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St. JOSEPHS COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING Department of Biotechnolo !

" Chemical En ineerin III SE#ES$ER EN%IRON#EN$&L SCIENCE &ND ENGINEERING '(ES$ION B&N) (NI$* I P&R$ & 1. Define Environment. Ans: The physical, chemical and biological presence of living and non-living things outside an individual species is called as its environment. 2. Define the term Environment with reference to ISO 14001. Ans:According to ISO 1 !!1, environment can be defined as, "surroundings in #hich an organi$ation operates- air, #ater, land, natural resources, flora, fauna, humans and inter relation". 3. What are the two categories of environments? Ans:A% &iotic environment ' &% Abiotic environment 4. Name the components of environment Ans: Air (Atmosphere), *and (*ithosphere) and +ater (hydrosphere) . Write the composition of air in ! "# weight. Ans: ,itrogen--... /0 O1ygen-23.1 /0Argon-1.2-/0 4O2 - !.!3/0 5iscellaneous!.!2/ $. What are gases present in the air? Ans: ,itrogen, o1ygen, Argon, 4arbon dio1ide, hydrogen, helium, o$one, radon, neon, 6rypton, 1enon, Sulphur dio1ide, ammonia, methane, hydrogen sulphide, etc %. Name the vario&s 'a#ers of atmosphere. Ans: Troposphere0 Stratosphere (O$onosphere)0 5esosphere0 7eterosphere (Thermosphere)0 81osphere (. Define the term )ithosphere Ans: The solid component of 8arth is called 'ithosphere. *. E+p'ain ,iosphere. Ans: The biological environment #here the living organisms live and interact #ith physical environment is called biosphere. It is the component of the earth #hich involves all the living constituents such as birds, animals, plants etc. It supports various eco systems 10. Define Environmenta' Science. Ans: 8nvironmental is the study of environment, its biotic and abiotic components and their interrelationship. 11. State an# two pro"'ems ca&se- "# constr&ction of -ams. .ns/ Thousands of hectares of forests have been cleared for e1ecuting river valley pro9ects. The greatest social cost of big dam is the #idespread displacement of tribal people such a biodiversity, cannot be tolerated. 12. State the ro'e of Information 0echno'og# in Environment. Ans: It plays a vital role in the field of environmental education. IT means collection, processing, storage, and dissemination of information. A number of soft#are have been developed to study about the environment. 13. What is water 'ogging? Ans: +ater logging is the land #here #ater stand for most of the year. 14. )ist the fo&r concept&a' spheres in the Earth1s environment Ans: 4rust, 5antle, Outer core and Inner core. 1 . What are the two f&nctions of forests? Ans: They recycle rain #ater and remove pollutants from air. They moderate temperature and #eather and help to maintain humidity. 1

1$. What are the a-vantages of con2&nctive &se of water? Ans: 4onsumptive use : #ater is completely utili$ed and not reused. ,on : consumptive use : #ater is not completely utili$ed and is reused. 1%. What are the ca&ses for -eforestation? Ans: ;estruction of forest area. Submergence of forest area under #ater. 1(. Differentiate "etween -eforestation an- 'an- -egra-ation. Ans: *and degradation : is the process of deterioration of soil and loss of the fertility of soil. ;eforestation : process of removal or elimination of forests resources due to many natural or man : made activities. 1*. Define 3#-ro'ogic c#c'e. Ans: 7ydrologic cycle is defined as the interchange of #ater bet#een the atmospheres and the 8arth<s surface. 20. Name some water "orne -iseases an- the responsi"'e organisms. Ans: Typhoid,=aratyphoid, ;iarrhoea, 4holera, &acillary ;ysentery - &acterias Amoebiasis, >iardiasis - =roto$oa ?iral 7epatitis (@aundice), =oliomyelitis - ?iruses Aound#orm, hoo6#orm, thread#orm - 7elminthes 21. Name the se-imentar# c#c'e. Ans: =hosphorous cycle and Sulphur cycle 22. What are the two a-verse effects ca&se- "# overgra4ing? Ans: *and degradation, soil erosion, loss of useful species. 23. What are the a-vantages of rain water harvesting? Ans: Advantages of rain #ater harvesting : Aeduction in the use of current for pumping #ater, increase the availability of #ater from the #ells, rise in ground #ater levels, minimi$ing soil erosion and flood ha$ards, upgrading social and environmental status. 24. State the environmenta' effect of e+tracting 5 &sing minera' reso&rces? Ans: Aapid depletion of mineral deposits, causes environmental pollution. 2 . What -o #o& &n-erstan- "# the terms 6minera'1 an- 6ore1? Ans: Ore is the unprocessed part of the roc6 e1cavated 2$. What are the vario&s processes "# which minera' -eposits are forme-? Ans: 5inerals are naturally occurring substances having definite chemical and physical properties. Ores are minerals or combination of minerals from #hich useful substances such as metals can be profitably e1tracted. 2%. What are strategic an- critica' minera's? 7ive e+amp'es. Ans: Strategic minerals : reBuired for the defence of the countryC8g. : manganese, cobalt.% 4ritical minerals : essential for the economic po#er of a country. C8g. : iron, aluminium.% 2(. What are the effects of over e+p'oitation of minera' reso&rces? Ans: ;evegetation and defacing of land scape, >round #ater contamination, Air pollution, Subsidence of land 2*. 7ive some metho-s that can "e app'ie- for the management of minera' reso&rces. Ans: 5odernisation of mining activities, reuse and recycling of metals, environmental impacts can be minimi$ed by adopting ecofriendly mining technology. 30. 3ow can #o& -ifferentiate "etween &n-er n&trition 5 ma' n&trition? Ans: =eople #ho cannot buy enough food to meet their basic energy needs suffer from undernutrition. ;eficiency or lac6 of nutrition often leads to malnutrition. 31. What are the changes ca&se- "# overgra4ing an- agric&'t&re? Ans: Overgra$ing : *and degradation, soil erosion, loss of useful species. Agriculture : loss of nutrients, soil erosion, deforestation. 32. What -o #o& &n-erstan- "# micron&trient im"a'ance? Ans: 5ost of the chemical fertili$ers used in modern agriculture contain ,.=.D.#hich are macro-nutrients, #hen e1cess of nutrients is used in the fields it leads to micronutrient imbalance. 2

33. What is "'&e "a"# S#n-rome? Ans: +hen nitrogen fertili$ers are applied in the fields they leach deep into the soil and contaminate the ground #ater, the nitrate in the #ater gets increased, #hen the nitrate concentration e1ceeds 2.mgElit they cause serious health problem called blue baby syndrome. 34. What -o #o& &n-erstan- "# E&trophication? Ans: A large portion of n and p used in crop fields is #ashed off by the runoff #ater and reaches the #ater bodies causing overnourishment of la6es called 8utrophication. 3 . E+p'ain "rief'# the vario&s metho-s of harvesting so'ar energ#. Ans: Solar voltaic cells, solar heat collectors,solar #ater heater. 3$. Write a note on ti-a' power. Ans: Ocean tides produced by gravitational forces of the sun amd moon contain enormous amount of energy #hich can be harnessed by constructing a tidal barrage. 3%. 8ompare n&c'ear power with coa' power. Ans: 4oal po#er fossil fuel ,uclear po#er generated from nuclear fission or fusion governed by temp and no effect of temp and pressure pressure 3(. Write a note on pro-&ction of e'ectricit# from so'ar energ#. Ans: 8nergy that #e get directly from the sun is called solar energy. : solar cells, solar heat collectors. 3*. What are renewa"'e an- non9renewa"'e energ# so&rces? Ans: Aene#able energy resources are natural resources #hich can be regenerated continuously and are ine1haustible. They can be used again and again. 8g: solar energy, #ind energy etc. ,on-rene#able energy resources are energy resource that is not replaced or is replaced only very slo#ly by natural processes. 8g: fossil fuels--oil, natural gas, and coal. 40. Write "rief'# a"o&t 7eotherma' energ#. Ans: Temperature of the earth increases at the rate of 2! : -. o4 per Dm, #hen #e move do#n the earthFs surface. 7igh temperature and pressure fields e1ists belo# the earthFs surface in many places. The energy harnessed from the high temperature present inside the earth is called geothermal energy. 41. What are the -isa-vantages of 32 as f&e'? Ans: 7ighly inflammable and e1plosive in nature, safe handling reBuired, difficult to store and transport. 42. What are "io f&e's? Ans: Guels obtained by fermentation of biomass. 43. What is ):7? Ans: =etroleum gas obtained during crac6ing and fractional distillation can be converted into liBuid under pressure, colorless and odourless gas. 44. What is the necessit# of a'ternate energ# reso&rces? Ans: Importance of solar energy, hydel po#er pro9ects, hydroelectric po#er generation : to avoid environmental implications, ecological balance e1isting on earth : to provide more energy to meet the reBuirements of increasing population, to reduce environmental pollution, to reduce safety and security ris6s associated #ith the use of nuclear energy. 4 . Name the -ifferent t#pes of energ# reso&rces. Ans: Aene#able and non : rene#able energy resources. 4$. Define s&staina"'e forestr#. Ans: Hsing the forest #ealth for all needful and other purposes #ithout basically affecting the minimum area reBuirement for forests can be called sustainable forestry. Gor achieving sustainability of forestry. Gor this care should be ta6en to prevent deforestation as far as possible. 8ven if deforestation is ta6ing place a planned forestation programme is to be implemented. 4%. What are the conventiona' so&rces of energ# for man;in-? Ans: 4oal, petroleum, natural gas and nuclear fuels. 3

