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Chapter 1

1.1. Title : Clean Water Shortage

1.2. Introduction 71% of the Earth's surface is water. Of this, 97% is in the oceans and only the remaining 3% is available in rivers, lakes and reservoirs as fresh water. There are three sources of water: rain water, ground water and surface water. Today, all these three resources have been almost depleted. The earth is a closed system and neither gains nor loses much water. This means that the same amount of water that existed on earth a million years ago is still here. Water continuously changes from one state to another and moves from place to place forming the hydrological cycle. The water cycle is the process by which water circulates from the land or the oceans to the atmosphere and back again. What is affected is the availability of usable water where and when needed. Since water plays a very vital role in sustaining life on Earth, water must be accessible and safe. Lack of safe water is a cause of serious illnesses. Tuberculosis, cholera, diarrhea, typhoid and malaria are the main water borne diseases, which kill over two million people every year, the vast majority being children mostly in developing countries. The world's total population is six billion. One in six people in the world do not have access to safe drinking water. A water crisis of catastrophic proportions is about to explode. Fresh water is a finite resource. The amount of fresh water supply provided by the hydrological cycle does not increase. Water everywhere on the planet is an integral part of the global hydrologic cycle. Precipitation originates as evaporation from land and the oceans. Soil moisture is used by plants, which return more moisture to the atmosphere, which then returns to Earth as rain or snow. Barlow and Clark add, Unless we dramatically change our ways, between one -half and two-thirds of humanity will be living with severe freshwater shortages within the next quartercentury. Humans share the Earth with other creatures who also need water, therefore, a water shortage is also a crisis for wildlife.

1.3. Problems Based on the topic, the problems we should find/discuss from this topic are : - What is the meaning of Clean Water Shortage ?
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- The Types of Clean Water Shortage. - Causes of Clean Water Shortage. - The Impacts of Clean Water Shortage - Preventions and Solution for Clean Water Shortage

1.4. View Point The view point of this topic is based on the global water crisis. Therefore, the explanation in this paper is based on every aspects related to the human being, such as environment, etc.

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Chapter 2
2. AA 2.1. What is Clean Water Shortage ? Water is a substance created from hydrogen and oxygen (H2O). It forms 75% of our body and have so many functions inside our body, from cleansing till to keep the bodys heat. And also have some functions in our daily life, from washing till the basic material of industries. Water Shortage is the condition when theres insufficient clean water to support the living process. Thats extremely dangerous because we know, that water supports living process. Without it, every kind will be suffering and obviously, extinct. Water scarcity involves water stress, water deficits, water shortage and water crisis. The concept of water stress is relatively new. Water stress is the difficulty of obtaining sources of fresh water for use, because of depleting resources. A water crisis is a situation where the available potable, unpolluted water within a region is less than that region's demand. When then there is not enough potable water for given necessity, the threat of a water crisis is realized. The United Nations and other world organizations consider a variety of regions to have water crises such that it is a global concern. Other organizations, such as the Food and Agriculture Organization, argue that there is no water crises in such places, but that steps must still be taken to avoid one.

A Clean Water Crisis The water you drink today has likely been around in one form or another since dinosaurs roamed the Earth, hundreds of millions of years ago. While the amount of freshwater on the planet has remained fairly constant over time continually recycled through the atmosphere and back into our cupsthe population has exploded. This means that every year competition for a clean, copious supply of water for drinking, cooking, bathing, and sustaining life intensifies. Water scarcity is an abstract concept to many and a stark reality for others. It is the result of myriad environmental, political, economic, and social forces. Freshwater makes up a very small fraction of all water on the planet. While nearly 70 percent of the world is covered by water, only 2.5 percent of it is fresh. The rest is saline and ocean-based. Even then, just 1 percent of our freshwater is easily accessible, with much of it trapped in glaciers and snowfields. In

