaching, printing, and d*eing, imperati)e8 So too, on the other hand, the re)olution in cotton4spinning called forth the in)ention of the gin, for separating the seeds from the cotton fibre; it "as onl* b* means of this in)ention, that the production of cotton

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became possible on the enormous scale at present reIuired8 12 /ut more especiall*, the re)olution in the modes of production of industr* and agriculture made necessar* a re)olution in the general conditions of the social process of production, i8e8, in the means of communication and of transport8 >n a societ* "hose pi)ot, to use an e9pression of Fourier, "as agriculture on a small scale, "ith its subsidiar* domestic industries, and the urban handicrafts, the means of communication and transport "ere so utterl* inadeIuate to the producti)e reIuirements of the manufacturing period, "ith its e9tended di)ision of social labour, its concentration of the instruments of labour, and of the "or+men, and its colonial mar+ets, that the* became in fact re)olutionised8 >n the same "a* the means of communication and transport handed do"n from the manufacturing period soon became unbearable trammels on modern industr*, "ith its fe)erish haste of production, its enormous e9tent, its constant flinging of capital and labour from one sphere of production into another, and its ne"l*4created conne9ions "ith the mar+ets of the "hole "orld8 -ence, apart from the radical changes introduced in the construction of sailing )essels, the means of communication and transport became graduall* adapted to the modes of production of mechanical industr*, b* the creation of a s*stem of ri)er steamers, rail"a*s, ocean steamers, and telegraphs8 /ut the huge masses of iron that had no" to be forged, to be "elded, to be cut, to be bored, and to be shaped, demanded, on their part, c*clopean machines, for the construction of "hich the methods of the manufacturing period "ere utterl* inadeIuate8 modern industr* had therefore itself to ta+e in hand the machine, its characteristic instrument of production, and to construct machines b* machines8 >t "as not till it did this, that it built up for itself a fitting technical foundation, and stood on its o"n feet8 $achiner*, simultaneousl* "ith the increasing use of it, in the first decades of this centur*, appropriated, b* degrees, the fabrication of machines proper8 /ut it "as onl* during the decade preceding 1866, that the construction of rail"a*s and ocean steamers on a stupendous scale called into e9istence the c*clopean machines no" emplo*ed in the construction of prime mo)ers8 'he most essential condition to the production of machines b* machines "as a prime mo)er capable of e9erting an* amount of force, and *et under perfect control8 Such a condition "as alread* supplied b* the steam4engine8 /ut at the same time it "as necessar* to produce the geometricall* accurate straight lines, planes, circles, c*linders, cones, and spheres, reIuired in the detail parts of the machines8 'his problem -enr* $audsle* sol)ed in the first decade of this centur* b* the in)ention of the slide rest, a tool that "as soon made automatic, and in a modified form "as applied to other constructi)e machines besides the lathe, for "hich it "as originall* intended8 'his mechanical appliance replaces, not some particular tool, but the hand itself, "hich produces a gi)en form b* holding and guiding the cutting tool along the iron or other material operated upon8 'hus it became possible to produce the forms of the indi)idual parts of machiner* @"ith a degree of ease, accurac*, and speed, that no accumulated e9perience of the hand of the most s+illed "or+man could gi)e8A67 >f "e no" fi9 our attention on that portion of the machiner* emplo*ed in the construction of machines, "hich constitutes the operating tool, "e find the manual implements re4appearing, but on a c*clopean scale8 'he operating part of the boring machine is an immense drill dri)en b* a steam4engine; "ithout this machine, on the other hand, the c*linders of large steam4engines and of h*draulic presses could not be made8 'he mechanical lathe is onl* a c*clopean reproduction of the ordinar* foot4lathe; the planing machine, an iron carpenter, that "or+s on iron "ith the same tools that the human carpenter emplo*s on "ood; the instrument that, on the <ondon "har)es, cuts the )eneers, is a gigantic ra1or; the tool of the shearing machine, "hich shears iron as easil* as a tailor?s scissors cut cloth, is a monster pair of scissors; and the steam4hammer "or+s "ith an ordinar* hammer head, but of such a "eight that not 'hor himself could "ield it8 61 'hese steam4

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hammers are an in)ention of Casm*th, and there is one that "eighs o)er 6 tons and stri+es "ith a )ertical fall of 7 feet, on an an)il "eighing :6 tons8 >t is mere child?s4pla* for it to crush a bloc+ of granite into po"der, *et it is no less capable of dri)ing, "ith a succession of light taps, a nail into a piece of soft "ood866 'he implements of labour, in the form of machiner*, necessitate the substitution of natural forces for human force, and the conscious application of science, instead of rule of thumb8 >n $anufacture, the organisation of the social labour4process is purel* subDecti)e; it is a combination of detail labourers; in its machiner* s*stem, modern industr* has a producti)e organism that is purel* obDecti)e, in "hich the labourer becomes a mere appendage to an alread* e9isting material condition of production8 >n simple co4operation, and e)en in that founded on di)ision of labour, the suppression of the isolated, b* the collecti)e, "or+man still appears to be more or less accidental8 $achiner*, "ith a fe" e9ceptions to be mentioned later, operates onl* b* means of associated labour, or labour in common8 -ence the co4operati)e character of the labour4 process is, in the latter case, a technical necessit* dictated b* the instrument of labour itself8