4(. What are the meas&res recommen-e- for conservation of nat&ra' reso&rces? Ans: 4onservation of energy, #ater, soil, food resources and forests. 4*. What is the ro'e of an in-ivi-&a' in conservation of nat&ra' reso&rces? Ans: Aole of individual in the conservation of natural resources. : duty of every individual to conserve natural resource in such a #ay that it is available for future generations also. ;ue to advancement I technology and populayion gro#th, the present #orld is facing lot of problems on degradation of natural resource. 0. <ention some &ses of 'an- reso&rces. Ans: Hses of land resources : provides food, #ood, minerals etc for us, nurtures the plants and animals that provide food and shelter, used as #atershed or reservoir, used for construction of buildings and industries. 1. What is 'an- -egra-ation? Ans: *and degradation. : =rocess of deterioration of soil or loss of fertility of soil. 2. What are the harmf&' effects of 'an- -egra-ation? Ans: 7armful effects of land degradation. : Soil structure and te1ture are deteriorated, loss of soil fertility due to loss of valuable nutrients, increase in #ater logging, salinity, al6alinity, acidity problems. 3. What are the ca&ses of 'an- -egra-ation? Ans: 4auses of land degradation. : Increase in population, increase in urbani$ation, increased applications of fertili$ers and pesticides, damage of top soil. 4. What -o #o& &n-erstan- "# -esertification? Ans: ;esertification:=rogressive destruction or degradation of arid or semi arid lands to desert. . What are the harmf&' effects of -esertification? Ans: 7armful effects of desertification : Around I!/ of arid land and semiarid land are converted to desert. Around J!! million people are threatened of desertification. $. What are the ca&ses of -esertification? Ans: 4auses of desertification : ;eforestation : denuding and degradating land, overgra$ing : increase in cattle population leds to denudation of land area, #ater management : overutili$ation of ground #ater in coastal regions leads to salinity into acBuifers ma6ing it unfit for irrigation., mining and Buarrying : loss of vegetable cover and degradation of land area., climate change : failure of monsoon and freBuent droughts., pollution. %. <ention the ca&ses of 'an- s'i-es. Ans: 4auses of land slides : removal of vegetation, underground mining, transport, addition of #eight and ground #ater level. (. What is geotherma' energ#? Ans: >eothermal energy : Temperature of the earth increases at the rate of 2! : -. 4 per Dm #hen #e move do#n the earthFs surface. 7igh temperature and high pressure fields e1ists belo# the earthFs surface in many places. The energy harnessed from high temperature present inside the earth is called geothermal energy. *. What -o #o& mean "# environmenta' impact? Ans: 8nvironmental impact:The effect on the natural environment caused by various human actions. It includes 2 types. Indirect effects:8g: pollution, ;irect effects:8g: cutting do#n trees. $0. E+p'ain overgra4ing. Ans: Overgra$ing-A process of eating a#ay of forests #ithout giving it a chance to regenerate.

(NI$* II P&R$ & 1. Define Ecos#stem. Ans: 8cosystem has been defined as a system of interaction of organisms #ith their surroundings. ,umerous dynamic interactions are occurring #ithin an ecosystem and these are comple1. Al#ays alterations to the biotic and Abiotic components are happening #ithin the ecosystems. 2. En&merate some characteristics of an Ecos#stem. Ans: 8cosystem is the ma9or ecological unit. It contains both biotic and abiotic components. Through the biotic and abiotic components nutrient cycle and energy flo# occur. The boundary of the ecosystem is not rigidly defined and it is fle1ible. The function of ecosystem is related to the cycling of materials and flo# of energy. The amount of energy needed to maintain an ecosystem depends on its structure. 8cosystems pass from a less to more comple1 state, #hich is called as succession. Adaptation to local environmental condition is the important feature of the biotic components of an ecosystem, failing #hich they might perish. 3. 8'assif# the Ecos#stem. Ans: The ecosystem can be generally classified into three types. ,atural 8cosystem0 Artificial 8cosystem0 Incomplete 8cosystem 4. What are the f&nctiona' components of eco s#stem? Ans: &iotic and Abiotic are the components of eco system . Define heterotrophs. Ans: Those organisms #hich depend on others (=roducers-Autotrophs) for their energy reBuirements are 6no#n as 4onsumers or 7eterotrophs. $. Name the t#pes of cons&mers. Ans: 1.7erbivores (or) =rimary 4onsumers0 2. 4arnivores (or) Secondary 4onsumers 3.Omnivores (or) Tertiary 4onsumers %. Define =oo- chain an- =oo- we". Ans: A food chain is a picture or model that sho#s the flo# of energy from Autotrophs to a series of organisms in an environment. The energy that it flo#s can be different for each food chain. The relationships bet#een the compo-nents of the food chain are very comple1. The net#or6 li6e interaction of organisms is called as food #eb. (. What are Decomposers? Ans: The organisms #hich brea6do#n the comple1 compounds into simple products are called as decomposers or reducers. *. What are the factors to "e consi-ere- in ."iotic eco s#stem? Ans: 4limatic factors, =hysical factors and 4hemical factors. 10. Define "iogeochemica' c#c'e. Ans: T#o types of biogeochemical cycles are 1. >aseous 4ycle (8g. ,2 and O2 cycles)0 2. Sedimentry 4ycle ( Sulphur and =hosphorus cycles) 11. )ist some e+amp'es for .&totrophic s&ccession Ans: Autotrophs are nothing but producers #hich synthesi$e their food through photosynthesis. 8.g: All green plants and trees 12. What is Nitrogen fi+ation? Ans: 7ydrogen bonding of #ater molecule is defined as the bonding developed bet#een the positive hydrogen end of one molecule and the negative lone pair of another #ater molecule. Gour hydrogen bonds are formed around each and every #ater molecules. .

13. Define the term Nitrification. Ans: The process of converting the free nitrogen gas available in the atmosphere into compounds of nitrogen is called as nitrogen fi1ation. 14. What -o #o& mean "# Denitrification? Ans: The process of converting ammonia into nitrites #ith the help of nitrosomonas bacteria, and nitrites into nitrates #ith the help of nitrobactor bacteria is called as nitrification. 1 . Define ,iome. Ans: &iome is defined as a ma9or ecological community of organisms occupying in a larger area. 1$. Define the term >anthropos#stem>. Ans: It is defined as the ecosystem developed by the human6ind. It is also called as artificial eco system. 1%. )ist the ma2or "iomes of the wor'-. Ans: ;essert, Tropical rain forest, Tundra etc. 1(. What are the metho-s "# which nitrogen fi+ation ta;es p'ace in the nat&re? Ans: ,atural nitrogen fi1ation can be obtained from lightening of clouds and bacteria and fungi present in soil and #ater. Artificial fi1ation of nitrogen i' obtained #ith the help of fertili$er of fertili$er industries, #hich convert the atmosphere nitrogen into ammonia. 1*. Define Eco'ogica' s&ccession. Ans: "8cological succession" is the observed process of change in the species structure of an ecological community over time. +ithin any community some species may become less abundant over some time interval, or they may even vanish from the ecosystem altogether. Similarly, over some time interval, other species #ithin the community may become more abundant, or ne# species may even invade into the community from ad9acent ecosystems. This observed change over time in #hat is living in a particular ecosystem is "ecological succession". 20. What are the two t#pes of eco'ogica' s&ccession? Ans: (i) =rimary ecological succession comprising of 7ydrarch (7ydrosere) and Kerarch (Kerosere) and (ii) Secondary succession involving establishment of biotic communities. 21. Define :rimar# an- secon-ar# s&ccession Ans:( i) =rimary ecological succession comprises of 7ydrarch(7ydrosere : establishment starting in a #atery area li6e pond and la6e) and Kerarch (Kerosere : establishment starting in a dry area li6e, desert and roc6) and (ii) Secondary succession involving establishment of biotic communities in an area, #here some types of biotic community is already present. 22. What are the forces invo've- in s&ccession? Ans: ,udation, Invasion (5igration ' 8stablishment), 4ompetition, Aeaction and Stabili$ation 23. +hat are the classifications of biotic components of ecosystemsL Ans: =roducers, 4onsumer and ;ecomposers are the biotic components of an ecosystem 24. 3ow -oes a ,iome -iffer from an ecos#stem? Ans: &iome is defined as a ma9or ecological community of organisms occupying in a larger area. 2 . What are the t#pes of grass'an- ecos#stem? Ans: a) Savannah ecosystem, b) Gorest ecosystem and c) Tundra ecosystem 2$. 7ive the characteristic feat&res of grass'an- ecos#stem. Ans: =lants(=roducers) Aat (=rimary consumer) Sna6es(secondary consumer) 8agles(Tertiary consumer) 2%. What is the str&ct&re 5 f&nction of grass'an- ecos#stem? Ans: Structure and function of grassland ecosystem.-Abiotic: 4,7,O,,,=,S etc : supplied by rates, nitrates, phosphates and sulphates. &iotic: producers : grasses, forbs and shrubs, consumers:co#s, co#s, buffaloes, deer, sheep, decomposers : fungi and bacteria.

