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Types of Solid Waste Solid waste are waste in a solid or semisolid form left from households, construction and

industrial sites containing materials that have not been separated out or sent for recycling. Solid waste can be classified into different types depending on their source. Solid wastes are any discarded (abandoned or considered waste-like) materials. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) This garbage is generated mainly from residential and commercial complexes. Consists of everyday items we use and then throw away, such as product packaging, grass clippings, furniture, clothing, bottles, food scraps, newspapers, appliances, paint, and batteries. This includes household waste, construction and demolition debris, sanitation residue, waste from streets. As urbanization rises, theres a change in lifestyle and food habits, the amount of MSW has been increasing rapidly and its composition is changing. The consumer market has grown rapidly leading to products being packed in cans, aluminum foils, plastics, and other such non-biodegradable items that cause incalculable harm to the environment. MSW is often considered a renewable power source. It is fed into a combustion chamber to be burned. The heat released from burning the MSW is used to produce steam, which turns a steam turbine to generate electricity.

Type of litter Organic waste such as vegetable and fruit peels, leftover foodstuff, etc. Paper Cotton cloth Wood Agricultural Solid Waste.

Approximate degenerate a week or two. 1030 days 1030 days 1015 years



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Agricultural production leaves considerable amounts of agricultural waste. Some of it is recycled into the agricultural production as fertilizer, while large amounts remain unused and in many instances pose a disposal problem. Uncontrolled burning in the fields is not only a hazardous disposal solution - it is also wasting useful energy. With efficient collection systems, waste from agricultural production can be utilized as fuel for power and heat production. In some agricultural industries large amounts of biomass waste is already concentrated and readily available for utilization. The palm oil industry, for instance, produces significant amounts of empty fruit bunch that can be incinerated. In the sugar industry, significant amounts of bagasse the waste after extraction of sugar is an equally excellent fuel. Rice production may also be industrialized to such an extent that rice husks are available in amounts sufficient for incineration in a boiler, thereby securing a basis for power and heat production.

Commercial Solid Waste Generated from commercial places like offices, markets, restaurants, shops, etc. The commercial wastes have characteristics similar to that of domestic waste. Examples are: Deconstruction sites produce debris of broken buildings materials-bricks, cements, stone, rock fragments, waste iron or other metals etc. These are generally called as rubble other building construction materials are asbestos, plastics pipes, broken electrical goods, insulating materials, etc. Market place produces food waste or garbage, rubbish and thrash materials etc. broken fridges, coolers, air conditioners are generally found in market places.

Solid waste can create a significant pressure on the environment. For most materials thrown away, waste disposal sites are required and a replacement is produced using fresh raw materials and more energy. Additionally, open burning of waste material results in increased air pollution, water pollution and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions. Improper solid waste disposal also attracts wildlife, and often leads to increased wildlife mortality. Industrial Solid Waste Is the waste produced by industrial activity, such as that of factories, mills and mines. It has existed since the outset of the industrial revolution. Is defined as waste that is generated by businesses from an industrial or manufacturing process or waste generated from non-manufacturing activities that are managed as a separate waste stream.

Common types of industrial solid waste from businesses are:

Empty Chemical Containers Asbestos Containing Materials (ACM) PCB Contaminated Wastes Spilled Non-Hazardous Materials Foundry Wastes Ash Paint Residue, Filters and Dust Sludges Tires Spent Carbon Filters Contaminated Soil Ink Sludges, Solvents and Clean-up Materials Infectious Wastes Chemically Treated Wood Machining Wastes Confidential Documents Electrical Component Wastes

Hospital Solid Waste Also known as medical waste or clinical waste. Is generated during the diagnosis, treatment, or immunization of human beings or animals or in research activities in these fields or in the production or testing of biologicals. This waste is highly infectious and can be a serious threat to human health if not managed in a scientific and discriminate manner. It has been roughly estimated that of the 4 kg of waste generated in a hospital at least 1 kg would be infected. But general waste makes up at least 85% of all waste generated at medical facilities, and is no different from general household or office waste, and includes paper, plastics, liquids and any other materials that do not fit into the previous three categories.

The World Health Organization classifies medical waste into:

Sharps Infectious Pathological Radioactive Pharmaceuticals Others (often sanitary waste produced at hospital.

General Hospital Waste General hospital waste is made up of regular materials, which can be disposed of like household waste--in a city's waste management system. It can include office waste, linens, cutlery, kitchen waste, and anything that does not fall into another category. It makes up 80 percent of hospital waste.

