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Computer Aided Analysis & Design

General Concepts of CAAD

Er. Er . Saroj Bhattarai DOR

Conventional Practices in bridge analysis/design

Different elements of the structure considered individually; Interaction with other elements are covered mostly by empirical relationship and assumptions

e.g. factors for continuity of slabs, load distribution among the girders,

action and behavior of cross girders etc. Deck slabs are analyzed with the help of empirical graphs ( (Pigaud's Pigaud's curves) or effective width method Loads distribution with Courbon's or Morrice & Little's methods Analytical or graphical analysis of forces in the truss members in a 2D plane

Conventional Practices in bridge analysis/design

Optimization of design is time consuming. A small change in any parameter of a structure will cause repetition of the whole process. As the degree of indeterminacy increases, it becomes more and more cumbersome to analyze the structure. True analysis of a real structure in a 3D space considering the effects of all connected elements with conventional methods is very difficult, if not impossible.

Use of Computers for Engineers

There is no instant solution Use computers for repetitive and complicated tasks Use of Spreadsheets for customized solutions Customized solution through programming General purpose software based on Finite Element Analysis SAP2000, STAAD, ANSYS, etc. Structural software for specific solutions SAFE, ETABS, etc. Other engineering and General Purpose software GIS, DTM software, Hydrological analysis programs, Road design software, etc. Drafting software, e.g. AutoCAD

Simplified Structural Analysis

a) A - c o n sta n t E - c o n sta n t

b) A - v aries E - m a y v a ry dl = ?

Real Structure is governed by Partial Differential Equations of various order

xx yy zz + + + p =0 x y z vx

d l = P L /A E

d l is o b ta in e d b y b y so lv in g d iffe ren tia l e q u a tio n

L1 L2 L3 L4 L5 d l1 d l2 dl3 d l4 d l5

T h e ta p e red b a r su b stitu te d b y a n u m b er o f stra ig h t b ars (fin ite e le m e n ts). A a n d E are c o n sta n t w ith in th e len gth o f ea c h e le m e n t.
d l1 = P L 1/A 1 E 1, d l2 = P L 2 /A 2 E 2 ... and so on.

T h e to ta l e lo n g a tio n = v e cto r su m o f in d iv id u a l e lo n ga tio n s.. A s th e n u m b e r o f ele m e n ts in crea se, th e re su lt b e co m e s m o re a c cu ra te .

Direct solution is only possible for: Simple geometry Simple Boundary Simple Loading.

The Need for Structural Model

Loads Vib i Vibrations Settlements Thermal Changes

Displacements Strains Stress Stress Resultants
Structural Model


From Classical to FEM

Actual Structure Assumptions Equilibrium Structural Model Stress-Strain Stress Strain Law


xx yy zz + + + pvx = 0 x y z
Partial Differential Equations

K =R Kr
Algebraic Equations


dV = pvt u dV + pst u ds

K = Stiffness r = Response R = Loads

(Principle of Virtual Work)

Simplified Structural System

Loads (F) Fv Deformations (u)

u F

(Stiffness) ( )

Equilibrium Equation


Special Analysis Types

NonNon -linear Analysis

P-Delta Analysis Buckling Analysis Static Pushover Analysis Fast Non Non-Linear Analysis y (FNA) ( ) Large Displacement Analysis

Dynamic Analysis

Free Vibration and Modal Analysis Response Spectrum Analysis Steady State Dynamic Analysis

Role of Engineer

Evaluate Real Structure Create Structural Model Discretize Model in FE


Solve FE Model Interpret FEA Results


Physical significance of Results

Concept of modeling


Discretization Simplification Si lifi i (geometric)

3D-CONTINUM MODEL (Governed by partial differential equations)

CONTINUOUS MODEL OF STRUCTURE (Governed by either partial or total differential equations)

DISCRETE MODEL OF STRUCTURE (Governed by algebraic equations)

Global Modeling of Structural Geometry

(a) Real Structure

(b) Solid Model

(c) 3D Plate-Frame

(d) 3D Frame

(e) 2D Frame

(f) Grid-Plate

Fig. 1 Various Ways to Model a Real Struture

Physical Categorization of Structures

Structures can be categorized in many ways. For modeling and analysis purposes, the overall physical behavior can be used as basis of categorization

Cable or Tension Structures Skeletal or Framed Structures Surface or Spatial Structures Solid Structures Mixed Structures

Structural Members
Continuum Regular Solid (3D)

y Plate/Shell (2D) x z t<<(x,z) z x Beam (1D) B b h L>>(b,h) h z x t L b

Dimensional Hierarchy of Structural Members

Global Axis and Local Axis

Global Axis used to reference the overall structure and to locate its components: Also called the Structure Axis Local Axis used to reference the quantities on part of a structure or a member or an element: Also called the Member Axis or Element Axis

The Basic Structural Quantities

Loads Actions Deformations Strains Stresses Stress Resultants

The main focus of Structural Mechanics is to develop relationships between these quantities Th main The i focus f of f FEM is i solve these relationships numerically