2(. What are the -ifferent t#pes of -esert ecos#stem? Ans: ;ifferent types of desert ecosystem : Tropical : characteri$ed by only fe# species, Temperate : characteri$ed by hot summer and cool #inter and cold : characteri$ed by cold #inters and #arm summers 2*. 7ive the characteristic feat&res of -esert ecos#stem. Ans: 4haracteristic of desert eco system: 1. ;esert air is dry and the climate is hot, 2. Annual rainfall is less thsn 2.. cm.0 3. The soil is very poor in nutrients and organic matter and . ?egetation is very poor. 30. What is the str&ct&re 5 f&nction of -esert ecos#stem? Ans: Structure ' function of desert ecosystem- Abiotic : temperature, rainfall, sunlight, #ater, &iotic : producers : shrubs, bushes, grasses, consumers : sBuirrels, mice, fo1es, decomposers : fungi and bacteria. 31. What are the -ifferent t#pes of a?&atic ecos#stem? Ans: different types of aBuatic ecosystem : Gresh #ater : pond, la6e and river and salt #ater : ocean and estuarine. 32. What is the str&ct&re 5 f&nction of a?&atic ecos#stem? Ans: Structure and function of aBuatic ecosystem =ond : is temporary, only seasonal, stagnant Gresh #ater body, gets polluted easily due to limited amount of #ater. Abiotic : temperature, light, #ater, organic and inorganic compounds. &iotic : producers : green photosynthetic organisms, consumers : proto$oa, small fish, ciliates, flagellates, decomposers : fungi, bacteria and flagellates. *a6es:natural shallo# #atr vodies, supplied #ith #ater from rainfall, sno# and streams, helps in irrigation and drin6ing. Abiotic : temperature, light, proteins and lipids, turbidity, o1ygen and carbon dio1ide. &iotic : producers : phytoplan6tons, algae, flagellates, 4onsumers : proto$oans, insects, small fishes, large fish, decomposers : bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes. Aiver : fresh and free flo#ing #ater system, deposits large amounts of nutrients, Abiotic : temperature, light, ph nutrients, organic and inorganic compounds, &iotic : producers : phytoplan6tons, algae, grasses, consumers : insects, fishes, birds, mammals, decomposers: bacteria and fungi. Ocean : occupies large surface area #ith saline #ater, commercial activities any be carried out, rich in biodiversity, moderates temperature of the earth. Abiotic : temperature, light, salts, &iotic : producers : phytoplan6tons and marine plants, consumers :fish mac6erel, haddoc6, decomposers : bacteria and fungi. 8stuarine : transition $ones affected by tides of the sea. 4haracteristics of #ater are periodically changed. Abiotic : temperature, ph and ,a, D salts, &iotic : =roducers : grasses, #eeds, 4onsumers : oysters, crabs, fishes, decomposers : bacteria and fungi. 33. What are pro-&cers? Ans: =roducers are organisms, li6e green plants, that produce organic compounds from inorganic compounds. These are also a type of autotroph. Then green plants, for e1ample, are eaten by consumers in this case, gra$ing animals li6e the $ebra. 34. What are cons&mers? Ans: consumers are organisms, #hich cannot prepare their o#n food and depend directly or indirectly on the producers. 8. g. Insects, rabbits, Gish, lions 3 . What are -ecomposers? Ans: A decomposer is an organism of decay. These are also called saprobes. They brea6 do#n the remains of dead animals and plants, releasing the substances that can be used by other members of the ecosystem. 3$. What -o #o& &n-erstan- "# E&trophic 'a;es an- D#strophic 'a;es? Ans: 8utrophic la6es are those la6es #hich are overnourished by nutrients li6e , and = 3%. 7ive the characteristic feat&res of an Est&arine s#stem.

Ans: 1. They are transition $ones strongly affected by tides of the sea, 2. +ater characteristics are periodically changing, 3. living organism have #ide tolerance and . Salinity remains highest in summer and lo#est during #inter. 3(. Name the 4 ecos#stems. Ans: Gorest, grassland, desert and pond 3*. What are the 4 ;in-s of -iversit#? Ans: 6inds of biodiversity : species, genetic, community or ecosystem 40. Write a note on meas&ring -iversit#. Ans: ,ote on measuring diversity.- based on spatial distribution : types : point richness, alpha, beta, gamma diversity. 41. Wh# is ,io-iversit# rich in tropics? Ans: &iodiversity is rich in tropics.- more stable climate, #arm temperatures and high humidity, opportunity for many species to coe1ist, rate of out crossing appear to be higher in tropics. 42. What is the significance of ,io-iversit#? Ans: Significance of biodiversity. : very important for human life, as #e depend on plants, microorganisms, animals for food, medicine and industrial products., protects fresh air, clean #ater and productive land., important for forestry, fisheries and agriculture. 43. What is species 5 7enetic -iversit#? Ans: Species and genetic diversity- species : discrete group of organisms of the same 6ind : diversity bet#een differed species., genetic : species #ith different genetic characteristics. 44. What are the va'&es of "io-iversit#? Ans: ?values of biodiversity : consumptive, productive, social, ethical, aesthetic and optional 4 . 7ive some me-icina' va'&es of "io-iversit#. Ans: 5edicinal values of biodiversity : around -!/ are derived from plant and plant e1tracts. 8gs : penicillin, Buinine etc. 4$. 7ive some commercia' va'&es of "io-iversit# Ans: 4ommercial values of biodiversity : these products are mar6eted and sold, derived from plants and animals. 8gs : sil6 : sil6 #orm, #ool : sheep, leather : all animals, #ood : pulp and paper industry, cotton : te1tile industry, etc. 4%. What -o #o& &n-erstan- "#@ 5 -iversit#? Ans: Alpha, beta and gamma diversity : alpha : refers to number of species found in a small homogeneous area, beta : refers to rate of change of species composition across different habitats, gamma : refers to rate of change across large landscape. 4(. What steps can "e ta;en to conserve "io-iversit#? Ans: Steps to conserve biodiversity : adeBuate crop and cattle compensation, solar po#ered fencing, changes in cropping pattern, adeBuate food and #ater for all animals, developmental and constructional #or6 in and around forest region must be stopped. 4*. Define "io-iversit#. Ans: &iodiversity is defined as Mthe variety and variability all groups of living organisms and the eco system in #hich they occur. 0. En&merate h&man activities which -estro# "io-iversit#. Ans: 7uman activities destroy biodiversity : farmers prefer hybrid seeds : many plants become e1tinct, for production of drugs the pharma companies collect #ild plants : become e1tinct, tropical forests : main source : disappearing due to agriculture, mining and logging. 1. What -o #o& &n-erstan- "# ha"itat 'oss? Ans: The loss of population of interbreeding organisms is caused by habitat loss. It threatens #ide range of animals and plants. 2. What are the factors inf'&encing ha"itat 'oss? Ans: Gactors influencing habitat loss- ;eforestation, ;estruction of #etlands, 7abitat fragmentation, Hsage of hybrid seeds, Hsage of #ild plants for medicinal productions #ithout replenishing their gro#th, Illegal trade and developmental activities I

3. What is poaching? Ans: =oaching : 6illing of animals or commercial hunting : leads to loss of animal biodiversity. 4. What are the factors inf'&encing poaching? Ans: Gactors influencing poaching : human population and commercial activities . Write a note on man A wi'- 'ife conf'ict. Ans: 5an : #ildlife conflict : arise #hen #ild life stars causing immense damage and danger to man. $. What are the factors inf'&encing man A anima' conf'icts? Ans: Gactors influencing man:#ild life conflict:shrin6ing of forest cover, human encroachment into forest, in9ured animals attac6ing man, of electric #iring around crop fields, etc. %. What steps can "e ta;en to conserve "io-iversit#? Ans: 1. In-situ conservation and 2. 81-situ conservation (. What -o #o& &n-erstan- "# 7'o"a' "io-iversit#? Ans: >lobal biodiversity- total number of living species in the #orld is about 2! million, 1.. million are found, tropical deforestation is reducing biodiversity by !.. / each year. *. What are the hot spots of "io-iversit#? Ans: 7otspots of biodiversity : geographic areas #hich possess high endemic species. $0. What are the threats to the In-ian "io-iversit#? Ans: Threats to Indian biodiversity- deforestation, destruction of #etlands, habitat fragmentation, ra# material, production of drugs, illegal trade and developmental activities. $1. What -o #o& &n-erstan- "# en-angere- species an- en-emic species? Ans: 8ndangered and endemic species : 8ndemic - species #hich are found only in a particular region. species is said to be threatened or endangered #hen its number has been reduced to a critical level. Hnless it is protected and conseved it is in immediate danger of e1tinction. $2. E+p'ain threatene- an- en-angere- species. Ans: Threatened and endangered species. :species is said to be threatened or endangered #hen its number has been reduced to a critical level. Hnless it is protected and conserved it is in immediate danger of e1tinction. (NI$* III P&R$ + & 1. Define Environmenta' :o''&tion. Ans: 8nvironmental =ollution is defined as any undesirable change in the physical, chemical, or biological characteristics of any component of the environment (air,#ater,soil)#hich can cause harmful effects on various forms of property. 2. What -o #o& mean "# in-oor air po''&tion? Ans: 7ouses in the under-developed ' developing countries use fuels li6e #ood 6erosene in their 6itchens ' incomplete combustion produces to1ic gas li6e 4O. The most important indoor radioactive material is radon gas that can be emitted from building materials li6e bric6s, concrete etc. #hich are derived from soil containing radium. This is called indoor air pollution. 3. What are the effects of vario&s air po''&tants on h&man hea'th? Ans: ,ame of the =ollutant ,O2 4O &en$ene, =4&, dio1ins ,ame of the ;iseases 4hronic &ronchitis, 8mphysema Suffocation ,di$$iness, Hnconsciousness, *ong 81posure lead to death 5utations, reproductive problems, cancer N

4. 7ive an# 4 steps to contro' air po''&tion Ans: Siting of Industries after proper 8IA (8nvironmental Impact Assessment) studies. Hsing lo# sulphur coal in industries Hsing mass transport system =lanting more trees . What is the effect of air po''&tion on p'ant 'ife? Ans: Air pollutants affect plants by entering through stomata destroy chlorophyll and affect photosynthesis. ;amage to leaf structure causes necrosis (dead areas of leaf), chlorosis (loss or reduction of chlorophyll causing yello#ing of leaf), epinasty (do#n#ard curling of leaf), abscission (dropping of leaves). $. Define S:) Ans: The noise measurements are e1pressed as Sound =ressure *evel (S=*) #hich is the logarithmic ratio of the sound pressure to a reference pressure. It is e1pressed in decibels. The international reference pressure is 2 1 1!-. =a #hich is the average threshold of hearing for a healthy ear. %. 7ive noise stan-ar-s recommen-e- "# 8:8, committee Ans: Area code A & 4 ; 4ategory of Area Industrial 4ommercial Aesidential Silence Pone ,oise *evel during day (d&) -. J. .. .! ,oise *evel during night (d&) -! .. . !

