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ASSESMENT AND EVALUATION OF LEARNING Principles of evaluation a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. Significance- is an essential component of the teaching and learning process.

Continuity- is a continuous process. It takes place before, during or after instruction. Scope should be comprehensive to cover the objectives. Compatibility should be compatible with the stated objectives. Validity Should be measure what is intends to measure Objectivity- should be objective and not subjective. Reliability Should be consistent in measuring what is intends to measure Diagnostic value should distinguish not only between levels of learners performance but also between the processes which result in acceptable performance. Participation should be a cooperative effort of school administrators, teachers, students and parents. Variety- instruments are all types: standardized, teacher-made, pen and paper, performance type. TYPES OF EVALUATION 1. Placement or pre-assessment before instruction (determine entry knowledge and skills of learners. 2. Formative During instruction ( monitor learning progress) 3. Diagnostic- During instruction ( determine learning problems and their causes) 4. Summative- after instruction (determine the extent to which the instructional objectives have been attained). FORMS OF ASSESSMENT a. Traditional assessment usual pen and paper exam b. Performance assessment- students are engaged in a task, often involving a product. c. Portfolio assessment Involves gathering or collecting many different indicators of student progress in support of curricular goals. d. Authentic Assessment is used to evaluate students work by measuring the product according to real life criteria. OTHER KINDS OF TEST Achievement test- measures what has been learned by the student of the subject matter taught in school. Aptitude test - A predictive measure of persons likelihood to benefit from instruction or experiences in a given field ; Predicts where the students will likely succeed.

Diagnostic test- identifies the weaknesses of an individuals achievement in any given field which serves as basis for remedial instruction. Intelligence test- measures the intelligence quotient ( IQ) of an individual as very superior, high average , low average. Performance test which make use of manipulative materials, which involve no or minimum of verbal instruction . Personality test- measures an individuals personal traits. Preference test- vocational or a vocational interest or aesthetic judgments by requiring the student to make forced choices between members of paired or grouped of items. Prognostic test- measure which predicts well a person is likely to do in a certain school subject or task.

MEASURES OF CENTRAL TENDENCY MEASURE MEAN CHARACTERISTICS -The average of a group of scores -Can be affected by extreme scores -Stable, varies less from sample to sample -The midpoint or middle of a distribution of scores. -also known as 50th percentile - The score that occurs most frequently in the distribution. WHEN TO USE -the most reliable measure is desired -there no extreme scores



- the distribution of scores is skewed. There are extremely high and extremely low. - The quickest estimate of a typical performan ce is wanted

SHAPES OF THE FREQUENCY POLYGON Normal bell-shaped curve

Positively skewed- most scores are below the mean and there are extremely high scores. x > x ( mean is greater than the mode) Negatively skewed- most scores are above the mean and there are extremely low scores. X< x ( mean is lower than the mode) Leptokuric- highly peaked and the tails are more elevated above the baseline. Mesokurtic moderately peak Platykurtic flattened peak Formula: MEAN X= EX/N where EX is the sum of scores and N is the number of cases STANDARD DEVIATION