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Republic of the Philippines SUPREME COURT Manila SECOND DIVISION G.R. No. 1 11!" Septe#be$ 1!% !&1!

C'RMENCIT' GUI('NO% substitute) b* he$ hei$s% na#el*+ EUGENIO M. GUI('NO% ,R.% EMM'NUE- M. GUI('NO% EDMUND M. GUI('NO% ER.IN M. GUI('NO% C'RMIN' M. GUI('NO% $ep$esente) b* thei$ co/hei$ an) atto$ne*/in/fact E-MER GUI('NO% an) E-MER M. GUI('NO% Petitione$s% 0s. RE1N'-DO S. VENER'CION% Respon)ent. DECISION 2RION% ,.+ .e $esol0e the petition fo$ $e0ie3 on ce$tio$a$i1 file) b* Ca$#encita Gui4ano 5no3 )ecease)6% substitute) b* he$ hei$s% na#el* Eu7enio6 M. Gui4ano% ,$.% E##anuel M. Gui4ano% E)#un) M. Gui4ano% E$3in M. Gui4ano% an) Ca$#ina M. Gui4ano% $ep$esente) b* thei$ co/hei$ an) atto$ne*/in/fact El#e$ Gui4ano% an) El#e$ M. Gui4ano to $e0e$se an) set asi)e the )ecision! )ate) ,ul* 81% !&&9 of the Cou$t of 'ppeals 5 C'6 inC'/G.R. CV No. 99!:"% as 3ell as its $esolution )ate) ,anua$* !9% !&1&.8 These assaile) C' issuances essentiall* o$)e$e) petitione$ Ca$#encita Gui4ano to $econ0e* the sub;ect p$ope$t* to $espon)ent Re*nal)o Vene$acion. T<E ='CTS The facts of the case% as 7athe$e) f$o# the )ecisions of the C' an) the Re7ional T$ial Cou$t 5RTC6% a$e su##a$i4e) belo3. This case in0ol0es t3o pa$cels of lan) in 2a$an7a* >apihan% San Rafael% 2ulacan that -ucia Santos 5#a$$ie) to Da0i) Santos6 an) he$ b$othe$% Nicasio 2e$na$)ino% inhe$ite) f$o# thei$ #othe$. Nicasio sol) his sha$e of the p$ope$t*% -ot No. :81 consistin7 of ?%::@ sAua$e #ete$s% to D$. Eu7enio an) his 3ife Ca$#encita. The p$ope$t* 3as $e7iste$e) on =eb$ua$* !!% 1 "@ un)e$ T$ansfe$ Ce$tificate of Title 5TCT6 No. RT/1"@9"%: in the na#e of E##anuel Gui4ano% the son of the Gui4ano spouses. -ucia an) he$ husban)% fo$ thei$ pa$t% sol) a ?@? sA#. po$tion of thei$ lan) 5sub;ect p$ope$t*6 in Septe#be$ 1 @ to Re*nal)o.@ Since the Santoses )i) not ha0e an* )ocu#enta$* p$oof of o3ne$ship o0e$ the sub;ect p$ope$t*% Re*nal)o ha) to $el* on the SantosesB $ep$esentation that -ucia inhe$ite) the lan) f$o# he$ pa$ents. 2efo$e bu*in7 the sub;ect p$ope$t*% Re*nal)oBs fathe$% D$. Vene$acion% hi$e) a 7eo)etic en7inee$ to se7$e7ate the lan) bein7 pu$chase) f$o# the lan) $e7iste$e) to E##anuel. Do#in7o Santos 5son of the Santos spouses6% Nicasio an) Ca$#encita 3e$e all p$esent )u$in7 the su$0e* 3hen Nicasio pointe) out the boun)a$ies of his fo$#e$ lot% as 3ell as -uciaBs sha$e. Ca$#encita also pointe) out the boun)a$ies of he$ p$ope$t*% 3hich 3e$e #a$Ce) b* ba#boo t$ees% a #a)$e )e cacao t$ee an) a pilapil.? The 7eo)etic en7inee$ )$e3 up a sCetch plan base) on the su$0e* an) ha) all those p$esent% inclu)in7 Ca$#encita% affiD thei$ si7natu$es the$eon.9 's an a))itional p$ecautiona$* #easu$e% 3hen the Santoses an) Re*nal)o eDecute) the )ee) of sale 52ilihan n7 Tulu*an6 in Septe#be$ 1 @% the pa$ties ha) Ca$#encita affiD

