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MECH 303 Chapter4

4.7 Pure bending of curved beams


Using the general solution for axisymmetrical problems, determine the
constants A, B, C by the boundary conditions
M rd dr
satisfied already
b
a
b
a
b r
r
a r
r
r r
b r
r
a r
r








, 0 , 0
! , 0 , 0
0
A"
B"
C"
pro#e that$
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
ln & '
, 0
, ln ln ln '
&
, ln ln ln
&

,
_

,
_

,
_

,
_

+
a
b
a
b
a
b
N where
a
b
r
b
a
r
r
b
a
b
a
b
Na
M
a
b
r
b
a
r
r
b
a
b
Na
M
r r
r

& ('
r

M
M
x
y
)
a
b
MECH 303 Chapter4

*ro#e that the cross sections of the cur#ed beam remain plane after
bending, i+e+, the angle of rotation of a radial line element of the beam
H
E
B
r
u
+


&
E$ Elastic modulus,
B$ Constant
H$ Constant
& (%
a
b
-
-
+
)
)

MECH 303 Chapter4


4.8 Rotating Disks
,otating -ith a constant angular speed rad.sec+
Body force is the centrifugal force -ith /
r
"
%
r, /

" 0+ where is
the density of the material
! stress function0
Axisymmetrical body under axisymmetrical force+
r
,

are functions of r only, r


"
r
" 0, u
r
" u
r
!r, u

" 0
1he e2uilibrium e2uation is reduced to an ordinary differential
e2uation
0 ! $
0
%
%
+
+

+
r r
dr
d
or
r
r dr
d
r
r r

1his e2uation can be satisfied by introducing a stress function !r such


that
% %
,
r
dr
d
r
or r
r r

,
_


using geometrical e2uation ! 0 , ,
r
r r
r
r
u
dr
du

and physical e2uation
!

, -e can obtain the compatibility equation !pro#e it as
& (3
MECH 303 Chapter4
( )
( )
( ) ( )

+
+

+ +
+

+ +
+

+
1
]
1

+ +

%
% %
%
% %
3 %
%
3 %
%
%
%
% 3
3 '
% 3
3
% 3
3
3
'
$
3
r
B A
r
r
B A
r
r
B
r
A
r
r r
dr
d
r dr
d
or
r
dr
d
r
dr
d
r
r
dr
d
r
r

A, B are determined by
boundary condition
% %
&
3
0 a A
a r
r

the stress at the center of the dis4 !r"0 should not become 5infinite6,
"7 B"0+
8inally, -e ha#e stress components$

,
_

+
+

,
_

%
%
% %
%
%
% %
3
3 '
'
3
3
, '
3
3
a
r
a
a
r
a
r


1he maximum stress occurs at the center of the dis4+
o! !e get t"e solution on #$% &'& (
& (&
MECH 303 Chapter4
4.) $ffect of %ircular oles on *tress Distribution
1he effect of the hole is negligible at distances -hich are large in
comparison -ith the dimension of the hole+
1o use polar coordinates is con#enient, -e con#ert the far boundary
condition in rectangular coordinates into a polar coordinates$


% sin
%
, % cos
% %
+ 0 , 0 ,
q q q
q
b r
r
b r
r
b r
xy
b r
y
b r
x
+

This surface force can be resoled into two parts!


!' r
9
r"b
" 2.%, r
9
r"b
" 0 : "7 -e ha#e solution already+ !b 77 a
!% r
9
r"b
" !2.% cos%, r
9
r"b
" !(2.% sin
to find the solution of !%, -e assume
" f !r cos% !semi(in#erse method
Compatibility condition leads to$ f !r " Ar
&
; Br
%
; C ; <.r
%
+
1he constants A, B, C, < can be determined by boundary conditions on
the out ring and at the edge of the hole$

r
9
r"a
"0,
r
9
r"a
"0+
& (=
x
y 2
2
2
)
b

A

r
a
MECH 303 Chapter4
8inally, -e ha#e$ !please pro#e$

,
_

,
_

,
_

,
_

,
_

,
_

,
_


+ 3 ' ' % sin
%
, 3 ' % cos
%
'
%
, 3 ' ' % cos
%
'
%
%
%
%
%
&
& %
%
%
%
%
%
%
r
a
r
a q
r
a q
r
a q
r
a
r
a q
r
a q
r r
r



