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# DISCRETE MATHEMATICS ECE MATH 311

## TOPIC 5: PROOFS APPLICATIONS ON SETS & SUMMATION

By: Edison A. Roxas, MSECE

OBJECTIVES
At the end of the topic, the students should be able to: 1. Understand the ideas of sets and summation; 2. Define the characteristics of a set; 3. Analyze set representation, laws and logic; 4. Solve problems using set operations and Venn diagram; and 5. Analyze problems involving summation and products .

## Proofs Application on Sets & Summation

SETS
It is a well defined collection of distinct objects. Well defined set means that it is possible to determine whether an object belongs to a given set. The objects are called members and elements. denotes element of a set. aS is read as a is not an element of set S.

## Proofs Application on Sets & Summation

EXAMPLES
1. Collection of vowels in the English Alphabet: a, e, i, o, u 2. Collection of odd numbers: 1, 3, 5, 7 3. Collection of Laptop brands: Asus, Acer, Toshiba, Sony 4. Collection of favorite colors. 5. Collection of good movies.
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SET REPRESENTATION
Two Ways of Describing a Set: 1. Tabular / Roster Form = a method of describing a set where elements are separated by commas and enclosed by braces. 2. Rule Form = is a method of describing a set which makes use of the description {x|} and is read as the set of all elements x such that x.
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EXAMPLE 5.1:
Write the corresponding Rule or Roster form given the following: 1. {x| x is an odd number between 0 and 9} 2. {x| x2 1| 0 x 5, x Z} 3. {2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17}

## Proofs Application on Sets & Summation

KINDS OF SETS
1. Null or Empty Set { }, contains no element. 2. Equal Sets Sets A and B are equal, denoted by A = B. A = {1,2,3} and B = {2,1,3} are equal sets. 3. Equivalent Sets denoted by A~B, is they have the same number of elements. example: C = {a,b,c} and D = {4,5,6}
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KINDS OF SETS
4. Finite Sets contains countable number of elements. 5. Infinite Sets if the counting elements has no end. The sets of integer Z, positive integers N (or natural numbers), negative integers Z- , and non negative integers (or whole numbers) are infinite sets.

## Proofs Application on Sets & Summation

KINDS OF SETS
6. Universal Sets is the totality of elements under consideration. 7. Joint Sets are sets that have common elements. 8. Disjoint Sets are sets that have no common element. The set {0} are also disjoint sets.

## FRACTIONS & DECIMALS

Rational Number denoted by Q may either be a fraction or integer. It is a number in the form of the ratio of two integers a and b denoted by a/b, where b 0. Fractions can be expressed as a form of terminating decimal or repeating nonterminating decimals.
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## FRACTIONS & DECIMALS

Terminating Decimals: a. Terminating Decimals: = 0.5; 1/5 = 0.2 b. Repeating nonterminating decimal: 1/3 = 0.333 ; 2/3 = 0.6666 c. Nonrepeating nonterminating decimal: pi = 3.14159265 e = 2.718281828 The third form of decimals is called irrational numbers.
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## EXAMPLE 5.2: SET OPERATIONS

Given: 1. 2. 3. 4. u = {2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12} A = {2, 4, 10} B = {6, 10, 12} Union of Sets A and B Intersection of Sets A and B Complement of A Difference of Sets A and B

## Proofs Application on Sets & Summation

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LAW OF SETS
1. Commutative Laws 2. Associative Laws 3. Identity Laws AU0=A Au=A 4. Inverse / Complement Laws A U A = u A A = 0 5. Distributive Laws 6. De Morgans Laws
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VENN DIAGRAM
The Venn Diagram of sets makes use of a rectangle representing the universal set and circles are subset which may be shaded under consideration.