he$ si7natu$e to the )ee) of sale un)e$ the hea)in7 E.alan7 Tutol%E si7nif*in7 that she )i) not ob;ect to the sale." The$eafte$% Ca$#encita )isco0e$e) that the p$ope$t* sol) to Re*nal)o 3as actuall* pa$t of the p$ope$t* that ha) al$ea)* been $e7iste$e) in E##anuelBs na#e un)e$ TCT No. RT/ 1"@9" on =eb$ua$* !!% 1 "@. She thus place) the 3o$) E<O-DE on the sub)i0ision plan si7ne) b* the 7eo)etic en7inee$. On ,une 1:% 1 % Re*nal)o file) a co#plaint a7ainst Ca$#encita an) the Santos spouses% p$a*in7 that Ca$#encita% as o3ne$ o$ as the la3ful atto$ne*/in/fact of he$ son E##anuel% be o$)e$e) to $econ0e* the ?@? sA#. pa$cel of lan) in his 5Re*nal)oBs6 fa0o$.1& The co#plaint 3as )ocCete) as Ci0il Case No. ?!8/M/ an) $affle) to 2$anch "1 of the RTC of Malolos% 2ulacan. In he$ 'ns3e$% Ca$#encita clai#e) that the co#plaint 3as 3ithout #e$it since the p$ope$t* sub;ect of the sale bet3een Re*nal)o an) the Santos spouses is pa$t of the p$ope$t* o3ne) an) $e7iste$e) in the na#e of he$ son E##anuel% un)e$ TCT No. RT/ 1"@9".11 Re*nal)o% thus% ha) no cause of action a7ainst he$. On ,ul* !:% !&&!% the RTC )is#isse) Re*nal)oBs co#plaint fo$ lacC of #e$it. The RTC obse$0e) that 3hile the sale bet3een the Santoses an) Re*nal)o 3as establishe)% the$e 3as no e0i)ence that the Santoses ha) the le7al $i7ht to sell the lot. To be7in 3ith% the p$ope$t* sol) to Re*nal)o 3as al$ea)* co0e$e) b* TCT No. RT/1"@9"% $e7iste$e) in the na#e of E##anuel. In cont$ast% the Santoses ha) no e0i)ence to suppo$t thei$ alle7e) o3ne$ship of the sub;ect p$ope$t* F the* ne0e$ ha) the p$ope$t* su$0e*e)% the* ne0e$ pai) $eal estate taDes on the lan)% an) the* ne0e$ )ecla$e) the p$ope$t* fo$ taD.1! The RTC also foun) that E##anuelBs title ha) al$ea)* attaine) the status of in)efeasibilit* at the ti#e Re*nal)o file) his action. =u$the$#o$e% e0en if an action fo$ $econ0e*ance ha) not *et p$esc$ibe) as Re*nal)o $e#aine) in possession of the p$ope$t*% he is 7uilt* of laches fo$ filin7 the action 1: *ea$s afte$ E##anuelBs title ha) been issue). T<E DECISION O= T<E C' In $esol0in7 Re*nal)oBs appeal% the C'% in a )ecision )ate) ,ul* 81% !&&9%18 $e0e$se) the RTC )ecision an) o$)e$e) Ca$#encita to con0e* the sub;ect p$ope$t* to Re*nal)o. The C' obse$0e) that Ca$#encita tol) D$. Vene$acion that the s#all po$tion of lan) i##e)iatel* a);acent to his p$ope$t* )i) not belon7 to he$ but to -ucia. In the absence of an* )ocu#ent sho3in7 the technical )esc$iption of the $especti0e sha$es of Nicasio an) -ucia% -ucia an) he$ son Do#in7o built an ea$then )iCe an) plante) t$ees to sho3 the )e#a$cation line bet3een the p$ope$ties. This boun)a$* 3as $especte) e0en b* Ca$#encita 3hen he$ fa#il* bou7ht the p$ope$t* f$o# Nicasio. Ca$#encita also pa$ticipate) in the su$0e* con)ucte) b* the 7eo)etic en7inee$ b* pointin7 out the boun)a$ies of he$ lot% an) si7ne) the )ee) of sale bet3een the Santoses an) Re*nal)o to si7nif* he$ confo$#it* to the sale. =$o# Ca$#encitaBs acts an) $ep$esentations% it is clea$ that she belie0e) that the sub;ect p$ope$t* belon7e) to the Santoses an) she 3as estoppe) f$o# clai#in7 o3ne$ship o0e$ the sub;ect p$ope$t*. The )ispositi0e po$tion of this )ecision $ea)s+ .<ERE=ORE% the fo$e7oin7 consi)e$e)% the instant appeal is he$eb* GR'NTED an) the assaile) )ecision is REVERSED 'ND SET 'SIDE. 'cco$)in7l*% a ne3 one is ente$e) as follo3s+ 1. O$)e$in7 )efen)ant/appellee Ca$#encita Gui4ano as atto$ne*/in/fact of he$ son E##anuel Gui4ano to $econ0e* an) eDecute a EDee) of