Special Solid Waste Infectious and Pathological Hospital Waste Infectious hospital waste includes anything that might carry viruses, fungi, bacteria, or parasites and that could be spread and infect other people or areas of a hospital. Examples of infectious waste include anything that has come into contact with blood or other bodily fluids, cultures of infectious materials from labs, and any other material that has been, or might have been, in contact with infectious material. Pathological material includes tissues, organs fetuses, and other body tissue. About 15 percent of a hospital's waste is made up of infectious and pathological material. Sharp Hospital Waste Sharp hospital waste, also called "sharps," include items such as needles, scalpels, broken glass, nails, hypodermic needles, and any other items that can cause puncture wounds or cuts. Some of these items are also classified with infectious waste if they have come in contact with bodily fluid, but because they can be dangerous to handle, they are categorized with the other sharps. About one percent of a hospital's waste is made up of sharps. Pharmaceutical Hospital Waste Pharmaceutical waste includes medication, drugs, vaccines, and other chemicals that have expired, been returned, not used, spilled, or contaminated. Anything that has come in contact with these products, like gloves, are also categorized as pharmaceutical waste. Drugs may be in any form, such as liquid or pills, and they can come in boxes or bottles. About three percent of hospital waste is pharmaceutical. Radioactive Hospital Waste Radioactive hospital waste is mostly seen in oncological (cancer) wards, where radiation is used as part of the treatment. Radioactive waste makes up less than one percent of hospital waste.

Is essentially any waste with hazardous properties which may render it harmful to human health or the environment. Elsewhere in the UK, it is referred to as being Hazardous waste. EPA (environmental protection agency) of US termed this type of waste which they categorized into six.

Common Types of Special Waste:

Cement kiln dust Mining waste Oil and gas drilling muds and oil production brines Phosphate rock mining, beneficiation, and processing waste Uranium waste Utility waste (i.e., fossil fuel combustion waste)

Waste Characterization Is the identification of chemical, microbiological, or radiological constituents of waste material. Is the process by which the composition of different waste streams is analyzed.

Ignitability Are ignitable wastes that can easily catch on fire and sustain combustion. Wastes are considered ignitable when they exhibit any of the following characteristics: A non- liquid and is capable, under standard temperature and pressure, of causing fire through friction, absorption of moisture or spontaneous chemical changes and when ignited burns so vigorously and persistently that it creates a hazard. Liquid, other than an aqueous solution with less than 24% alcohol by volume, with a flashpoint below 140 F (60 C) as determined by flashpoint testing. It is an ignitable compressed gas. It is an oxidizer as a material that may generally by yielding oxygen, cause or enhance the combustion of other materials. Ignitable wastes can create fires under certain conditions, are spontaneously combustible, or have a flash point less than 60 C (140 F). Examples of Ignitable waste: Ignitable liquids: acetone, acetonitrile, benzene, hexane, methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, toluene, xylene, methyl ethyl ketone, lacquer thinner. Ignitable compressed gases: hydrogen, methane, acetylene, propane, butane, spray-paint cans. Oxidizers: ammonium persulfate, sodium nitrate, potassium permanganate, sodium perchlorate, hydrogen peroxide (aqueous solution greater than or equal to 8%), potassium peroxide.

Corrosivity Corrosive wastes are acids or bases (pH less than or equal to 2, or greater than or equal to 12.5) that are capable of corroding metal containers, such as storage tanks, drums, and barrels. It is a liquid and corrodes steel at a rate greater than 6.35mm per year at a test temperature of 55 C (130F).

Examples of Corrosive waste: Corrosive aqueous liquids: hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, perchloric acid, acetic acid, sodium hydroxide solution, potassium hydroxide solution.

Reactivity Reactive wastes are wastes that readily explode or undergo violent reactions.

A waste is considered reactive if : It is normally unstable and readily undergoes violent change without detonating. It reacts violently with water. It forms potentially explosives mixtures with water. When mixed with water, it generates toxic gases, vapors or fumes in a quantity sufficient to present a danger to human health or the environment. It is a cyanide or sulfide bearing waste which when exposed to pH conditions between 2 and 12.5 can generates toxic gases, vapors or fumes in a quantity sufficient to present a danger to human health or the environment. It is capable of detonation or explosive reaction if it is subjected to a strong initiating source or if heated under confinement, or a reaction at standard temperature and pressure. Examples of reactive waste: Sodium metal, potassium metal, lithium metal, concentrated sulfuric acid, picric acid, trinitrobenzene, metal azides, amides, benzoyl peroxide.


Toxic waste is a waste material that can cause death, injury or birth defects to living creatures. It spreads quite easily and can contaminate lakes and rivers and atmosphere. The term is often used interchangeably with hazardous waste, or discarded material that can pose a long-term risk to health or environment. Hazardous wastes are poisonous byproducts of manufacturing, farming, city septic systems, construction, automotive garages, laboratories, hospitals, and other industries. The waste may be liquid, solid, or sludge and contain chemicals, heavy metals, radiation, dangerous pathogens, or other toxins. When toxic wastes are land disposed, contaminated liquid may leach from the waste and pollute ground water. Toxicity is defined through a laboratory procedure called the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). The TCLP helps identify wastes likely to leach concentrations of contaminants that may be harmful to human health or the environment.

Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) Used to determine if a waste has toxicity characteristics in amounts that meet or exceed regulatory limits causing it to be regulated as hazardous waste. The TCLP was designed to predict whether a waste is likely to leach chemicals into groundwater. It simulates the conditions a waste might encounter in a typical municipal solid waste landfill. Be aware that it is not necessary to identify every chemical component of the waste in order to meet the hazardous waste regulations and ensure adequate treatment or disposal. For example, you may only need to have a TCLP done for metals and volatiles if you know that the other constituents are not present in the waste. If you are unsure of the types and concentrations of hazardous contaminants present in the waste, a cost-effective option to running a TCLP test is to first run a total waste analysis to demonstrate if a waste exhibits toxicity characteristics. Examples of Toxic wastes: Waste containing the following metals or inorganics above specific limits: antimony, arsenic, barium, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, silver, thallium, vanadium, zinc, asbestos, fluorides. Waste containing the following organic constituents above constituentspecific limits: benzene, carbon tetrachloride, chlorobenzene, chloroform, cresols, 1,2-dichloroethane, methyl ethyl ketone, nitrobenzene, pyridine, tetrachloroethylene, trichloroethylene, PCBs.

Why must waste be characterized? Facilities handling wastes under Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) must characterize their wastes: To determine if the waste is hazardous and therefore regulated under RCRA. To determine if the waste is subject to waste-specific management standards (e.g., governing tanks, surface impoundments, or containers that are used to treat, store, or dispose of ignitable waste possessing an average volatile organic (VO) concentration at the point of waste origination of equal to or greater than 500 parts per million by weight.) To determine if the waste is prohibited under the land disposal restrictions (LDR) and to ensure that the restricted waste meets the required treatment standards prior to land disposal. To verify that the waste received by offsite facilities is in fact the same waste describe on the shipping manifest papers, and the waste has been characterized sufficiently to ensure safe management at a site.

More Examples: Ignitable waste- items containing alcohol, waste from paint, gasoline, diesel fuel, some degreasers, charcoal lighter fluid, matches, rags soaked with linseed oil, aluminum dust, and phosphorus, mineral spirits ( a petroleum distillate that is used especially as a paint or varnish thinner) Corrosive waste- battery acid and radiator boil out tanks, waste from rust remover, acid, or alkaline cleaning fluid, chlorine bleach cleaners, silver polish, oven cleaners containing sodium hydroxide or Iye, Reactive waste- explosives and some cyanide bearing wastes, lithium-sulfur batteries, Toxic waste- paint or ink with metal pigments, plating wastes, photographic fixer, oil spills, tailings from various mining industries, for example concentrated sulphuric acid is pumped into the ground when mining platinum, spent fuel rods from nuclear reactors.

The following lists toxic products commonly found in the home. In the yard: Fungicides Insecticides Pesticides Pool chemicals Weed killers In the house: Aerosol sprays Asbestos Batteries Cleaners Fire extinguishers Fluorescent lamps Nail polish & remover Syringes/needles In the garage: Antifreeze Auto batteries Automatic transmission uid Brake uid Engine cleaners Flares Fuel such as butane, diesel, gasoline, kerosene & lamp oil Oil & lters Power-steering uid In the workshop: Glues Paint Paint thinners Photo chemicals Solvents Treated wood Wood nishes Examples of Household Hazardous Waste In the Home Household cleaners can contain chemicals that are toxic, corrosive, and sometimes flammable.

Abrasive cleanser Scouring powder Ammonia-based cleaner Chlorine bleach Bleach-based cleaner Disinfectant Drain opener Glass cleaner Oven cleaner Rug and upholstery cleaner Spot Remover Toilet bowl cleaner Silver polish

Aerosol spray cans o air freshener o hair spray o bug killer Batteries Medicines Syringes (sharps), in sealed, heavy plastic or metal containers Floor polish Furniture polish Mothballs Nail polish and remover Shoe polish

In the Garage Paint products can contain chemicals that are toxic and flammable (ignitable).

Enamel or oil-based paint Latex or water-based paint Furniture stripper Paint stripper Rust prevention products Stain Varnish Thinner, solvent, and turpentine Wood preservative

Automotive products can contain chemicals that are toxic, corrosive, and flammable (ignitable).

Anti-freeze Motor oil Auto and motorcycle batteries Car wax Engine cleaner and degreaser Gasoline and diesel fuel Kerosene Auto paint and primer Transmission fluid

Brake fluid Power steering fluid

In and Around the Yard Pesticide and garden products can contain chemicals that are toxic and sometimes flammable

Chemical fertilizer Fungicide Herbicide and weed killer Insecticide or bug killer Flea collars, sprays, and bombs Rodent poisons Roach and ant killers Snail and slug bait

Pool and hobby products can contain chemicals that are Toxic, Explosive, and Corrosive.

