Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 13

..

,
One cow in a year gives 600 liters of gasoline! You don't trust? Meanwhile, it is a scientific fact. Certainly, it is a question, actually, not of gasoline, but of its power equivalent; developed from its manure, the biogas cleared to biomethane.

From February 20 to March 20, 2012 within the international project "Sustainable management of a Manure/dung in farms of the Leningrad Region" will take place a 4 one-day seminar on the subject: "A condition, problems and possible ways of ensuring ecological safety in implementation of various methods of utilization of a manure/dung and production schedules on their functioning on livestock complexes and poultry farms of the Leningrad region" Conduction of seminars are caused not only by the fact that applied technologies of utilization of a manure/dung and plant growing waste, have negative impact on the ecology, but also the fact that methods of utilization influence efficiency of development of animal husbandry and crop production. Good cumulative environmental and economic results are obtained by the utilization of waste to produce biogas (biomethane). Technologies that are implemented to use animal husbandry and plant growing for production of biogas (biomethane) are described in detail [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]. These technologies are especially suitable for remote areas with the low population density which power supply is associated with high expenses on delivery of organic fuel and electric power transfer. In addition to these technologies, it is possible to continue to use as a fuel cow manure in the dried-up form, straw and pods of seeds for heating of houses. Currently they are also related to one of types of renewable energy resources "other biomass". However, the natural combustion of manure into the atmosphere releases a lot of biomethane and cardon dioxide that leads to environmental pollution and inefficient use of waste. For instance, in the USA currently, on animal waste accounts for about 8% of human-related emissions of biomethane. Therefore, in the USA covered ponds are usually used for storage of animal waste. Thus for collecting the biogas which is allocating from waste the so-called floating roof which top is supplied with the valve and system of pipes for removal of biogas to the consumer is applied. Features of this biogas technology are in detail described in work [7]. Development of microbiological branch on anaerobic transformation of organic substances is an actual issue today. Depending on a specific situation into the forefront there can go a direct energy generation, saving energy in the process of purification of organic waste, obtaining raw materials recovered from renewable energy sources (RES), producing the energy in the form of motor fuel, fertilizers of long periods.

Energy usage from renewable sources is a good opportunity to approach number of the global and regional challenges caused by development energy based on fossil fuel. Modern use of a biomass can be considered as use of renewable resources only if the system provides the corresponding increase of a crop. Certain hopes often rest upon photosynthesis of algas which can grow much quicker, than land vegetation. However, cultivation of algas requires concentration of carbonic acid and creation of the installations comparable on complexity with hydroponics. As the last one gives food products, it undoubtedly will have a priority. Development of the hydrolytic industry in the USSR which used the cheapest and available biomass forest waste is a bright example. The traditional energy power supply based on gas, oil, and coal, undoubtedly leads to a depletion of O2 reservoirs quicker, than "green fuel", which doesn't demand such huge areas and the main feature is, it doesn't compete with production of food. Nevertheless, the analysis of opportunities of "green fuel" as the main source of energy leads to pessimistic conclusions. The optimistic forecast arises only by consideration of opportunities anaerobic digestion as multi-purpose process. This process which significantly reduces power consumption during the process is carried out by community of microorganisms which are capable (except a lignin) to form a biomethane mix of the most various organic substances with the carbonic acid, known as "biogas". The general schemes of biomass processing are presented in the Figure below.

Figure 1: General Anaerobic digestion diagram

It is known that modes of biogas technologies depending on temperature are subdivided on psychrophilic (15 20 :), mesophilic (30 40 :) and thermophilic (52 56 :). Anaerobic processing of organic substances, in biogas reactors represents complex process. It is carried out in three main stages with the participation of a number of microorganisms. Originally, the microorganisms convert the organic matter into a form which uses a second group of microorganisms to produce organic acids. And then biomethane - making anaerobic bacteria decompose these acids and finish processing. Anaerobic bacteria are capable "to digest" an organic material in lack of oxygen, unlike aerobic decomposition at a composting which demands a lot of oxygen. Drier manure piled, under the influence of microorganisms aerobes gradually decays, and is warmed in the course of decomposition to 50 70 : To increase the concentration of methane-producing bacteria in the reactor, the intensification of formation biomethane use the ability of microorganisms such as adsorption on the surfaces of solids. As immobilizing glass, surfaces are used, nylon thread, activated charcoal and other materials, the yield of biogas is increased by twice. [9] Also temperature influences intensity of methane production. Theoretical and practical researches in the field of biological processing of a vegetable biomass, animal husbandry waste, etc. in biogas showed that activity

