Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 47

Class Notes

Nature and Experience of Religion Effects of Religious Expressions o o o o Emotional Intellectual Ritual Societal Historical Geographical/Ethnic Developmental

3/11/2013 11:00:00 PM

Components of Religion o o o

Philosophy of Religion the attempt to analyze and critically evaluate religious beliefs Dimensions of Religion o o o o o o Ritual Mythological story that becomes religious phenomena Doctrinal provide clarity to myths Ethical what I ought to do? Social communal and social significance Experiential the act of experiencing religion Mediated through a common public, sensory object Mediated through an unusual, public, sensory object Mediated through a private object that can be described in normal sensory language o Mediated through a private object that can not be described in normal sensory language o Not mediated by any sensory object Perfect and Worthy of Worship Anselm We believe that thou art a being than which nothing greater can be conceived o o o o o Necessary and Self-Existent Personal Creator and Sustainer All Powerful, All Knowing, and Perfectly Good Omnipotent, Omniscient, perfection of moral goodness God and Human Freedom God controls and determines everything

Five types of Religious Experiences o o o

Attributes of God o o

o o

We possess the Freedom of choice though God is Eternal Timeless or Everlasting

Faith & Reason Strong Rationalism o In order for a religious belief system to be properly and rationally accepted, it must be possible to prove that the belief system is true o o Suggests that every aspect of religion can be proved John Locke thought Christianity could fulfill all of W.K. Cliffords fears as long as Christianity is properly understood o o Pascal and Thomas Aquinas were important in Strong Rationalism Aquinas thought Christianity made a convincing case Religious belief systems are not subject to rational evaluation Fundamental Assumption no logic is required to believe Fideism requires a leap of faith to be made Kierkegaard You cannot have all of the proof because then you cannot have faith o o Ultimate concerns can be approximated but never completely arrived at Without risk there is no faith Religious belief systems can and must be rationally criticized and evaluated although conclusive proof of such a system is impossible o o o Critical Evaluation a more modest approach to establishing truth claims Looks for reasons in support and against the belief Critical Rationalism maintains a middle ground between Strong Rationalism and Fideism o Kierkegaard is correct in a key area some leap of faith is required Person relative view of proof A proof is a sound argument that someone knows to be true Anselm We believe that thou art a being than which nothing greater can be conceived o The being than which none greater can be conceived must also exist in reality o Shortcomings The argument only applies to things that pertain to perfections Theistic Arguments as Proofs o o

Fideism o o o o

Critical Rationalism o

Ontological Argument o

The argument may be used to prove all kinds of unreal things Doesnt work because the kind of being we are proposing is radically different than the kind that may exist in reality

The Kalam Cosmological Argument o It begins by invoking an empirical fact about the world (Ex: contingent beings exist) then it seeks for the cause or explanation of this fact. o o o Everything that begins to exist has a cause of its existence Thomas Aquinas supported this in terms of logic Sub-Atomic physics may have dealt a blow to this logic cant create something out of nothing

The Thomistic Cosmological Argument o o A contingent being exists What causes this contingent being to exist must be a set that contains at least one noncontingent/necessary being o o A necessary (non-contingent) being exists Completist Fallacy Bertrand Russell The universe exists and thats all there is to it Cant get to the end of the questions

The Analogical Theological Argument o o William Paleys Watchmaker Analogy Everything that exists in the watch exists in nature, only in nature it is much more complicated

The Inductive Teleological Argument o Asks not who made the amoeba, but how one accounts for the entire system o All that is required is that a better explanation be given for things that are otherwise unexplainable

The Moral Argument o C.S. Lewis Our moral discussions and moral behavior presuppose there is an objective moral law o o Moral relativism doesnt explain moral progress Moral relativism doesnt account for the global agreement on what is morally acceptable

Isa Upanishad Peace Chant OM! (OM! Peace! Peace!)

Miracles Accounts Impossible (inexplicable) Prodigious Result Singular Real/Historic Always must be witnessed Situation of trouble/despair

Miracles and Science Miracles as Historical Events o What constitutes natural law and are there conditions where factors that are unseen can be interposed o Personal testimony vs. Repeatability Most assume that a miracle is an event for which no plausible explanation is possible o Must be something maintained as inexplicable to be considered miraculous? Miracles as Acts of God o What if you had repeated witnesses to things that seemed to point elsewhere? Is that enough? o What are the reasons why miracle is appealing in religion? Science shows that natures laws are unalterable Extraordinary events require extraordinary proof, but reverse holds for miracle o Why do competing religions all have miracles? R.F. Holland points out that many miracles reported by believers simply involve very unlikely events o If such events can be described as miracles, why should the definition or miracle necessarily involve the breaking of laws of nature? Classical Scientific View: Contingency Miracles o Scientific Skeptic: David Hume o o Miracles as unexplained events o

Determinism Everything that happens according to strict laws, with no exceptions (no free will) Reductionism The world is like a machine; the parts can fully explain the whole (aka Mechanistic Outlook) Materialism The world is composed of a bunch of distinct material objects (atoms)

Quantum Mechanics o o The behavior of sub-atomic particles changes when observed The particles behave as waves and particles, depending on the observation

John Bells Experiments o Established the Quantum Mechanics notion of Entanglement Provides opportunities for integration between science and religion Some people take the findings of quantum mechanics as proof of the eastern religions claims about the unity of all reality (holism) o Others see in these discoveries a space (the quantum zone of indeterminacy) for God to act providentially in the world that is compatible with science Quantum Physics and Religion o o

Bronze & Iron Age in the Mediterranean The Bronze Age is divided into 3 parts: o o o Early Bronze Age (3300 BC - 1950 BC) Middle Bronze Age (1950 BC 1539 BC) Late Bronze Age (1539 BC 1200 BC) Iron Age I (1200 BC 950 BC) Iron Age II (950 BC 586 BC) Modern Day Canaan is the area of Israel and Palestine Canaanites o o Late Bronze age culture of Israel/Palestine Never ethnically or politically unified as a single nations The area consists of Israel, West Bank, Gaza Strip, Southern Lebanon, Syria, and Jordan