'cCno3le)7e#entGRecon0e*anceE o0e$ the ?@? sAua$e #ete$ sub;ect p$ope$t* in fa0o$ of plaintiff/appellant Re*nal)o Vene$acion% ,$. !. Decla$in7 as 0ali) an) le7al the E2ilihan Tulu*anE eDecute) b* 0en)o$sG)efen)ant/ appellee spouses o0e$ the sub;ect p$ope$t* in fa0o$ of plaintiff/appellant. 8. O$)e$in7 the Re7ist$a$ of Dee)s of 2ulacan to $e7iste$ the E2I-I<'N TU-U1'NE as encu#b$ance in fa0o$ of plaintiff/appellant on TCT No. 1"@9". :. In the alte$nati0e% if the abo0e $e#e)ies a$e no lon7e$ possible% o$)e$in7 Ca$#encita Gui4ano an) he$ p$incipal% E##anuel Gui4ano% to pa* the fai$ #a$Cet 0alue of the ?@? sAua$e #ete$ lan). @. O$)e$in7 )efen)ant/appellee Ca$#encita Gui4ano to pa* plaintiff/appellant P @&%&&&.&& atto$ne*Bs fees an) cost of suit. Costs a7ainst )efen)ant/appellee Ca$#encita Gui4ano.1: 5e#phases supplie)6 T<E PETITION In thei$ petition% Ca$#encitaBs hei$s a$7ue that since E##anuelBs ce$tificate of title ha) attaine) the status of in)efeasibilit*% it 3as no lon7e$ open to $e0ie3 on the 7$oun) of actual f$au). Neithe$ is the le7al $e#e)* of $econ0e*ance a0ailable a7ainst Ca$#encita as laches ha) al$ea)* set in 3hen the Santoses% Re*nal)oBs p$e)ecesso$s/in/inte$est% slept on thei$ $i7ht to asse$t thei$ o3ne$ship o0e$ the sub;ect p$ope$t*. -astl*% the action shoul) be )is#isse) as it 3as )i$ecte) a7ainst Ca$#encita% 3ho 3as not the $eal pa$t*/in/inte$est as she 3as not the $e7iste$e) o3ne$ of the p$ope$t* f$o# 3he$e the ?@? sA#. lot 3as taCen. E##anuel% the $e7iste$e) o3ne$% 3as not e0en i#plea)e) in the case. In his Co##ent% Re*nal)o a0e$s that the petition shoul) be )enie) fo$ $aisin7 a Auestion of fact% i.e.% 3ho is the o3ne$ of the sub;ect p$ope$t*. <e also insists that the petitione$s a$e boun) b* thei$ p$e)ecesso$/in/inte$est Ca$#encitaBs acts in $elation to the sub;ect p$ope$t* an)% thus% the* a$e estoppe) f$o# Auestionin7 his $i7ht to the p$ope$t*. T<E RU-ING The Cou$t GR'NTS the petition. Co#plaint 3as not file) a7ainst the $eal pa$t*/in/inte$est The $eco$)s f$o# both the RTC an) the C' $e0eal that the cou$ts a Auo a$$i0e) at the sa#e factual consi)e$ations. Un)oubte)l*% the sub;ect p$ope$t* that Re*nal)o pu$chase) f$o# the Santos spouses is pa$t of the lan) $e7iste$e) in the na#e of E##anuel un)e$ TCT No. RT/1"@9". The conflict a$ises 3hen 3e taCe into consi)e$ation the acts an) $ep$esentations of Ca$#encita $e7a$)in7 the sub;ect p$ope$t*% 3hich sho3 he$ $eco7nition that the sub;ect p$ope$t* is not pa$t of he$ sonBs p$ope$t*% but 3as actuall* o3ne) b* the Santoses an) 3as late$ pu$chase) b* Re*nal)o. In )ete$#inin7 entitle#ent to the sub;ect