Artist and model paint Firearm cleaning solvent Photographic chemicals Solvent-based glue Pool chemicals, including disinfectants and PH balancing chemicals

Waste Quantification Is the act of counting and measuring the quantity of waste in a certain place.

Sample waste quantification Table 1 Composition of Domestic Waste by Socioeconomic Stratum Socioeconomic Stratum Composition High Weight in grams Organic Food wastes Garden wastes Excremento de animal Wood Textiles Paper and Cardboard Newspaper Packing material Magazines Office paper Various paper 63,578.08 1,430.33 9,287.13 6,286.49 24,267.61 7.83% 0.18% 1.14% 0.77% 2.99% 42,737.21 2,861.47 14,933.85 7,077.26 28,429.29 2.56% 0.17% 0.90% 0.42% 1.71% 8,454.95 1,555.94 2,770.26 3,004.13 11,005.70 1.27% 0.23% 0.42% 0.45% 1.66% 360,309.43 170,125.16 2,985.77 7,169.70 5,909.41 44.37% 20.95% 0.37% 0.88% 0.73% 610,688.25 360,408.88 20,479.37 13,903.66 72,878.78 36.64% 21.62% 1.23% 0.83% 4.37% 310,417.09 78,248.67 6,330.80 2,294.91 69,625.92 46.79% 11.79% 0.95% 0.35% 10.49% % Medium Weight in grams % Low Weight in grams %

Various cardboard Inorganic Cellophane paper Plasticized paper Paper Waxed Plastic bags Various plastics Various Glass Aluminiodiverso Cobre Metal diverso Sanitationwastes Disposable diapers Polystyrene PapelAluminio ResiduosInertes Ground Rocks Subtotal







13.26 446.69 476.06 10,343.65 20,960.13 6,089.36 512.47 0.00 5,126.11 64,879.90 13,330.96 11,624.08 1,652.55

0.00% 0.06% 0.06% 1.27% 2.58% 0.75% 0.06% 0.00% 0.63% 7.99% 1.64% 1.43% 0.20%

87.20 53.67 563.35 26,155.61 33,030.72 9,743.13 1,016.60 1.42 12,029.93 174,765.49 82,271.87 10,049.78 1,594.63

0.01% 0.00% 0.03% 1.57% 1.98% 0.58% 0.06% 0.00% 0.72% 10.48% 4.94% 0.60% 0.10%

7.83 0.00 117.15 10,074.28 13,669.50 2,193.30 216.90 0.00 2,992.08 64,309.88 34,930.21 9,984.95 821.01

0.00% 0.00% 0.02% 1.52% 2.06% 0.33% 0.03% 0.00% 0.45% 9.69% 5.26% 1.50% 0.12%

1,380.00 0.00 811,996.85

0.17% 0.00% 100%

59,752.46 13,520.50 1,666,926.68

3.58% 0.81% 100%

10,824.10 1,658.60 663,478.14

1.63% 0.25% 100%

Table 2 presents the results of the sub products containers waste composition that is thrown away per socioeconomic stratum. The plastic container is the most common in the three stratums; the medium and the low stratum generate the highest amount of containers in this category. In the high stratum, after the plastic the cardboard have a 14.41%.

Table 2 Composition of the Containers Generated by the Socioeconomic Stratum Socio economic stratum Containers High Weight in grams Cardboard Paper Plastic 212,966.55 8,205.07 224,937.77 % 14.41% 0.56% 15.22% Medium Weight in grams 237,207.97 11,507.15 667,758.92 % 8.36% 0.41% 23.53% Low Weight in grams 56,800.66 7,918.36 405,064.63 % 4.61% 0.64% 32.84%

Tin Glass Transparent Glass Green Glass Amber Glass Aluminum Plasticized Polystyrene Tetra pack Weird container Other Subtotal

89,321.82 240.00 63,939.69 24,723.44 19,217.13 21,158.40 14,138.76 2,021.24 9,499.88 1,019.68 14,138.76 1,478,111.47

6.04% 0.02% 4.33% 1.67% 1.30% 1.43% 0.96% 0.14% 0.64% 0.07% 0.96% 100.00%

252,147.63 2,880.00 132,438.23 10,060.68 98,961.85 34,547.87 38,407.75 993.71 20,973.80 2,640.24 38,407.75 2,838,020.38

8.88% 0.10% 4.67% 0.35% 3.49% 1.22% 1.35% 0.04% 0.74% 0.09% 1.35% 100%

171,972.04 2,306.50 171,678.86 115,920.04 75,973.64 19,306.49 22,042.21 2,224.25 16,996.47 3,315.25 22,042.21 1,233,419.92

13.94% 0.19% 13.92% 9.40% 6.16% 1.57% 1.79% 0.18% 1.38% 0.27% 1.79% 100%

Figure 1 shows graphically show the containers behavior per stratum and per kind of container. This graphic shows the differences in the consumption of the three stratums.