of bacteria and respectively a amount of the biogas received as a result of processing directly depends on temperature. The higher the temperature, the faster the processing, more biogas is generated. Thus, at a temperature from 52 to 56 : production of biogas goes 1,5 - 3 times faster, than at 30 40 :, and effective disinfection is achieved resulting fertilizers (activity of bacteria and, therefore, production of biogas significantly falls in the range of temperatures 51,7 and 39,4 :, and to a lesser extent from 35 to 0 :). Today intensity of a generation of methane is one of the main indicators of the effectiveness of biogas technology and its improvement - a priority for scientific researches and development. Also this process is very sensitive to such factors as change in initial materials and to temperature fluctuations methane bacteria relatively easily withstand temperature fluctuations of the environment in the bioreactor only within 3 4 : / days. Sustainable process of methane production can be carried out by applying homogeneous substrate. In this case the microorganisms which are carrying out the main route are collected, and the speed of process increases. Any interruption or change in the composition of the substrate, changes in physical and chemical conditions that lead to a longer delay. Thus, there can be no universal installation for the processing of organic materials in the biomethane. The disadvantage of the vast majority of currently operating biogas plants of various types is their maintenance. Thermophilic regime that produces biogas is provided by the unacceptably high rate of highly different fuels (by burning of the produced biomethane). And when using them in winter, they require separate facilities (shelters), and hence the extra energy spent in these areas microclimate. For comparison. The consumption of heat for own use of the boiler: The burning of gas fuel - 2.3 - 2.4, solid - 2.4 - 4.9, liquid - 3,5 - 9,7%. Coming back to schemes of possible microbiological ways of processing of organic substances to fuel, it should be noted that only generation of methane has the return route to a biomass. Digested sludge represents fertilizer of long action which returns nutritious elements on fields and, therefore, saves the energy spent for fertilizers. A common argument against the generation of methane is need of use of manure serves in agriculture as organic fertilizer. This argument is not quite accurate, since the methane is a reduction in the ballast of organic substances in the waste as bio-methane and carbon dioxide, and a corresponding reduction in transport costs on the export of fertilizers on the field. Particularly, advantageous variant of thermophilic methane, which performs the most stringent sanitary requirements. The disadvantage of methane is its high cost as a method of purification of organic waste compared to aerobic treatment. Thus, at the very skeptical view of the possibilities of "green fuel", the development of methods for anaerobic treatment of organic waste is a win-win approach.

If biogas raw dry and burn, the heat of combustion is approximately 16 MJ / kg (approximately 10% of the potential heat of combustion is lost during fermentation.) Thus, the conversion efficiency is 90%. At the same time, the material with high humidity being introduced into the process of fermentation, gives a good quality controlled gaseous fuel combustion, whereas the mere removal of 95% of moisture from the manure requires heat to 40 MJ per 1 kg of dry residue [10]. The research of optimal architecture of the combined biogas installations, that reduces the use of biomethane for own technological needs are found by more and more broad reflection in works of researchers [11]. So use of renewable energy resources such as wind turbines, solar collectors, for maintenance of the working environment in the bioreactor allows to increase the efficiency of biogas system by 1,5 2 times. It is especially true when purified from CO2 biomethane is used as a fuel for motor vehicles, or it is injected into the existing natural gas network. Sustainable development of the biogas industry can be achieved, on the authors view by maintaining optimal temperature i.e. 53 54 : in the bio reactors which includes solar salt pond (Figure 2, 3) with the corresponding stock of thermal energy. The bio reactor (1) (Figure 2) is placed at the bottom of a pond (2) in which direct sunlight (4) and reflected from the concentrator (5) arrives.
5 Figure 2 Scheme of the bio reactor in the solar salt pond 1 bio reactor, 2 solar salt pond, 3 thermal collector housing, 4 solar radiation, 5 solar radiation concentrator, 6 soil, 14 the space between the housing 3 and the heat collector bio reactor 1

2 1 3 6

14

11

7 9

( 1) 8

13
10 1 3

90 100 :

14

52 56 :

12

1 bio reactor, 2 solar salt pond, 3 thermal collector housing, 7 Substrate inflow, 8 effluent substrate, 9 ground sludge pipeline, 10, 11, 12 gate valve, 13 access hole, 14 the space between the housing 3 and the heat collector bio reactor 1 Figure 2 - Cross section along A - A of Figure 1