p$ope$t*% the RTC e#phasi4e) that the Santoses ne0e$ assaile) the $e7ist$ation of thei$ p$ope$t* in E##anuelBs na#e. The t$ial cou$t thus $ule) in fa0o$ of E##anuel afte$ )ete$#inin7 that the Santoses ha) been 7uilt* of laches. In cont$ast% the C' hi7hli7hte) the fact that the Santoses ha) been in open% peaceful% public% an) a)0e$se possession of the sub;ect p$ope$t* in the concept of o3ne$s% an) Ca$#encita ne0e$ Auestione) this possession until afte$ the sale to Re*nal)o% 3hen she )isco0e$e) that this lan) 3as actuall* pa$t of the lan) $e7iste$e) in he$ sonBs na#e. 'fte$ eDa#inin7 the $eco$)s% 3e fin) that both the RTC an) the C' 7$ie0ousl* e$$e) 3hen the* o0e$looCe) a basic but fun)a#ental issue that Ca$#encita ti#el* $aise) in he$ 'ns3e$ F that the co#plaint states no cause of action a7ainst he$.1@ 'n action fo$ $econ0e*ance is an action a0ailable to a pe$son 3hose p$ope$t* has been

3$on7full* $e7iste$e) un)e$ the To$$ens s*ste# in anothe$Bs na#e.1? .hile it is a $eal action% it is an action in pe$sona#% fo$ it bin)s a pa$ticula$ in)i0i)ual onl*% althou7h it conce$ns the $i7ht to an intan7ible thin7. 'n* ;u)7#ent in this action is bin)in7 onl* upon the pa$ties p$ope$l* i#plea)e).19 This is in Ceepin7 3ith the p$inciple that e0e$* action #ust be p$osecute) o$ )efen)e) in the na#e of the $eal pa$t*/in/inte$est% i.e.% the pa$t* 3ho stan)s to be benefite) o$ in;u$e) b* the ;u)7#ent in the suit% o$ the pa$t* entitle) to the a0ails of the suit%1" as e#bo)ie) in Section !% Rule 8 of the Rules of Cou$t+ Section !. Pa$ties in inte$est. F ' $eal pa$t* in inte$est is the pa$t* 3ho stan)s to be benefite) o$ in;u$e) b* the ;u)7#ent in the suit% o$ the pa$t* entitle) to the a0ails of the suit. Unless othe$3ise autho$i4e) b* la3 o$ these Rules% e0e$* action #ust be p$osecute) o$ )efen)e) in the na#e of the $eal pa$t* in inte$est. Hitalics supplie)I 'n* )ecision $en)e$e) a7ainst a pe$son 3ho is not a $eal pa$t*/in/inte$est in the case cannot be eDecute). <ence% a co#plaint file) a7ainst such a pe$son shoul) be )is#isse) fo$ failu$e to state a cause of action.1 Re*nal)o file) the p$esent co#plaint to co#pel Ca$#encita to eDecute a Dee) of 'cCno3le)7e#entGRecon0e*ance o0e$ the sub;ect p$ope$t* in his fa0o$. Notabl*% he file) the p$esent action onl* a7ainst Ca$#encita% )espite his Cno3le)7e that the sub;ect p$ope$t* is $e7iste$e) in E##anuelBs na#e. 's he state) in his co#plaint+ @. That )efen)ant% GUIS'NO%!& no3 $efuses to $eco7ni4e the sale #a)e b* )efen)ants S'NTOS to plaintiff% 3ith he$ consent an) conni0ance% an) no3 clai#s the sai) pa$cel of lan) as <ERSJ ha0in7 been $e7iste$e) b* he$% o$ he$ )ecease) husban) in the na#e of thei$ son% E##anuel Guisano% un)e$ TCT No. RT/1"@9" of the Re7ist$* of Dee)s of 2ulacan onl* fo$ taD pu$posesJ ?. That sai) )efen)ant GUIS'NO also $efuses to eDecute the necessa$* DEED O= 'C>NO.