High 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
Car dboar d P aper P l ast i c Tin Gl ass T r anspar ent Gl ass



Gr een Gl ass

A mber Gl ass

A l umi num

P l ast i ci zed

P ol yst yr ene

T et r a pack

Wei r d cont ai ner

Ot her

RECYCLABLE MATERIALS Recycling is a process using waste materials into new products to prevent waste of potentially useful materials, reduce the consumption of fresh raw materials, reduce energy usage, reduce air pollution (from incineration) and water pollution (from land filling) by reducing the need for "conventional" waste disposal, and lower greenhouse gas emissions as compared to plastic production. Recycling is a key component of modern waste reduction and is the third component of the "Reduce, Reuse, Recycle" waste hierarchy. In the strictest sense, recycling of a material would produce a fresh supply of the same material for example; used office paper would be converted into new office paper, or used foamed polystyrene into new polystyrene. However, this is often difficult or too expensive (compared with producing the same product from raw materials or other sources), so "recycling" of many products or materials involve their reuse in producing different materials (e.g., paperboard) instead. Another form of recycling is the salvage of certain materials from complex

products, either due to their intrinsic value (e.g., lead from car batteries, or gold from computer components), or due to their hazardous nature (e.g., removal and reuse of mercury from various items).

Common Recyclable Materials Papers it includes Computer Print Out (CPO), Tab cards, newspapers, magazines, etc. Glasses it can be color-separated (amber, green, and/or flint) and mixed color glasses. Plastics There are 7 types of plastics that are identified by a Society of Plastics Industry (SPI) code number ranging from 1 to 7. These numbers are usually found on the bottom of plastic containers inside a threearrow recycling symbol. SPI 1 PET (polyethylene terephthalate) is the most readily recyclable material at this time. Examples: 1 2 L soda bottle, liquid cleaners, detergents, etc. SPI 2 HDPE (high-density polyethylene) is currently recyclable in some areas. Examples: base cups for some plastic soda bottles, lotion, antifreeze, etc. SPI 3 PVC (polyvinyl chloride) includes bottles for cooking oil, salad dressing, floor polish, mouthwash, and liquor, as well as blister packs used for batteries and other hardware and toys. SPI 4 LDPE (low-density polyethylene) includes grocery bags, bread bags, trash bags, and a variety of other film products. SPI 5 PP (polypropylene) includes a wide variety of packaging such as yogurt containers, shampoo bottles, and margarine tubs. Also cereal box liners, rope and strapping, combs, and battery cases. SPI 6 PS (polystyrene) includes Styrofoam coffee cups, food trays, and clamshell packaging, as well as some yogurt tubs, clear carry-out containers, and plastic cutlery. Foam applications are sometimes called EPA, or Expanded Polystyrene. Some recycling of polystyrene is taking place, but is limited by it low weight-to-volume ration and its value as a commodity. SPI 7 Others. Can refer to application which use some of the above six resins in combination or to the collection of the individual resins as mixed plastic (e.g., camera film can include several types of plastic resins). Metals it includes aluminum, tin-coated steel and bimetal containers, ferrous and non-ferrous metals. Currently, aluminum is a highly valued material for recycling. Miscellaneous Recyclables it includes lead-acid batteries and household batteries. According to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 96% of the lead-acid batteries used in automobiles are recycled; and button-cell batteries containing mercury and silver or nickel-cadmium batteries are increasingly targeted for recycling because of the value of recoverable materials, their small size, and other easy handling relative to other battery types.

RECOVERY OF RECYCLABLE MATERIALS FROM SOLID WASTE There are three main methods that can be used to recover recyclable materials from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW): Collection of source-separated recyclable materials by either the generator or the collector, with and without subsequent processing Commingled recyclables collection with processing at centralized materials recovery facilities (MRFs) Mixed MSW collection with processing for recovery of the recyclable materials from the waste stream at mixed-waste processing or front-end processing facilities

Collection of Source-Separated Materials Source-separated recyclable materials are placed in three separate containers (one for paper, one for glass, and one for cans and plastics), cardboard is bundled for collection with recyclable materials, residual nonrecyclable wastes are placed in separate containers, and yard wastes are placed in the street for collection with specialized collection equipment.

Collection of Commingled Recyclable Materials The generator only needs to separate recyclable materials from non-recyclables. Newspapers are often kept separate from the rest of the commingled recyclables to prevent contamination and to improve collection vehicle efficiency. The recyclable materials are transported to an MRF where they are segregated into each recyclable component (glass, metal cans, plastic bottles, etc). Processing operations at MRFs can vary from facilities with relatively low mechanization, depending primarily on the manual sorting of waste materials, to highly mechanized automated sorting processes.