Section ': The Value Transferred b $achiner to the Product


Be sa" that the producti)e forces resulting from co4operation and di)ision of labour cost capital nothing8 'he* are natural forces of social labour8 So also ph*sical forces, li+e steam, "ater, Pc8, "hen appropriated to producti)e processes, cost nothing8 /ut Dust as a man reIuires lungs to breathe "ith, so he reIuires something that is "or+ of man?s hand, in order to consume ph*sical forces producti)el*8 ( "ater4"heel is necessar* to e9ploit the force of "ater, and a steam4engine to e9ploit the elasticit* of steam8 =nce disco)ered, the la" of the de)iation of the magnetic needle in the field of an electric current, or the la" of the magnetisation of iron, around "hich an electric current circulates, cost ne)er a penn*8 6: /ut the e9ploitation of these la"s for the purposes of telegraph*, Pc8, necessitates a costl* and e9tensi)e apparatus8 'he tool, as "e ha)e seen, is not e9terminated b* the machine8 From being a d"arf implement of the human organism, it e9pands and multiplies into the implement of a mechanism created b* man8 5apital no" sets the labourer to "or+, not "ith a manual tool, but "ith a machine "hich itself handles the tools8 (lthough, therefore, it is clear at the first glance that, b* incorporating both stupendous ph*sical forces, and the natural sciences, "ith the process of production, modern industr* raises the producti)eness of labour to an e9traordinar* degree, it is b* no means eIuall* clear, that this increased producti)e force is not, on the other hand, purchased b* an increased e9penditure of labour8 $achiner*, li+e e)er* other component of constant capital, creates no ne" )alue, but *ields up its o"n )alue to the product that it ser)es to beget8 >n so far as the machine has )alue, and, in conseIuence, parts "ith )alue to the product, it forms an element in the )alue of that product8 >nstead of being cheapened, the product is made dearer in proportion to the )alue of the machine8 (nd it is clear as noon4da*, that machines and s*stems of machiner*, the characteristic instruments of labour of $odern >ndustr*, are incomparabl* more loaded "ith )alue than the implements used in handicrafts and manufactures8 >n the first place, it must be obser)ed that the machiner*, "hile al"a*s entering as a "hole into the labour4process, enters into the )alue4begetting process onl* b* bits8 >t ne)er adds more )alue than it loses, on an a)erage, b* "ear and tear8 -ence there is a great difference bet"een the )alue of a machine, and the )alue transferred in a gi)en time b* that machine to the product8 'he longer the life of the machine in the labour4process, the greater is that difference8 >t is true, no doubt, as "e ha)e alread* seen, that e)er* instrument of labour enters as a "hole into the labour4process, and onl* piece4meal, proportionall* to its a)erage dail* loss b* "ear and tear, into the )alue4

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begetting process8 /ut this difference bet"een the instrument as a "hole and its dail* "ear and tear, is much greater in a machine than in a tool, because the machine, being made from more durable material, has a longer life; because its emplo*ment, being regulated b* strictl* scientific la"s, allo"s of greater econom* in the "ear and tear of its parts, and in the materials it consumes; and lastl*, because its field of production is incomparabl* larger than that of a tool8 (fter ma+ing allo"ance, both in the case of the machine and of the tool, for their a)erage dail* cost, that is for the )alue the* transmit to the product b* their a)erage dail* "ear and tear, and for their consumption of au9iliar* substance, such as oil, coal, and so on, the* each do their "or+ gratuitousl*, Dust li+e the forces furnished b* Cature "ithout the help of man8 'he greater the producti)e po"er of the machiner* compared "ith that of the tool, the greater is the e9tent of its gratuitous ser)ice compared "ith that of the tool8 >n modern industr* man succeeded for the first time in ma+ing the product of his past labour "or+ on a large scale gratuitousl*, li+e the forces of Cature86 >n treating of 5o4operation and $anufacture, it "as sho"n that certain general factors of production, such as buildings, are, in comparison "ith the scattered means of production of the isolated "or+man, economised b* being consumed in common, and that the* therefore ma+e the product cheaper8 >n a s*stem of machiner*, not onl* is the frame"or+ of the machine consumed in common b* its numerous operating implements, but the prime mo)er, together "ith a part of the transmitting mechanism, is consumed in common b* the numerous operati)e machines8 Gi)en the difference bet"een the )alue of the machiner*, and the )alue transferred b* it in a da* to the product, the e9tent to "hich this latter )alue ma+es the product dearer, depends in the first instance, upon the si1e of the product; so to sa*, upon its area8 $r8 /a*nes, of /lac+burn, in a lecture published in 1838, estimates that @each real mechanical horse4po"er63 "ill dri)e 37 self4acting mule spindles, "ith preparation, or 677 throstle spindles, or 13 looms for 7 inch cloth "ith the appliances for "arping, si1ing, Pc8A >n the first case, it is the da*?s produce of 37 mule spindles, in the second, of 677 throstle spindles, in the third, of 13 po"er4looms, o)er "hich the dail* cost of one horse4po"er, and the "ear and tear of the machiner* set in motion b* that po"er, are spread; so that onl* a )er* minute )alue is transferred b* such "ear and tear to a pound of *arn or a *ard of cloth8 'he same is the case "ith the steam4hammer mentioned abo)e8 Since its dail* "ear and tear, its coal4 consumption, Pc8, are spread o)er the stupendous masses of iron hammered b* it in a da*, onl* a small )alue is added to a hundred "eight of iron; but that )alue "ould be )er* great, if the c*clopean instrument "ere emplo*ed in dri)ing in nails8 Gi)en a machine?s capacit* for "or+, that is, the number of its operating tools, or, "here it is a Iuestion of force, their mass, the amount of its product "ill depend on the )elocit* of its "or+ing parts, on the speed, for instance, of the spindles, or on the number of blo"s gi)en b* the hammer in a minute8 $an* of these colossal hammers stri+e se)ent* times in a minute, and &*der?s patent machine for forging spindles "ith small hammers gi)es as man* as 777 stro+es per minute8 Gi)en the rate at "hich machiner* transfers its )alue to the product, the amount of )alue so transferred depends on the total )alue of the machiner*8 66 'he less labour it contains, the less )alue it imparts to the product8 'he less )alue it gi)es up, so much the more producti)e it is, and so much the more its ser)ices appro9imate to those of natural forces8 /ut the production of machiner* b* machiner* lessens its )alue relati)el* to its e9tension and efficac*8 (n anal*sis and comparison of the prices of commodities produced b* handicrafts or manufactures, and of the prices of the same commodities produced b* machiner*, sho"s generall*, that, in the product of machiner*, the )alue due to the instruments of labour increases