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essence, only 0.007 percent of the planet's water is available to fuel and feed its 6.8 billion people. Due to geography, climate, engineering, regulation, and competition for resources, some regions seem relatively flush with freshwater, while others face drought and debilitating pollution. In much of the developing world, clean water is either hard to come by or a commodity that requires laborious work or significant currency to obtain. Water Is Life Wherever they are, people need water to survive. Not only is the human body 60 percent water, the resource is also essential for producing food, clothing, and computers, moving our waste stream, and keeping us and the environment healthy. Unfortunately, humans have proved to be inefficient water users. (The average hamburger takes 2,400 liters, or 630 gallons, of water to produce, and many water-intensive crops, such as cotton, are grown in arid regions.) According to the United Nations, water use has grown at more than twice the rate of population increase in the last century. By 2025, an estimated 1.8 billion people will live in areas plagued by water scarcity, with two-thirds of the world's population living in waterstressed regions as a result of use, growth, and climate change. The challenge we face now is how to effectively conserve, manage, and distribute the water we have. National Geographic's Freshwater Web site encourages you to explore the local stories and global trends defining the world's water crisis. Learn where freshwater resources exist; how they are used; and how climate, technology, policy, and people play a role in both creating obstacles and finding solutions. Peruse the site to learn how you can make a difference by reducing your water footprint and getting involved with local and global water conservation and advocacy efforts.

At any one time, half of the world's hospital beds are occupied by patients suffering from water-borne diseases.

Over one-third of the world's population has no access to sanitation facilities. In developing countries, about 80% of illnesses are linked to poor water and sanitation conditions.

1 out of every 4 deaths under the age of 5 worldwide is due to a water-related disease.
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In developing countries, it is common for water collectors, usually women and girls, to have to walk several kilometers every day to fetch water. Once filled, pots and jerry cans weigh as much as 20kg (44lbs).

Water scarcity affects one in three people on every continent and is getting worse as water needs rise with population growth, urbanization and increased usage by households and industry. * Almost one-fifth of the world's population (about 1.2 billion people) lives in areas where water is scarce. One quarter of the population lives in developing countries that face water shortages due to lack of infrastructure. * Poor water quality can increase the risk of cholera, typhoid fever, dysentery and other infections. Water scarcity can lead to typhus, plague and trachoma, an eye infection that can cause blindness. * Water scarcity encourages people to store water in their homes, which increases the risk of contamination and provides breeding grounds for mosquitoes, which carry dengue fever, malaria and other diseases. * A lack of water has increased the use of wastewater for farming. More than 10 percent of the world's people consume foods irrigated by wastewater that may contain chemicals or diseasecausing organisms. 2.2.The Types of Clean Water Shortage People usually categorize the situation of clean water shortage into 3 stages of warnings, idle, alert, and beware. But, the clean water shortage itself is cant be categorized. The types of clean water shortage are depend on the types of water contamination. Sources of surface water contamination can be categorized based on their origin. Point source water pollution refers to the types of water contamination which enter the water system via one certain, identifiable source, such as a pipe or a ditch. This type of contamination source includes municipal sewage systems and industrial and construction sites. Non-point source contamination refers to the types of water contamination which are diffuse and not just a single source. Small amounts of contaminants spread over a large area, finding their way into the water system, would be considered a non-point source of contamination.
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Runoff flowing from agricultural land, carrying fertilizer or pesticides would be considered nonpoint source contamination. If runoff is carrying pollutants into the water system, and is not channeled or piped, this would be considered non-point source contamination. Contamination of surface water by storm runoff which carries disease causing pathogens, is another example of non-point source contamination. This is often the case in areas where the inhabitants practice open defecation, or where improved sanitation is not available. 2.3. Causes of Clean Water Shortage Today, in many places on Earth, fresh water demands begin to exceed its availability, and this situation is unlikely to improve. Currently more than a billion people around the globe suffer from water deficiency. According to the UN, by 2025 nearly half of the globe will either suffer from serious congestion, or the planet will face a complete water deficiency. By midcentury, three fourths of the population would have to deal with the problem of water shortage. Scientists expect that water deficiency will increase because the population is growing, and many people are getting richer (which increases the water demand). Global climate change also leads to desertification and reduced water supply in many areas. Moreover, a lot of sources of water are threatened by pollution effluents and industrial wastes, flush fertilizer from agriculture and penetration of salt water through groundwater pumping. Inadequate access - Inadequate access to safe drinking water for about 884 million people has lead to huge unavailability of water in many parts of the world, especially in many parts of India. Also, about 2.5 billion people have access to and use clean water for sanitation and to dispose waste, but, they do not bother for using it injudiciously. Groundwater Drafting - Groundwater drafting, means excessive use of groundwater. This has lead to the decline of water in the water table and now, at many places, the water has gone down to such a level that it cannot be extracted for use on the earth's surface. Pollution - This is a major threat. Water pollution leads a large volume of usable water to be termed as unusable and unfit for domestic use. A lot of impurities are poured in river water and it is getting dirtier and more unfit for use, decreasing the spectrum of sources that can be used for domestic use. And there are other causes of water shortage, such as : - Massive urbanization/ industrialization throughout the country - Increasing construction/ infrastructure development Activities