Raw materials (vegetable biomass, animal waste, etc.) via line 7 (Figure 2) is fed into the digester reactor 1, hereinafter in the reactor 1, where mixes with available feedstock therein with a stirrer which provides uniformity of composition and temperature of the feedstock. The produced biogas is given on line 8 to a gasholder (is not shown). Generated during the processing of raw materials (fermentation). Sludge equal in size, was admitted to the reactor feed is output (recycled) from the manufacturing process in line 9. Maintenance of the necessary temperature of a fermentation in the reactor 1, at the expense of use of solar energy is provided as follows. The reactor 1 is placed in the case of a thermal collector 3 with a gap 14. When filling this gap with water (at open gates 10 and 11 and the closed gate 12 water arriving through the gate 11 forces out air from a gap 14 via the gate 10 in the atmosphere) receipt of heat from a solar salt pond 2 to raw materials in the reactor 1 most. It provides, if necessary, the accelerated heating of raw materials to the most effective temperature of a fermentation from 52 to 56 :. After heating of raw materials to the demanded temperature, at the closed gate 11 open gates 10 and 12 that provides water plums via the gate 12 and drainage of a gap 14. As a result intensity of receipt of heat from a solar salt pond 2 through an air gap 14 decreases in tens-hundreds times, in comparison with when it was filled with water. Further maintenance of temperature of raw materials in demanded limits can be provided by synchronous regulation of giving of "cold" raw materials on the pipeline 7 and removal of slime on the pipeline 9 and at the expense of creation in a gap 14 low vacuum or water pumping through it. Such combined installation that generates biogas ensures reactor 1 functioning in a thermophilic mode, without costs of developed biomethane of own technological needs. It is quite appropriate if then biomethane is used as motor fuel, for roasting of a brick, lighting, for production of asphalt, production of steam and for other technological processes where temperature exceeds 100 C. It is possible to fill with biomethane locomotives-turbovozy. Separated at

purification of biogas to biomethane, carbon dioxide, can be used for cultivation of algas. During the work of solar biogas installation only in winter it is possible to create considerable stocks of manure, freezing it, for example, by means of the thermal pump. By gradually using it in the summer together with waste of vegetable growing and plant growing it is possible to prepare smoothly uniform organic weight for a fermentation providing maximum efficiency of work of the biogas installation. In this case it is expedient to make manure defrosting by a natural way just before a bookmark in the bioreactor (with endurance demanded on time in the closed capacity) that minimizes environmental pollution. A steam heated in the reactor gap 14 can be used in the spring for watering in greenhouses and hotbeds, providing maintenance in them the acceptable temperature not only air but also soil since. In the winter the reactor 1, after cleaning of slime, it is possible to use for reserve storage of biomethane, propane, butane or natural gas. At production of biogas by an essential task for research is the optimization of modes. Generally, the complex task is, multicriterial and multimodal. Usually, annual expenses which depend mainly on character and technological process, on power consumption act as most general criterion of optimization. In case of optimization of a mode of installation for any period of time criterion are the general expense (losses) of energy. Then criterion function looks like:: wher consumption of energy in the i-th element (technological conversion) set for the period under review; n - the number of system components. In general, the energy consumption consists of the following components:

Where, Energy spend for collection and transportation of the bioreactor organic waste (biomass); energy spend for processing (crushing) of biomass (collection, transportation and recycling plant requires a great expenditure of energy. Animal waste requires less energy on those components); energy loss of feeding material into the bioreactor (stable methanogenesis can only be achieved by applying a uniform homogeneous substrate); loss of heat from the bioreactor; energy consumed for mixing of the substrate; energy consumed for cleanup of the reactor

sludge, fertilizers, and biogas to biomethane; loss of energy on the organization of storage of biomethane. As the main criterion of optimization of a mode for a concrete timepoint energy losses from the bioreactor act. In this case: Where consumption of energy in the i-th element in the bio reactor for specific period of time; the number of system components. The optimum mode is implemented in different ways are given above. For the implementation of a stable regime of fermentation, you must perform the following energy inequality: Where, the amount of heat with a temperature above the temperature of the thermophilic regime, which has a solar salt brine pond in the time interval , J; heat consumption of the reactor at the thermophile mode in time t, J In turn, the need to heat the reactor for maintenance of temperature of a thermophilic mode in it the equation of energy balance looks as follows: ( ) where the amount of heat required to heat the incoming feedstock to a temperature of fermentation time interval t, J, the amount of heat carried away by pumping a water through the gap between the housing and the heat collector reactor to the upper limit temperature thermophilic mode time interval t, J; loss of heat of the wet biogas, at the temperature of fermentation in a time interval t, J; the amount of exothermic heat evolved during the fermentation period of time t, J. ( ) Where, mass entering the reactor feed, kg; specific heat capacity of incoming raw materials, J / (kg K); fermentation temperature, :; temperature of the incoming raw material to the reactor,:. ( ) Where, mass of water pumped through the gap, kg; specific heat of water, J / (kg K); temperature of incoming water into the gap, :; temperature of outgoing water from the gap,:. ( ) Where, wet weight yield of biogas, kg / s; Biogas specific heat at constant pressure, kJ / (kg K); temperature of the air, :; heat of evaporation kJ / kg; absolute humidity of biogas kg water / kg of biogas.