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relati)el*, but decreases absolutel*8 >n other "ords, its absolute amount decreases, but its amount, relati)el* to the total )alue of the product, of a pound of *arn, for instance, increases8 67 >t is e)ident that "hene)er it costs as much labour to produce a machine as is sa)ed b* the emplo*ment of that machine, there is nothing but a transposition of labour; conseIuentl* the total labour reIuired to produce a commodit* is not lessened or the producti)eness of labour is not increased8 >t is clear, ho"e)er, that the difference bet"een the labour a machine costs, and the labour it sa)es, in other "ords, that the degree of its producti)eness does not depend on the difference bet"een its o"n )alue and the )alue of the implement it replaces8 (s long as the labour spent on a machine, and conseIuentl* the portion of its )alue added to the product, remains smaller than the )alue added b* the "or+man to the product "ith his tool, there is al"a*s a difference of labour sa)ed in fa)our of the machine8 'he producti)eness of a machine is therefore measured b* the human labour4po"er it replaces8 (ccording to $r8 /a*nes, 6 operati)es are reIuired for the 37 mule spindles, inclusi)e of preparation machiner*, 68 that are dri)en b* one4 horse po"er; each self4acting mule spindle, "or+ing ten hours, produces 1: ounces of *arn (a)erage number of thic+ness!; conseIuentl* 6[ operati)es spin "ee+l* :63 3J8 lbs8 of *arn8 -ence, lea)ing "aste on one side, :66 lbs8 of cotton absorb, during their con)ersion into *arn, onl* 137 hours? labour, or fifteen da*s? labour of ten hours each8 /ut "ith a spinning4"heel, supposing the hand4spinner to produce thirteen ounces of *arn in si9t* hours, the same "eight of cotton "ould absorb 6,777 da*s? labour of ten hours each, or 67,777 hours? labour8 62 Bhere bloc+printing, the old method of printing calico b* hand, has been superseded b* machine printing, a single machine prints, "ith the aid of one man or bo*, as much calico of four colours in one hour, as it formerl* too+ 677 men to do8 :7 /efore Eli Bhitne* in)ented the cotton gin in 172:, the separation of the seed from a pound of cotton cost an a)erage da*?s labour8 /* means of his in)ention one negress "as enabled to clean 177 lbs8 dail*; and since then, the efficac* of the gin has been considerabl* increased8 ( pound of cotton "ool, pre)iousl* costing 37 cents to produce, included after that in)ention more unpaid labour, and "as conseIuentl* sold "ith greater profit, at 17 cents8 >n >ndia the* emplo* for separating the "ool from the seed, an instrument, half machine, half tool, called a chur+a; "ith this one man and a "oman can clean 68 lbs8 dail*8 Bith the chur+a in)ented some *ears ago b* 0r8 Forbes, one man and a bo* produce 637 lbs8 dail*8 >f o9en, steam, or "ater, be used for dri)ing it, onl* a fe" bo*s and girls as feeders are reIuired8 Si9teen of these machines dri)en b* o9en do as much "or+ in a da* as formerl* 737 people did on an a)erage8:1 (s alread* stated, a steam4plough does as much "or+ in one hour at a cost of three4pence, as 66 men at a cost of 13 shillings8 > return to this e9ample in order to clear up an erroneous notion8 'he 13 shillings are b* no means the e9pression in mone* of all the labour e9pended in one hour b* the 66 men8 >f the ratio of surplus labour to necessar* labour "ere 177`, these 66 men "ould produce in one hour a )alue of :7 shillings, although their "ages, 13 shillings, represent onl* their labour for half an hour8 Suppose, then, a machine cost as much as the "ages for a *ear of the 137 men it displaces, sa* ]:,777; this ]:,777 is b* no means the e9pression in mone* of the labour added to the obDect produced b* these 137 men before the introduction of the machine, but onl* of that portion of their *ear?s labour "hich "as e9pended for themsel)es and represented b* their "ages8 =n the other hand, the ]:,777, the mone*4)alue of the machine, e9presses all the labour e9pended on its production, no matter in "hat proportion this labour constitutes "ages for the "or+man, and surplus )alue for the capitalist8 'herefore, though a machine cost as much as the labour4po"er displaced b* it costs, *et the labour materialised in it is e)en then much less than the li)ing labour it replaces8 :6 'he use of machiner* for the e9clusi)e purpose of cheapening the product, is limited in this "a*, that less labour must be e9pended in producing the machiner* than is displaced b* the

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emplo*ment of that machiner*, For the capitalist, ho"e)er, this use is still more limited8 >nstead of pa*ing for the labour, he onl* pa*s the )alue of the labour4po"er emplo*ed; therefore, the limit to his using a machine is fi9ed b* the difference bet"een the )alue of the machine and the )alue of the labour4po"er replaced b* it8 Since the di)ision of the da*?s "or+ into necessar* and surplus labour differs in different countries, and e)en in the same countr* at different periods, or in different branches of industr*; and further, since the actual "age of the labourer at one time sin+s belo" the )alue of his labour4po"er, at another rises abo)e it, it is possible for the difference bet"een the price of the machiner* and the price of the labour4po"er replaced b* that machiner* to )ar* )er* much, although the difference bet"een the Iuantit* of labour reIuisite to produce the machine and the total Iuantit* replaced b* it, remain constant8 :: /ut it is the former difference alone that determines the cost, to the capitalist, of producing a commodit*, and, through the pressure of competition, influences his action8 -ence the in)ention no"4a4da*s of machines in England that are emplo*ed onl* in Corth (merica; Dust as in the si9teenth and se)enteenth centuries, machines "ere in)ented in German* to be used onl* in -olland, and Dust as man* a French in)ention of the eighteenth centur* "as e9ploited in England alone8 >n the older countries, machiner*, "hen emplo*ed in some branches of industr*, creates such a redundanc* of labour in other branches that in these latter the fall of "ages belo" the )alue of labour4po"er impedes the use of machiner*, and, from the standpoint of the capitalist, "hose profit comes, not from a diminution of the labour emplo*ed, but of the labour paid for, renders that use superfluous and often impossible8 >n some branches of the "oollen manufacture in England the emplo*ment of children has during recent *ears been considerabl* diminished, and in some cases has been entirel* abolished8 Bh*E /ecause the Factor* (cts made t"o sets of children necessar*, one "or+ing si9 hours, the other four, or each "or+ing fi)e hours8 /ut the parents refused to sell the @half4timersA cheaper than the @full4timers8A -ence the substitution of machiner* for the @half4 timers8A: /efore the labour of "omen and of children under 17 *ears of age "as forbidden in mines, capitalists considered the emplo*ment of na+ed "omen and girls, often in compan* "ith men, so far sanctioned b* their moral code, and especiall* b* their ledgers, that it "as onl* after the passing of the (ct that the* had recourse to machiner*8 'he Nan+ees ha)e in)ented a stone4 brea+ing machine8 'he English do not ma+e use of it, because the @"retchA :3"ho does this "or+ gets paid for such a small portion of his labour, that machiner* "ould increase the cost of production to the capitalist8:6 >n England "omen are still occasionall* used instead of horses for hauling canal boats:7, because the labour reIuired to produce horses and machines is an accuratel* +no"n Iuantit*, "hile that reIuired to maintain the "omen of the surplus4population is belo" all calculation8 -ence no"here do "e find a more shameful sIuandering of human labour4po"er for the most despicable purposes than in England, the land of machiner*8

Section *: The Pro+imate )ffects of $achiner on the 3orkman


'he starting4point of modern industr* is, as "e ha)e sho"n, the re)olution in the instruments of labour, and this re)olution attains its most highl* de)eloped form in the organised s*stem of machiner* in a factor*8 /efore "e inIuire ho" human material is incorporated "ith this obDecti)e organism, let us consider some general effects of this re)olution on the labourer himself8