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- Depleting of natural resources due to changing climate conditions - Lack of implementation of effective water management systems

2.4. The Impacts of Clean Water Shortage Prolonged water crisis caused a bad effect on everything. On the issue of water shortage, poor countries are feeling the effects the most. These countries require large amounts of water for irrigation, domestic and industrial. Water is a basic human need, without the water will dry up and people will die. There are several causes of the outbreak of the crisis of water, one of which the failure of some states to regulate, manage and preserve the water, while also growing population is increasing. For example, China's population reached 1.2 billion today will swell to 1.5 billion in 2030. Means the demand for water will increase by more than 66 percent during that period. In addition, the use of groundwater resources of the infinite also trigger water crisis. During this time, humans have been using water as the only "things" that can not be replaced by another object. But the effort to provide clean water has not been much done. You can imagine if people around earth continually consume water without being concerned about sustainability. Impact to Health Sector The severity of the issue of availability of clean water raises the thorny problem in the health sector. As in the cases listed on this site http://www.sinarharapan.com said that ever occurred in North Jakarta, clean water crisis resulted in seven babies have died from diarrhea. Deaths of seven babies stems from clean water crisis. The parents of the baby does not have any other options to meet water needs, except with the use of well water. We are very familiar with the condition of the water wells in Jakarta .. There are at least 20-30 types of diseases caused by microorganisms that live in water. WHO study on the provision of clean water and sanitation and health, suggests several other diseases such as cholera, hepatitis, polimearitis, typoid, disentrin trachoma, scabies, malaria, yellow fever, and intestinal worms. Improving sanitation Worm Disease In Indonesia there are four major health impacts caused by water and poor sanitation, namely diarrhea, typhoid, polio and intestinal worms. The results of the survey in 2006 showed that the occurrence of diarrhea at any age in Indonesia is 423 per 1,000 population and occur one or two times per year in children under five years old. Data from the Directorate of Environmental Health Department said, in 2001 the average number of deaths caused by diarrhea is 23 per 100,000 population, while the figure was higher
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in children aged under five years, to 75 per 100,000 population. Death of children under three years of 19 per 100,000 children die from diarrhea each year-one of the causes of child deaths (more because of ARI / acute respiratory tract infection, and complications before birth)-data from the Indonesia Health Profile, 2003. As for the incidence of typhoid in Indonesia is 350-810 per 100,000 population. Clinical studies show that hospital typhoid morbidity was 500 per 100,000 population and the mortality rate is 0.6% -5%. Deaths from polio have occurred in Indonesia (in West Java) on a boy aged under two years. In addition, the prevalence of intestinal worms in Indonesia is 35.3%. Economic losses of about 2.4% of GDP or 13 U.S. dollars per month per household (the study of the Asian Development Bank, 1998). The disease most often affects the current water crisis struck was diarrhea. The disease is also popularly known as dysentery vomiting (vomiting) can be regarded as a disease endemic in Indonesia, that occurs continuously in all areas, both urban and rural. Diarrhea is accompanied by symptoms of bowel movements continuously, vomiting and stomach cramps can often be cured by itself without the need for medical help. Diarrhea is rarely fatal, but should not be underestimated. Scarcity of water and slovenly lifestyle is the cause of this disease. Unhygienic lifestyle and not pay attention to sanitation cause intestinal diarrhea virus vulnerable to attack. Cases of diarrhea are