(. 7ive the -irections of S&preme 8o&rt to re-&ce the noise po''&tion -&ring Diwa'i. Ans: The manufacture, sale or use of fire crac6ers generating noise level e1ceeding 12. db at m distance from the point of bursting shall be prohibited. The above limit is reduced by . log , db (, O ,o of crac6ers 9oined together) for individual fire crac6ers constituting the series. The fire crac6ers should not be used in silence $ones. >iving 8nvironmental education ' a#areness to the masses. 1!

*. Define water po''&tion 5 give the so&rces of water po''&tion. Ans: +ater pollution can be defined as alteration in physical, chemical or biological characteristics of #ater ma6ing it unsuitable for designated use in its natural state. There are 2 sources of #ater pollution. They are point sources : specific sites near #ater #hich directly discharge effluents into them ' non point sources : sources are scattered and individually collect pollute #ater. 10. What -o #o& mean "# DO 5 ,OD? Ans: ;issolved O1ygen (;O) is the amount of O2 dissolved in a given Buantity of #ater at a particular temperature ' atmospheric pressure.&iological O1ygen ;emand (&O;) is defined as the amount of ;O reBuired to aerobically decompose biodegradable organic matter over a period of . days at 2!Q4. 11. Define "ioacc&m&'ation Ans: The non-biodegradable substances do not undergo any degradation and they tend to accumulate in the organismFs body. This is 6no#n as bioaccumulation. 12. E+p'ain therma' po''&tion Ans: Thermal pollution can be defined as the presence of #aste heat in the #ater #hich can cause undesirable changes in the environment. 13. What are the effects of therma' po''&tion? Ans: a. The solubility of O, is decreased at high temperature. b. To1icity of pesticides increases #ith increase in temperature c. ;ischarge of heated #ater can even 6ill young fishes. d. Gish migration is affected. 14. 3ow coo'ing pon-s are &se- to re-&ce the therma' po''&tion? Ans: +ater from condensers is stored in ponds #here natural evaporation cools the #ater #hich can then be recirculated or discharged in nearby #ater body 1 . What are the so&rces of marine po''&tion? Ans: The sources here are Aivers : bring pollutants from their drainage basins 4oastline settlements in the form of hotels,industries Oil drilling ' shipment Aadioactive disposal into deep sea 1$. What -o #o& mean "# "a''ast water 5 what is the effect of it in marine ecos#stem? Ans: After delivering oil through sea-route, earlier empty tan6ers used to be filled #ith #ater called ballast #ater to maintain balance. The ballast #ater containing residual oil from tan6ers #as released into sea on completion of return 9ourney. Oil in sea #ater spread over a large area ' affects sensitive flora ' fauna. 1%. What are the effects of ra-ioactive waste in soi' po''&tion? Ans: Aadioactive #aste accumulates in food chain that leads to bioaccumulation ' biomagnification. Aadioisotopes #hich attach #ith the clay become a source of radiations in the environment. They replace essential elements in the body. 1(. Define n&c'ear po''&tion Ans: Aadioactive substances undergo natural radioactive decay in #hich unstable isotopes spontaneously give out fast moving particles, high energy radiations or both, at a fi1ed rate until a ne# stable isotope is formed. 1*. What are the -amages ca&se- "# the n&c'ear ra-iations? Ans: >enetic damages : The damage is caused by radiations, #hich induce mutations in ;,A. The damage is often seen in the offsprings and may be transmitted upto several generations. Somatic damage : This includes burns, miscarriages, eye cataract, bone cancer etc 20. What is ca''e- inversion 5 how it affecte- the peop'e of -onora? Ans: The condition #hen cold layer is trapped belo# the #arm layer is called as inversion. The top fog layer reflected the solar radiations during the day time. ;uring night the top layer had been loosing heat #hich further cooled the layer to stabili$e. 11

21. What is 'ove cana' trage-#? Ans: The love canal in a suburb of ,iagara falls, ,e# Ror6 #as built by +illiam love #hich #as later dug up ' #as used to bump sealed steel drums of chemical #aste. The site #as later covered #ith clay ' top soil and #as later sold to the city board of education in 1N.3.In 1N-J the children playing in the canal area received chemical burns ' the residents started complaining of foul smell. 22. 3ow arsenic contaminates the water? Ans: 81cess use of lead arsenate ' copper arsenate as pesticides in high yielding varieties of summer paddy ' 9ute crop percolate into the top soil and contaminates the ground #ater. 23. Define So'i- Waste. Ans: It is defined as the #aste, arising from human and animal activities that are discarded as useless or un#anted one. 24. What are the t#pes of so'i- waste? Ans: The types are: S Hrban solid #aste0 S Industrial solid #aste 2 . What are the so&rces of &r"an an- in-&stria' so'i- waste? Ans: Hrban solid #aste : Aesidential area, commercial area open area #aste, constructional #aste, biomedical #aste. Industrial solid #aste- 4hemical industry, paint industry petroleum refinery industry, paper industry, metal industry. 2$. <ention the effects of so'i- waste. Ans: S Spreading of fungal diseases S &ad odours S &urning of #aste produce chemicals #hich are harmful to human life. S 4ontaminates #ater S Affects the characteristics of soil 2%. 3ow we can contro' so'i- wastes? Ans: Aeuse and recycling of #aste, proper treatment of the #aste, neutrali$e ha$ardous characteristics, using innovation technology. 2(. <ention the activities invo've- in so'i- waste management. Ans: +aste generation, onsite handling ,storage and processing collection transfer and transport processing and recovery and disposal 2N. +hat do you meant by commercialEindustrial collection servicesL Ans: The use of large movable and stationary containers and also large stationary compactors can be done by this method. 4ompactors are used to compress the material directly into the large containers or in the form of balls #hich are then placed in the large containers 30. What is ;nown as ha&'e- container s#stem? Ans: 4ollection system in #hich containers used for storage of #aste are hauled to the processing, transfer, emptied and returned to either their original location or some other location are defined as hauled container system. 31. What is ;nown as stationar# container s#stem? Ans: The collection system in #hich the containers are used for storage of #aste remains at the point of #aste generation e1pect #hen moved for collection are defined as stationary container system. 32. What are the factors sho&'- "e investigate- "efore a-opting the in-irect metho- of transportation? Ans: 8fficiency of the system overall cost analysis, distance, time of travel to the site, suitability of transfer operations to the disposal area. 33. What is 'an- fi''ing? 12

Ans: A method of disposing off the refuse on land #ithout creating nuisances or ha$ards to public health or safety by utili$ing the principles of engineering. 34. <ention the a-vantages of 'an- fi''ing. Ans: The advantages are Simple method ,atural resources are returned to the soil and it is to be recycled 4onverts #asteland into the useful area. 3 . What -o #o& meant "# incineration? Ans: In this method .high temperature is created in the combustion chamber of the incinerator #ith the use of an au1iliary fuel. The municipal solid #astes are burnt in a furnace called incinerator. 3$. What is composting? Ans: The entire process involving both the separation and bacterial conversion of the organic solid #aste is called composting. 3%. <ention the a-vantages of composting. Ans: o 4ompost contains nitrogen essential for plant gro#th o Hsed for agricultural field o Hsed for recycling o Increasing #ater retention o Increasing ion e1change capacity of soil 3(. What is meant "# ha4ar-o&s waste? Ans: The useless, un#anted, discarded material that may threat to human health and environment. 3*. 3ow to manage ha4ar-o&s waste? Ans: ;ispose the #aste as early as possible =revent illegal, international traffic in ha$ardous #aste Strengthening the institutional capacities in ha$ardous #aste management =romoting the prevention and minimi$ation of using ha$ardous #aste 40. What is -isaster? Ans: It is defined as the sudden calamity #hich brings misfortune and miseries to the humanity. 41. What is earth?&a;e? Ans: It is defined as sudden, violent, and sha6ing of part of the earth. 42. What is c#c'one an- mention the prevention ta;en at the time of c#c'one? Ans: It is an area of lo# pressure in the centre and high pressure outside. Store all the loose items inside the home Guel your car and par6 it under solid cover 4lose the shutters or heavily tape all the #indo#s ;isconnect all the electrical appliances Turn off the gas 43. What is 'an-s'i-e? Ans: It is a sudden collapse of larger mass of hillslide (NI$ * I% P&R$ + & 1. What is -eve'opment? 13