>hat -e ha#e -hen


r
0
At the edge of the hole !r"a, -e ha#e

" 2 !'(%cos%
so,

9
max
" 32 ! " .%, 3.%

9
min
" (2 ! " 0,
on the y axis !
%

t
, -e ha#e
,
%
3
%
'
'
&
&
%
%

,
_

+ +
r
a
r
a
q

decreases rapidly from 32 to 2 as r increases+


& (?
2
2
32
32
x
y
2
2
(
2
)
MECH 303 Chapter4
)n the x axis !"0 or , -e ha#e

,
_

' 3
%
%
%
%
%
r
a
r
a q

the distribution is sho-n in the abo#e figure+


>hat about compression !(2 0
>hen the rectangular plate is sub@ected to uniform tensile forces of
intensity 2
'
and 2
%
in the x and y directions respecti#ely, the stress
components can be obtained by superposition+
!' 2"2
'
, !% 2"2
%
and replace by ;.%, !3 adding t-o results
together+
!% Aee the figure belo-
& (B
<etermine the stress around a
small hole in a plate of any
shape and any external loading+
MECH 303 Chapter4
4.+' ,edge loaded at t"e verte- or t"e edge .P and/or #0

<imensional analysis$ stress component should ta4e the form of


( ) , , N
r
"
, if t"e !edge is loaded by concentrated load P per
unit t"ickness.
Atress function must be expressed as
( )
( )

,
_

++++++
n
n



( ) rf
Compatibility e2uation gi#es
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
+ 0 , 0
, sin cos
% ' '
sin cos sin cos sin cos
0 %
'
%
%
%
%
%
+ , ,
%
%
&
&
3

+ + + +

1
]
1

+ +
+
r r
r
stress affect not y and x of function linear By Ax
r
C #
r r r r
# C r # C r Br Ar
f
d
f d
d
f d
r


Boundary conditions$
C'7
( ) + , 0 , 0
% %
satisfied already
r

t t


& (3
)
M
y
x
*
a
b

.%
.%
MECH 303 Chapter4
C%7 at the #ertex of the -edge$ cut out a sector of the -edge, by a
cylindrical surface ab, the follo-ing e2uilibrium conditions of this
sector$

'

+
1
1
1
]
1


+
1
1
1
]
1

0 sin sin 0
0 cos cos 0
%
%
%
%

" d r $
" d r $
r y
r x
<, C+ are determined by the abo#e e2uations+ 8inally, -e ha#e
+ 0 , 0 ,
sin
sin sin
sin
cos cos %

,
_

+
+

r r r
r
"





1e-t2 !e consider t"e case !"ere t"e !edge is loaded by a couple at


its verte-2 !it" moment # per unit t"ickness.
By dimensional analysis, the stress function must be " !
Compatibility condition becomes
# C B A
d
d
d
d
r
+ + +

,
_

% sin % cos
0 &
'
%
%
&
&
&
Exercise$
!' by antisymmetrical distribution of stress, pro#e that " Bsin% ;
C
& (D
MECH 303 Chapter4
!% by boundary condition to determine constants B, C+ and pro#e that$
( )
( )
( )
+
cos sin
cos % cos
, 0 ,
cos sin
% sin %
%
%
r
M
r
M
r r
r


3astly2 consider t"e case !"ere t"e !edge is loaded by uniform loads
of intensity q on one of its edges, see belo-,
Exercise$ *ro#e that the stress components are
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )

+ +
+
+
tan %
% sin tan % cos '
,
tan %
% sin % % cos ' tan
,
tan %
% sin % % cos ' tan
q
q q
q q
r r
r




& ('0
2
x
y
r

MECH 303 Chapter4


4.++ %oncentrated normal load on a straig"t boundary
By using the stress components in the -edge, i+e+, ta4ing ", "0, -e
obtain the stress component in the semi(infinite plate as
+ 0 , 0 ,
cos %

r r r
r
"

Atrain components !plane stress condition


,
cos %
Er
"
r



+ 0 ,
cos %


r
Er
"
$-ercise4 By using the condition of symmetry,
, 0
0

u
and the assumption that a certain point on the x axis at a distance d from
the origin does not mo#e #ertically, obtain the displacement components
u
r
, u

as
( )
( )

,
_


+ cos
'
sin ln % '
, sin
'
cos ln
%

E
"
r
d
E
"
u
E
"
r
d
E
"
u
r
Application of this solution to the case belo- !principle of
superposition$
& (''
x
y
r

*
)
MECH 303 Chapter4
& ('%