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## EXAMPLE 5.3: VENN DIAGRAM

In a marketing survey conducted involving 150 companies, it was found out that 70 uses Brand A 75 uses Brand B 95 uses Brand C 30 uses Brands A and B 45 uses Brands A and C 40 uses Brands B and C 10 uses Brands A, B and C What is the number of companies that did not purchased any brand?
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## INTERVALS ON NUMBER LINE & SUBSETS

The geometric interpretation to the set if real numbers is done by associating them with points on the horizontal line (or real line or x axis), called the number line. The real number line will be used in forming intervals. These intervals may be open (a,b), closed [a,b], or half open, or half closed [a,b) or (a,b].
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## UNBOUNDED OR INFINITE INTERVALS

Intervals on a number line of the form: a. [a, + inf) b. (a, + inf) c. (-inf, a] d. (-inf, a) e. (-inf, +inf)

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## SUMMATION & MULTIPLICATION SYMBOLS

Subscript notations are used when we are dealing with a large collection of objects. Summation can be used to represent a polynomial. The Greek sigma is used to stands for summation, . In analogy with the symbol , the Greek pi is generally used for the product sign. This product sign may also be used in compact form using the factorial notation n!.
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UNIVERSAL GATES
- Implementation of the Logic Gates using NAND and NOR gates.

## Proofs Application on Sets & Summation

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EXAMPLES
1. Given: A = {1, 7, 9, 10} & B = {4, 7, 9, 11} Find : a. A B b. B A 2. Find the actual expanded expression: a. F(A, B, C) = BC + A(C+B) b. F(X, Y, Z) = (X + Y) (Y + Z) 3. Prove that (2, 3, 4, 5) = (0, 1, 6, 7) of the F (x, y, z).
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EXAMPLES
4. Prove: The Uniqueness of Complement Theorem Given A and B as subsets of Universe, then B = A; if and only if A U B = U and A B =0. Use: Definition: U = A + A Theorem: A U A = U AB=0
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DISCRETE MATHEMATICS
ECE MATH 311 TOPIC 6: PROOFS AND RULES OF INFERENCE By: Edison A. Roxas

MATHEMATICAL SYSTEM
A Mathematical System consists of Axioms, Definitions, and Undefined Terms. Definitions = used to create new concepts in terms of existing ones. Axioms = Also called Postulates, are statements that we assume to be TRUE. * Some terms are not explicitly defined but implicitly defined in an axiom.
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MATHEMATICAL SYSTEM
Theorem = a proposition that have been proven TRUE. Lemma A theorem that is not too interesting on its own but is useful in proving another theorem. Corollary A theorem that follows from another theorem. Proof = An argument that establishes the truth of a theorem.
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## MATHEMATICAL SYSTEM EXAMPLES: Real Numbers

Axioms: For all Real Numbers x AND y, xy = yx. There is a subset P of Real Numbers Satisfying: - If x and y are in P, then x + y and xy are in P. - If x is a real number, then exactly one of the statements is TRUE. x is in P, x = 0 , -x is in P.
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## MATHEMATICAL SYSTEM EXAMPLES: Real Numbers

Definitions: The element in P are called positive Real Numbers. The absolute value /x/ of a real number x is defined to be x if x is positive or 0 and x otherwise.
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## MATHEMATICAL SYSTEM EXAMPLES: Real Numbers

Theorems: x . 0 = 0; for every real number For all real numbers, x, y and z, if x y and y z, then x z.

## MATHEMATICAL SYSTEM EXAMPLES: Real Numbers

Lemma: If n is a Positive Integer, then either n 1 is a positive integer or n 1 = 0.

## Proofs and Rules of Inference

DIRECT PROOF
Assumes that P(x) is TRUE then using P(x) as well as other axioms, definitions and previously derived theorems, shows directly that Q(x) is TRUE.