Ans: ;evelopment should bring benefits to all, not only for the present generation, but also for the future generation. 2. State the aspects of s&staina"'e -eve'opment Ans: Inter- generational eBuity 'Intra :generational eBuity 3. What is &r"ani4ation? Ans: It is the movement of human population from rural areas to urban areas for the #ant of better education, communication, health, employment, etc., 4. State the ca&ses of &r"ani4ation Ans: Since cities are the main centers of economic gro#th, trade, transportation, education, medical facilities and employment, rural people moves to cities. . State the so'&tions for &r"an energ# pro"'em Ans: Hrban people may use public transport instead of using motor cycles and cars =roduction capacity may be increased. $. State the nee- for water conservation Ans: Over e1ploitation of ground #ater leads to drought. Agricultural and industrial activities reBuire more fresh #ater. %. State the -ifferent strategies for water conservation Ans: Aeducing evaporation losses0 Aeducing irrigation losses0 Ae-use of #ater: =reventing #astage of #ater0 ;ecreasing run-off losses: Avoid discharge of se#age. (. What are the a-vantages of rain water harvesting? Ans: Increasing the availability of #ater from #ell. Aise in ground #ater levels. *. What are the factors affecting watershe-? Ans: The #atersheds are found to be degraded due to uncontrolled,Hnplanned and unscientific land use activities0 ;roughty climate also affects the #atershed. 10. What are the o"2ectives of watershe- management? Ans: To minimi$e the ris6s of floods, droughts and landslides0 To raise the ground #ater level. 11. State the ca&ses for -isp'acement of peop'e Ans: ;ue to developmental activities0 ;ue to disaster0 ;ue to conservation initiatives. 12. What is resett'ement? Ans: It is the simple relocation (or) displacement of human population. 13. What is environmenta' ethics? Ans: It refers to the issues principles and guidelines relating to human interactions #ith their environment. 14. What are the common o"2ectives of Environmenta' )egis'ation? Ans: o To control further damage to the environment and ecosystem o To conserve the environment. o To restore the environment in areas damaged including such measures as reclamation of degraded land. o To create authorities to administer the policy and contents of the legislation. o To provide penalties and prosecution for violation of la#s 1 . Name some of the acts enacte- "# the In-ian 7overnment to protect the environment Ans: The +ater (=revention and 4ontrol of =ollution) Act 1NThe +ater (=revention and 4ontrol of =ollution) 4ases Act 1N-The Air (=revention and 4ontrol of =ollution) Act 1NI1 The 8nvironment (=rotection) Act 1NIJ The =ublic *iability Insurance Act 1NN1 1$. <ention some of the Environmenta' B&a'it# O"2ectives. 1

Ans: Aeduced climate impact, A non-to1ic environment, 4leaner air, A perfect $one layer. >ood Buality ground #ater, Sustainable forests 1%. What is the main o"2ective of ISO 14000 series. Ans: The main purpose of ISO 1 !!! series is to promote effective and efficient environmental management in organi$ations. 1(. What is the ro'e of ISO in environmenta' protection? Ans: The main involvement of ISO is to develop the standards in the follo#ing areas. 1) 8nvironmental 5anagement System (85S) 2) 8nvironmental Auditing 3) 8nvironmental *abeling ) 8nvironmental =erformance 8valuation .) *ife cycle assessment J) Terms and definitions 1*. What is the -ifference "etween norma' osmosis process an- reverse osmosis process? Ans: In the normal osmosis process, more dilution of concentrated solution occurs by the movement of molecules from the less concentrated side. &ut incase of reverse osmosis process, due to the application of high e1ternal pressure, the molecules of solution move from the more concentrated side to the less concentrated side through the semi-permeable membrane. 20. What are the effects of 7'o"a' warning? Ans: a) 5ore heat #aves b) 81pansion of desert area c) ,atural fires in forestlands d) 5ore evaporation of #ater from oceans and #ater bodies e) 5elting of ice caps in Arctic and Antarctica regions f) 5ore cloud formation in the atmosphere. g) Shorter and #armer #inters and longer and shorter summer. h) 4hanges in pattern of rainfall i) Aise in sea level 9) Glooding and submergence of lo# lying coastal areas 21. Define 7'o"a' warming. Ans: >lobal #arming is defined as the increase in the temperature of the earth, #hich causes more changes in climate 22. Define green ho&se effects. Ans: The greenhouse effect is a naturally occurring process that ma6es the earth #armer by trapping more energy in the atmosphere. The green house gases absorb and hold heat from the sun, preventing it from escaping bac6 into the space0 much li6e a green house absorbs and holds the sun<s heat 23. Name some green ho&se gases present in the atmosphere. Ans: 4arbon dio1ide (4O2)0 methane (47 )0 nitrous o1ide (,2!)0 chlorofluorocarbons (4G4)0 #ater vapour (72O) and troposphere o$one (!3) are some of the green house gases present in the atmosphere 24. Define the terms 8'imate an- 8'imate 8hange. Ans: 4limate is the long-term average of a region<s #eather events grouped together. 4limate change is the representation of change in these long-term #eather patterns. 2 . Define 3DI Ans: 7;I is an estimate of human resources development, as measured by three parameters : life span, literacy and standard of living. It determines the Buality of life in a country. (NI$* % P&R$ + & 1. Define :op&'ation e+p'osion. Ans: Hnprecedented gro#th of human population at an alarming rate is defined as population e1plosion. Gor, e.g. &et#een 1N.!-1NN!, in 9ust ! years the population crossed .billion mar6 #ith current addition of about N2 million every year. 2. What -o #o& mean "# 0ota' ferti'it# rate@ Cero pop&'ation growth? 1.

Total fertility rate is defined as the average number of children that #ould be born to a #oman in her lifetime if the age specific birth rates remain constant. +hen birth plus immigration in a population are 9ust eBual to deaths plus emigration, it is said to be $ero population gro#th. 3. Draw -ifferent t#pes of age p#rami-s? Ans:


4. What are the t#pes of pop&'ation growth c&rves? Ans: =yramid shaped0 &ell shaped Hrn shaped . What is meant "# )ife e+pectanc#? Ans: It is the average age that a ne#born infant is e1pected to attain in a given country. The average life e1pectancy, over the globe, has risen from ! to J... years over the past century. In India, life e1pectancy of males and females #as only 22.J years and 23.3 years, respectively in 1N!!. $. What are the post an- prein-&stria' phases of -emographic transition? Ans: =reindustrial phase characteri$ed by high gro#th and death rates and net population gro#th is lo#. =ost industrial phase during #hich $ero population gro#th is achieved. %. 7ive the reasons for h&man pop&'ation? Ans: &irth rate increases #ith community andEor religious thin6ing. ;eath rate is decreasing due to high level of health care and sanitation. 4ultural, economic, political and demographic factors influence the process of controlling rate of population gro#th in different countries. (. <ention a"o&t the fo&r phases associate- with &r"ani4ation an- growth. Ans: =re industrial phase Transitional phase Industrial phase =ost industrial phase *. Define Infant morta'it# rate@ rep'acement 'eve'? Ans: Infant mortality rate is the percentage of infants died out of those born in a year. T#o parents bearing t#o children #ill be replaced by their offspring. &ut due to infant mortality this replacement level is usually changed. 10. What -o #o& mean Demographic transition? 1J

Ans: It has been observed that couples from economically sound nations produce fe#er children so as to maintain high standard of living. This means that birth rate is lo#. The death rate has also been reduced in those nations because of improved health care. As a result, net population gro#th rate is lo#. This phenomenon is called demographic transition. 11. E+pan- W3O@ 8ED.W@ NNW<. Ans: +7O: +orld health Organi$ation, ,,+5: ,ational ,et#or6 for #omen and 5ining 48;A+: International convention on the 8limination of all forms of discrimination against +omen. 12. What are the effects of infectio&s organisms on h&man? Ans: 5icrobes especially bacteria can cause food poisoning by producing to1ins in the contaminated food. Infectious organisms can also cause respiratory disease (pneumonia, tuberculosis, influen$a etc.) and gastrointestinal diseases (diarrhoea,dysentry, cholera.) 13. Which state in In-ia has the 'ower "irth rate? Ans: Derala has earned the distinction of having lo#est birth rates among all the states of India. 14. When -oes Dnite- Nations Deca-e for women he'-? Ans: 1N-.-I. #itnessed inclusion of several #omen #elfare related issues on international agenda. 1 . <ention the present wor'- pop&'ation? Ans: The #orld population is the total number of living humans on 8arth at a given time. As of September 2!!I, the #orld<s population is estimated to be about J.- billion (J,-!!,!!!,!!!). 1$. <ention the wa#s the 3IE sprea- in vario&s parts of wor'-? Ans: 7I? has spread in Africa through 7I? contaminated polio vaccine prepared by using mon6eyFs 6idney. It had spread through hepatitis & viral vaccine in ,e# Ror6, *os Angeles and San Grancisco. It has spread through small po1 vaccine programme of Africa. 1%. If a nation has an ann&a' growth rate of 2!@ how man# #ears the pop&'ation wi'' "e -o&"'e-? Ans: The #orld<s population, on its current gro#th strategy is e1pected to reach nearly 13. billion by the year 2!-.. 1(. Does 3IE affect pop&'ation growth? Ans: Res, +omen are especially at ris6 of contracting 7I? because of the interplay of biological, economic, and cultural factors. =hysical differences ma6e it more li6ely that a #oman #ill contract the virus from a man than vice versa. =erhaps more important, po#erlessness, dependence, and poverty tend to diminish #omenFs ability to protect themselves from unsafe se1. A #omanFs choices are often limited by her inability to negotiate #hen or #ith #hom to have se1 or #hether to use a condom0 by societyFs acceptance of men having se1 before or outside marriage0 and by the need for economic support from men. 1*. What -oes ENEIS generates? Ans: The 8,?IS centers #or6 for generating a net#or6 of database in areas li6e pollution control, clean technologies, remote sensing, coastal ecology, biodiversity, #estern ghats and eastern ghats, environmental management, media related to environment, rene#able energy, desertification, mangroves, #ildlife, 7imalayan ecology, mining, etc. 20. E+p'ain the pop&'ation c'oc;? Ans: The #orld population estimates and pro9ections used to produce these figures #ere developed by the International =rograms 4enter based on analysis of available data on population, fertility, mortality, and migration. The analysis #as performed separately for the 22J countries or 1-