not treated quickly can lead to dehydration which if left unchecked can lead to death. Signs a person has diarrhea is when the frequency of bowel movements more frequently than normal. Dirt comes out watery and consists of plenty of fluids. And these symptoms can be a symptom of more severe disease, ie typhoid and colon cancer. Actually it is very easy disease prevention, namely by keeping the body, food and beverages. But for the population in which the water is flowing, such measures can not be easily done. Actually there are four interventions that can be done to prevent diarrhea, the water treatment and storage at household level, practice hand washing, improved sanitation, water supply mengingkatkan. Each intervention has had a different impact on diarrhea. 2006 data from the World Health Organization (WHO) shows that: Intervention decrease diarrhea incidence rate: 1 Various behavioral interventions through modification of the environment 94% 2 water treatment and safe storage of household 39% 3 Conducting effective hand washing practices 45% 4 Improving sanitation 32%
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5 Improve water supply 25% In addition to diarrhea, the affected area clean water crisis are also prone to skin diseases. The disease is caused itching of the residents who rarely showers because of the limited supply of clean water at their disposal. Clean water is they have just enough to use for groceries. Impact to Economic Sector Clean water crisis impact on the economy. About 65 percent of Indonesia's population live on the island of Java which covers only seven percent of the total land area of Indonesia while water potential possessed only 4.5 percent of the total water potential in Indonesia. In the next two decades is expected to man the water used will increase 40 percent and 17 percent less water is used to increase the supply of food and population. On the other hand the condition of water resources is getting worse, especially in poor countries due to the problem of pollution and waste. It has therefore called for an investment in the provision of water by the United States and allow the private sector to provide water or water privatization. The problems of water privatization in Indonesia is now more complicated because almost all Regional Water Company (PDAM) is currently in a state is unable to pay its debts. In situations like this, the privatization of the water as if it were a panacea to clear up the problem of clean water. Now this Law Decree 7 of 2004 on water resources that contain the spirit of the privatization of water management has been adopted. Government asked to seek their own financing water management, or by seeking investors. In Jakarta, 95 percent of the water management company owned by two foreign companies, RWE Thames from the British and French Suez Ondeo. In other areas of the world were a number of companies in the water sector has been operating. For example, Biwater in Batam and Palembang; Ondo Suez in Medan, Semarang, and Tangerang; Thames Water in Sidoarjo, and Vivendi, which also operates in Sidoarjo. Pemberlukan Act No. 7 of 2004 which allowed the private sector to manage water resources in Indonesia is considered the government as a solution for the management of water resources. with hope if people are given the high economic value of water, the water treatment community to be different: more efficient, preserve and celebrate. In fact, privatization will make people's access to water is limited and expensive. Because the entire cost of network management and maintenance of water and other water sources rely solely on the user in the form of tariffs. Actually, with the commercialization of water, those with the most money that would multiply the water most. The poor do not have money even
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more difficult to get water so many people who are not able to get healthy water for drinking. Examples of cases that occurred in North Jakarta in recognition of a citizen http://www.kompas.com quoted saying that "the money that was originally recorded for other shopping needs, such as rice and kerosene, were taken for buying water. We were overwhelmed. "

