Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 5

OTC 16301 The Appraisal and Development Plan for the Heavy Oil Jubarte Field, Deepwater Campos

Basin, Brazil
Marcio F.C. Bezerra, Carlos Pedroso Jr., Antonio C.C. Pinto, and Carlos H.L. Bruhn / Petrobras

Copyright 2004, Offshore Technology Conference This paper was prepared for presentation at the Offshore Technology Conference held in Houston, Texas, U.S.A., 36 May 2004. This paper was selected for presentation by an OTC Program Committee following review of information contained in an abstract submit ted by the author(s). Contents of the paper, as presented, have not been reviewed by the Offshore Technology Conference and are subject to correction by the author(s). The material, as presented, does not necessarily reflect any position of the Offshore Technology Conference or officers. Electronic reproduction, distribution, or storage of any part of this paper for commercial purposes without the written consent of the Offshore Technology Conference is prohibited. Permission to reproduce in print is restricted to an abstract of not more than 300 words; illustrations may not be copied. The abstract must contain conspicuous acknowledgment of where and by whom the paper was presented.

phase will consist of 4 wells only, with different lift systems, connected to a FPSO with a processing capacity of 60,000 bopd. In this paper we describe the whole process of the discovery, test, appraisal and definition of the strategy to develop the Jubarte Field. Special emphasis is given on the technological challenges that must be overcome to make possible the development of the oil field containing the heaviest oil ever produced from the deepwater Campos Basin. Introduction Jubarte Field, discovered in January 2001, is located 77 km off the Esprito Santo State coast, southeastern Brazil, under water depths between 1,000 and 1,500 m (Fig. 1). It contains 17.1o API oil, with viscosity of 14.5 cP at the saturation pressure of 183.5 kgf/cm2 . The dead oil viscosity at 20 o C is about 3,000 cP, being the most viscous oil at surface conditions ever produced in Brazil through a wet completion system. A short historical overview of the main events that took place in the field area is described below: 1998 Acquisition of 2D seismic data. 2001 Field discovery (January) with the drilling of a vertical well (ESS-100). Cased well test. Well PI insufficient for commercial production. 2001 Acquisition of 3D seismic data. 2001 Studies to drill and test a horizontal well based on the Value of Information approach (VOI). 2001 Petrobras requests the Government Agency (ANP) a license for an Extended Well Test - EWT (December). 2002 Appraisal plan sent to ANP (February). 2002 ANP sets conditions for the EWT, including additional delineation wells, to be drilled within one year (April). 2002 Drilling of the pilot well (ESS-109D) for the horizontal well (ESS-110HP) to be used in the EWT (April). 2002 Studies using the VOI approach show that the EWT should be implemented. 2002 ANP approves the appraisal plan, with the EWT included (June). 2002 Drilling and test of the horizontal well (ESS110HP), with a horizontal length of 1,076 m. Well PI is about 12 times the PI of vertical well PI (July).

Abstract Heavy oil production from the deepwater Campos Basin, southeastern Brazil, has comprised a new challenge for Petrobras (Pedroso et al., 2003; Pinto et al., 2003a, 2003b; Bruhn et al., 2003). One of the most recent discoveries in the Campos Basin is the Jubarte oilfield, located off the Esprito Santo State, under water depths between 1,000 and 1,500 m, and containing reserves of about 600 million bbl of 17.1o API oil. Jubarte field was discovered in January 2001, when a vertical well found 40 m of oil-saturated, Maastrichtian turbidite reservoirs underlain by a thick aquifer. The well was cased and tested, but the recorded PI showed to be insufficient to guarantee commercial oil production. In order to investigate the actual production potential, the drilling and testing of a 1,076 m-long horizontal well was approved, based on the Value of Information approach. The horizontal well recorded a PI 12 times the PI of the vertical well; this proved that it would be possible to produce the Jubarte field heavy oil at commercial flow rates. The appraisal of the area was completed with the additional drilling of two wells. With the same approach, an Extended Well Test, with the horizontal well flowing to an FPSO, was proposed and started operation in October 2002. Again, the obtained production rate was better than the predicted, and the commerciality of the field was declared in December 2002. Based on well log data, core samples, seismic data and interpretation of the extended well test data, stratigraphic and structural analysis were performed, resulting in a complete 3D geological model. Multiphase flow studies and a full field flow model were built, which allowed the forecasting of the field behavior. With a reliable flow model, supported by a complete uncertainty analysis, the development plan for the whole field was defined. To mitigate the production uncertainties, the first