areas of the #orld #ith a population of .,!!! or more. =opulation estimates and pro9ections analyses are based on census, survey, and administrative information. 21. <ention the theories on pop&'ation e+p'osion? Ans: 5althusion Theory: According to Thomas 5althus in 1N-I, human population tends to increase at an e1ponential or compound rate, #hile food production either increases slo#ly or remains stable. This #ill result in poverty, starvation, disease, crime and misery. 5ar1ian Theory: Darl 5ar1 opined that slo#ing do#n of population gro#th and alleviation of crime, disease, starvation, misery and environmental degradation could be achieved through social 9ustice. 22. What -oes Ea'&e9"ase- environmenta' e-&cation emphasi4es? Ans: ?alue-based environmental education imparted to the students #ould encourage them to underta6e pro-environmental actions respecting and nurturing the natural environment. ?alue based environmental education can go a long #ay in attaining the goal of sustainable development preserving our precious environment as because it can bring about a total transformation of our mindset, attitude and mode of life-style. 23. When -oes .IDS -iscovere-? Ans: It #as confirmed in 1NI3 that AI;S occurs due to infection of a previously undocumented virus in a patient afflicted #ith the disease. This virus #as initially given several names, currently it is 6no#n as 7uman immunodeficiency virus (7I?). 24. Define 3&man Fights? Ans: 7uman rights refers to the "basic rights and freedoms to #hich all humans are entitled. 81amples of rights and freedoms #hich are often thought of as human rights include civil and political rights, such as the right to life and liberty, freedom of e1pression, and eBuality before the la#0 and social, cultural and economic rights, including the right to participate in culture, the right to food, the right to #or6, and the right to education.All human beings are born free and eBual in dignity and rights. They are endo#ed #ith reason and conscience and should act to#ards one another in a spirit of brotherhood. 2 . <ention the activities invo've- in women we'fare in two 'ines. Ans: Article 1 confers on men and #omen eBual rights and opportunities in the political, economic and social spheres. Article 1. prohibits discrimination against any citi$en on the grounds of religion, race, caste, se1 etc. Article 1.(3) ma6es a special provision enabling the State to ma6e affirmative discriminations in favour of #omen. Similarly, Article 1J provides for eBuality of opportunities in matter of public appointments for all citi$ens. 2$. What -o #o& meant "# carcinogenic@ m&tagenic@ ne&roto+ins? Ans: Carcino enic- The term carcinogen refers to any substance, radionuclide or radiation that is an agent directly involved in the promotion of cancer or in the fatation of its propagation. #.ta enic- In biology, a mutagen (*atin, literally origin of change) is a physical or chemical agent that changes the genetic information (usually ;,A) of an organism and thus increases the freBuency of mutations above the natural bac6ground level. Ne.roto/in- A neuroto1in is a to1in that acts specifically on nerve cells (neurons), usually by interacting #ith membrane proteins such as ion channels. 2-. What -oes environment e-&cation1s o"2ective? Ans: To help individuals, groups and societies acBuire the action competence or s6ills of environmental citi$enship - in order to be able to identify and anticipate environmental problems and #or6 #ith others to resolve, minimi$e and prevent them To create an overall understanding of the impacts and effects of behaviors and lifestyles - on both the local and global environments, and on the short-term and long-term. 1I

2(. What -oes Draft Dec'aration on h&man rights -escri"es? Ans: Articles 1 and 2 are the foundation bloc6s, #ith their principles of dignity, liberty, eBuality and brotherhood. The seven paragraphs of the preamble, setting out the reasons for the ;eclaration, are represented by the steps. The main body of the ;eclaration forms the four columns. The first column (articles 3-11) constitutes rights of the individual, such as the right to life and the prohibition of slavery. The second column (articles 12-1-) constitutes the rights of the individual in civil and political society. The third column (articles 1I-21) is concerned #ith spiritual, public and political freedoms such as freedom of religion and freedom of association. The fourth column (articles 22-2-) sets out social, economic and cultural rights. In 4assin<s model, the last three articles of the ;eclaration provide the pediment #hich binds the structure together. These articles are concerned #ith the duty of the individual to society and the prohibition of use of rights in contravention of the purposes of the Hnited ,ations 2*. Whether the )ife e+pectanc# over the g'o"e has improve- or not? Ans: There are great variations in life e1pectancy #orld#ide, mostly caused by differences in public health, medicine and nutrition from country to country. There are also variations bet#een groups #ithin single countries. Significant differences still remain in life e1pectancy bet#een men and #omen in Grance and other developed countries, #ith #omen outliving men by five years or more. 30. What is Data"ase? Ans: A 4omputer ;atabase is a structured collection of records or data that is stored in a computer system. The structure is achieved by organi$ing the data according to a database model. The model in most common use today is the relational model. Other models such as the hierarchical model and the net#or6 model use a more e1plicit representation of relationships. 31. <ention the a-vantages of remote sensing? Ans: Aelatively cheap and rapi- method of acBuiring &p9to9-ate information over a 'arge geographical area. 81ample: *andsat . covers each area of 1I.11J!6m at a ground resolution of 3!m every 1I days, cost of the original digital data is T.!!! (J2!! ha T-1, each hectare contains appro1imately 11 observations. 8ven #ith the cost of ground truthing this is very economical. It is the only practical #ay to obtain data from inaccessi"'e regions, e.g. Antarctica, Ama$onia. At small scales, regional phenomena #hich are invisible from the ground are clearly visible. 81amples: faults and other geological structures. A classic e1ample of seeing the forest instead of the trees. 4heap and rapid method of constructing base maps in the absence of detailed land surveys. 8asy to manipulate #ith the computer, and combine #ith other geographic coverages in the >IS. 32. What -o #o& meant "# <3FD? Ans: 5inistry of human resource development to provide details on national 8ducation policies, Schemes, Scholarships, Statistics and also malpractice alerts. 33. What -oes DN assem"'# a-opte- for chi'- we'fare? 1N

;eclaration of the Aights of the 4hild, "the child, by reason of his physical and mental immaturity, needs special safeguards and care, including appropriate legal protection, before as #ell as after birth", The Hnited ,ations 4onvention on the Aights of the 4hild, often referred to as 4A4 or H,4A4, is an international convention setting out the civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights of children. ,ations that ratify this international convention are bound by it by international la#. 4ompliance is monitored by the Hnited ,ations 4ommittee on the Aights of the 4hild #hich is composed of members from countries around the #orld. Once a year, the 4ommittee submits a report to the Third 4ommittee of the Hnited ,ations >eneral Assembly, #hich also hears a statement from the 4A4 4hair, and the Assembly adopts a Aesolution on the Aights of the 4hild. 34. <ention the a-vantages of -istri"&tion Information centres? Ans: +eb access and Internet services such as e-mail 0 5ar6et access and e-commerce 0 Access to socio-economic databases 0 e-*earning (4omputer Aided *earning =rocesses) and eeducation0 e-5edicine, e-consulting 0 e->overnance applications, government to citi$en (citi$en centric) services 0 +eather information 0 IT a#areness among local people 0 4omputer training programmes 0 Tender notification 0 8-employment notification 3 . What is meant "# 7IS? Ans: A geographic information system (>IS), also 6no#n as a geographical information system, is an information system for capturing, storing, analy$ing, managing and presenting data #hich is spatially referenced (lin6ed to location). In the strictest sense, it is any information system capable of integrating, storing, editing, analy$ing, sharing, and displaying geographically referenced information. 3$. 3ow to create awareness among vi''ages for women we'fare? Ans: The #omen must get organi$ed in their respective villages. The Self-help concept -Savings ' 4redit activity- has to be practiced more intensively. =arents should be encouraged to allo# their girls to study and at least complete school education. The girls #ho have already dropped out of school should be encouraged to complete their education through private studies. ?illagers should meet freBuently to discuss ho# to curb the un#anted cultural, social and religious restrictions on #omen<s education. +e should voice against atrocities to#ards #omen. +omen should ma6e use of government #elfare programs, particularly those aimed at the development of micro-enterprises. +omen should participate in all village development and political activities. 8verybody should #or6 together to abolish female subordination and male dominance. 5arriages of young girls should be restricted. 3%. When was vienna wor'- conference Occ&re-? Ans: On 2. @une 1NN3, representatives of 1-1 States adopted by consensus the ?ienna ;eclaration and =rogramme of Action of the +orld 4onference on 7uman Aights, thus successfully closing the t#o-#ee6 +orld conference and presenting to the international community a common plan for the strengthening of human rights #or6 around the #orld. 3(. What are -ifferent va'&es of environmenta' e-&cation? Ans: 2!