According to [10], the fermentation is allocated about 1.5 MJ of heat ( ) 1 kg dry fermentable weight, i.e. about 25 kJ / mol 6105. From these relationships, it follows that requirements for the heat of the bioreactor can vary over time in a broad range. Therefore, taking into account the stochastic entering the pond solar energy for the unconditional implementation (at any time) necessary to ensure that this supply of heat by maintaining the temperature within the brine pond 80 - 85 : C to diasble other consumption sources of heat, with decreasing the temperature, e.g., below 70 75 : C. As it was seen from the mathematical relationships discussed, heat required in biogas when the temperature brine pond is reduced by decreasing . However, this decrease is significant. Therefore, this biogas plant to be operated by using the energy pond, along with other systems that are in cloudy weather and rains dramatically reduce heating energy consumption of the pond. This may be a solar cooling system or geliovodomet [8]. Implementation of solar energy in technological production of biogas allows to achieve the greatest efficiency in summer and autumn, which is especially important in the areas that have been cut off from the large power centers because of flood of the rivers, off road terrain, etc. The biogas industry can become very acknowledged in the near future, as it will also ensure that fertilizers produced by the borrowing of soil fertility, prevent the free biomethane emissions to the atmosphere. The cost of biomethane depends on many factors, including the sale of "adverse" products. The most considerable rise to profit on sale of biomethane can be got from realization of liquid fertilizers as it is a highly liquid production that is in high demand. The demand for fertilizer is always a necessary factor in the functioning of agricultural bio-system is a balance between the introduction of the soil and the removal of its energy in the form of nutrients: application should be no less than the stem. According to Barabaner [13] now the annual average hectare of arable land receives (received) 48 - 50 kg of mineral fertilizers and 5.0 - 5.6 tons of manure: it corresponds to the introduction of - 11,624,078 MJ, and take away all biological crop - 7 times more. If we consider that the organic mass of root system, stubble and a part of the stems remain in the soil, the difference is reduced from 7 to 3.5 - 4 times. It cannot be ignored the ability of legumes to fix nitrogen in the soil biological (alfalfa - 300, clover - 200, broad beans - 100, soya 80, lupine - 70 kg / ha), which reduces the variance from 3.5 - 4 to 2.0 - 2.5 times. This difference determines the limits of the necessary balancing of removal and soil nutrients. Due to the fact that the energy density is much lower manure fertilizer, maximizing its inclusion is inextricably linked with the optimization of the saturation of farms breeding. To preserve the fertility of the soil is necessary to have 74 conditional head of cattle on 100 hectares of arable land.

Proceeding from such need for fertilizers, we provide the short list of organic waste of the various productions suitable for production of biogas (biomethane) and fertilizers: grain and beet pulp the bard, a beer pellet, a beet press (by production of sugar of beet waste and by-products I make 85 88% of weight of raw materials), waste of fish and mud houses (blood, fat, guts). And also a grass, household waste, waste of milk plants salty and sweet whey, production wastes of biodiesel fuel technical glycerin from production of the biodiesel from a colza, waste from production of juice a press fruit, berry, vegetable, a grape pressing, algas, starch and treacle production wastes alburnum and syrup, waste of processing of potatoes, production of chips cleanings, skins, rotten tubers, a coffee pulp [14]. Table 1 shows the possible development of biogas in the processing of such biofuels.
Table 1 - Average specific biogas production in the processing of various agricultural wastes [15]
Biogas production per unit dry weight of organic matter, l / kg Biogas production per unit dry weight of organic matter, l / kg

Material cannabis grass broom reed clover Waste green crops potato tops

Material swine manure Cattle manure horse manure bird droppings sheep manure Waste from livestock buildings wheat straw rye straw barley straw oat straw corn straw straw rape film rice flax

340 550 90 310 200 300 310 620 90 310

380 280 550 405 170 430 490 330 360 280 490 400 500 300 310 430 620 210 290 420 500 310 740

175 280 200 300 200 300 250 300 290 310 380 450 200 105 360

Leaves fodder beet The leaves of sunflower agricultural Waste plant Seeds foliage weed sludge channel