OTC 16301

2002 Reservoir characterization studies and feasibility studies for the development plan (July). 2002 drilling of two appraisal wells (ESS-12 and ESS114; October). 2002 EWT starts (October, 24th ). 2002 Co mmercial declaration of the Jubarte Field (December 11th ); 2002 Development plan approved; EWT evolves to the pilot phase of the development plan. 2003 Phase I of the development plan is approved by the Petrobras board. It is important to mention that the field discovery and the first oil production took place within a time period of 22 months only.

ESS-112 ESS-109D ESS-110

O / W Contact @ 2880 m TVDSS

ESS-114

Fig. 2 Jubarte Field structure. Main oil/water contact and exploratory/appraisal wells are located.

Extended Well Test Extended well tests (EWTs) in offshore fields comprise the best strategy to reduce the uncertainties and mitigate the risks before starting the great investments associated to their definitive production systems. Petrobras has a long tradition to operate Early Production Systems (EPS) or perform EWTs in its deepwater fields Marlim, Marlim Sul, Marlim Leste, Roncador, Barracuda, Caratinga, among others. From the Reservoir Engineering point of view, the early production systems allow not only to prove reserves through material balance, but also to obtain knowledge on the reservoir internal characterization, which is critical for the success of waterflooding projects. It is interesting to mention that, for offshore heavy oil fields, the main objective of an EWT is not simply to understand the reservoir behavior, but to figure out the whole production process. This information is worthy, and the intensive use of the Value of Information (VOI) techniques is fundamental to allow the approval of EWTs. A good example of an EWT was performed in the Captain Field in 1993 (Lach, 1997), which set the basis for the economic development of the field, discovered sixteen years before. Many issues related to the production process were investigated in the Captain EWT, such as vertical permeability, oil-water relative permeabilities, water coning behavior, production performance of a long horizontal well, artificial lift and processing plant. In fact, the decision of performing an EWT in an offshore heavy oil area is complex. Some of these tests do not pay out, considering just the cash flow during the EWT. However, the Value of Information (VOI) may justify the EWT, due to the optimization provided for the definitive system.

Fig. 1 Location map for the Jubarte Field.

Reservoir Geology and Geophysics Jubarte Field reservoirs are trough-confined, gravel/sand-rich turbidites of Maastrichtian age. They make part of an up to 350 m-thick succession mostly composed of amalgamated turbidite beds and interbedded mudstones, with average net-togross ratio of 73%. Most turbidite beds are composed of unstratified, very coarse- and coarse-grained sandstones (sometimes conglomerates) that grade upward to parallel- and ripple cross-laminated, fine- and very fine-grained sandstones. Core porosities and permeabilities range, respectively, 21-38% (average 28%) and 10-2500 md (average 340 md). The oil accumulation is restricted to an elongated, NEoriented anticline, which eastern portion is truncated by an extensional fault (Fig. 2); this fault also acted as a conduit for oil migration from underlying, early Cretaceous (rift phase) source rocks. The reservoir top is characterized by lower seismic impedance, and the reservoir base is defined by an erosive surface, which can be related to decreasing seismic impedance across most of the field, probably due to the occurrence of conglomeratic turbidites truncating hemipelagic mudstones.