The Iron Age is divided into 2 parts: o o

Canaan o

They occupy the Southern Levant (made up of Israel, West Bank, Gaza, and Jordan) Metropolises stood on well watered terrain on vital trade routes Industrial city states ruled by a monarch and warrior class, with a large free serf class Patriarchal Society Lower classes were the artisans and farmers Merchants traded throughout the Mediterranean world (Egypt, Greece, Etc.)

o o

o o o

Warfare in Canaan o o o Internal warfare and external invasions were a constant threat Maintenance of armies and the defense of cities were the highest concern Fortified cities were built for defense against marauding bands and enemy armies as early as 3000 BC o Styles of warfare and weaponry evolved in the Southern Levant Ex: Chariots and Infantry

Egypt in Canaan o Egypt ruled Canaan for more than 300 years during the Late Bronze Age and Early Iron Age

Canaanite Religion o o o o o Association between place, deity, and royalty Deities associated with places, such as cities and eventually nations King or city ruler is chief official of deitys cult Temples functioned quite literally as the gods home High Places Open air sanctuaries o o Built on hill with an altar for sacrifices Local gods and goddesses were special manifestations of the great deities Pantheon: El the creator and supreme god Asherah his consort and friendly goddess Haal storm and fertility god Anat goddess of hunting & warfare

Ugarit o o o Powerful Canaanite City-State Northeastern Mediterranean coast in the 14th and 13th centuries BC Discovered in 1929 at Ras Shama

Huge archive of texts discovered Canaanite Religion and Culture

Megiddo o o o o Major Canaanite and Israelite City Located at juncture of major trade routes main pass Site of many important battles Armageddon was derived from this

Ancient Israel Interpreting History of Ancient Israel o How do we know information about Ancient Israelites? Analyze traditional literature in the Bible Book of Samuel is the primary source for history of Israel during 11th & 10th centuries BC Find information that was earlier than the time it was compiled and see how historically accurate it is o o Compare to other cultures at the time Trace origin of people of Israel through archaeological record

Aramaic Lingua Franca of Palestine Hebrew Most of Old Testament Yahweh was the god of the Israelite league of tribes Israeli monotheism developed not from polytheism but out of a national god religion Other nations in region had their own national gods Yahwism evolved during the Early Iron Age in Canaan Separates Israelites from neighbors Israelites first meet Yahweh at Mt. Sinai Sinai in Midian to east Earliest listing of Yahweh name Yahweh combined with El Shaddai and Elohim of Patriarchs Moabite Stone (circa 840 BC) Documentary Hypothesis 3 gods formed into one by later biblical writers

Yahweh o

o o o

The Early Hebrews

The Hebrews were the ancestors of the Jews, and most of what we know, including the laws and requirements of their religion, Judaism, comes from their later writings

Hebrew Fathers o o o o o o The Torah Abraham father of the Hebrews Gods Covenant 12 Tribes of Israel Abraham, Issac, and Jacob were the patriarchs Israelites in Egypt Slaves in Egypt Moses Pharaoh, plagues Exodus o Israelites out of Egypt Passover

Moses and Exodus o o o o

The Ten Commandments Canaan, Israel

Promised Land o

The Kingdom of Israel Scattered Communities No central government Judges enforce the laws Prophets keep Israelites focused on faith Saul, David, & Solomon o o Israelites united against the Philistines Saul was the first Israel king o Never won full support Strong king, gifted poet Israel reached the highest height of wealth during his reign David was the second king o Solomon was Davids son

Division and Conquest o o Conflict after Solomons death Two kingdoms of Israel and Judah

o o o o o

722 BC Israel falls to Assyrians 586 BC Judah fell to Babylonians Babylonians enslaved the Jews Diaspora sacrificing of jews Persons conquered the Babylonians

The Teachings of Judaism Religion is the foundation of Hebrew and Jewish societies Monotheism belief in one god Justice and Righteousness o Kindness, fairness, code of ethics Ten Commandments, Mosaic Law Torah, Talmud Obedience to the Law o Jewish Sacred Texts o Judaism A nation in Diaspora Torah first five books of the Bible United by a common heritage (an ethnic religion), divided in contemporary practice Orthodox o o o o Modern Chasidic Ultra Orthodox Conservative moderates, response to reform Reconstructionalism 20th century America

A Modern Interpretation of Judaism A 4000 year old tradition with ideas about what it means to be human and how to make the world a holy place A covenant relationship between god and the Hebrew people A celebration and sanctification of life A faith, a people, a way of life

613 commandments are found in the Torah (written law) Talmud (Oral Law) commentary of ancient rabbis that elaborates on how to apply Gods law in everyday life through: o o o Dietary rules (Kashrut/Kosher) Dress and other symbols Prayer and devotion to the one God

o o

The Temple and Temple rites Observance of Holy Days Bris ritual circumcision, sign of the covenant Bar Mitzvah full adult status and responsibility with the religion Marriage Be fruitful and multiply Death funerals, mourning (sitting shiva), and memorials (Yartzcits)

Life Cycle Celebrations o o o o of it Jesus was Jewish, as was his followers and the Apostles Jews do not believe that Jesus was anything more than a good and wise man who lived and died 2000 years ago o Jews still await their messiah

Judaism predates Christianity it is the foundation of Christianity but is not apart

The Jewish messiah would not be divine. He would be a political figure who restores the Hebrew monarchy and causes peace to reign on Earth

The Study of the New Testament Theological setting Gods action in history The history of God in Gods action in history From the end of the Old Testament to the Beginning of the New Testament o Alexander the Great (4th Century) to Herod the Great The coming of Hellenism Intertestamental period between Malachi and the gospels and epistles Persia is ruling Ancient Near East Alexander defeats the Persians and takes the eastern port of Issys in 339 BCE Palestine falls to Alexander in 332 BCE Hellenization: the Greek way of life ends up controlling the culture o Five features of the Hellenization Gymnasiums buildings and athletes, along with the contests This impacts Jewish society. Nudity is connected with shame and so is counter-judeo Circumcision, the sign of the covenant, is very apparent in these situations and there were efforts on the part of parents to seek to reverse it through operations