-EDGEMENTGRECONVE1'NCE to plaintiff% o$ cause the sa#e to be eDecute) b* the no#inal o3ne$% he$ son% EMM'NUE-% in o$)e$ to set the $eco$) st$ai7ht an) Auiet title to the afo$esai) po$tion of lan).!1 In the p$a*e$ po$tion of his co#plaint% Re*nal)o fu$the$ asse$te) that he file) the p$esent action a7ainst Ca$#encita as eithe$ the o3ne$ of the sub;ect p$ope$t* o$ the la3ful atto$ne*/in/fact of E##anuel. .e Auote the pe$tinent po$tion of the co#plaint+ .<ERE=ORE% it is $espectfull* p$a*e) that ;u)7#ent be $en)e$e)+ 1. O$)e$in7 )efen)ant C'RMENCIT' GUIS'NO% as the alle7e) o3ne$ of the p$ope$t* an)Go$ as the la3ful atto$ne*/in/fact of he$ son E##anuel Guisano% to eDecute the necessa$* DEED O= 'C>NO.-EDGEMENTGRECONVE1'NCE o0e$ the pa$cel of lan) )esc$ibe) in pa$. 8 of this Co#plaint% in fa0o$ of plaintiffJ an)Go$ in the alte$nati0e% o$)e$in7 )efen)ant GUIS'NO to pa* plaintiff the su# of P 88&%&&&.&&% eAui0alent to the p$esent 0alue of the lan)% as actual )a#a7es.!! 's Re*nal)o hi#self $eco7ni4e) in his co#plaint% the sub;ect p$ope$t* is $e7iste$e) un)e$ TCT No. RT/1"@9" in E##anuelBs na#e aloneJ Ca$#encitaBs na#e )oes not appea$ an*3he$e on the title. .hile Re*nal)o alle7e) that Ca$#encita 3as the o3ne$ of the p$ope$t* sub;ect of )ispute% 3ith E##anuel actin7 as a #e$e no#inal o3ne$% a To$$ens ce$tificate is the best e0i)ence of o3ne$ship o0e$ $e7iste$e) lan)%!8 an) se$0es as e0i)ence of an in)efeasible title to the p$ope$t* in fa0o$ of the pe$son 3hose na#e appea$s on the title.!: 'bsent an* e0i)ence to the cont$a$*% E##anuel is the $eal pa$t*/in/inte$est in an* action that seeCs to challen7e o3ne$ship of the $e7iste$e) p$ope$t*.1K3phi1 Re*nal)o shoul) thus ha0e file) his co#plaint fo$

$econ0e*ance a7ainst hi#. .hat #aCes Re*nal)oBs e$$o$ all the #o$e ineDcusable is the fact that Ca$#encita $epeate)l* $aise) this )efect befo$e the lo3e$ cou$t in he$ 'ns3e$!@ an) P$e/T$ial 2$ief.!? Gi0en Re*nal)oBs a3a$eness of the )efect of his co#plaint% an) the oppo$tunities affo$)e) hi# to a))$ess the )efect% his failu$e to i#plea) E##anuel in the action is untenable. .hile the lo3e$ cou$ts consi)e$e) Ca$#encita to be E##anuelBs atto$ne*/in/fact% 3e fin) no e0i)ence on $eco$) that E##anuel e0e$ autho$i4e) his #othe$ to $ep$esent hi# in this action. E0en assu#in7 that Ca$#encita )i) act as E##anuelBs atto$ne*/in/fact% it is 3ell/establishe) in ou$ ;u$is)iction that an atto$ne*/in/fact is not the $eal pa$t*/in/inte$est. E0en if so autho$i4e) in the po3e$ of atto$ne*% she cannot b$in7 an action in he$ o3n na#e fo$ an un)isclose) p$incipal.!9 Since Re*nal)o 3as ob0iousl* a3a$e of the fact that the sub;ect p$ope$t* 3as $e7iste$e) in E##anuelBs na#e% he shoul) still ha0e inclu)e) E##anuel as a )efen)ant in the a3a$e of the fact that the sub;ect p$ope$t* 3as $e7iste$e) in E##anuelLs na#e% he shoul) still ha0e inclu)e) E##anuel as a )efen)ant in the $econ0e*ance case pu$suant to Section 8% Rule 8 of the Rules of Ci0il P$oce)u$e% 3hich $ea)s+ Section 8. Rep$esentati0es as pa$ties./ .he$e the action is allo3e) to be p$osecute) o$ )efen)e) b* a $ep$esentati0e o$ so#eone actin7 in a fi)ucia$* capacit*% the beneficia$* shall be inclu)e) in the title of the case an) shall be )ee#e) to be the $eal pa$t* in inte$est. ' $ep$esentati0e #a* be a t$ustee of an eDp$ess t$ust% a 7ua$)ian% an eDecuto$ o$ a)#inist$ato$% o$ a pa$t* autho$i4e) b* la3 o$ these Rules. 