OTC 16301

Value of Information of the EWT. In the Jubarte Field, even after 3D seismic interpretation, appraisal well drilling, core analysis, characterization of the oil and the rock, cased well tests in one vertical and one horizontal well, there were uncertainties related to the reservoir performance and the production process, such as: Oil volume connected to the horizontal well. Aquifer strength. Effectiveness of the internal shale barriers. Oil-water relative permeabilities. Sealing capacity of the main reservoir fault. Damage mechanisms along the production. Performance of the artificial lift with an ESP to be installed above the X-mas tree. Calibration of the multiphase flow correlations (pressure and temperature). Flow assurance in low temperatures, inclusive during production shutdowns. Oil-water and gas-oil separation performance. Oil storage. Offloading operations. The VOI associated to the investments (seismic acquisition, well drilling or EWT) is defined as the difference between the Expected Mean Value (EMV) of two projects: with and without the information. If the information to be revealed by the investment is available, the project can be fitted to the real scenario, with savings (for the downside case) or extra gains (for the upside case). To be rigorous, this is the value of a perfect information, but this discussion extrapolates the scope of this work. To estimate the VOI associated to the EWT, the problems associated to the production were not quantified, due to the inherent difficulty to quantify the uncertainties. That means the VOI estimation was conservative, since, if severe problems occurred during the heavy oil production, the development phase would be unfeasible. The analysis was restricted to the reservoir performance, mainly the aquifer strength and effectiveness, which would indicate the necessity of water injection, and the internal shales distribution, which controls the pressure distribution and water breakthrough time. The oilwater relative permeabilities were also considered. Several production scenarios were simulated, by using 3D, 3-phase numerical simulations; these simulations considered or not the information to be provided by the EWT. The value of the perfect information of the EWT was estimated at US$ 58 million, higher than the investment to be made to implement the EWT. This analysis supported the preliminary approval of the E WT by the Petrobras board, in December 2001; which could be reviewed after the drilling and testing of the horizontal well. EWT Planning . The well selected for the test was the ESS110HP well, with 1,076 m of horizontal length, which was completed with premium screens, openhole gravel pack and 5 tubing. Three external casing packers were installed, to allow the isolation of watered out intervals. As mentioned, the well was tested in July, 2002, with the following results: 17.1o API oil, GOR 43 m3/m3, rock permeability of 1,200 mD, no wellbore damage and transient well PI of 100 m3 /d/kgf/cm2 .

Between the preliminary EWT approval by the Petrobras board (December, 2001) and the starting of the EWT (October, 2002), several activities were performed: Selection of the vessel for the EWT. Several options were studied, including: (a) the use of an old semi -submersible production platform, available in the Campos Basin, to be connected to a FSO, (b) the use of a moored FPSO, which was operating in a pilot project in the Marlim Sul field, and (c) the use of the FPSP Seillean, a dynamic positioning vessel, which was operating in the Roncador field. The last alternative was chosen. Design, drilling and completion of the horizontal well. Specification of the artificial lift mechanism. It was selected a high power (900 HP), high rate (25,000 bpd) electrical submersible pump, to be installed above the X-mas tree. Changes in the Seillean drill pipe riser, to allow the ESP connection. Specify and coordinate the changes in the Seillean oil processing plant, to process the 17.1o API oil. Get the environmental license for operation. Complete planning of the EWT. The ESP was placed inside the well, as close as possible to the horizontal section, in order to get a better performance. However, that would require the construction of a X-mas tree designed for deepwater, with slots for the electrical power cable. Since 18 months would be required to have this equipment available, Petrobras decided not to delay the planned schedule for the EWT, installing the ESP connected to the drill pipe riser, above the X-mas tree. A GLL X-mas tree, available by the Seillean vessel, was used. To accomplish the schedule, technical groups were created to account for: environmental licenses, government licenses, material acquisition, service contracts, drilling, completion, well test, production logs and changes in the FPSO. Weekly meetings with the Asset Team Leader controlled the activities. EWT Operation. Following the horizontal well drilling, completion and test, as well as the Seillean vessel positioning, the EWT started operation in October 2002. The following properties were monitored: Downhole pressure and temperature (PDG); Pressure and temperature at the X-mas tree (TPT); Pressure and temperature at the FPSO; Pressure before and after the choke; Oil, water and gas rates. The well test started in October 24th , 2002 and was interrupted in December 10th , 2002, with the commercial declaration of the field. This period was followed by almost one year of production as the pilot phase of the development plan of the Jubarte field. The well started production in the EWT by natural flow, with oil rate of 16,500 bpd. Two months later the ESP was turned on, and the well rate was set to 20,000 bpd, limited by limitations in the processing plant. In April 2003, some adjustments were made in the processing plant and the oil rate was set to 22,000 bpd, and stayed almost constant. Petrobras intends to produce the project pilot until December 2004. The information gathered during the EWT and the pilot phases are summarized below, and are being extremely useful