Guilds (clubs) The emphasis is on social distinction and the opportunity to pile up honors for oneself and ones family Heretofore, Jews had esteemed humility rather than largesse Herod (and the family) becomes the largest example of a Jewish family ascending the social status ladder

Stadium Sport gets a lot of attention in the ancient world Stadiums and arenas are places where gladiators do battle, slaves and traitors are executed, and where all kinds of competitions are staged. Gladiators and competitors had their own followings, as well. Greek Theater (Roman as well) Counter-Judeo Every city, including Jerusalem, had a Greek theater Representations of reality are not as important as life itself, for a Jew. For the Greek world, the representations are the place where the myths are retold and young ones are educated Imposition of the Greek Language Alexander gives everyone the challenge to learn Greek This was a unifying effort on the part of the Greeks Jews resisted this, going to the point where they call the language defiled but Greek language develops

Alexanders Importance o o o o A world language (Greek) Unified place with a familiarity of a person The ruler cult is off and running The fullness of time and the biblical picture There is the potential for a message to spread quickly This is the first time in human history where there is a universal opportunity for cross cultural development

The Maccabean Struggle o o The rise of Antiochus of Syria grabs Palestine His successor, Antiochus IV attempts to force Hellenization

Proper life is seen through a Greek lens Civilization = Greece

Egypt had tolerated Jewish customs for 100 years when the Seleucids vie for control of the Levant This is when the LXX, the Septuagint is written 70 Rabbis, one translation the stuff of legend Alexandria, Egypt, long tolerant of Judaism, place where the writing is commissioned A translation of Hebrew text into Greek text Hellenistic Jews have a favoritism towards Greeks Title: Epiphanies or God manifest. The Jews, of course, have a completely different notion about this and they become incensed at the notion. Slander and blasphemy. He abolishes Temple rites Forces people to sacrifice to foreign gods Law of moses is declared to be illegal Prohibited festivals and other religious events Revolt of armed defense Religious devotion Matthias organizes the resistance Judas Maccabeus, the hammerer, captures Jerusalem in 164 BCE They attend to the cleansing rites for the temples Hanukah commemorates that day. Palestinian vs. Hellenistic Judaism What provokes the revolt of the Maccabees?

Hasidim pious ones, loyal to the faith, react negatively

Jesus Christ Sources of our knowledge of the life and teachings of Christ o Non-Christian sources not necessarily antagonistic to the faith Jewish sources Josephus, one shout out, Antiquities, also mentions James, the brother of Jesus Babylonian Talmud (5th Century) mentions Jesus as well. There are six: Jesus was born out of wedlock

Learned magic in Egypt so he only appeared to do miracles He called himself God and Jesus considered himself to be God Tried by the Sanhedrin for teaching deception and apostasy (this reaffirms the gospel story) Executed on the eve of Passover by crucifixion (confirms early Christian tradition) He had 5 disciples

Pagan Sources: The Romans Pliny the youngers Letter to Trajan, 112 CE. He is asking for advice because of the greatly proliferating faith. The Christians are becoming numerous. What do we do? Tacitus, Annals, 115 CE Christians are blamed for the fire in Rome Suetonius, 12 Caesars, 120 CE Christians are a sect that profess a new and mischievous mystery (resurrection) and superstition Conclusion on Non-Christian Sources: Inconclusive and fragmentary The Jews did not want to promote the faith Josephus omitted many references to messianic uprisings. These uprisings were not the stuff of popular literature. It doesnt fit their purpose.

Christian Sources Luke 1:1 many gospels. Where are they? Books of the New Testament: Gospels (4 gospels) Acts (AKA Luke Acts) Pauline Letters General Letters Book of Revelations Synoptic Gospels Matthew, Mark, and Luke are all seeing together, the story of Jesus Fourth Gospel, John, sees things a little differently

The Canonical Gospels

The four evangelists, those who proclaim the good news gospel What does Euaggelion mean? Purpose to convince Jewish readers that Jesus is the Messiah Major Emphasis

Matthew

Rome, Jews, and Christians

The Jews Their Historical Identity o Ancient Israel 13th or 12th century BCE 386 BCE The Exodus from Egypt Moses YHWH and the Shema United kingdom under David and Solomon. The first temple

The Golden Age Not So Golden Age Return to the Promised Land under the Persians (539 BCE) The Ptolemies and Seleucids (323 167 BCE) Hellenization importation of Greek culture Antiochus IV Epiphanes and the abomination of desolation 1 and 2 Maccabees Judas Maccabeus and family Hanukkah (164 BCE) Jewish Independence Family of priest kings Dynasty ends in power struggle. Rome asked to intervene Pompey the Great (63 BCE) Palestine now occupied by Rome

Second Temple Judaism

The Maccabean Revolt (167 BCE)

The Hosmoneans (167 63 BCE)

Enter the Romans

The Jews under Roman Occupation The Jewish religion was tolerated

Religio Licita (legal religion exemption from pagan sacrifices) Antiquity appreciated Rigidly monotheistic (recall the Shema) Romans very tolerant: Jews = exceedingly intolerant only one god and all others are false

An obstinate and rebellious people

Nationalistic, even racist at times

Revolts crushed Client-Kings installed The Herods

Jews of the first century The Big Four The Pharisees Prominent laymen, focus on the synagogue and practical application of the Torah Opposed to Roman presence, but taught obedience to Gods law would result in deliverance The Saducees Aristocratic high priestly, focus on the Temple Supported Roman status quo Seen as corrupt No resurrection of the dead or angels Apocalyptic (the end is near!) Withdraw from corrupt society and the corrupt Temple system Qumran Get Rome out by force The Zealots

The Essenes

The Vast majority of Jews (95%) Farmers, fisherman, merchants, tradesman = struggling to make ends meet Sought to obey major commandments of the Torah and make the appropriate pilgrimages and sacrifices their faith required

Hebraic Jews vs. Hellenistic (Diaspora) Jews Major Jewish Centers = Jerusalem (Hebraic) and Alexandria (Hellenistic)