?alues concerned #ith a mode of conduct are called instrumental values (i.e. honesty, respect for the environment) and those involving end states of e1istence are called terminal values (i.e. a #orld at peace, environmental Buality) . A value system is a hierarchy of ideals or values, arranged in order of importance 1 . UThe more #idely shared a value, the greater the societal demands placed upon us and therefore the greater the MoughtnessF #e e1perience.V 3*. What is 3IE? Ans: 7uman immunodeficiency virus (7I?) is a lentivirus (a member of the retrovirus family) that can lead to acBuired immunodeficiency syndrome (AI;S), a condition in humans in #hich the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections. 40. What are vector "orne -iseases? Ans: A vector-borne disease is one in #hich the pathogenic microorganism is transmitted from an infected individual to another individual by an arthropod or other agent, sometimes #ith other animals serving as intermediary hosts. The transmission depends upon the attributes and reBuirements of at least three different living organisms: the pathologic agent, either a virus, proto$oa, bacteria, or helminth (#orm)0 the vector, #hich are commonly arthropods such as tic6s or mosBuitoes0 and the human host. In addition, intermediary hosts such as domesticated andEor #ild animals often serve as a reservoir for the pathogen until susceptible human populations are e1posed. 41. 7ive an e+amp'e for p#rami- shape- age str&ct&re? Ans:

42. E+p'ain Drn shape- p#rami-? Ans: The countries such as >ermany, Italy, 7ungary, S#eden and @apan have less number of young people than the middle aged reproductive ones. So, the age pyramid of these countries is of urn shaped. =opulation pyramid: 5edium variant


3. What is cr&-e ferti'it# rate? Ans: The general fertility rate indicates the number of liveborn children per 1,!!! #omen of the mean population aged 1. to N. (NI$* I P&R$ & 1. ;efine 8nvironment. 2. ;efine the term 8nvironment #ith reference to ISO 1 !!1. 3. +hat are the t#o categories of environmentsL . ,ame the components of environment .. +rite the composition of air in / by #eight. J. +hat are gases present in the airL -. ,ame the various layers of atmosphere. I. ;efine the term *ithosphere N. 81plain &iosphere. 1!. ;efine 8nvironmental Science. 11. State any t#o problems caused by construction of dams. 12. State the role of Information Technology in 8nvironment. 13. +hat is #ater loggingL 1 . *ist the four conceptual spheres in the 8arthFs environment 1.. +hat are the t#o functions of forestsL 1J. +hat are the advantages of con9unctive use of #aterL 1-. +hat are the causes for deforestationL 1I. ;ifferentiate bet#een deforestation and land degradation. 1N. ;efine 7ydrologic cycle. 2!. ,ame some #ater borne diseases and the responsible organisms. 21. ,ame the sedimentary cycle. 22. +hat are the t#o adverse effects caused by overgra$ingL 22

23. +hat are the advantages of rain #ater harvestingL 2 . State the environmental effect of e1tracting ' using mineral resourcesL 2.. +hat do you understand by the terms MmineralF and MoreFL 2J. +hat are the various processes by #hich mineral deposits are formedL 2-. +hat are strategic and critical mineralsL >ive e1amples. 2I. +hat are the effects of over e1ploitation of mineral resourcesL 2N. >ive some methods that can be applied for the management of mineral resources. 3!. 7o# can you differentiate bet#een under nutrition ' mal nutritionL 31. +hat are the changes caused by overgra$ing and agricultureL 32. +hat do you understand by micronutrient imbalanceL 33. +hat is blue baby SyndromeL 3 . +hat do you understand by 8utrophicationL 3.. 81plain briefly the various methods of harvesting solar energy. 3J. +rite a note on tidal po#er. 3-. 4ompare nuclear po#er #ith coal po#er. 3I. +rite a note on production of electricity from solar energy. 3N. +hat are rene#able and non-rene#able energy sourcesL !. +rite briefly about geothermal energy. 1. +hat are the disadvantages of 72 as fuelL 2. +hat are bio fuelsL 3. +hat is *=>L . +hat is the necessity of alternate energy resourcesL .. ,ame the different types of energy resources. J. ;efine sustainable forestry. -. +hat are the conventional sources of energy for man6indL I. +hat are the measures recommended for conservation of natural resourcesL N. +hat is the role of an individual in conservation of natural resourcesL .!. 5ention some uses of land resources. .1. +hat is land degradationL .2. +hat are the harmful effects of land degradationL .3. +hat are the causes of land degradationL . . +hat do you understand by desertificationL ... +hat are the harmful effects of desertificationL .J. +hat are the causes of desertificationL .-. 5ention the causes of land slides. .I. +hat is geothermal energyL .N. +hat do you mean by environmental impactL J!. 81plain overgra$ing. P&R$ + B 1. 81plain deforestation and its impact on the environment. 8nunciate the causes for deforestation. 2. 81plain ho# the alternate energy sources play an important role in environmental impact. 3. 8numerate and e1plain the urban problems related to energy. . 8laborate the strategies that you #ould suggest for conservation of #ater. .. +hat are the ecological benefits of forestsL J. U8nvironmental damages caused by mining last long after the mine had closedV 81plain -. ;iscuss the ill effects of deforestation. I. 81plain the various methods of harvesting solar energy N. +hat are the ma9or causes of deforestationL ;iscuss its conseBuences. 1!. 8lucidate any ten M8nvironmental concerns of damsF 11. Suggest fe# conservation methods in mineral resources. 23

12. +rite notes on the follo#ing: a) Alternate energy sources, b) >ro#ing energy needs, c) 5an induced land slides and d) ;esertification 13. ;iscuss the possible solutions to improve the acceptability of dam pro9ects in Indian conditions. 1 . 81plain the adverse environmental impacts of modern agriculture 1.. 81plain in detail the role of an individual in conservation of natural resources. 1J. 81plain the follo#ing: a) Over utili$ation of surface and ground #ater. 1-. Adverse effects of agricultural practices a#ay from the farm. 1I. ;iscuss the different types of energy sources. 1N. @ustify the need for environmental education. 2!. +rite ten reasons #hy forests are of immense value to us. 21. ;iscuss any three alternate sources of energy. 22. +rite detailed notes on: a) *andslides and soil erosion, 23. 4onnection bet#een &hopal tragedy and agriculture 2 . ;iscuss the ecological pyramid 2.. ;iscuss the term M7otspotV in &iodiversity. (NI$* II P&R$+ & 1. ;efine 8cosystem. 2. 8numerate some characteristics of an 8cosystem. 3. 4lassify the 8cosystem. . +hat are the functional components of eco systemL .. ;efine heterotrophs. J. ,ame the types of consumers. -. ;efine Good chain and Good #eb. I. +hat are ;ecomposersL N. +hat are the factors to be considered in Abiotic eco systemL 1!. ;efine biogeochemical cycle. 11. *ist some e1amples for Autotrophic succession 12. +hat is ,itrogen fi1ationL 13. ;efine the term ,itrification. 1 . +hat do you mean by ;enitrificationL 1.. ;efine &iome. 1J. ;efine the term <anthroposystem<. 1-. *ist the ma9or biomes of the #orld. 1I. +hat are the methods by #hich nitrogen fi1ation ta6es place in the natureL 1N. ;efine 8cological succession. 2!. +hat are the t#o types of ecological successionL 21. ;efine =rimary and secondary succession 22. +hat are the forces involved in successionL 23. +hat are the classifications of biotic components of ecosystemsL 2 . 7o# does a &iome differ from an ecosystemL 2.. +hat are the types of grassland ecosystemL 2J. >ive the characteristic features of grassland ecosystem. 2-. +hat is the structure ' function of grassland ecosystemL 2I. +hat are the different types of desert ecosystemL 2N. >ive the characteristic features of desert ecosystem. 3!. +hat is the structure ' function of desert ecosystemL 31. +hat are the different types of aBuatic ecosystemL 32. +hat is the structure ' function of aBuatic ecosystemL 2

33. +hat are producersL 3 . +hat are consumersL 3.. +hat are decomposersL 3J. +hat do you understand by 8utrophic la6es and ;ystrophic la6esL 3-. >ive the characteristic features of an 8stuarine system. 3I. ,ame the ecosystems. 3N. +hat are the 6inds of diversityL !. +rite a note on measuring diversity. 1. +hy is &iodiversity rich in tropicsL 2. +hat is the significance of &iodiversityL 3. +hat is species ' >enetic diversityL . +hat are the values of biodiversityL .. >ive some medicinal values of biodiversity. J. >ive some commercial values of biodiversity -. +hat do you understand by, ' diversityL I. +hat steps can be ta6en to conserve biodiversityL N. ;efine biodiversity. .!. 8numerate human activities #hich destroy biodiversity. .1. +hat do you understand by habitat lossL .2. +hat are the factors influencing habitat lossL .3. +hat is poachingL . . +hat are the factors influencing poachingL ... +rite a note on man : #ild life conflict. .J. +hat are the factors influencing man : animal conflictsL .-. +hat steps can be ta6en to conserve biodiversityL .I. +hat do you understand by >lobal biodiversityL .N. +hat are the hot spots of biodiversityL J!. +hat are the threats to the Indian biodiversityL J1. +hat do you understand by endangered species and endemic speciesL J2. 81plain threatened and endangered species. P&R$ + B 1. 81plain food chain and food #eb 2. 81plain briefly the structure of atmosphere 3. +hat is an ecosystemL ;escribe the structure and function of various components of an ecosystem . 81plain: Gorest ecosystem ' 8cological succession .. +rite short notes on the follo#ing: 8nergy flo# in eco-system0=ond eco-system ' Threats to &iodiversity. J. +ith a neat s6etch e1plain the flo# of energy through the various components of the ecosystem. (=roducers, consumers ' decomposers) -. 81plain ho# fat-soluble pollutants li6e ;;T get biomagnifiedL I. >ive flo# chart on Menergy flo# in a fresh#ater la6e ecosystemF and e1plain N. 81plain #ith illustration: i) +ater cycle, ii) O1ygen cycle, iii) ,itrogen cycle, iv) 4arbon cycle, v) =hosphate cycle and vi) Sulphur cycle 1!. +hat is ecological successionL 7o# is it classifiedL 81plain various aspects #ith e1amples. 11. 8lucidate the role of organisms in environment. +rite a note on ecological pyramids 12. ;efine =roducers, consumers and decomposers in an eco-system 13. +hat are the types of forestsL 7o# is forest ecosystem important for environmentL 1 . +hat is fresh #ater ecosystemL >ive the sources of fresh #ater. 1.. 81plain in-situ and e1-situ conservation along #ith their merits and limitations 2.