A. Appropriation of )upplementary *a$our 'o+er $y Capital. The Employment of ,omen and Children
>n so far as machiner* dispenses "ith muscular po"er, it becomes a means of emplo*ing labourers of slight muscular strength, and those "hose bodil* de)elopment is incomplete, but

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"hose limbs are all the more supple8 'he labour of "omen and children "as, therefore, the first thing sought for b* capitalists "ho used machiner*8 'hat might* substitute for labour and labourers "as forth"ith changed into a means for increasing the number of "age4labourers b* enrolling, under the direct s"a* of capital, e)er* member of the "or+man?s famil*, "ithout distinction of age or se98 5ompulsor* "or+ for the capitalist usurped the place, not onl* of the children?s pla*, but also of free labour at home "ithin moderate limits for the support of the famil*8:8 'he )alue of labour4po"er "as determined, not onl* b* the labour4time necessar* to maintain the indi)idual adult labourer, but also b* that necessar* to maintain his famil*8 $achiner*, b* thro"ing e)er* member of that famil* on to the labour4mar+et, spreads the )alue of the man?s labour4po"er o)er his "hole famil*8 >t thus depreciates his labour4po"er8 'o purchase the labour4 po"er of a famil* of four "or+ers ma*, perhaps, cost more than it formerl* did to purchase the labour4po"er of the head of the famil*, but, in return, four da*s? labour ta+es the place of one, and their price falls in proportion to the e9cess of the surplus labour of four o)er the surplus labour of one8 >n order that the famil* ma* li)e, four people must no", not onl* labour, but e9pend surplus labour for the capitalist8 'hus "e see, that machiner*, "hile augmenting the human material that forms the principal obDect of capital?s e9ploiting po"er, :2 at the same time raises the degree of e9ploitation8 $achiner* also re)olutionises out and out the contract bet"een the labourer and the capitalist, "hich formall* fi9es their mutual relations8 'a+ing the e9change of commodities as our basis, our first assumption "as that capitalist and labourer met as free persons, as independent o"ners of commodities; the one possessing mone* and means of production, the other labour4po"er8 /ut no" the capitalist bu*s children and *oung persons under age8 #re)iousl*, the "or+man sold his o"n labour4po"er, "hich he disposed of nominall* as a free agent8 Co" he sells "ife and child8 -e has become a sla)e4dealer8 7 'he demand for children?s labour often resembles in form the inIuiries for negro sla)es, such as "ere formerl* to be read among the ad)ertisements in (merican Dournals8 @$* attention,A sa*s an English factor* inspector, @"as dra"n to an ad)ertisement in the local paper of one of the most important manufacturing to"ns of m* district, of "hich the follo"ing is a cop*: Banted, 16 to 67 *oung persons, not *ounger than "hat can pass for 1: *ears8 Bages, shillings a "ee+8 (ppl* Pc8A 1 'he phrase @"hat can pass for 1: *ears,A has reference to the fact, that b* the Factor* (ct, children under 1: *ears ma* "or+ onl* 6 hours8 ( surgeon officiall* appointed must certif* their age8 'he manufacturer, therefore, as+s for children "ho loo+ as if the* "e?re alread* 1: *ears old8 'he decrease, often b* leaps and bounds in the number of children under 1: *ears emplo*ed in factories, a decrease that is sho"n in an astonishing manner b* the English statistics of the last 67 *ears, "as for the most part, according to the e)idence of the factor* inspectors themsel)es, the "or+ of the certif*ing surgeons, "ho o)erstated the age of the children, agreeabl* to the capitalist?s greed for e9ploitation, and the sordid traffic+ing needs of the parents8 >n the notorious district of /ethnal Green, a public mar+et is held e)er* $onda* and 'uesda* morning, "here children of both se9es from 2 *ears of age up"ards, hire themsel)es out to the sil+ manufacturers8 V'he usual terms are 1s8 8d8 a "ee+ (this belongs to the parents! and W6d8 for m*self and tea8? 'he contract is binding onl* for the "ee+8 'he scene and language "hile this mar+et is going on are Iuite disgraceful8A 6 >t has also occurred in England, that "omen ha)e ta+en @children from the "or+house and let an* one ha)e them out for 6s8 6d8 a "ee+8A : >n spite of legislation, the number of bo*s sold in Great /ritain b* their parents to act as li)e chimne*4s"eeping machines (although there e9ist plent* of machines to replace them! e9ceeds 6,7778 'he re)olution effected b*