## Proofs and Rules of Inference

Example:
Definition: An integer is even if there is an integer k such that n = 2k. An integer is odd if there is an integer k such that n = 2k + 1. Theorem: For all integers m and n, if m is ODD and n is EVEN, then m + n is ODD.
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## VACUOUS PROOF AND TRIVIAL PROOF

In conditional statements we know that pq is TRUE when p is FALSE and call it TRUE by default of vacauously true. Consequently, if we can show that p is FALSE, then we have vacuous proof of the conditional statement pq. We can also prove a conditional statement if we know that q is TRUE, by showing that p is TRUE, it follows pq must also be TRUE. A proof that uses the fact that q is TRUE to prove pq to be TRUE is called a TRIVIAL PROOF.
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MODUS PONENS
The First Rule of Inference is called Modus Ponens or the Rule of Detachment. It comes from Latin translated as the Method of Affirming. The symbolic form is given as: [p^(pq)] q ; it is written in the tabular form p pq therefore q
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MODUS PONENS
Example: If it is snowing today, then we will go skiing. It is snowing today. Therefore, We will go skiing.
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LAW OF SYLLOGISM
The second rule of inference is given by the logical implication: [(p q)^(q r)] (p r) where p, q, and r are any statements. In tabular form it is written pq qr therefore pr
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LAW OF SYLLOGISM
Example: If it is sunny, then I will not bring an umbrella. If I have no umbrella, then I will visit a friend. If it is sunny then I will visit a friend.

## Proofs and Rules of Inference

MODUS TOLLENS
The Third Rule of Inference is called Modus Tollens. Modus Tollens comes from Latin and can be translated as method of denying. [(p q)^ ~q] ~p pq ~q therefore ~p
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MODUS TOLLENS
Example: If Claire is elected president of Math Club, then Jacob will be a member of the club. Jacob did not wish to be a member of the club. Therefore Claire was not elected as president of the Math Club.
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DISCRETE MATHEMATICS
ECE MATH 311

## TOPIC 7: RELATIONS AND FUNCTIONS By: Edison A. Roxas

OBJECTIVES
At the end of the topic, the students should be able to: 1. Distinguish a function form from a mere relation; 2. Find the domain and range of functions or relations; and 3. Solve problems involving the different operations on Functions. 4. Differentiate the types of functions; and 5. Determine the inverse of a function.
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## INTRODUCTION TO RELATION & FUNCTION

The Coolness of Technology
In 80s the concept of a tiny cassette player was unthinkable. Owning a portable music player with headphones was the epitome of coolness. This music player uses tape recording of different songs in different time duration. Around two decades later, a compact disk (CD) replaced the tape player. It contains different songs which corresponds to the different tracks in the CD was created. It uses optical light and sensors in reading this new type of audio recording.
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DEFINITION OF RELATIONS
A relation is the association of different things, objects or numbers. A relation may be associated to different objects by one to one, one to many, many to one, or many to many. A relation can be described using five different methods: By using arrow diagrams By using tables By using ordered pairs By using graphs By using mathematical sentences and formula.

## Relations and Functions

DEFINITION FUNCTIONS
A function is a rule or correspondence between two sets; such that each element x in a set 1 corresponds to exactly one element in a set 2, called f(x). Set 1 Domain of the Functions Domain is the set of all independent inputs for the functions. Set 2 Range of the Functions or all possible values of f(x). Range is the set of corresponding values or dependent values.
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DEFINITION OF FUNCTIONS
F(x) can be read as f of x; the value of f at x; or the values of x under f. A technique that may be used to determine a function graphically is the presence of a single arrow that leaves each member of a domain. Vertical Line Test = it is used to intersects a graph. If the line intersects a graph more than once; then the graph is not the graph of a function. earoxas @ UST 2013 Relations and Functions