As an alternative to non-forested areas, where no peat or coal furnace stoked dung - air-dried tiles from manure and straw. According to appearance, chemical composition, the ability to fall apart in a dry form, manure is similar to peat of low grades. As peat, manure contains a lot of moisture. It is recommended to burn in the same firebox as peat. Currently, it also refers to one of the types of renewable energy sources - "other biomass". Therefore an important role when comparing the market of biomethane is played by the capacity of the market its maximum capacity at the greatest activity of the manufacturing enterprises of biomethane and an environment

favorable for sales. Comparison, clears up concerning opportunities of expansion of the market, appeal of biomethane to business. At an assessment of capacity of the local market it is possible to use an index of the purchasing power: Where, purchasing power of the consumer of i-th biomethane of the region, % from the regional; the disposable income of consumers biomethane i-th area,% of regional (level of income received by local consumers, which is a general fund spending power biomethane, which seek to take advantage of all the producers of biomethane, the longer the general fund, the greater the potential of the area); demands (requests) of consumers, i.e. sales in the i-th area,% of regional; Consumers using biomethane and settling down in the i-th area,% (main factor explaining the differences in potential sales of biomethane); level of competition; numerical factors - weight factors specific to each market biomethane. The criterion of economic feasibility of using bio-methane can be the amount of expenses associated with the production of biogas, biomethane cleaning it up, and the scarcity of natural gas. The use of biomethane is economically feasible for the consumer, subject to inequality: $ where total natural gas consumption to be at the rates m3; 3 biomethane volume consumed instead of natural gas, m ; C the price of natural gas, $/m3; cost of biomethane $/m3; - the volume of natural gas 3 consumed together with biomethane, m . However, consumption of biomethane especially the individual consumer will not be constant, but it will vary depending on the nature of the production activities of everyday life, weather conditions, etc. In addition to random variations, there are legitimate cyclical changes in fuel consumption due to the periodic employment of persons and seasonal cycles related to the change in seasons. The inclusion of individual consumers, especially in residential areas of the village is erratic, especially for a small number of consumers, so their (smallscale producers of biomethane) should be combined into a single network. For such associations it is significant that the properties of individual elements, their generators do not define the properties of association as a whole. A variety of consumers form a system with sustained over time gas consumption. The mathematical formulation of the problem of forecasting consumption of biomethane so consumers can be represented as: | | | |

where relative error of the predicted value; , actual and predicted values of the total consumption of bio-methane from the combined network. The anaerobic process in a bioreactor requires no atmospheric oxygen. A fertilization promotes plant growth, and therefore, enhance the formation of oxygen. Consequently, for the anaerobic treatment of organic waste and the use of these fertilizers obtained uniquely The anaerobic process in a bioreactor is no absorption of atmospheric oxygen. A fertilization promotes plant growth, and therefore, enhance the formation of oxygen. Consequently, for the anaerobic treatment of organic waste and the use of these fertilizers obtained uniquely balance the flow of oxygen in the air is positivly balance the flow of oxygen in the air. Aerobic digestion with composting is carried out through the use of atmospheric oxygen. Adding fertilizer, enhances plant growth, ensure the return of the used oxygen. Therefore, the aerobic process can be considered, at best, neutral in terms of reproduction (renewal) of oxygen, provided the use of fertilizer as directed. As you can see, the global experience in implementing energy rich enough. Will the Kazakhstan answer to the challenges imposed by today's global economy? Especially given the extremely brutal global competition and the struggle for resources? Without exaggeration, the solution of this problem depends on the preservation of fossil fuels for the future.


1 . . / . . , . . // . 2006. 6. . 2 4. 2 . / . // . 2007. 5-6. . 5 10. 3 . . / . . // . 2005. 5. . 22 23. 5 . / . , . // . 2007. 4. . 12 15. 5 . . / . . , . . // . 2007. 8. . 30 34. 6 . . / . . // . 2009. 10 12. . 16 20.

7 : ( ) GREENPEACE, , 2006, 89 . 8 . . , ( ) / . . . : .., 2010. 572 . 9 . . / .. . .: , 1986. 126 . 1 0 . . / . , . . .: , 1990. 392 . 1 1 . . / . . // . 2006. 8. . 9 12. 12 .2272392 , / 01 3/02, / . . : . . 27. 03. 2006, . 9. 13 / . . , . . , . . . , , 1989. 260 . 1 4 . . / . . // . 2009. 10 12. . 16 20. 1 5 . , . . .: , 1988 228 . 1 6 . / . // . 2010. 1. . 89 91. : , , 140 . . (3812) 60-50-84, . 8(962)0434819, E-mail: genboosad@mail.ru : 644053, -53, . , 60, .17.