Collection of Mixed MSW In the third approach to recycling, there is no segregation of recyclables from other waste materials. Mixed wastes (including recyclables) are set out at curbside, as would be done for landfills or incineration. One collection vehicle is required for collection of the mixed wastenormally, the familiar packer truck. The mixed waste is then transported to a central processing facility, which employs a high degree of mechanization, including separation equipment such as shredders, trommels, magnets, and air classifiers to recover the recyclables. Mixed-waste processing of recyclables is also known as front-end processing or refuse-derived fuel (RDF) processing of MSW.

Solid Waste Storage and Situ Handling Storage is the holding of waste for a temporary period of time prior to the waste being treated, disposed, or stored elsewhere. Storage for the Hazardous Waste: Hazardous waste is commonly stored prior to treatment or disposal, and must be stored in containers, tanks, containment buildings, drip pads, waste piles, or surface impoundments that comply with the RCRA regulations

Containers A hazardous waste container is any portable device in which a hazardous waste is stored,
transported, treated, disposed, or otherwise handled. The most common hazardous waste container is the 55-gallon drum. Other examples of containers are tanker trucks, railroad cars, buckets, bags, and even test tubes. Tanks Tanks are stationary devices constructed of non-earthen materials used to store or treat hazardous waste. Tanks can be open-topped or completely enclosed and are constructed of a wide variety of materials including steel, plastic, fiberglass, and concrete. Drip Pads A drip pad is a wood drying structure used by the pressure-treated wood industry to collect excess wood preservative drippage. Drip pads are constructed of non-earthen materials with a curbed, free-draining base that is designed to convey wood preservative drippage to a collection system for proper management. Containment Buildings Containment buildings are completely enclosed, self-supporting structures (i.e., they have four walls, a roof, and a floor) used to store or treat non-containerized hazardous waste. Waste Piles A waste pile is an open, uncontained pile used for treating or storing waste. Hazardous waste waste piles must be placed on top of a double liner system to ensure leachate from the waste does not contaminate surface or ground water supplies. Surface Impoundments A surface impoundment is a natural topographical depression, man-made excavation, or diked area such as a holding pond, storage pit, or settling lagoon. Surface impoundments are formed primarily of earthen materials and are lined with synthetic plastic liners to prevent liquids from escaping.

Storage for the Municipal Waste: Waste is stored at different stages of the waste management chain: i) Waste is stored at points of generation before collection. Receptacles at points of generation are intended for the storage of waste between collection days. Aspects to take into account in the choice of receptacle are: size, cost, availability, durability, type of waste and ease of handling by waste generators and waste collectors. Waste storage systems must allow for separation at source. The type and size of receptacles will determine the most appropriate means of transport. The choice of receptacle should also be mindful of the potential impacts at the landfill e.g. adding plastic to landfill.

ii) Waste is stored at collection points for recyclables. These facilities include clean Materials Recovery Facilities (MRFs), garden sites, and drop-off and buyback centers. iii) Waste is stored at other intermediate facilities prior to final disposal to landfill or prior to the waste being treated or recycled. These include transfer stations and dirty Materials Recovery Facilities (MRFs). Storage for the Hospital Waste: Hospital Waste categories and Disposal Option Category 1 Category 2 Category 3 Category 4 Category 5 Category 6 Category 7 Category 8 Category 9 Category 10 Waste Category Human anatomical waste Animal waste Microbiology & biotechnology waste Sharps Medicines and cytotoxic drugs Solid waste (Blood and Body fluids) Solid waste (disposable items) Liquid waste ( blood & body fluids) Incineration Ash Chemical waste Treatment & Disposal Incineration /deep burial Incineration /deep burial Incineration /deep burial Incineration /mutilation Incineration / destruction and disposal in secured landfill Autoclave/chemical treatment/burial Autoclave/chemical treatment/burial Disinfection by chemicals/discharge into drains Disposal in municipal landfill Chemical treatment/ secure landfill / disinfection /chemical treatment

Segregation by color coding system Three categories

Infectious waste - Red bags Domestic waste - Green Bags Sharps - Needle cutters / Puncture proof containers Segregation at Source ( ward, operation theater, laboratory, labor room, other places)

Waste storage

Closed covered area Away from the normal passages Easily accessible for transportation Radioactive waste special containers/ special treatment and disposal

Proper disposal of waste

All infectious waste and sharps containers :Incineration All Domestic waste : Landfill All hazardous waste : Chemical treatment before disposal

Life-Cycle Assessment (Life-cycle Analysis) is a technique to assess environmental impacts to the notion that a fair, holistic assessment requires the assessment of raw-material production, manufacture, distribution, how much solid, liquid and gaseous waste is generated, use and disposal including all intervening transportation steps necessary or caused by the product's existence.