Messianic Expectation One Messiah or two or none? Messiah the anointed one, a kingly title Jewish renewal movements The Essenes John the Baptist (6 BCE 30 CE) Jewish Antiquities and Jewish War

The Christians o

Messiah figures crushed by the Romans, per Flavius Josephus

Yeshua (Jesus) dmen Nazareth (4 BCE 30 CE) Itinerant preacher/healer/prophet of the coming Kingdom of God Twelve apostles, other disciples Made messianic claims? (Palm Sunday, etc.) Executed by Pontius Pilate by crucifixion (This is the king of the Jews.) Rose from the dead? Earliest sources were Mark, Matthew, Luke, and John (c. 70 90 CE)

Strength and Weaknesses of the Gospels 4 Gospels (the synoptics) Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John Takes the entire gospel into account and doesnt chop the pieces up into un-retrievable pile Might be an overly subjective process, however, too much emphasis on the author/redactor/editor rather than the stories of Jesus. Not enough, some say, for the attribute of genuine revelation Perceived process Matthew Jesus Oral Tradition Community Context Editor/Author/Redactor But we start in reverse order

Purpose to convince Jewish readers that Jesus is the Messiah Major Emphasis: Jesus as heir to royal house of David (1:1-17). The sermon on the mount emphasizes the same kind of kingdom of God motif. In Ch. 19, Jesus is ascribed as the King of the Jews. Fulfillment of prophecy: More than any gospel Proof texting so fulfills the prophet X

Mark Gentile audience, probably Roman Translating Aramaic into Greek Aramaic was the common language in Palestine at the time of Jesus Praetorium, Latin form, rather than Greek, is preserved in the text. Action oriented gospel more interested in what Jesus does rather than what he says. This gospel presents Jesus in constant motion. The term immediately occurs 40X in this short gospel. Look at chapters 1, 2. Luke Gentile orientation, Theophilus, to win cultured Greek readers, perhaps? There are few OT proof texts, the genealogy is in reference to all human history rather than within the context of Judaism The humanitarian concern a sympathy with the masses: almsgiving, women are featured in prominent places, there is an economic dimension, as well Literary style is refined, elegant Greek, broad culture. Style independent, simple yet profound vocabulary. Words are repeated in order to emphasize John Passion narrative with an extended introduction Emphasizes the humanity of Jesus human emotions, etc. Divinity of Jesus son of God, 1:1, but in the gospel. Jesus downplays his divinity; so called Messianic Secret.

Differences between the Synoptics and John Geography John is in Judea, Synoptics in Galilee

The Messianic Jewish Community/Christians o o o o o Source = Acts of the Apostles (70-90 CE) Pentecost (Acts 2:1-4) Preaches gospel Paul of Tarsus and the Gentile Mission Christians at odds with the Jews Stoning of Stephen (Acts 7) Disturbance in Rome (Suetonius, Claudius 25:4)

The Fury of Rome o The Jews Jewish War (66-70 CE) Revocation of Jewish rights by Nero and raiding of Temple treasury = war! Christians refused to be involved Destruction of Jerusalem and the Temple by Titus in 70 CE

Bar Kochba Revolt (132 135 CE) = Jewish last stand, a failure. Banned from Jerusalem = Aeolia Capitolina Formation of Rabbinic Judaism Disappearance of Jewish Christianity

What Christians Believe In o I believe in God, the Father almighty, creator of heaven and earth o Omnipotence Omniscience Omnipresence Creator, sustainer, and preserver

I believe in Jesus Christ, Gods only son, our Lord, who was conceived by the Holy Spirit, born of the Virgin Mary, suffered under Pontius Pilate, was crucified, died, and was buried; On the third day he rose again; he ascended into heaven, he is seated at the right hand of the father; and he will come again to judge the living and the dead Pre-existent 2nd person of the trinity Fully God/Fully Human hypostatic union in the fullness of time Related to human persons

I believe in the Holy Spirit; the holy catholic church, the communion of saints, the forgiveness of sins, the resurrection of the body, and the everlasting. Amen.

Arabs Quran Values Honor parents, be kind to neighbors, protect widows and orphans, give to the poor Condemns Murder, stealing, lying, adultery Arabs = nomadic Bedouins, Semitic speaking people who lived in Arabian Peninsula Hostile surroundings made the Arabs move constantly to feed their animals Arabs organized into independent tribes to help each other with difficult lives Early Arabs were polytheistic. Allah was the main god Traced their ancestry to Abraham & his son Ishmael, who were believed to have built a shrine called the Kaaba at Mecca Black Stone, cornerstone of Kaaba, revered for its association with Abraham Born into merchant family in Mecca, orphaned early Became a caravan merchant & married his boss, a rich widow named Khadija Muhammad was troubled with gap between the greedy rich and the honest poor Muhammad went into mountains to meditate on the issue above While meditating, Muhammad received revelation from God through the angel Gabriel. Muhammad came to believe that Allah had revealed himself partially to Moses & Jesus and his final revelations were to him Islam = submission to the will of Allah Quran = Muslim bible based on Muhammad revelations Quran contains ethical guidelines for Muslims Islam has only one God, Muhammad is the prophet Faith Allah is the one true god and Muhammad is his prophet Prayer five times a day toward Mecca, noon on Fridays at Mosque Alms Giving Fasting during Ramadan from sunrise to sunset Pilgrimage a hajj to Mecca once in lifetime Muhammad

Five Pillars of Islam

Forbids gambling, pork, alcohol Regulates marriage, divorce, inheritance, business Endorses polygamy, slavery, jihad Difficult finding leadership after Muhammads death Abu Bakr Muhammads father in law was chosen to be successor. Called caliph successor to Muhammad Bakr & Muhammad used Jihad to spread movement of Islam Jihad = struggle in way of god By 650, Egypt, Syria, & Persian empire were part of the Arab empire. Done under the leadership of Bakr Death in battle was assured place in palace/enhanced military courage First 2 caliphs after Abu Bakr were killed In 656 Muhammads son in law, Ali, became ? In 661, general Muawiyah became caliph, was rival of Ali Was governor of Syria & moved capital from Medinah to Damascus Was known for only using force if necessary Made the caliph hereditary 8th century Arabs conquered and converted the Berbers In 717, Muslims attacked Constantinople, but their navy was defeated by Byzantines Internal struggle to lead revolts Most important revolt was led by Huessin, 2nd son of Ali, most of his followers defected and he fought 10,000 soldiers with 72 all died The struggles caused Islam to split into 2 groups, the Shiite and Sunni Split continues today. Most Muslims are Sunnis, but much of Iraq & Iran consider themselves Shiites