2.5. Preventions and Solution for Clean Water Shortage Since the problem of water shortage can result in various diseases, starvation, and political conflicts, failure to take necessary measures can lead to severe aftermaths. Government officials should formulate plans to implement technological, economic and political actions that will ensure water security in present and future. Global freshwater resources are under a threat because its need increased in many areas. More and more people need more water. Also, due to the climate change, it is likely that the droughts will emerge and spread. The authorities have to decide how to get enough water, so that it does not destroy natural ecosystems. Application of new improved methods of desalination will help to prevent shortages of water and increase its availability. However, government officials at all levels ought to begin forming appropriate policies and carrying out investments in the infrastructure of water supply. To understand the global problem of water supply, we should calculate how much fresh water is required per one person, and to explore factors that impede the water supply and increase demand for it in different parts of the world. Some researchers believe that an average person requires at least 1 thousand cubic meters of water per year, which he/she uses for drinking, hygiene and agricultural food production. Why is Important to Keep Water Preservation?

There is complete dependence on the state for any kind of water provision. It is a kind of fostered parasitism since the state, via its bureaucratic machinery, does not seem to possess the will to alter such a situation.

Such has been the level of extraction from rivers that most of India's river basins have degraded and the rivers are polluted.

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Large dams are the major source of water storage, and canals are the major distributory route. The former have caused large-scale community displacement and ecological havoc. The latter, large-scale degradation of land via soil salinisation.

Groundwater resources have been heavily over-used. There are solutions: better public and community control of water utilities; repairing

old water systems, using less water for agriculture by using drip irrigation, stopping polluting the water we do have, increasing water conservation and focusing resources on watershed management. Based on an article found in the internet, there are 19 top solutions or preventions of clean water shortage. Education to change consumption / lifestyle In the end, changing the face of this crisis involves education to motivate new behaviors. Coping with the coming era of water scarcity will require major overhaul of all forms of consumption, from individual use to the supply chains of major corporations, like GE. Some regions led by India, Australia and the Southwest U.S., are already facing the freshwater crisis. The most critical task is making sure the problem is much better understood worldwide. Water conservation technologies In areas where aquifers are drying up and rainwater is increasingly unpredictable, innovation is needed. But as we attempt to cope with freshwater scarcity and develop conservation technologies, energy consumption is an important consideration. Recycling / water treatment systems In March, World Water Day panelists urged a new mindset for waste water treatment. Some countries, like Singapore, are trying to recycle to cut water imports and become more selfsufficient. The rich East Asian republic is a leader in developing advanced technology that cleanses waste water for other uses, including drinking. Improved irrigation technologies / agricultural practices Some 70 percent of the worlds freshwater is used for agriculture. Improving irrigation can help close supply and demand gaps. In certain cases profligate irrigation practices meant for an earlier era has weakened the ability of farmers to provide food and fiber to a growing
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world. Examples include the Murray-Darling basin in Australia, Central Asias Aral Sea, and the American Southwest. Although new technology has become an appealing solution, global water experts like Peter Gleick note that in some cases, such as the agricultural systems in California, success stories can happen by improving whats already in place. Appropriate pricing / water rights markets Water pricing and rights go hand in hand, with consumers questioning the benefit of higher prices. According to experts from the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), an international economic forum of 31 of the worlds richest countries, raising prices will help lower waste and pollution. But Circle of Blues May investigation into water pricing systems in major U.S. cities, show current utility pricing systems are obsolete, send the wrong signals, and need reform. Energy efficient desalination plants To date, desalination has been an energy-intensive solution to water scarcity. Typically the Middle East has capitalized on its large energy reserves to build desalination plants. But Saudi Arabia could be fostering a new kind of desalination with its recent announcement to use solar-powered plants. Britain has taken a different approach with small-scale facilities for agriculture. But these innovations bring to light another needed resource the capital for technological experimentation. Water catchment / harvesting Water catchment systems are essential for areas with no other reliable water sources. Pakistan and Indiatwo countries that contend with some of the worst effects of climate changeare overhauling rainwater harvesting systems. These efforts provide independent control of water resources. Rooftop rainwater harvesting systems are now mandatory for new buildings in 18 of Indias 28 states and four of its seven federally-administered union territories

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Community-based governance / partnerships Community organizations elevate the experiences of those whose voices merit more influence. In April, for instance, indigenous groups met at the alternative climate change conference in Bolivia, a gathering meant to foster international partnerships among underrepresented groups. Ensuring more effective governance at the grassroots-level gives communities stature, and can lead to effective policy changes on a national scale. Better government policies / regulations As water scarcity complicates food security and pollution, governments need to redefine their role. The U.S. government is considering expanding the Clean Water Act to ensure more protections. In Russia, meanwhile, Prime Minister Vladimir Putin has approved waste discharges in Lake Baikal, one of the worlds largest bodies of freshwater. Regardless of what path elected leaders takethe Circle of Blue/GlobeScan WaterViews survey indicates they are considering multiple approachesthe survey also found that most people say it is up to the government to ensure communities have access to clean water. Holistic management of ecosystems Simply put, holistic management applies to a practical, common-sense approach to overseeing natural resources that takes into account economic, cultural, and ecological goals. In essence, the whole is greater than the sum of its parts, and each facet is related to and influences the others. Good examples of holistic management are communities that operate sewage treatment plants while pursuing partnerships with clean energy producers to use wastewater to fertilize algae and other biofuel crops. The crops, in turn, soak up nutrients and purify wastewater, significantly reducing pumping and treatment costs. Improved distribution infrastructure Poor infrastructure is devastating to health and the economy. It wastes resources, adds costs, diminishes the quality of life, and allows preventable water-borne diseases to spread among vulnerable populations, especially children. The problem is not confined to the developing world. Pipes burst on a regular basis in the U.S., prompting boil alerts. Sewage treatment systems regularly overflow and malfunction, causing beach closures.