Examples
1. Find the domain and range of the following functions: a. y = x1/2 b. y = x2 c. F(X) = X3 d. f(x) = |x| e. y = (x 2) / (x + 1)
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Examples
2. Study and plot the graph given the points below and answer the questions that follows: E(1,7), C(5, - 6), R(0,5), J(-4,9) a. What is the abscissa of point, three units to the left of point J? b. Determine the coordinates of the point located two units below and four units to the right of point E. c. In what quadrant is point C located?
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Examples
3. Given the different conditions, determine which a function (F) is or not a function (NF). Explain your answers. a. {(0,0), (0,1), (1,-1), (1,9), (2,3), (2,12)} b. {(1,2), (2,3), (3,4), (-1, 2)} c. {(10,0), (-3,8), (6,1), (2,9)} d. The value of y is two more than x. e. The square root of a perfect square.
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FUNCTIONS
Functions are sometimes called mappings or transformations. If f is a function from A to B; A is the domain of f and B is the codomain of f. If f(a) = b; b is the image and a is the preimage of b. This may also be read as f maps A to B.
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OPERATION ON FUNCTIONS
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. f(x) + g(x) = (f+g)(x) f(x) g(x) = (f g)(x) f(x) . g(x) = (f.g)(x) f(x) / g(x) = (f/g)(x) f(x) g(x) = f(g(x)) g(x) f(x) = g(f(x))
Relations and Functions

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Examples on Functions
1. Given: f:x 2x + 3. Find: a. f(0) c. f(x -2) b. f(a+h) d. f(x+h) f(x) 2. If f(x) = 5x 4 and g(x) = 2x x2 Find: a. f(x) g(x) b. (gf)(-1) 3. Given f(x) = 2x2 1 and g(x) = 2/x, find: a. (fg)(2) b. (ff)(1)
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Types of Functions
1. Even and Odd Functions: For every x in the domain of the function f: a. Even Function: f(-x) = f(x) b. Odd Function: f(-x) = -f(x) c. Neither if it fails both (a) and (b). 2. Continuous and Discontinuous Functions: - Functions which are continuous are represented by graphs which can be traced.
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Types of Functions
3. Increasing and Decreasing Functions: a. A function f is an increasing function when for all a and b in the domain of f, if a<b, then f(a) < f(b). b. A function f is a decreasing function when for all a and b in the domain of f, if a<b, then f(a) > f(b).
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Types of Functions
4. Piecewise Defined Function: These functions have different output formulas for different parts of the domain. 5. Equal Functions: Two functions are said to be equal if and only if: a. f and g have the same domain. b. f(x) = g(x) for all x in the domain. 6. Periodic Functions: Some functions have graphs that show a repeating pattern. These are called periodic functions. examples: f(x) = f(x + 2) g(x) = g(x+2)
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Types of Functions
7. One to One Functions: A function is said to be a one to one function if different values of x always give different values of f(x). One way of determining if the function is a one to one function is by applying the horizontal line test. This test states that if a horizontal line cuts the graph in at most one point, then the function is one to one function. 8. Onto Functions: The function f is onto if the range f is equal to Y, that is all elements of set Y are used as images.
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EXAMPLES
1. Determine if the given function is even, odd, or neither. a. f(x) = 3x4 4x2 b. g(x) = x3 + 5x c. h(x) = x + 2 2. Determine if the given function is increasing or decreasing. a. f(x) = 2x + 5 b. g(x) = 8 x
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EXAMPLES
3. Determine the plot of the unit step signal, u(n) given the piecewise linear function as u(n) = 1, for n0 0, for n<0

## LOGIC SIMPLIFICATION, APPLICATIONS AND DESIGN

BY: Edison A. Roxas

PROBLEM 1:
A vast container of chemical fluid is to be mixed using an electronically controlled stirrer. Design the circuit needed to control the stirrer based on the following the following condition: It will be on if either valve A or valve B is open; It will be open if valve C and either valve A or valve B is open.

PROBLEM 2:
Design a car alarm circuit that will be ON following the conditions set by the manufacturer as: the engine is ON but the driver Is not wearing his seatbelt; the engine is ON but one of the doors of the car is open; the allowed vehicle payload exceeded its limit.

PROBLEM 3:
A series of bulb is arranged as A3, A2, A1, and A0; with A3 as the Most Significant Bit (MSB); design a circuit that will control the output of the bulb within the values of 0010 and 1000.