Creation of Arab Empire

Arab Empire

Umayyad Dynasty

Abbasid Dynasty In 750, Abu al-Abbas overthrew the Umayyad dynasty & founded Abbasid which lasted until 1258. In 762, Abbasid built new capital of Baghdad on the Tigris River

Nature & Experience of Religion


Effects of Religious Expressions Emotional Intellectual Ritual Societal

3/11/2013 11:00:00 PM

Components of Religion Historical Geographical/Ethnic Developmental

Philosophy of Religion the attempt to analyze and critically evaluate religious beliefs Dimensions of Religion Ritual Mythological story that becomes religious phenomena Doctrinal provide clarity to myths Ethical what I ought to do? Social communal and social significance Experiential the act of experiencing religion

Five types of Religious Experiences Mediated through a common public, sensory object Mediated through an unusual, public, sensory object Mediated through a private object that can be described in normal sensory language Mediated through a private object that can not be described in normal sensory language Not mediated by any sensory object

Attributes of God Perfect and Worthy of Worship o Anselm We believe that thou art a being than which nothing greater can be conceived Necessary and Self-Existent Personal Creator and Sustainer

All Powerful, All Knowing, and Perfectly Good o Omnipotent, Omniscient, perfection of moral goodness We possess the Freedom of choice though God and Human Freedom God controls and determines everything o God is Eternal Timeless or Everlasting

Faith & Reason


Strong Rationalism

3/11/2013 11:00:00 PM

In order for a religious belief system to be properly and rationally accepted, it must be possible to prove that the belief system is true Suggests that every aspect of religion can be proved John Locke thought Christianity could fulfill all of W.K. Cliffords fears as long as Christianity is properly understood Pascal and Thomas Aquinas were important in Strong Rationalism o Aquinas thought Christianity made a convincing case

Fideism Religious belief systems are not subject to rational evaluation Fundamental Assumption no logic is required to believe Fideism requires a leap of faith to be made Kierkegaard You cannot have all of the proof because then you cannot have faith Ultimate concerns can be approximated but never completely arrived at Without risk there is no faith

Critical Rationalism Religious belief systems can and must be rationally criticized and evaluated although conclusive proof of such a system is impossible Critical Evaluation a more modest approach to establishing truth claims Looks for reasons in support and against the belief Critical Rationalism maintains a middle ground between Strong Rationalism and Fideism Kierkegaard is correct in a key area some leap of faith is required

Theistic Arguments as Proofs Person relative view of proof A proof is a sound argument that someone knows to be true

Ontological Argument Anselm We believe that thou art a being than which nothing greater can be conceived The being than which none greater can be conceived must also exist in reality Shortcomings

o o o

The argument only applies to things that pertain to perfections The argument may be used to prove all kinds of unreal things Doesnt work because the kind of being we are proposing is radically different than the kind that may exist in reality

The Kalam Cosmological Argument It begins by invoking an empirical fact about the world (Ex: contingent beings exist) then it seeks for the cause or explanation of this fact. Everything that begins to exist has a cause of its existence Thomas Aquinas supported this in terms of logic Sub-Atomic physics may have dealt a blow to this logic cant create something out of nothing The Thomistic Cosmological Argument A contingent being exists What causes this contingent being to exist must be a set that contains at least one noncontingent/necessary being A necessary (non-contingent) being exists Completist Fallacy Bertrand Russell o o The universe exists and thats all there is to it Cant get to the end of the questions

The Analogical Theological Argument William Paleys Watchmaker Analogy o Everything that exists in the watch exists in nature, only in nature it is much more complicated The Inductive Teleological Argument Asks not who made the amoeba, but how one accounts for the entire system All that is required is that a better explanation be given for things that are otherwise unexplainable The Moral Argument C.S. Lewis Our moral discussions and moral behavior presuppose there is an objective moral law Moral relativism doesnt explain moral progress

Moral relativism doesnt account for the global agreement on what is morally acceptable

Buddhism
Buddhism Four Noble Truths 1st Noble Truth Life inevitably involves suffering 2nd Noble Truth The origin of suffering is our desires 3rd Noble Truth Suffering will stop when desires are stopped 4th Noble Truth - The way to this cessation is the Noble Eightfold Path

Noble Eightfold Path Right Understanding seeing through illusions Right Thoughts/Motives Right Speech Right Action 5 Rules of Moral Conduct, actions should be based on a clear understanding Right Livelihood Right Effort Right Mindfulness Right Meditation

10 Precepts of Buddhism Refrain from taking life Do not take what is not given Chastity Do not lie or deceive Do not take intoxicants Consume food in moderation, never after noon Do not partake in public spectacles Do not ornament your body Do not recline on wide or high beds Do not accept gold or silver

Three Jewels/Refuges of Buddhism I take refuge in the Buddha I take refuge in the Dharma I take refuge in the Samgha

Divisions of Buddhism Theravada oldest tradition, very individual, Samgha excludes the lay people Mahayana Samgha includes the lay people, help others achieve nirvana Tibetan achieve nirvana in a single life time, shares many Mahayana teachings

Buddhism Definitions Karma it is the cause of the next life Samsara circle of life, suffering, decay, death, and painful rebirth o Also known as the wheel of rebirth Stupa building constructed to commemorate those who have achieved enlightenment Samgha - the social organization/community/followers that has carried on the Buddhas teachings. Anatman No soul to be reborn; no permanent reality Skandhas aggregates The Buddha Siddhartha Gautama o o o o Siddhartha was in the Ksatriya class of the caste system. Siddhartha was born in 563 BC in Kapilavastu (currently Nepal) Siddhartha married Yasodhara and had a son, Rahula. He experienced suffering for the first time and abandoned his family to ultimately gain enlightenment. o The Buddhas Enlightenment o o The Buddhas enlightenment was independent of a God. He attained the pure heavenly eye that allowed him to see clearly and deeply into the condition of living beings. o The First Sermon o Addressed to the five ascetics with whom he had formerly associated, but who had deserted him when he gave up the severe self mortification they believed necessary to release. o Sangha the social organization that has carried on the Buddhas teachings.

