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Gap Coating (Knife Over Roll, Kinfe Over Blanket, Floating Knife, etc.

) This process relies on a coating being applied to the substrate which then passes through a 'gap' between a 'knife' and a support roller. As the coating and substrate pass through, the excess is scraped off. This process can be used for high viscosity coatings and very high coat weights, such as plastisols and rubber coatings. There are innumerable variants of the relatively simple process which is rugged, hard working and somewhat inaccurate.
a. !oating compound b. !oating knife c. "acking roll #$%& 'nife over roll. a. (ndless blanket b. !oating compound c. !oating knife #$)& 'nife over blanket. a. *dler roll b. !oating compound c. +hoe d. !oating knife e. "acking roll #$,& -loating knif.

. Reverse Roll Coating *n this procedure, the coating material is measured onto the applicator roller by precision setting of the gap between the upper metering roller and the application roller below it. The coating is 'wiped' off the application roller by the substrate as it passes around the support roller at the bottom. The diagram illustrates a , roll reverse roll coating process, although / roll versions are common. *n 0everse 1ravure !oating, the actual coating material is metered by the engraving on a roller before being wiped off as in a conventional reverse roll coating process.
a. 2octor knife b. Transfer roll c. "acking roll d. !oating compound #$%& 3 head reberse roll coater. a. 4etering gap

b. "acking roll c. 4etering roll d. 2octor e. !oating compound f. 0eservoir plate g. 2octor h. Transfer roll #$)& 5ip fed reverse roll coater. a. *dler roll b. Applicator roll c. "acking roll d. 4etering roll e. !hemical compound #$,& 6an fed reverse roll coater.

. Air Knife Coating A simple process where the coating is applied to the substrate and the excess is 'blown off' by a powerful 7et from the air knife. This procedure is typically used for a8ueous coatings and is particularly noisy.
a. Air knife b. "acking roll c. !oating roll #$%& Air kinfe coater.

. Gravure Coating The gravure coating process relies on an engraved roller running in a coating bath, which fills the engraved dots or lines of the roller with the coating material. The excess coating on the roller is wiped off by the 2octor "lade and the coating is then deposited onto the substrate as it passes between the (ngraved roller and a 6ressure 0oller. 9ffset 1ravure is common, where the coating is deposited on an intermediate roller before transfer to the substrate.
a. 2octor blade b. *nd pan c. (lastomeric d. (ngrabed otofravure roll #$%& (ngraved roll coater. a. +teel roll b. 0ubber roll c. 2octor blade d. (ngraved rotofravure roll #$)& 9ffset engraved roll coater.

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Immersion ( ip) Coating

*n this simple process, the substrate is dipped into a bath of the coating, which is normally of a low viscosity to enable the coating to run back into the bath as the substrate emerges. This process is fre8uently used on porous substrates.
a. -abric in b. 5ip rolls

c. 9ut #$%& 2ip coater.

. !etering Ro" (!e#er Bar) Coating *n this coating process, an excess of the coating is deposited onto the substrate as it passes over the bath roller. The wire wound metering rod, sometimes known as a 4eyer "ar, allows the desired 8uantity of the coating to remain on the substrate. The 8uantity is determined by the diameter of the wire used on the rod. This process is remarkably tolerant of non precision engineering of the other components of the coating machine.
a. Ad7ustable idler b. Applicator roll c. :ire wound rod d. 0eturn idler e. :ire wound rod #$%& :ire wound rod coater.

. Curtain Coating *n the !urtain !oating process, a bath with a slot in the base allows a continuous curtain of the coating to fall into the gap between two conveyors. The ob7ect to be coated, such as a door, is passed along the conveyor at a controlled speed and so receives the coating on its upper face. +melly and crude versions of these machines were once common.
a. -abric in b. +upport rolls c. 6resssure die d. !ompound in sheet form e. To oven #$%& !urtain coater.

. $lot ie ($lot, %&trusion) Coating *n the +lot 2ie process, the coating is s8uee;ed out by gravity or under pressure through a slot and onto the substrate. *f the coating is %<<= solids, the process is termed '(xtrusion' and in this case, the line speed is fre8uently much faster than the speed of the extrusion. This enables coatings to be considerably thinner than the width of the slot.
a. -abric in b. 0ubber pressure roll c. !hill roll d. 9ut e. (xtrusion die #$%& 4elt extrusion coater.

. Rotar# $creen
A puddle of coating solution sits inside a cylindrical screen which is pierced by holes where it is desired that the coating is 'extruded'. A s8ueegee pushes the solution through these holes as the cylinder rotates in contact with the substrate. !omplicated patterns are possible> screens

are expensive> repeat lengths may be problematic. 4uch used for making wallcoverings.

. 'ot !elt Coating


*n most of the coatings appled commercially, the low viscosity re8uired to achieve an even coating is achieved by solution or dispersion. *n a small number of cases the desired coating can be melted and applied while hot. These are hotmelt processes. The actual coating techni8ues used are still one of those listed below? so there is hot melt slot die> hot melt metering rod> etc. @ot melt where possible brings tremendous advantages in terms of speed, lack of drying tunnel etc. The main limitation is the small number of applications for which suitable coatings are available. 4ost of these are adhesives.

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$pra# Coating a. -abric in b. +upport rolls c. To over d. !ompound spray e. +pray no;;le assembly #$%& +pray coating.

. Foam Coating .
Cast Coating a. -abric in b. Applicator roll c. !ompound d. 9ut #$%& !ast coater.

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Calen"ar Coating a. -abric in b. 4olten polymer #$%& !alender.

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Roll coating #$%& 0oll coater.