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machiner* in the Duridical relations bet"een the bu*er and the seller of labour4po"er, causing the transaction as a "hole to lose the appearance of a contract bet"een free persons, afforded the English #arliament an e9cuse, founded on Duridical principles, for the interference of the state "ith factories8 Bhene)er the la" limits the labour of children to 6 hours in industries not before interfered "ith, the complaints of the manufacturers are al"a*s rene"ed8 'he* allege that numbers of the parents "ithdra" their children from the industr* brought under the (ct, in order to sell them "here @freedom of labourA still rules, i8e8, "here children under 1: *ears are compelled to "or+ li+e gro"n4up people, and therefore can be got rid of at a higher price8 /ut since capital is b* nature a le)eller, since it e9acts in e)er* sphere of production eIualit* in the conditions of the e9ploitation of labour, the limitation b* la" of children?s labour, in one branch of industr*, becomes the cause of its limitation in others8 Be ha)e alread* alluded to the ph*sical deterioration as "ell of the children and *oung4persons as of the "omen, "hom machiner*, first directl* in the factories that shoot up on its basis, and then indirectl* in all the remaining branches of industr*, subDects to the e9ploitation of capital8 >n this place, therefore, "e d"ell onl* on one point, the enormous mortalit*, during the first fe" *ears of their life, of the children of the operati)es8 >n si9teen of the registration districts into "hich England is di)ided, there are, for e)er* 177,777 children ali)e under the age of one *ear, onl* 2,777 deaths in a *ear on an a)erage (in one district onl* 7,7 7!; in 6 districts the deaths are o)er 17,777, but under 11,777; in :2 districts, o)er 11,777, but under 16,777; in 8 districts o)er 16,777, but under 1:,777; in 66 districts o)er 67,777; in 63 districts o)er 61,777; in 17 o)er 66,777; in 11 o)er 6:,777; in -oo, Bol)erhampton, (shton4under4<*ne, and #reston, o)er 6 ,777; in Cottingham, Stoc+port, and /radford, o)er 63,777; in Bisbeach, 16,777; and in $anchester, 66,1638 3 (s "as sho"n b* an official medical inIuir* in the *ear 1861, the high death4rates are, apart from local causes, principall* due to the emplo*ment of the mothers a"a* from their homes, and to the neglect and maltreatment, conseIuent on her absence, such as, amongst others, insufficient nourishment, unsuitable food, and dosing "ith opiates; besides this, there arises an unnatural estrangement bet"een mother and child, and as a conseIuence intentional star)ing and poisoning of the children8 6 >n those agricultural districts, @"here a minimum in the emplo*ment of "omen e9ists, the death4rate is on the other hand )er* lo"8A 7 'he >nIuir* 5ommission of 1861 led, ho"e)er, to the une9pected result, that in some purel* agricultural districts bordering on the Corth Sea, the death4rate of children under one *ear old almost eIualled that of the "orst factor* districts8 0r8 Lulian -unter "as therefore commissioned to in)estigate this phenomenon on the spot8 -is report is incorporated "ith the @Si9th &eport on #ublic -ealth8A 8 %p to that time it "as supposed, that the children "ere decimated b* malaria, and other diseases peculiar to lo"4l*ing and marsh* districts8 /ut the inIuir* sho"ed the )er* opposite, namel*, that the same cause "hich dro)e a"a* malaria, the con)ersion of the land, from a morass in "inter and a scant* pasture in summer, into fruitful corn land, created the e9ceptional death4rate of the infants8 2 'he 77 medical men, "hom 0r8 -unter e9amined in that district, "ere @"onderfull* in accordA on this point8 >n fact, the re)olution in the mode of culti)ation had led to the introduction of the industrial s*stem8 $arried "omen, "ho "or+ in gangs along "ith bo*s and girls, are, for a stipulated sum of mone*, placed at the disposal of the farmer, b* a man called the @underta+er,A "ho contracts for the "hole gang8 @'hese gangs "ill sometimes tra)el man* miles from their o"n )illage; the* are to be met morning and e)ening on the roads, dressed in short petticoats, "ith suitable coats and boots, and sometimes trousers, loo+ing "onderfull* strong and health*, but tainted "ith a customar* immoralit* and heedless of the fatal results "hich their lo)e of this bus* and independent life is bringing on their unfortunate offspring "ho are pining at home8A 37

617

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E)er* phenomenon of the factor* districts is here reproduced, including, but to a greater e9tent, ill4disguised infanticide, and dosing children "ith opiates8 31 @$* +no"ledge of such e)ils,A sa*s 0r8 Simon, the medical officer of the #ri)* 5ouncil and editor in chief of the &eports on #ublic -ealth, @ma* e9cuse the profound misgi)ing "ith "hich > regard an* large industrial emplo*ment of adult "omen8A36 @-app* indeed,A e9claims $r8 /a+er, the factor* inspector, in his official report, @happ* indeed "ill it be for the manufacturing districts of England, "hen e)er* married "oman ha)ing a famil* is prohibited from "or+ing in an* te9tile "or+s at all8A3: 'he moral degradation caused b* the capitalistic e9ploitation of "omen and children has been so e9hausti)el* depicted b* F8 Engels in his @<age der (rbeitenden .lasse Englands,A and other "riters, that > need onl* mention the subDect in this place8 /ut the intellectual desolation artificiall* produced b* con)erting immature human beings into mere machines for the fabrication of surplus )alue, a state of mind clearl* distinguishable from that natural ignorance "hich +eeps the mind fallo" "ithout destro*ing its capacit* for de)elopment, its natural fertilit*, this desolation finall* compelled e)en the English #arliament to ma+e elementar* education a compulsor* condition to the @producti)eA emplo*ment of children under 1 *ears, in e)er* industr* subDect to the Factor* (cts8 'he spirit of capitalist production stands out clearl* in the ludicrous "ording of the so4called education clauses in the Factor* (cts, in the absence of an administrati)e machiner*, an absence that again ma+es the compulsion illusor*, in the opposition of the manufacturers themsel)es to these education clauses, and in the tric+s and dodges the* put in practice for e)ading them8 @For this the legislature is alone to blame, b* ha)ing passed a delusi)e la", "hich, "hile it "ould seem to pro)ide that the children emplo*ed in factories shall be educated+ contains no enactment b* "hich that professed end can be secured8 >t pro)ides nothing more than that the children shall on certain da*s of the "ee+, and for a certain number of hours (three! in each da*, be inclosed "ithin the four "alls of a place called a school, and that the emplo*er of the child shall recei)e "ee+l* a certificate to that effect signed b* a person designated b* the subscriber as a schoolmaster or schoolmistress8A3 #re)ious to the passing of the amended Factor* (ct, 18 , it happened, not unfreIuentl*, that the certificates of attendance at school "ere signed b* the schoolmaster or schoolmistress "ith a cross, as the* themsel)es "ere unable to "rite8 @=n one occasion, on )isiting a place called a school, from "hich certificates of school attendance, had issued, > "as so struc+ "ith the ignorance of the master, that > said to him: W#ra*, sir, can *ou readE? -is repl* "as: W(*e, summatQ? and as a Dustification of his right to grant certificates, he added: W(t an* rate, > am before m* scholars8?A 'he inspectors, "hen the /ill of 18 "as in preparation, did not fail to represent the disgraceful state of the places called schools, certificates from "hich the* "ere obliged to admit as a compliance "ith the la"s, but the* "ere successful onl* in obtaining thus much, that since the passing of the (ct of 18 3, the figures in the school certificate must be filled up in the hand"riting of the schoolmaster, "ho must also sign his 5hristian and surname in full8A 33 Sir Lohn .incaid, factor* inspector for Scotland, relates e9periences of the same +ind8