The Buddha expresses his loyalty by affirming that he takes refuge in the three jewels of Buddhism the Buddha, the Dhamma (teaching), and the Sangha (the order). The order of monks is an integral part of Buddhism

o o

The Four Noble Truths o o o o o Life is permeated with suffering or dissatisfaction The origin of suffering lies in craving or grasping (tanha) The cessation of suffering is possible through the removal of craving The way to this cessation is the Noble Eightfold Path

Rebirth o o o o o o The things and persons that make up the world have three marks: Suffering (dukkha) Absence of self (anatta) Impermeance (anicca) means there is no eternal soul The only thing permanent in this world is Nirvana. Rebirth is not a transmigration of a soul from one body to another. There is nothing that carries over from one life to the next life.

Hinduism
Hinduism There is no real founder for Hinduism

3/11/2013 11:00:00 PM

Believe in continuous reincarnation determined by Karma Goal of Hinduism liberation from the wheel of reincarnation (Moksha) Polytheistic Ghandi is the most prominent Hindu

Origins of Hinduism Indus River Valley Civilization (5000 years ago) Aryans (4000-3500 years ago) Vedic Tradition (3500-2500 years ago) Eventually develops into Hinduism o o o Rituals and many gods Sacred texts Vedas Social stratification (caste system)

Upanishads (2800-2400 years ago) metaphysical philosophy

Sacred Texts of Hinduism Shruti oldest and most authoritative text o o o Four Vedas myths, rituals, and chants Upanishads metaphysical speculation Consisted of many other texts Ramayana Mahabharata (includes Bhagavad-Gita) Includes other texts

Smriti the great Indian Epics o o o

Bhagavad Gita Hinduisms most popular text Rig Veda Hinduisms oldest text Four Stations of Life (Caste System) determined by Karma Brahmin priests Kshatriya warriors and nobles Vaistrya merchant class Sudras servant class

Four Stages of Life Student

Householder Forest dweller after the birth of first grandchild; retired Sannyasin renunciant

Four Duties of Life correspond with the four stages of life Pleasure Success Social Responsibilities Religious Responsibilities

Hinduism Gods Brahma the creator god Vishnu the preserver god Rama avatar of Vishnu, featured in the Ramayana Krishna avatar of Vishnu, featured in the Mahabharata Shiva god of creative destruction Parvati divine mother, wife of Shiva Ganesha son of Shiva Saraswati goddess of wisdom, consort of Brahma Lakshmi goddess of good fortune, consort of Vishnu Durga protectress Kali destroyer of demons All of these deities are but manifest forms or avatars of the impersonal Brahman (meaning they have attributes and functions of the Brahman) Hinduism Definitions Vedas the sacred texts of the Vedic Tradition, which eventually develops into Hinduism Upanishads tells the story of the Vedas (revealed knowledge) of Hinduism, metaphysical philosophy Brahman One impersonal ultimate reality Moksha the ultimate goal of Hinduism; to release Atman and reunite with the divine, becoming as one with Brahman Karma Spiritual impurity due to actions keeps us bound to this world Dharma ethical duty based on the divine order of reality. This word has the closest meaning to our definition of religion.

Samsara the wheel of rebirth which means the soul is reborn from one life to another Atman the essence of life Yoga seeking union with the divine (there are 4 types of yoga) Guru a spiritual teacher

Final Exam Review


Arabs & Islam

3/11/2013 11:00:00 PM

Early Arabs were polytheistic but Allah was their main god Ancestry traced to Abraham and his son Ishmael o o Believed to have built a shrine called the Kaaba at Mecca Black Stone the cornerstone of Kaaba, revered for its association with Abraham

Muhammad o o o Muhammad was the prophet of Islam Born into merchant family in Mecca Became caravan merchant and married his boss, a rich widow named Khadija o Troubled with the gap between the greedy rich and honest poor Went into the mountains to meditate on the issue While meditating, he received a revelation from God through the angel Gabriel o Muhammad believed that Allah partially revealed himself to Moses & Jesus but his final revelations were to him o He became a religious, political, and military leader In 630, Muhammad returned to Mecca with 10,000 soldiers and the city surrendered o Many residents converted to Islam Muhammad declared the Kaaba to be a sacred shrine Islam has only one God (Allah) Muhammad is the prophet of Islam Quran Holy Book of Islam Muslim Bible based on Muhammads revelations Contains ethical guidelines for Muslims Values Honor parents Be kind to neighbors Protect widows and orphans Give to the poor Murder

Islam submission to the will of Allah o o o

Condemns

Stealing Lying Adultery Gambling Pork Alcohol Polygamy Slavery Jihad

Forbids

Endorses

Five Pillars of Islam Faith Allah is the one true God and Muhammad is his project Prayer five times a day towards Mecca, noon on Fridays at mosque Alms Giving Fasting during Ramadan from sunrise to sunset Pilgrimage a hajj to Mecca once in a lifetime

Creation of Arab Empire o o Difficult to find leadership after Muhammads death Abu Bakr o Chosen to be successor to Muhammad (aka Caliph) Muhammads father in law Jihad struggle in way of God Accomplished under the leadership of Bakr

Bakr & Muhammad used Jihad to spread the movement of Islam By 650, Egypt, Syria, & Persian empire were part of the Arab empire Death in battle assured a place in palace and enhanced military courage First 2 caliphs after Abu Bakr were killed In 656 Muhammads son in law, Ali, became caliph Assassinated 5 years later

o o o

The Meaning of Jihad o Jihad duty of Muslims to spread Islam and be one with Allah. Muhammad taught that anyone who died in a Holy War to spread Islam would go directly to Heaven o Jihad against oneself daily struggle against evil and temptation in life

o o o o

Jihad with knowledge use Quran to fight ignorance Jihad with wealth give up wealth to benefit Islam Jihad with the sword defend Islam against nonbelievers Jihad through righteousness perform good deed to please God and benefit humanity