WHY PERFORM LCAs? (THE GOAL AND PURPOSE) LCAs might be conducted by an industry sector to enable it to identify areas where improvements can be made, in environmental terms. Alternatively the LCA may be intended to provide environmental data for the public or for government. In recent years, a number of major companies have cited LCAs in their marketing and advertising, to support claims that their products are environmentally friendly or even environmentally superior to those of their rivals. Many of these claims have been successfully challenged by environmental groups. All products have some impact on the environment. Since some products use more resources, cause more pollution or generate more waste than others, the aim is to identify those which are most harmful. Even for those products whose environmental burdens are relatively low, the LCA should help to identify those stages in production processes and in use which cause or have the potential to cause pollution, and those which have a heavy material or energy demand. Breaking down the manufacturing process into such fine detail can also be an aid to identifying the use of scarce resources, showing where a more sustainable product could be substituted. The goal of LCA is to compare the full range of environmental effects assignable to products and services in order to improve processes, support policy and provide a sound basis for informed decisions. Two types of LCA: Attributional LCA. It seeks to establish the burdens associated with the production and use of a product, or with a specific service or process, at a point in. Consequential LCA.It seeks to identify the environmental consequences of a decision or a proposed change in a system under study, which means that market and economic implications of a decision may have to be taken into account. MAIN PHASES GOAL AND SCOPE LCA starts with an explicit statement of the goal and scope of the study, which sets out the context of the study and explains how and to whom the results are to be communicated. This is a key step and the ISO standards require that the goal and scope of an LCA be clearly defined and consistent with the intended application. The goal and scope document therefore includes technical details that guide subsequent work: 1. the functional unit, an important basis that enables alternative goods, or services, to be compared and analysed, defines what precisely is being studied and quantifies the service delivered by the product system, providing a reference to which the inputs and outputs can be related. 2. the system boundaries; 3. any assumptions and limitations; 4. the allocation methods used to partition the environmental load of a process when several products or functions share the same process; and 5. the impact categories chosen. LIFE CYCLE INVENTORY It is an analysis involves creating an inventory of flows from and to nature for a product system. Inventory flows include inputs of water, energy, and raw materials, and releases to air, land, and water. To develop the inventory, a flow model of the technical system is constructed using data on inputs and outputs. The flow model is typically illustrated with a flow chart that includes the activities that are going to be assessed in the relevant supply chain and gives a clear picture of the technical system boundaries. The input and output data needed for the construction of the model are collected for all activities within the system boundary, including from the supply chain. The results of the inventory is an LCI which provides information about all inputs and outputs in the form of elementary flow to and from the environment from all the unit processes involved in the study.

For an LCI, the technosphere products (supply chain products) are those that have been produced by man and unfortunately those completing a questionnaire about a process which uses manmade product as a means to an end will be able to specify how much of a given input they use. Typically, they will not have access to data concerning inputs and outputs for previous production processes of the product. The entity undertaking the LCA must then turn to secondary sources if it does not already have that data from its own previous studies. National databases or data sets that come with LCA-practitioner tools, or that can be readily accessed, are the usual sources for that information. Care must then be taken to ensure that the secondary data source properly reflects regional or national conditions. LIFE CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT It aimed at evaluating the significance of potential environmental impacts based on the LCI flow results. Classical life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) consists of the following mandatory elements: 1. selection of impact categories, category indicators, and characterization models; 2. the classification stage, where the inventory parameters are sorted and assigned to specific impact categories; and 3. impact measurement, where the categorized LCI flows are characterized, using one of many possible LCIA methodologies, into common equivalence units that are then summed to provide an overall impact category total. In addition to the above mandatory LCIA steps, other optional LCIA elements normalization and grouping may be conducted depending on the goal and scope of the LCA study. In normalization, the results of the impact categories from the study are usually compared with the total impacts in the region of interest, the U.S. for example. Grouping consists of sorting and possibly ranking the impact categories. During weighting, the different environmental impacts are weighted relative to each other so that they can then be summed to get a single number for the total environmental impact. INTERPRETATION It is a systematic technique to identify, quantify, check, and evaluate information from the results of the life cycle inventory and/or the life cycle impact assessment. The results from the inventory analysis and impact assessment are summarized during the interpretation phase. The outcome of the interpretation phase is a set of conclusions and recommendations for the study. According to ISO 14040:2006, the interpretation should include: 1. identification of significant issues based on the results of the LCI and LCIA phases of an LCA; 2. evaluation of the study considering completeness, sensitivity and consistency checks; and 3. conclusions, limitations and recommendations. A key purpose of performing interpretation is to determine the level of confidence in the final results and communicate them in a fair, complete, and accurate manner. Interpreting the results of an LCA starts with understanding the accuracy of the results, and ensuring they meet the goal of the study. This is accomplished by identifying the data elements that contribute significantly to each impact category, evaluating the sensitivity of these significant data elements, assessing the completeness and consistency of the study, and drawing conclusions and recommendations based on a clear understanding of how the LCA was conducted and the results were developed. VARIANTS Cradle-to-grave. It is the full Life Cycle Assessment from resource extraction (cradle)to use phase and disposal phase (grave). For example, trees produce paper, which can be recycled into low-energy production cellulose (fiberised paper) insulation, then used as an energy-saving device in the ceiling of a home for 40 years, saving 2,000 times the fossil-fuel energy used in its production. After 40 years the cellulose fibers are replaced and the old fibers are disposed of, possibly incinerated. All inputs and outputs are considered for all the phases of the life cycle.