1J. +hat do you understand by hot spots of biodiversityL ,ame and briefly describe t#o such hot spots that e1tend in India. 1-. &riefly e1plain the conservation of bio-diversity. 81plain: the grass land eco system 1I. +hat are #et landsL 5ention a fe# in India. +hat are their usesL 1N. ;iscuss the threat faced by Indian &iodiversity. 81plain the strategy adopted to conserve biodiversity 2!. ;iscuss energy flo# in ecosystem. 21. +rite a note on &iodiversity. +hy &iodiversity is rich in tropicsL +hat are the causes for loss of &iodiversityL 22. ;iscuss the ecological pyramid. ;escribe the term hotspot in &iodiversity. (NI$* III P&R$ + & 1. ;efine 8nvironmental =ollution. 2. +hat do you mean by indoor air pollutionL 3. +hat are the effects of various air pollutants on human healthL . >ive any steps to control air pollution .. +hat is the effect of air pollution on plant lifeL J. ;efine S=* -. >ive noise standards recommended by 4=4& committee I. >ive the directions of Supreme 4ourt to reduce the noise pollution during ;i#ali. N. ;efine #ater pollution ' give the sources of #ater pollution. 1!. +hat do you mean by ;O ' &O;L 11. ;efine bioaccumulation 12. 81plain thermal pollution 13. +hat are the effects of thermal pollutionL 1 . 7o# cooling ponds are used to reduce the thermal pollutionL 1.. +hat are the sources of marine pollutionL 1J. +hat do you mean by ballast #ater ' #hat is the effect of it in marine ecosystemL 1-. +hat are the effects of radioactive #aste in soil pollutionL 1I. ;efine nuclear pollution 1N. +hat are the damages caused by the nuclear radiationsL 2!. +hat is called inversion ' ho# it affected the people of donoraL 21. +hat is love canal tragedyL 22. 7o# arsenic contaminates the #aterL 2 . +hat are the types of solid #asteL 2.. +hat are the sources of urban and industrial solid #asteL 2J. 5ention the effects of solid #aste. 2-. 7o# #e can control solid #astesL 2I. 5ention the activities involved in solid #aste management. 2N. +hat do you meant by commercialEindustrial collection servicesL 3!. +hat is 6no#n as hauled container systemL 31. +hat is 6no#n as stationary container systemL 32. +hat are the factors should be investigated before adopting the indirect method of transportationL 33. +hat is land fillingL 3 . 5ention the advantages of land filling. 3.. +hat do you meant by incinerationL 3J. +hat is compostingL 3-. 5ention the advantages of composting. 3I. +hat is meant by ha$ardous #asteL 3N. 7o# to manage ha$ardous #asteL 2J

!. +hat is disasterL 1. +hat is earthBua6eL 2. +hat is cyclone and mention the prevention ta6en at the time of cycloneL 3. +hat is landslideL P&R$ + B 1. ;iscuss in detail, the various values of biodiversity #ith e1amplesEcase study. 2. MIndia is rich in &iodiversityF : @ustify. 3. ;efine the follo#ing giving three e1amples of animals in India. i. 8ndangered Species ii. ?ulnerable Species iii. 81tinct Species iv. 8ndemic Species . +hat are the threats to biodiversityL ;iscuss #ith e1ample. .. +hat is man-#ildlife conflictL 5ention any t#o instances of man-#ildlife conflict. J. 7o# do you conserve biodiversityL 81plain. -. +hat are the advantages and disadvantages of in-situ conservationL (NI$ * I% P&R$ + & 1. +hat is developmentL 2. State the aspects of sustainable development 3. +hat is urbani$ationL . State the causes of urbani$ation .. State the solutions for urban energy problem J. State the need for #ater conservation -. State the different strategies for #ater conservation I. +hat are the advantages of rain #ater harvestingL N. +hat are the factors affecting #atershedL 1!. +hat are the ob9ectives of #atershed managementL 11. State the causes for displacement of people 12. +hat is resettlementL 13. +hat is environmental ethicsL 1 . +hat are the common ob9ectives of 8nvironmental *egislationL 1.. ,ame some of the acts enacted by the Indian >overnment to protect the environment 1J. 5ention some of the 8nvironmental Wuality Ob9ectives. 1-. +hat is the main ob9ective of ISO 1 !!! series. 1I. +hat is the role of ISO in environmental protectionL 1N. +hat is the difference bet#een normal osmosis process and reverse osmosis processL 2!. +hat are the effects of >lobal #arningL 21. ;efine >lobal #arming. 22. ;efine green house effects. 23. ,ame some green house gases present in the atmosphere. 2 . ;efine the terms 4limate and 4limate 4hange. 2.. ;efine 7;I P&R$ + B 1. >ive the bloc6 diagram indicating the ma9or regions of the atmosphere #ith temperature profile. 2. >ive any seven air pollutant gases. 5ention its source and effects on human health. 2-

3. 81plain the reactions in photochemical smog. . 7o# is deforestation connected to air pollutionL .. 81plain #or6ing of cyclone collector and electrostatic precipitator in controlling air pollution. J. M5icrobial counts in #aterF : 4omment. -. +ith bloc6 diagram #rite the municipal se#age treatment method. I. +rite a note on lo# cost #aste#ater treatment. N. 7o# does marine #ater get contaminatedL >ive any one case study. 1!. +hat is thermal pollutionL 81plain its sources and effects on ecosystem. 11. +hat are the sources for radioactive pollutionL 12 5ention any ten nuclear energy establishments in India. 13. 7o# can the safe disposal of radioactive #astes be carried outL 1 . +hat is ha$ardous #asteL >ive its impact on environment. 1.. 81plain secure-landfill of to1ic #astes. 1J. +rite the sources of biomedical #astes and its treatment. 1-. +rite notes on M#aste minimi$ation techniBuesF. 1I. 7o# do you conserve energy in your homeL 1N. 81plain any one polluted site near your residence by indicating the source of pollution. Also suggest ho# the problem shall be managed. (NI$* % P&R$ + & 1. ;efine =opulation e1plosion. 2. +hat do you mean by Total fertility rate, Pero population gro#thL 3. ;ra# different types of age pyramidsL . +hat are the types of population gro#th curvesL .. +hat is meant by *ife e1pectancyL J. +hat are the post and preindustrial phases of demographic transitionL -. >ive the reasons for human populationL I. 5ention about the four phases associated #ith urbani$ation and gro#th. N. ;efine Infant mortality rate, replacement levelL 1!. +hat do you mean ;emographic transitionL 11. 81pand +7O, 48;A+, ,,+5. 12. +hat are the effects of infectious organisms on humanL 13. +hich state in India has the lo#er birth rateL 1 . +hen does Hnited ,ations ;ecade for #omen heldL 1.. 5ention the present #orld populationL 1J. 5ention the #ays the 7I? spread in various parts of #orldL 1-. If a nation has an annual gro#th rate of 2/, ho# many years the population #ill be doubledL 1I. ;oes 7I? affect population gro#thL 1N. +hat does 8,?IS generatesL 2!. 81plain the population cloc6L 21. 5ention the theories on population e1plosionL 22. +hat does ?alue-based environmental education emphasi$esL 23. +hen does AI;S discoveredL 2 . ;efine 7uman AightsL 2.. 5ention the activities involved in #omen #elfare in t#o lines. 2J. +hat do you meant by carcinogenic, mutagenic, neuroto1insL 2-. +hat does environment educationFs ob9ectiveL 2I. +hat does ;raft ;eclaration on human rights describesL 2N. +hether the *ife e1pectancy over the globe has improved or notL 3!. +hat is ;atabaseL 2I

31. 5ention the advantages of remote sensingL 32. +hat do you meant by 57A;L 33. +hat does H, assembly adopted for child #elfareL 3 . 5ention the advantages of distribution Information centresL 3.. +hat is meant by >ISL 3J. 7o# to create a#areness among villages for #omen #elfareL 3-. +hen #as vienna #orld conference OccuredL 3I. +hat are different values of environmental educationL 3N. +hat is 7I?L !. +hat are vector borne diseasesL 1. >ive an e1ample for pyramid shaped age structureL 2. 81plain Hrn shaped pyramidL 3. +hat is crude fertility rateL P&R$ + B 1. +hat are the impacts on population gro#th on environmentL 2. +hy do you #ant to 6no# about 7I? or AI;SL @ustify your ans#er in eight points. 7I? 7urts the Immune System 3. 81plain about the =opulation 4haracteristics and variations among nations. . +rite fe# notes on 5althusian theory, 5a1ian theory, H,;7A, 8,?IS. .. &riefly e1plain about the #omen and child #elfare. J. ;escribe the factors responsible for population gro#th rate. -. ;escribe adverse affects of environment pollution on human health. I. >ive the various reasons for the population e1plosion. N. ;iscuss about the advantages and disadvantages of information technology on environment 1!. ;iscuss the factors influencing the family si$e. 11. S6etch out the stabili$ation ratio of developing and developed nations and e1plain in detail.