OTC 16301

for the design and optimization of the Phases I and II of the field development plan. Well Engineering . The drilling and completion with OHGP of a long horizontal section was considered dominated. No sand production occurred. From the 1,076 m net pay, about 850 m contributed to flow, and studies are being performed to enhance the horizontal length. The stabilized well PI presented a small decrease during the test, but the causes are still being investigated. Artificial Lift . The ESP had a good performance, with no failures, but the full capacity of 25,000 bpd was never reached due to limitations in the production plant. The temperature loss between the X -mas tree and the production header was much lower than that predicted, which is a favourable effect associated to the heavy oil. During the static periods, the oil did not freeze. Oil Separation, Treatment and Storage. It was observed severe foaming in the separators , which limited the processing capacity. Several anti-foaming products were testes, as well as polymer injection in the X-mas tree. Success was obtained in controlling foaming, and the processing capacity could be increased. The separation temperature was around 103 C, which allowed a better gas-oil separation. Lower temperature losses were observed in the FPSO tank, and the offloading time increased 25% when compared to a lighter oil. Several changes in the exportation pumps and the offloading hose were implemented. Reservoir Properties. Continuous acquisition of downhole pressure and temperature allowed the reservoir history match, using a 3D, 3 -phase reservoir simulator. A special feature, which allows automated and gradual change in selected reservoir properties was very useful to guarantee an excellent match in the bottomhole pressure (Fig. 3) and its derivative, as well as the small water cut which appeared at the end of the pilot phase (around 2%). It was concluded that the internal mudstone beds may cause some restriction to the vertical flow, but do not comprise widespread vertical permeability barriers. The occurrence of a tarmat near the oil-water contact reduced the action of the bottom aquifer. The main fault in the central part of the field (Fig. 2) is not sealing. The water cut and pressure match were obtained by using the relative permeabilities measured in the Petrobras Research Center (CENPES), at reservoir conditions and wettability restoration, considering transient and steady state displacements. EWT Interruption and Commercial Declaration. The interruption of the EWT and the commercial declaration of the Jubarte Field were decided on the basis of: High rates maintained during the EWT. Productivity index almost constant during the EWT. Good pressure and production match considering the mapped volumes. ESP concept proved. Separation and treatment conditions tested. Storage and offloading under control.

Besides, the log information supplied by two appraisal wells contributed to reducing the uncertainties. With all these information, Petrobras was assured of the commerciality of the area.
Bottomhole pressure during the EWT Poo 3-ESS-110match HPA
290
Falha no-selante; com Kv=0

Presso Fundo (Kgf/cm): medida PDG x calculada IMEX

Case 1 Case 2

280
Falha no-selante; sem restrio em Kv

Pressure (kgf/cm2) presso de fundo kgf/cm2

270

PDG - medida Presso Fundo (kgf/cm2)

Measured

260

250

240

230

220 30/12 9/1 8/2 9/4 19/4 9/5 8/6 8/7 18/7 28/7 7/8 11/10 21/10 31/10 10/11 20/11 30/11 10/12 20/12 27/8 6/9 16/10 26/10 5/11 15/11 25/11 1/10 19/1 29/1 18/2 28/2 10/3 20/3 30/3 29/4 19/5 29/5 18/6 28/6 17/8 16/9 26/9 6/10 5/12

Date

Fig. 3 Pressure history match during the EWT.