'n a7ent actin7 in his o3n na#e an) fo$ the benefit of an un)isclose) p$incipal #a* sue o$ be sue) 3ithout ;oinin7 the p$incipal eDcept 3hen the cont$act in0ol0es thin7s belon7in7 to the p$incipal. He#phasis ou$sI .<ERE=ORE% the petition is GR'NTED. The Decision of the C' )ate) ,ul* 81% !&&9 in C'/G.R. CV No. 99!:" is REVERSED an) SET 'SIDE% an) the co#plaint in Ci0il Case No. ?!8/M/ is DISMISSED fo$ lacC of #e$it% 3ithout p$onounce#ent as to costs. SO ORDERED. 'RTURO D. 2RION 'ssociate ,ustice .E CONCUR+ 'NTONIO T. C'RPIO 'ssociate ,ustice Chai$pe$son M'RI'NO C. DE- C'STI--O ,OSE PORTUG'- PERE( 'ssociate ,ustice 'ssociate ,ustice ESTE-' M. PER-'S/2ERN'2E 'ssociate ,ustice 'TT E S T'T I O N I attest that the conclusions in the abo0e Decision ha) been $eache) in consultation befo$e the case 3as assi7ne) to the 3$ite$ of the opinion of the Cou$tLs Di0ision. 'NTONIO T. C'RPIO 'ssociate ,ustice Chai$pe$son% Secon) Di0ision C E R T I = I C'T I O N

Pu$suant to Section 18% '$ticle VIII of the Constitution% an) the Di0ision Chai$pe$sonLs 'ttestation% I ce$tif* that the conclusions in the abo0e Decision ha) been $eache) in consultation befo$e the case 3as assi7ne) to the 3$ite$ of the opinion of the Cou$tLs Di0ision. M'RI' -OURDES P. '. SERENO Chief ,ustice =ootnotes 1 Un)e$ Rule :@ of the Rules of Cou$tJ $ollo% pp. 1!/!!. ! Penne) b* 'ssociate ,ustice ,osefina Gue0a$a/Salon7a. an) concu$$e) in b* 'ssociate ,ustices ,ose C. Re*es% ,$. an) Ra#on R. Ga$ciaJ i). at !@/8@. 8 I). at 8?/8". : I). at @8. @ I). at @9/@". ? I). at @". 9 I). at @ . " I). at @". I). at @ . 1& I). at :&/:8. 11 I). at :"/@!. 1! I). at @9/?1. 18 Sup$a note !% at 88. 1: Sup$a note !% at 88/8:. 1@ Rollo% p. @&. 1? See <ei$s of -ope4% S$. 0. <on. En$iAue4% : & Phil. 9:% " 5!&&@6. 19 See MuMo4 0. 1abut% ,$.% G.R. Nos. 1:!?9? an) 1:?91"% ,une ?% !&11% ?@& SCR' 8::% 8?9% citin7 'lonso 0. Cebu Count$* Club% Inc.% :!? Phil. ?1% "?/"9 5!&&!6. 1" See Na0a$$o 0. Escobi)o% G.R. No. 1@89""% No0e#be$ !9% !&& % ?&? SCR' 1% 11. 1 <e$$e$a% Re#e)ial -a3 I% Rules 1 to !!% !&&9 e).% p. @1@% citin7 '7uila% ,$. 0. Cou$t of 'ppeals% G.R. No. 1!98:9% No0e#be$ !@% 1 % 81 SCR' !:?J 2e$#an Me#o$ial Pa$C% Inc. 0. Chen7% : 9 Phil. ::1% :@! 5!&&@6. !& Co$$ecte) b* the RTC as Gui4ano in its p$e/t$ial o$)e$ )ate) Octobe$ 1:% 1 J RTC $eco$)s% p. 9". !1 Rollo% p. :1. !! I). at :!. !8 <ei$s of the -ate =e$nan)o S. =alcasantos 0. Tan% G.R. No. 19!?"&% 'u7ust !"% !&& % @ 9 SCR' :11% :1:. !: Ibi).% citin7 Republic 0. Cou$t of 'ppeals% G.R. No. ": ??% No0e#be$ !1% 1 1% !&: SCR' 1?&J an) De#asia)o 0. Velasco% No. -/!9"::% Ma* 1&% 1 9?% 91 SCR' 1&@. !@ RTC $eco$)s% p. !@. !? I). at @?. !9 <e$$e$a% sup$a note 1 % at @89.