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Corporate water footprinting / sustainable manufacturing Industrial water use accounts for approximately 22 percent of global consumption. The corporate footprint includes water that is directly and indirectly consumed when goods are produced. As sustainable manufacturing becomes more important, given the increasing severity of water scarcity, Peter Gleick and other experts question the costs of one industry sector in particular: bottled water. International policy frameworks / institutional cooperation Binding international accords for natural resource issues are hard to achieve. The 2009 United Nations Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen is evidence of that point. And thats not just because the freshwater crisis, arguably the most visible and dire of the climate change risks, was ignored. Regional agreements regarding transboundary or shared water bodies such as the Great Lakes Compact in the U.S., and Nile River basin agreement in Africa are just as difficult to ratify. But policymakers and advocates need to keep trying. Humanitarian-oriented treaties, such as the U.N.s drinking water Millennium Development Goals, indicate that comprehensive global strategies are possible. Address pollution to improve quality of water Measuring and monitoring water quality is essential to human health and biodiversity. This monumental issue rears its head in many forms and can be addressed in just as many ways, whether its David de Rothschilds eco-adventure in a plastic ship or Joe Berlingers documentary on oil contaminating the Ecuadorian Amazon. While securing the quality of drinking water and at the local level, its essential to build international bridges to solutions. Public common resources / equitable access One of the key United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) is ensuring access to drinking water. While the steps to achieve this goal are debated, the thesis that water is a basic right comes into play. As countries such as Chile attempt to reform water rights, U.S. politicians are considering how access rights translate into federal protection of Lake Michigan, one of the worlds largest reserves of freshwater.

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R&D / Innovation Access to water in a water-scarce world will become a much higher priority in business decisions. Communities are likely to pursue public-private partnerships that draw on the innovative capacities of companies. One example cities that operate sewage treatment plants are likely to pursue partnerships with clean energy producers to fertilize algae and other biofuel crops with wastewater. Water projects in developing countries / transfer of technology Climate change and water scarcity are producing the most dramatic consequences in developing regions, such as northwest India and Sub-Saharan Africa. One proposed solution is to transfer water conservation technologies to these dry areas. Doing so is tricky because economies are weak and there are gaps in skills that often compel government and business authorities to impose these changes on local citizens. Climate change mitigation Climate change and water scarcity go hand-in-hand to cause some of the biggest contemporary challenges to the human race. These issues have a reciprocal relationship, identified by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), in which, water management policies and measures can have an influence on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. As renewable energy options are pursued, the water consumption of these mitigation tactics must be considered in producing alternatives ranging from bio-energy crops to hydropower and solar power plants. Population growth control Because of the accelerating growth in global population, parts of the world could see a supply-demand gap of up to 65 percent in water resources by 2030. Currently, more than one billion people dont have access to clean water. And with 70 percent of the worlds freshwater used for agriculture, waters critical role in food production must be considered as climate and resource conditions change.

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References

http://www.clean-water-for-laymen.com/types-of-water-contamination.html http://forloveofwater.co.za/top-19-solutions-to-the-global-fresh-water-crisis/ http://www.gather.com/viewArticle.action?articleId=281474976792478 http://www.vikasrikhye.com/tag/reasons-for-water-shortage/

The following pages are browsed on March 4, 2013 (14.45 p.m)

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