Umayyad Dynasty o General Muawiyah o Became caliph in 661 Was rival of Ali Made the office of Caliph hereditary Moved capital from Medinah to Damascus

Arabs were defeated at the Battle of Tours which ended their European expansion Attacked Constantinople in 717 but their Navy was defeated by the Byzantines Revolts Caused by internal struggles Huessin, 2nd son of Ali, led a revolt with 72 soldiers against the 10,000 soldiers of Umayyad Dynasty Huessin and 72 soldiers all died The revolts caused a split Split continues today Most Muslims are Sunnis Iraq & Iran are Shiites

Islam split into 2 groups Shiite and Sunni

Abbasid Dynasty (750 1258) o In 750, Abu al-Abbas overthrew the Umayyad dynasty and created the Abbasid Dynasty o Capital was Baghdad o Located on Tigris River Became capital in 762 Became center of a huge trade empire His son, al Mamun, was a great patron of learning

Harun al-Rashad led dynasty through Golden Age Issues over caliph succession and financial corruption led to collapse

Seljuk Turks

Fatimid Dynasty became center of Islamic civilization Located on Nile River (Cairo) Strong army with non-native soldiers Took of much of Abbasid Dynasty and captured Baghdad Took over Anatolian plateau Byzantine emperor Alexius I asked Christian states of Europe for help against the invading Turks Europeans agreed and crusades began in 1096 Crusaders put Muslims on defensive 1169 Saladin took control of Egypt, ended Fatimid Dynasty, took offensive at Christians 1187 Saladins army destroyed the Christian forces in the kingdom of Jerusalem Crusade Sequence

o o o

Crusades o

Main effect of Crusades centuries of mistrust between Muslims and Christians

Mongols o o o Came from Gobi Desert in early 13th century 1258 seized Persia and Mesopotamia Hulegu, their leader, hated Islam and destroyed Baghdad which ended the Abbasid caliphate o Advanced as far as Red Sea Failed to conquer Arab land because Mamluks Mamluks Turkish slave soldiers who had power after overthrowing Saladin o o Mongol leaders began to convert to Islam In 14th century the Mongol Empire split into separate kingdoms o Ended the Islamic empire Baghdad was destroyed by Mongols Cairo became the center of Islamic civilization

Islamic Society o o Men dominated Women were secluded at home and kept from social contacts outside their families Also covered their body in public

Arranged marriages Al-Mamuns House of Wisdom Ibn-Rushd scholar, wrote commentaries on Aristotles works Math created Algebra Science perfected astrolabe and had an observatory in Baghdad Medicine developed medicine as field of study, medical encyclopedia called Canon of Medicine History Ibn Khaldun proposed cyclical history, wrote Muqaddimah which was an intro to history Literature Quran, Omar Khayyam wrote Arabian Nights (Rubaiyat) Art/Architecture blends together Arabic, Turkish, & Persian traditions Expressed in Mosques No representation of Muhammad is allowed Great Mosque of Samarra largest mosque ever built Mosque in Cordoba, Spain 514 columns make building into a forest of trees Palaces reflected glory of Islam Alhambra in Granada, Spain finest Islamic palace

Islamic Achievements o o o o o

o o

Abraham Promise the Covenant o o Similar to a contract or bargain Circumcision is the sign of the covenant between God and Abraham

Abraham leaves his country, family, livelihood, and identity because of the revelation he had Abraham yields everything to God o o o Sacrifice of Issac Perils of Egypt Sodom and Gomorrah

The Nature of Salvation Humanity needs saving but cannot save itself o Only god is capable of salvation Soteriology the study of salvation The cross represents an objective and a subjective side Objective unrepeatable event Subjective my appropriation of that timeless, eternal event in space and time by grace through faith Cross and Atonement o o

The Hebrews and Judaism The Hebrews were the ancestors of the Jews, and most of what we know, including the laws and requirements of their religion, Judaism, comes from their later writings. Early Hebrews o Hebrew Fathers The Torah Abraham, father of the Hebrews o Covenant with God 12 tribes of Israel Patriarchs Abraham, Issac, and Jacob Led the Israelite slaves out of Egypt Exodus Passover Ten Commandments The Plagues Canaan is the promised land Important Dates o o o Abraham travels to Canaan 1800 BC Moses appeared among Hebrews in Egypt 1200 BC Exodus, 10 Commandments, wander the desert, attack Philistines mid 1000 BC o o o Saul named first King of Israel mid 1000 BC David named second King of Israel 1000 BC Solomon named third King of Israel 865 BC The Period of the Judges Scattered communities No central government o Judges enforce the law Prophets keep Israelites focused on faith Israelites were united against the Philistines Saul first king of Israel Canaan = Israel

Moses and the Exodus

Promised Land

The Kingdom of Israel o

Saul, David, Solomon

Never won full support Strong king Gifted poet Davids son Israel reached height of wealth under him

David second king of Israel

Solomon third king of Israel

Division and Conquest Conflict after Solomons death Split into 2 kingdoms Israel and Judah 722 BC Israel fell to Assyrians 586 BC Judah fell to Chaldeans the Chaldeans enslaved the Jews the Persians eventually conquered the Chaldeans

Diaspora scattering of Jews

Judaism Jewish History o o o Exodus from Egypt led by Moses Golden Age under David and Solomon Second Temple Judaism Return to the promised land under Persians (539 BCE) Ptolemies and Seleucids (323167 BCE) Maccabean Revolt Hasmoneans (16763 BCE) Family of priest kings Dynasty ends in power struggle, Rome asked to intervene Pompey the Great (63 BCE) Palestine occupied by Rome

Romans

Jews under Roman Occupation Jewish religion was tolerated Romans were very tolerant, Jews were very intolerant Their revolts were crushed by Romans Client-Kings were installed The Herods