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@'he first school "e )isited "as +ept b* a $rs8 (nn .illin8 %pon as+ing her to spell her name, she straight"a* made a mista+e, b* beginning "ith the letter 5, but correcting herself immediatel*, she said her name began "ith a .8 =n loo+ing at her signature, ho"e)er, in the school certificate boo+s, > noticed that she spelt it in )arious "a*s, "hile her hand"riting left no doubt as to her unfitness to teach8 She herself also ac+no"ledged that she could not +eep the register 888 >n a second school > found the schoolroom 13 feet long, and 17 feet "ide, and counted in this space 73 children, "ho "ere gobbling something unintelligibleA 36 /ut it is not onl* in the miserable places abo)e referred to that the children obtain certificates of school attendance "ithout ha)ing recei)ed instruction of an* )alue, for in man* schools "here there is a competent teacher, his efforts are of little a)ail from the distracting cro"d of children of all ages, from infants of : *ears old and up"ards; his li)elihood, miserable at the best, depending on the pence recei)ed from the greatest number of children "hom it is possible to cram into the space8 'o this is to be added scant* school furniture, deficienc* of boo+s, and other materials for teaching, and the depressing effect upon the poor children themsel)es of a close, noisome atmosphere8 > ha)e been in man* such schools, "here > ha)e seen ro"s of children doing absolutel* nothing; and this is certified as school attendance, and, in statistical returns, such children are set do"n as being educated8A 37 >n Scotland the manufacturers tr* all the* can to do "ithout the children that are obliged to attend school8 @>t reIuires no further argument to pro)e that the educational clauses of the Factor* (ct, being held in such disfa)our among mill4o"ners, tend in a great measure to e9clude that class of children ali+e from the emplo*ment and the benefit of education contemplated b* this (ct8A38 -orribl* grotesIue does this appear in print "or+s, "hich are regulated b* a special (ct8 /* that (ct, @e)er* child, before being emplo*ed in a print "or+ must ha)e attended school for at least :7 da*s, and not less than 137 hours, during the si9 months immediatel* preceding such first da* of emplo*ment, and during the continuance of its emplo*ment in the print "or+s, it must attend for a li+e period of :7 da*s, and 137 hours during e)er* successi)e period of si9 months8888 'he attendance at school must be bet"een 8 a8m8 and 6 p8m8 Co attendance of less than 6[ hours, nor more than 3 hours on an* one da*, shall be rec+oned as part of the 137 hours8 %nder ordinar* circumstances the children attend school morning and afternoon for :7 da*s, for at least 3 hours each da*, and upon the e9piration of the :7 da*s, the statutor* total of 137 hours ha)ing been attained, ha)ing, in their language, made up their boo+, the* return to the print "or+, "here the* continue until the si9 months ha)e e9pired, "hen another instalment of school attendance becomes due, and the* again see+ the school until the boo+ is again made up8888 $an* bo*s ha)ing attended school for the reIuired number of hours, "hen the* return to school after the e9piration of their si9 months? "or+ in the print "or+, are in the same condition as "hen the* first attended school as print4"or+ bo*s, that the* ha)e lost all the* gained b* their pre)ious school attendance8888 >n other print "or+s the children?s attendance at school is made to depend altogether upon the e9igencies of the "or+ in the establishment8 'he reIuisite number of hours is made up each si9 months, b* instalments consisting of from : to 3 hours at a time,

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spreading o)er, perhaps, the "hole si9 months8888 For instance, the attendance on one da* might be from 8 to 11 a8m8, on another da* from 1 p8m8 to p8m8, and the child might not appear at school again for se)eral da*s, "hen it "ould attend from : p8m8 to 6 p8m8; then it might attend for : or da*s consecuti)el*, or for a "ee+, then it "ould not appear in school for : "ee+s or a month, after that upon some odd da*s at some odd hours "hen the operati)e "ho emplo*ed it chose to spare it; and thus the child "as, as it "ere, buffeted from school to "or+, from "or+ to school, until the tale of 137 hours "as told8A32 /* the e9cessi)e addition of "omen and children to the ran+s of the "or+ers, machiner* at last brea+s do"n the resistance "hich the male operati)es in the manufacturing period continued to oppose to the despotism of capital867

B. 'rolon&ation of the ,or-in& day


>f machiner* be the most po"erful means for increasing the producti)eness of labour F i8e8, for shortening the "or+ing4time reIuired in the production of a commodit*, it becomes in the hands of capital the most po"erful means, in those industries first in)aded b* it, for lengthening the "or+ing da* be*ond all bounds set b* human nature8 >t creates, on the one hand, ne" conditions b* "hich capital is enabled to gi)e free scope to this its constant tendenc*, and on the other hand, ne" moti)es "ith "hich to "het capital?s appetite for the labour of others8 >n the first place, in the form of machiner*, the implements of labour become automatic, things mo)ing and "or+ing independent of the "or+man8 'he* are thenceforth an industrial perpetuum mobile, that "ould go on producing fore)er, did it not meet "ith certain natural obstructions in the "ea+ bodies and the strong "ills of its human attendants8 'he automaton, as capital, and because it is capital, is endo"ed, in the person of the capitalist, "ith intelligence and "ill; it is therefore animated b* the longing to reduce to a minimum the resistance offered b* that repellent *et elastic natural barrier, man861 'his resistance is moreo)er lessened b* the apparent lightness of machine "or+, and b* the more pliant and docile character of the "omen and children emplo*ed on it866 'he producti)eness of machiner* is, as "e sa", in)ersel* proportional to the )alue transferred b* it to the product8 'he longer the life of the machine, the greater is the mass of the products o)er "hich the )alue transmitted b* the machine is spread, and the less is the portion of that )alue added to each single commodit*8 'he acti)e lifetime of a machine is, ho"e)er, clearl* dependent on the length of the "or+ing da*, or on the duration of the dail* labour4process multiplied b* the number of da*s for "hich the process is carried on8 'he "ear and tear of a machine is not e9actl* proportional to its "or+ing4time8 (nd e)en if it "ere so, a machine "or+ing 16 hours dail* for 7[ *ears, co)ers as long a "or+ing period as, and transmits to the total product no more )alue than, the same machine "ould if it "or+ed onl* 8 hours dail* for 13 *ears8 /ut in the first case the )alue of the machine "ould be reproduced t"ice as Iuic+l* as in the latter, and the capitalist "ould, b* this use of the machine, absorb in 7[ *ears as much surplus )alue as in the second case he "ould in 138 'he material "ear and tear of a machine is of t"o +inds8 'he one arises from use, as coins "ear a"a* b* circulating, the other from non4use, as a s"ord rusts "hen left in its scabbard8 'he latter +ind is due to the elements8 'he former is more or less directl* proportional, the latter to a certain e9tent in)ersel* proportional, to the use of the machine8 6: /ut in addition to the material "ear and tear, a machine also undergoes, "hat "e ma* call a moral depreciation8 >t loses e9change4)alue, either b* machines of the same sort being produced cheaper than it, or b* better machines entering into competition "ith it8 6 >n both cases, be the

61:

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machine e)er so *oung and full of life, its )alue is no longer determined b* the labour actuall* materialised in it, but b* the labour4time reIuisite to reproduce either it or the better machine8 >t has, therefore, lost )alue more or less8 'he shorter the period ta+en to reproduce its total )alue, the less is the danger of moral depreciation; and the longer the "or+ing da*, the shorter is that period8 Bhen machiner* is first introduced into an industr*, ne" methods of reproducing it more cheapl* follo" blo" upon blo"63, and so do impro)ements, that not onl* affect indi)idual parts and details of the machine, but its entire build8 >t is, therefore, in the earl* da*s of the life of machiner* that this special incenti)e to the prolongation of the "or+ing da* ma+es itself felt most acutel*866 Gi)en the length of the "or+ing da*, all other circumstances remaining the same, the e9ploitation of double the number of "or+men demands, not onl* a doubling of that part of constant capital "hich is in)ested in machiner* and buildings, but also of that part "hich is laid out in ra" material and au9iliar* substances8 'he lengthening of the "or+ing da*, on the other hand, allo"s of production on an e9tended scale "ithout an* alteration in the amount of capital laid out on machiner* and buildings867 Cot onl* is there, therefore, an increase of surplus )alue, but the outla* necessar* to obtain it diminishes8 >t is true that this ta+es place, more or less, "ith e)er* lengthening of the "or+ing da*; but in the case under consideration, the change is more mar+ed, because the capital con)erted into the instruments of labour preponderates to a greater degree8 68 'he de)elopment of the factor* s*stem fi9es a constantl* increasing portion of the capital in a form, in "hich, on the one hand, its )alue is capable of continual self4e9pansion, and in "hich, on the other hand, it loses both use4)alue and e9change4)alue "hene)er it loses contact "ith li)ing labour8 @Bhen a labourer,A said $r8 (sh"orth, a cotton magnate, to #rofessor Cassau B8 Senior, @la*s do"n his spade, he renders useless, for that period, a capital "orth eighteen4pence8 Bhen one of our people lea)es the mill, he renders useless a capital that has cost ]177,7778A 62 =nl* fanc*Q ma+ing @uselessA for a single moment, a capital that has cost ]177,777Q >t is, in truth, monstrous, that a single one of our people should e)er lea)e the factor*Q 'he increased use of machiner*, as Senior after the instruction he recei)ed from (sh"orth clearl* percei)es, ma+es a constantl* increasing lengthening of the "or+ing da* @desirable8A 77 $achiner* produces relati)e surplus )alue; not onl* b* directl* depreciating the )alue of labour4 po"er, and b* indirectl* cheapening the same through cheapening the commodities that enter into its reproduction, but also, "hen it is first introduced sporadicall* into an industr*, b* con)erting the labour emplo*ed b* the o"ner of that machiner*, into labour of a higher degree and greater efficac*, b* raising the social )alue of the article produced abo)e its indi)idual )alue, and thus enabling the capitalist to replace the )alue of a da*?s labour4po"er b* a smaller portion of the )alue of a da*?s product8 0uring this transition period, "hen the use of machiner* is a sort of monopol*, the profits are therefore e9ceptional, and the capitalist endea)ours to e9ploit thoroughl* @the sunn* time of this his first lo)e,A b* prolonging the "or+ing da* as much as possible8 'he magnitude of the profit "hets his appetite for more profit8 (s the use of machiner* becomes more general in a particular industr*, the social )alue of the product sin+s do"n to its indi)idual )alue, and the la" that surplus )alue does not arise from the labour4po"er that has been replaced b* the machiner*, but from the labour4po"er actuall* emplo*ed in "or+ing "ith the machiner*, asserts itself8 Surplus )alue arises from )ariable capital alone, and "e sa" that the amount of surplus )alue depends on t"o factors, )i18, the rate of surplus )alue and the number of the "or+men simultaneousl* emplo*ed8 Gi)en the length of the "or+ing da*, the rate of surplus )alue is determined b* the relati)e duration of the necessar* labour and of the surplus labour in a da*8 'he number of the labourers simultaneousl* emplo*ed depends, on its side, on the ratio of the )ariable to the constant capital8 Co", ho"e)er much the use of machiner* ma* increase the surplus labour at the e9pense of the necessar* labour b*

61

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heightening the producti)eness of labour, it is clear that it attains this result, onl* b* diminishing the number of "or+men emplo*ed b* a gi)en amount of capital8 >t con)erts "hat "as formerl* )ariable capital, in)ested in labour4po"er, into machiner* "hich, being constant capital, does not produce surplus )alue8 >t is impossible, for instance, to sIuee1e as much surplus )alue out of 6 as out of 6 labourers8 >f each of these 6 men gi)es onl* one hour of surplus labour in 16, the 6 men gi)e together 6 hours of surplus labour, "hile 6 hours is the total labour of the t"o men8 -ence, the application of machiner* to the production of surplus )alue implies a contradiction "hich is immanent in it, since of the t"o factors of the surplus )alue created b* a gi)en amount of capital, one, the rate of surplus )alue, cannot be increased, e9cept b* diminishing the other, the number of "or+men8 'his contradiction comes to light, as soon as b* the general emplo*ment of machiner* in a gi)en industr*, the )alue of the machine4produced commodit* regulates the )alue of all commodities of the same sort; and it is this contradiction, that in its turn, dri)es the capitalist, "ithout his being conscious of the fact, 71 to e9cessi)e lengthening of the "or+ing da*, in order that he ma* compensate the decrease in the relati)e number of labourers e9ploited, b* an increase not onl* of the relati)e, but of the absolute surplus labour8 >f, then, the capitalistic emplo*ment of machiner*, on the one hand, supplies ne" and po"erful moti)es to an e9cessi)e lengthening of the "or+ing da*, and radicall* changes, as "ell the methods of labour, as also the character of the social "or+ing organism, in such a manner as to brea+ do"n all opposition to this tendenc*, on the other hand it produces, partl* b* opening out to the capitalist ne" strata of the "or+ing4class, pre)iousl* inaccessible to him, partl* b* setting free the labourers it supplants, a surplus "or+ing population, 76 "hich is compelled to submit to the dictation of capital8 -ence that remar+able phenomenon in the histor* of modern industr*, that machiner* s"eeps a"a* e)er* moral and natural restriction on the length of the "or+ing da*8 -ence, too, the economic parado9, that the most po"erful instrument for shortening labour4time, becomes the most unfailing means for placing e)er* moment of the labourer?s time and that of his famil*, at the disposal of the capitalist for the purpose of e9panding the )alue of his capital8 @>f,A dreamed (ristotle, the greatest thin+er of antiIuit*, @if e)er* tool, "hen summoned, or e)en of its o"n accord, could do the "or+ that befits it, Dust as the creations of 0aedalus mo)ed of themsel)es, or the tripods of -ephaestos "ent of their o"n accord to their sacred "or+, if the "ea)ers? shuttles "ere to "ea)e of themsel)es, then there "ould be no need either of apprentices for the master "or+ers, or of sla)es for the lords8A 7:(nd (ntipatros, a Gree+ poet of the time of 5icero, hailed the in)ention of the "ater4"heel for grinding corn, an in)ention that is the elementar* form of all machiner*, as the gi)er of freedom to female sla)es, and the bringer bac+ of the golden age87 =hQ those heathensQ 'he* understood, as the learned /astiat, and before him the still "iser $ac5ulloch ha)e disco)ered, nothing of #olitical Econom* and 5hristianit*8 'he* did not, for e9ample, comprehend that machiner* is the surest means of lengthening the "or+ing da*8 'he* perhaps e9cused the sla)er* of one on the ground that it "as a means to the full de)elopment of another8 /ut to preach sla)er* of the masses, in order that a fe" crude and half4 educated par)enus, might become @eminent spinners,A @e9tensi)e sausage4ma+ers,A and @influential shoe4blac+ dealers,A to do this, the* lac+ed the bump of 5hristianit*8