Development Plan The Jubarte field development plan is continuously being updated and optimized, incorporating the new information and interpretations. The development plan is divided into three phases: Production Pilot, Phase I and Phase II, as shown in Table 1.
Table 1 Development phases of the Jubarte Field. EWT Production Unit Liquid Processing capacity (M bpd) Gas compression 3 (MM m /d) Water (M bpd) injection FPSO Seillean 18.5 1 16,500 0.14 Pilot FPSO Seillean 22 1 22,000 0.14 Phase I P-34 60 4 47,000 (2005) 0.35 (2005) Phase II Not defined 200-400 2.0 3.0 160 17 (**) 190,000 (2009) 1,465 (2008)

Producers Production peak (bpd) Gas production 3 peak (MM m /d)

(*) the gas compression capacity will depend on the artificial lift system. (**) initial number, optimization is going on.

Following the Pilot Phase, the FPSO P -34 (which was completely remodeled after operating in the BarracudaCaratinga pilot) will be installed in the field, to receive the production of four horizontal wells, including the horizontal well ESS-110HP. The wells will be equipped with different artific ial lift systems. New tests will be made in the FPSO, mainly regarding the efficiency of the heavy oil water

OTC 16301

separation. The produced gas will be exported to shore. The FPSO processing capacity is 60,000 bpd. Phase I will operate during three or four years, and will be succeeded by the definitive system (Phase II). Several analysis are being performed to optimize Phase II, such as: Optimal liquid processing capacity, ranging from 200,000 to 400,000 bpd. Artificial lift strategy: gas lift and ESP. Dry completion unit versus submarine systems. Produced water reinjection or disposal. Water characterization and strategy for scale control. Geometry of the injection wells. Oil transportation strategy. It is expected that these studies will be concluded by July 2004. Conclusions The Jubarte field development has been conducted gradually, so that the main uncertainties can be known and controlled. The main uncertainties are related to the production of the heavy oil (17.1o API, 3,000 cP at 20o C) from a deepwater, poorly-consolidated reservoir, with a large bottom aquifer. Other unknowns are the characteristics of the reservoir faults and internal heterogeneities, as well as the distribution and sealing effect of a tarmat layer just above the oil/water contact. The Value of Information approach allowed the approval of the drilling, completion and testing of a long horizontal section well (1,076 m). The same concept was used to approve an Extended Well Test, still during the appraisal phase, which has been extremely successful. Based on the data gathered during the EWT, it was possible to anticipate the commercial declaration of the field. The development plan was divided into three phases: (a) Production Pilot, comprising the horizontal well producing to the Seillean FPSO, (b) Phase I, with four wells producing to a larger FPSO (60,000 bpd) and, (c) Phase II (the definitive project), which is under designing. The Jubarte oil is one of the most viscous oils at surface conditions ever produced from a deepwater field. The careful approach to build the development plan is providing the basis for Petrobras to surpass this unique challenge for the oil industry. Acknowledgments The authors would like to thank Petrobras for the permission to publish this paper. The contribution of the professionals who worked in the operation of the FPSO Seillean in Jubarte is appreciated. Special thanks to our colleagues from Petrobras E&P Headquarters (E&P-CORP), Petrobras Research Center (CENPES), Petrobras E&P Esprito Santo Business Unit (UNES) and Petrobras E&P Services Unit (E&P-SERV). We are grateful to Dr. lvaro Peres for providing the data related to the EWT history match.

References Bruhn, C.H.L., Gomes, J.A.T., Del Lucchese Jr., C., and Johann, P.R.S.: Campos Basin: Reservoir Characterization and Management Historical Overview and Future Challenges, OTC 15220, 2003. Lach, J. R.: Captain Field Reservoir Development Planning and Horizontal Well Performance, OTC 8508, 1997. Pedroso, C. et al: Extended Well Test and P roduction Pilot in an Offshore Heavy Oil Field The Jubarte Case, Petrobras Reservoir Engineering Seminar, 2003. Pinto, A. C. C., Trindade, W. L., and Matos, J. S.: Offshore Heavy Oil, a New Challenge for Petrobras, III Exitep, Veracruz, Mexico, 2003. Pinto, A. C. C., Branco, C., Vieira, P. M., Guedes, S.S., Pedroso, C., Decnop, A. C. and Ceciliano, M.: Offshore Heavy Oil in Campos Basin: the Petrobras Experience, OTC 15283, 2003.