First Century Jews

The Pharisees Prominent laymen, focus on synagogue and application of Torah Opposed Roman tolerance but taught obedience to Gods law would result in deliverance

The Saducees Aristocratic, high priestly, focus on the Temple Supported Roman status quo Corrupt No resurrection of the dead or angels Apocalyptic Withdraw from corrupt society and the corrupt temple system Qumran Get Romans out by force Jewish Centers Jerusalem (Hebraic) and Alexandria (Hellenistic) The Zealots Hebraic Jews vs. Hellenistic (Diaspora) Jews

The Essenes

Jewish Beliefs o o

Messiah anointed one, a kingly title Messiah figures crushed by the Romans

Monotheism belief in One God Justice and Righteousness Kindness, fairness, code of ethics Ten Commandments Mosaic Law Obedience to the Law

Jewish Sacred Texts o Torah Written Law o 613 Commandments Commentary of ancient rabbis that elaborates on how to apply Gods law in everyday life through: Dietary rules Talmud Oral Law

Dress and other symbols Prayer and devotion to one God The Temple and Temple Rites Observance of Holy Days Proper social relations between male and female

Life cycle celebrations o o o o Bris ritual circumcision, sign of the covenant Bar Mitzvah full adult status and responsibility within the religion Marriage be fruitful and multiply Death funerals, mourning (sitting Shiva), and memorials (Yartzeits High Holidays o o o o o o o Rosh Hashanah Jewish new year Yom Kippur Day of Atonement

Jewish Holidays o

Sukkot the Festival of Booths, fall harvest festival Simchat Torah celebrating Torah Hanukah festival of lights Purim a carnival, commemorates events told in book of Esther Pesach (Passover) commemorates the exodus from Egypt Shavuot (Pentecost) commemorates the receipt of the Torah at Sinai Shabbat (Sabbath) day of rest, on Saturday Predates Christianity Jesus was Jewish Jewish messiah would not be divine Jews not concerned about salvation and the world to come Tikkun Olam repairing this world through justice and righteousness, through deed not creed Heart of Judaism is in the home and family Achieve these goals through education and hard work

Relation to Christianity o o o o

Jewish Concerns o

o o

The Christians Jesus of Nazareth (6 BC 30 CE) o o o o Preacher/healer/prophet of the coming Kingdom of God Twelve Apostles, other disciples Executed by Pontius Pilate by crucifixion Earliest sources Mark, Matthew, Luke, and John Revocation of Jewish rights by Nero and raiding of temple treasure Christians refused to get involved Destruction of Jerusalem and the Temple by Titus in 70 CE

The Jewish War (66-70 CE) o o o

Not initially persecuted by Romans but they became more and more distinct from Judaism Reasons for Roman Persecution of Christians o o o o Seen as novelty, romans were opposed to this Christians met secretly Christians were cannibals and incestuous? Refused to worship the emperor

The Christians were persecuted intermittently from the reign of Nero (54-68 CE) until Diocletian (284-305 CE) o Eventually granted tolerance by Constantine the Great (306-337 CE) Suspended on a stake as if on a cross, left to be eaten by wild beasts Forced to watch her Christian companions to be martyred Attempted to make her swear to idols Send to roasting seat Enmeshed in a net and gored to death by a bull, remains were burned and ashes were tossed into the Rhone

Martyrdom of Blandina (177 CE) o o o o o

Christian Beliefs o I believe in God, the Father almighty, creator of heaven and earth o Omnipotence Omniscience Omnipresence Creator, sustainer, preserver Pre-existent 2nd person of the Trinity

Jesus Christ

Both Fully God and Fully Human hypostatic union Related to human persons

Alexander the Great (356 BCE 323 BCE) Created Hellenism o Hellenization the impact of Greek culture on the Jews He defeats the Persians (who were ruling the Ancient Near East) and takes the eastern port of Issys in 339 BCE He conquered Palestine in 332 BCE Alexanders Importance o o o o Created a world language (Greek) Unified a place with a familiarity of a person The ruler cult is off and running The fullness of time and the biblical picture There is the potential for a message to spread quickly This is the first time in human history where there is a universal opportunity for cross cultural development Dies in 323 BCE and divides his empire into 3 kingdoms o Macedon o Asia o Egypt Ruled by the Ptolemies all the way up to Cleopatra Palestine is ruled by the Ptolemies in 311 BCE Syria (modern day Turkey) and Asia Minor Ruled by the Seleucids Greece proper

Hellenization Hellenization Impact of Greek culture on the way of life of the Jewish Apocrypha hidden things but not universal authority or canonicity Five Features of Hellenization o Gymnasiums o Includes buildings, athletes, contests Circumcision is very apparent in these situations Emphasis is on social distinction and the opportunity to pile up honors for oneself and ones family Herod becomes the largest example of a Jewish family ascending the social status ladder o Stadium Sport stadiums Stadiums and arenas are places where gladiators do battle, slaves and traitors are executed, and where all sorts of competitions are staged. o Greek Theater Every city, including Jerusalem, had a Greek theater Jews believed representations of reality are not important while Greeks believed it was important o Imposition of the Greek Language Alexander the Great challenges everyone to learn Greek Unifying effort by the Greeks Jews resisted this

Guilds & Clubs

The Maccabean Struggle Antiochus of Syria grabs Palestine Antiochus IV (successor to Antiochus of Syria) attempts to force Hellenization o Egypt had tolerated Jewish customs for 100 years Hellenistic Jews support this This is when the LXX, the Septuagint is written o o o 70 Rabbis, one translation Takes place in Alexandria, Egypt A translation of Hebrew text into Greek text Epiphanies or God Manifest Temple Rites abolished Forced sacrifice to foreign Gods Laws of Moses declared illegal Prohibited festivals and rites Revolt of armed defense Mattathias organizes the resistance Judas Maccabeus, the hammerer, captures Jerusalem in 164 BCE They attend to the cleansing rites for the temple Hanukah commemorates this day

What provokes the revolt of the Maccabees? o o o o o

Hasidim pious ones, loyal to the faith, react negatively o o o o

Centres d'intérêt liés