C. .nten#ification of *a$our
'he immoderate lengthening of the "or+ing da*, produced b* machiner* in the hands of capital, leads to a reaction on the part of societ*, the )er* sources of "hose life are menaced; and, thence, to a normal "or+ing da* "hose length is fi9ed b* la"8 'henceforth a phenomenon8 that "e ha)e alread* met "ith, namel*, the intensification of labour, de)elops into great importance8 =ur anal*sis of absolute surplus )alue had reference primaril* to the e9tension or duration of the

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labour, its intensit* being assumed as gi)en8 Be no" proceed to consider the substitution of a more intensified labour for labour of more e9tensi)e duration, and the degree of the former8 >t is self4e)ident, that in proportion as the use of machiner* spreads, and the e9perience of a special class of "or+men habituated to machiner* accumulates, the rapidit* and intensit* of labour increase as a natural conseIuence8 'hus in England, during half a centur*, lengthening of the "or+ing da* "ent hand in hand "ith increasing intensit* of factor* labour8 Ce)ertheless the reader "ill clearl* see, that "here "e ha)e labour, not carried on b* fits and starts, but repeated da* after da* "ith un)ar*ing uniformit*, a point must ine)itabl* be reached, "here e9tension of the "or+ing da* and intensit* of the labour mutuall* e9clude one another, in such a "a* that lengthening of the "or+ing da* becomes compatible onl* "ith a lo"er degree of intensit*, and a higher degree of intensit*, onl* "ith a shortening of the "or+ing da*8 So soon as the graduall* surging re)olt of the "or+ing4class compelled #arliament to shorten compulsoril* the hours of labour, and to begin b* imposing a normal "or+ing da* on factories proper, so soon conseIuentl* as an increased production of surplus )alue b* the prolongation of the "or+ing da* "as once for all put a stop to, from that moment capital thre" itself "ith all its might into the production of relati)e surplus )alue, b* hastening on the further impro)ement of machiner*8 (t the same time a change too+ place in the nature of relati)e surplus )alue8 Generall* spea+ing, the mode of producing relati)e surplus )alue consists in raising the producti)e po"er of the "or+man, so as to enable him to produce more in a gi)en time "ith the same e9penditure of labour8 <abour4time continues to transmit as before the same )alue to the total product, but this unchanged amount of e9change4)alue is spread o)er more use4)alue; hence the )alue of each single commodit* sin+s8 =ther"ise, ho"e)er, so soon as the compulsor* shortening of the hours of labour ta+es place8 'he immense impetus it gi)es the de)elopment of producti)e po"er, and to econom* in the means of production, imposes on the "or+man increased e9penditure of labour in a gi)en time, heightened tension of labour4po"er, and closer filling up of the pores of the "or+ing da*, or condensation of labour to a degree that is attainable onl* "ithin the limits of the shortened "or+ing da*8 'his condensation of a greater mass of labour into a gi)en period thencefor"ard counts for "hat it reall* is, a greater Iuantit* of labour8 >n addition to a measure of its e9tension, i8e8, duration, labour no" acIuires a measure of its intensit* or of the degree of its condensation or densit*8 73 'he denser hour of the ten hours? "or+ing da* contains more labour, i8e8, e9pended labour4po"er8 than the more porous hour of the t"el)e hours? "or+ing da*8 'he product therefore of one of the former hours has as much or more )alue than has the product of 1 1J3 of the latter hours8 (part from the increased *ield of relati)e surplus )alue through the heightened producti)eness of labour, the same mass of )alue is no" produced for the capitalist sa* b* : 1J: hours of surplus labour, and 6 6J: hours of necessar* labour, as "as pre)iousl* produced b* four hours of surplus labour and eight hours of necessar* labour8 Be no" come to the Iuestion: -o" is the labour intensifiedE 'he first effect of shortening the "or+ing da* results from the self4e)ident la", that the efficienc* of labour4po"er is in an in)erse ratio to the duration of its e9penditure8 -ence, "ithin certain limits "hat is lost b* shortening the duration is gained b* the increasing tension of labour4po"er8 'hat the "or+man moreo)er reall* does e9pend more labour4po"er, is ensured b* the mode in "hich the capitalist pa*s him8 76 >n those industries, such as potteries, "here machiner* pla*s little or no part, the introduction of the Factor* (cts has stri+ingl* sho"n that the mere shortening of the "or+ing da* increases to a "onderful degree the regularit*, uniformit*, order, continuit*, and energ* of the labour877 >t seemed, ho"e)er, doubtful "hether this effect "as produced in the factor* proper, "here the dependence of the "or+man on the continuous and uniform motion of the machiner* had alread* created the strictest discipline8 -ence, "hen in 18 the reduction of

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the "or+ing da* to less than t"el)e hours "as being debated, the masters almost unanimousl* declared @that their o)erloo+ers in the different rooms too+ good care that the hands lost no time,A that @the e9tent of )igilance and attention on the part of the "or+men "as hardl* capable of being increased,A and, therefore, that the speed of the machiner* and other conditions remaining unaltered, @to e9pect in a "ell4managed factor* an* important result from increased attention of the "or+men "as an absurdit*8A 78 'his assertion "as contradicted b* e9periments8 $r8 &obert Gardner reduced the hours of labour in his t"o large factories at #reston, on and after the 67th (pril, 18 , from t"el)e to ele)en hours a da*8 'he result of about a *ear?s "or+ing "as that @the same amount of product for the same cost "as recei)ed, and the "or+people as a "hole earned in ele)en hours as much "ages as the* did before in t"el)e8A72 > pass o)er the e9periments made in the spinning and carding room