PROBLEM 4:
Simplify the value of the following expression on sets by proving Logically and Mathematically: Given: Z (universe) = {1, 2, 3, , 10} X = {2, 5, 7} Y = {3, 5, 8, 9} If: F = (X Z) U (X Y) U (X Z)

Seatwork No. 2:
1. (B D) U (A B C) U (A C D) U (A B C)

PROBLEM 2:
Create a function for the ECE Board Examination computation having the condition based on the subject Math (M), Elex (E) and Comms (C), the students will: pass (F1) the board if: Math, Elex and Comms is passing (grade of 60 and above); and average of passing (70 above); or conditional (F2): One of the three subjects failed but the average is still above 70 (passing)

## DISCRETE MATHEMATICS ECE MATH 311

TOPIC 9: MATRICES
By: Edison A. Roxas, ECE

MATRIX
A rectangular array of numbers. The elements are enclosed in square brackets. Matrices are defined by their dimensions. A matrix with m ROWS and n COLUMNS is called an m x n matrix. Two matrices are equal if they have the same dimensions and every element is the same in every position. Matrices are denoted by a boldface capital letter.
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Addition or subtraction of matrices are done on an element to element basis. Therefore, only matrices of the same size can be added or subtracted.

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Matrices

EXAMPLE 8.1: Find the value of z = A + B 2C; given the matrix below:
Say:

1 A= 2 3

0 -1 2 -3 4 0

3 4 -1 B = 1 -3 0 -1 1 2 2 3 -1 C = 0 -3 0 -1 2 -2
Matrices 4

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MULTIPLICATION OF MATRICES
Let A be an m x n matrix and B an k x l matrix, the product of A and B, denoted by AB is only possible when n = k. The resultant matrix will have the dimensions m x l. The product is taken as the sum of the products of the elements in the rows of the first matrix and the elements in the columns of the second matrix. Matrix multiplication in non commutative; that is AB BA.
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EXAMPLE 8.2:
a. Find DE and ED. b. Find the product of F and G. Given: E = [1 1; 2 1] D = [2 1; 1 1] F = [ 1 0 4; 2 1 1; 3 1 0; 0 2 2 ] G = [ 2 4; 1 1; 3 0 ]
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IDENTITY MATRIX
An identity matrix is a square matrix that when multiplied to a non zero matrix, results in the matrix itself.

A.I=A
An identity matrix has its diagonal elements as all ones, with all the other elements zero.

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Matrices

TRANSPOSE OF A MATRIX
The transpose of a matrix A, denoted as A; is the original matrix A with its rows and columns interchanged. A matrix that does not change its rows and columns when transposed is called a symmetric matrix.

Matrices

## ZERO ONE MATRICES

Matrices whose elements are either a zero or a one is called a zero -one matrix. Zero one matrices are important in representing discrete structures.

Matrices

## JOIN & MEET OF ZERO ONE MATRICES

The join and meet of two zero one matrix is analogous to addition and multiplication of matrices. However, instead of taking the sum, we take the Boolean operation of OR (join) and AND (meet) on the matrices.

Matrices

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## BOOLEAN PRODUCT OF ZERO ONE MATRICES

As with the join and meet, the Boolean Product is analogous with the multiplication of Matrices. However, addition is replaced with OR and multiplication with AND. The Boolean Product of Zero One Matrices A and B is denoted by A B.

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Matrices

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EXAMPLE 8.3:
a. Determine the join and meet of the matrices: H=[101;010] I=[010;110] b. Find the Boolean product of J and K. J=[10;01;10] K=[110;011]
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SEATWORK
1. Find FG, given:
F = [ 1 0 4; 2 1 1; 3 1 0; 0 2 2 ]

G = [ 2 4; 1 1; 3 0 ] 2. Solve for the value of the Boolean product of F and G if 1 is given to all values greater than or equal to 2 and 0 if otherwise. 3. Determine the value that satisfies modulo requirements: Z3 = 0; Z6 = 3; and Z7 = 6.
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