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Schizophrenia (/sktsfrni/ or /sktsfrini/) is a mental disorder characterized by a breakdown of thought processes and by impaired emotional responses.

[1] ommon symptoms include delusions! such as paranoid beliefs" hallucinations" disorganized thinking" and negati#e symptoms! such as blunted affect and a#olition. $chizophrenia causes significant social and #ocational dysfunction. $ymptom onset typically occurs in young adulthood! with a global lifetime pre#alence of about %.&'%.().[*] +iagnosis is based on obser#ed beha#ior and the person,s reported e-periences. .enetics! early en#ironment! neurobiology! and psychological and social processes appear to be important contributory factors" some recreational and prescription drugs appear to cause or worsen symptoms. urrent research is focused on the role of neurobiology! although no single isolated organic cause has been found. /he many possible combinations of symptoms ha#e triggered debate about whether the diagnosis represents a single disorder or a number of discrete syndromes. +espite the origin of the term from the .reek roots skhizein (! 0to split0) and phrn, phren- (, -" 0mind0)! schizophrenia does not imply a 0split personality0! or 0multiple personality disorder0 (which is known these days as dissociati#e identity disorder)1a condition with which it is often confused in public perception.[&] 2ather! the term means a 0splitting of mental functions0! because of the symptomatic presentation of the illness.[3] /he mainstay of treatment is antipsychotic medication! which primarily suppresses dopamine (and sometimes serotonin) receptor acti#ity. 4sychotherapy and #ocational and social rehabilitation are also important in treatment. 5n more serious cases1where there is risk to self and others1in#oluntary hospitalization may be necessary! although hospital stays are now shorter and less fre6uent than they once were.[7] /he disorder is thought mainly to affect cognition! but it also usually contributes to chronic problems with beha#ior and emotion. 4eople with schizophrenia are likely to ha#e additional (comorbid) conditions! including ma8or depression and an-iety disorders" the lifetime occurrence of substance use disorder is almost 7%).[9] $ocial problems! such as long:term unemployment! po#erty! and homelessness are common. /he a#erage life e-pectancy of people with the disorder is 1* to 17 years less than those without! the result of increased physical health problems and a higher suicide rate (about 7)