Mechanics Relationships



Stress Resultant



Primary Relationships

Load Action Relationship Action Deformation Relationship Deformation Strain Relationship Strain Stress Relationship Stress Stress Resultant Relationship Stress Resultant Action Relationship Most of these relationships can defined mathematically, numerically and by testing

Simplified Examples of ActionActionDeformation

L2 2M V 2 EI L v= L3 3M 2V 6 EI L

V M v V M


The Basic Six DOF

Three Translations along the reference axis

Dx, Dy, Dz

Th Rotations Three R t ti about b t the th reference axis

Rx, Ry, Rz

Constraints and Restraints


Direct limits on the DOF External Boundary Conditions Fixed Support pp , Support pp Settlement Linked or dependent limits on DOF Internal linkages within the structure, in addition to or in place of normal connections Rigid Diaphragm, MasterMaster-Slave DOF


Body Constraints

A Body Constraint causes all of its constrained joints to move together as a three three-dimensional rigid body. All constrained joints are connected to each other by rigid links and cannot displace p relative to each other. This Constraint can be used to:

Model rigid connections, such as where several beams and/or columns frame together Connect together different parts of the structural model that were defined using separate meshes Connect Frame elements that are acting as eccentric stiffeners to Shell elements

What is Stiffness ?

In structural terms, stiffness may be defined as Resistance to Deformation So for each type of deformation, there is a corresponding stiffness Stiffness can be considered or evaluated at various levels Stiffness is also the constant in the Action Action-Deformation Relationship

For Linear Response

uF Ku = F K= F u

The Structure Stiffness

Material Stiffness

Cross-section Geometry
Section Stiffness

Member Geometry
Member Stiffness

Structure Geometry
Structure Stiffness

Global Structure Stiffness

The overall resistance of the structures to over all loads, called the Global Structure Stiffness. This is derived from the sum of stiffness of its members members, their connectivity and the boundary or the restraining conditions.

Advantage of FEM is to analyze the structure as a whole!

Element Stiffness Matrix

r3 r1 Node1 Node2 r2 r5 r6 r4

R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6

K11 K21 K31 K41 K51 K61

K12 K22 K32 K42 K52 K62

K13 K23 K33 K43 K53 K63

K14 K24 K34 K44 K54 K64

K15 K25 K35 K45 K55 K65

K16 K26 K36 K46 K56 K66

r1 r2 r3 r4 r5 r6

A 2D Frame Element Stiffness

U3 U2 E ,A ,I ,L U1 Node1 Node2 U2 U3


(P1)1 (P2)1 (P3)1 (P1)2 (P2)2 (P3)2 =

EA/L 0 0 -EA/L 0 0 ( U1)1

0 12EI/L3 6EI/L2 0 -12EI/L3 6EI/L2 (U2)1

0 6EI/L2 4EI/L 0 -6EI/L2 2EI/L (U3)1 (U1)2

-EA/L EA/L 0 0 EA/L 0 0 (U2)2

0 -12EI/L3 -6EI/L2 0 12EI/L3 -6EI/L2 (U3)3

0 6EI/L2 2EI/L 0 -6EI/L2 4EI/L

(U1)1 (U2)1 (U3)1 (U1)2 (U2)2 (U3)2

Some Sample Finite Elements

Truss and Beam Elements (1D,2D,3D)

Plane Stress, Plane Strain, Axisymmetric, Plate and Shell Elements (2D,3D)

Brick Elements

Usage of 1D Elements

3D Frame

2D Grid

2D Frame

Shell Element

Total DOF per Node = 6 (or 5) Total Displacements per Node =3 Total Rotations per Node = 3 Used for curved surfaces
U3, R3
Node 1

U3, R3 U2, R2
Node 3

U3, R3 U2, R2
Node 4

U1, R1
3 2

U1, R1 U3 R3 U3,

U2, R2
Node 2

U2, R2


For Modeling surface elements carrying general loads

U1, R1

U1, R1


Load Cases

Load cases are defined by the user and used for analysis purpose only Static Load Cases

Dead Load Live Load, Moving Load Wind Load, Water current load, etc Response Spectrum Load Cases Time History Load Cases

Earthquake Load Cases

What Results Can We Get ?

(in SAP2000)

At Joints

Joint Displacements Spring Reactions Restrained Reactions Constrained Forces Results Available For: For all Available DOF Given on the Local Joint Coordinates Given for all Load Case, Mode Shapes,Response Spectrums, Time Histories, Moving Loads, and Load Combinations

For Frame Elements

The Actions Corresponding to Six DOF at Both Ends, in Local Coordinate System
2 1 2 1

+V2 +P
2 2 3

+M2 +T



+V3 +V 3 +P


+V2 +V 2



For Shell Element

The Shell element internal forces (also called stress resultants) are the forces and moments that result from integrating the stresses over the element thickness. The results include the Membrane Results (in(in-plane forces) and Plate Plate Bending Results Results The results are given for Element Local Axis It is very important to note that these stress resultants are forces and moments per unit of inin-plane length

Obtaining Envelop Results

Comb1 Load Case -1 Load Case - 2 L d Case Load C -3 Load Case - M Comb2 Comb3 Comb N

Envelop Results
P1 P2 P3 PN


Max, P Min, P