Cradle-to-gate. It is an assessment of a partial product life cycle from resource extraction (cradle) to the factory gate (before it is transported to the consumer). The use phase and disposal phase of the product are omitted in this case. It is sometimes the basis for environmental product declarations (EPD) termed business-tobusiness EDPs. Using this in LCI, this allows the LCA to collect all of the impacts leading up to resources being purchased by the facility. They can then add the steps involved in their transport to plant and manufacture process to more easily produce their own cradle-to-gate values for their products. Cradle-to-cradle or open loop production. It is a specific kind of cradle-to-grave assessment, where the end-of-life disposal step for the product is a recycling process. It is a method used to minimize the environmental impact of products by employing sustainable production, operation, and disposal practices and aims to incorporate social responsibility into product development. From the recycling process originate new, identical products (asphalt pavement from discarded asphalt pavement, glass bottles from collected glass bottles) or different products (glass wool insulation from collected glass bottles). Gate-to-gate. It is a partial LCA looking at only one value-added process in the entire production chain. Gate-to-gate modules may also later be linked in their appropriate production chain to form a complete cradle-togate evaluation. Well-to-wheel. It is the specific LCA used for transport fuels and vehicles. The analysis is often broken down into stages entitled well-to-station or well-to-tank, and station-to-wheel or tank-to-wheel or plug-to-wheel. The first stage, which incorporates the feedstock or fuel production and processing and fuel delivery or energy transmission, and is called the upstream stage, while the stage that deals with vehicle operation itself is sometimes called the downstream stage. This analysis is commonly used to assess total energy consumption, or the energy conversion efficiency and emissions impact of marine vessels, aircraft and motor vehicles, including their carbon footprint, and the fuels used in each of these transport modes. Economic inputoutput life cycle assessment. It involves use of aggregate sector-level data on how much environmental impact can be attributed to each sector of the economy and how much each sector purchases from other sectors. Such analysis can account for long chains (for example, building an automobile requires energy, but producing energy requires vehicles, and building those vehicles requires energy, etc.) which somewhat alleviates the scoping problem of process LCA; however, EIOLCA relies on sector-level averages that may or may not be representative of the specific subset of the sector relevant to a particular product and therefore is not suitable for evaluating the environmental impacts of products. Additionally the translation of economic quantities into environmental impacts is not validated. Ecologically based LCA.While a conventional LCA uses many of the same approaches and strategies as an Eco-LCA, the latter considers a much broader range of ecological impacts. It was designed to provide a guide to wise management of human activities by understanding the direct and indirect impacts on ecological resources and surrounding ecosystems. Eco-LCA is a methodology that quantitatively takes into account regulating and supporting services during the life cycle of economic goods and products. In this approach services are categorized in four main groups: supporting, regulating provisioning and cultural services. LIFE CYCLE ENERGY ANALYSIS Energy production.It is recognized that much energy is lost in the production of energy commodities themselves, such as nuclear energy, photovoltaic electricity or high-quality petroleum products. Net energy content is the energy content of the product minus energy input used during extraction and conversion, directly or indirectly. Energy Cannibalism.It refers to an effect where rapid growth of an entire energy-intensive industry creates a need for energy that uses (cannibalizes) the energy of existing power plants. Thus during rapid growth the industry as a whole produces no energy because new energy is used to fuel the embodied energy of future power plants. Energy recovery.If materials are incinerated during the disposal process, the energy released during burning can be harnessed and used for electricity production. This provides a low-impact energy source, especially when compared with coal and natural gas. While incineration produces more greenhouse gas emissions than landfilling, the waste plants are well-fitted with filters to minimize this negative impact. A recent study comparing

energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions from land filling (without energy recovery) against incineration (with energy recovery) found incineration to be superior in all cases except for when landfill gas is recovered for electricity production. Criticism. A criticism of LCEA is that it attempts to eliminate monetary cost analysis, that is replaces the currency by which economic decisions is made with an energy currency. It has also been argued that energy efficiency is only one consideration in deciding which alternative process to employ, and that it should not be elevated to the only criterion for determining environmental acceptability; for example, simple energy analysis does not take into account the renewability of energy flows or the toxicity of waste products; however the life cycle assessment does help companies become more familiar with environmental properties and improve their environmental