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Operating systems

Unit 1
Self Assessment questions 1. Operating system is a----------------------2. Spreadsheets and database systems are examples for --------------3. Spooling is an acronym for ------------4. A program in execution is referred to as -----------------5. THE operating system is an example for -------------- approach

Unit 2
1. ______________ is single sequence stream which allows a program to split itself into two or more simultaneously running tasks. 2. _______________ serves as a repository of information about a process and varies from process to process. 3. A process is ______________ if it can affect or be affected by the other processes executing in the system. 4. Because threads can share common data, they do not need to use _______________. 5. Co-operating processes that directly share a logical address space can be implemented as ___________________.

Unit 3 1. ______________ selects a process from among the ready processes to execute on the CPU. 2. The time taken by the Dispatcher to stop one process and start another running is known as _________________. 3. The interval of time between submission and completion of a process is called _____________. 4. A solution to starvation is _____________. 5. __________ systems are required to complete a critical task within a guaranteed amount of time. Unit 4 1. ______________ is one that can affect or be affected by the other processes executing in the system. 2. _______________ is a mechanism that allow processes to communicate and to synchronize their actions. 3. To processes can communicate only if the processes have a ____________.

4. ______________ are the classic method for restricting access to shared resources in a multi-processing environment. 5. _______________ is a collection of procedures, variables and data structures grouped together. Unit 5 1. ____________ can be described by a resource allocation graph. 2. A system is said to be in a safe state if it can allocate resources upto the maximum available and is not in a state of _____________. 3. When resources have multiple instances --------------- is used for deadlock Avoidance. 4. A wait-for graph is not applicable for detecting deadlocks where there exist _______________. 5. ______________ algorithm requires each process to make in advance the maximum number of resources of each type that it may need Unit 6 1. An address generated by the CPU is referred to as _____________. 2. At the run time/Execution time, the virtual addresses are mapped to physical addresses by _____________. 3. Compaction is possible only if relocation is done at _____________. 4. Physical memory is divided into fixed sized blocks called ___________. 5. TLBs stands for ______________. Unit 7 1. ____________ is a technique that allows execution of processes that may not be entirely in memory. 2. Virtual Memory is implemented using _____________ . 3. ___________ is basic to demand paging. 4. ___________ algorithm produces the lowest page fault rate of all algorithm. 5. ______________ raises the degree of multi-programming and increases CPU utilization.

Unit 8 1. A file is a collection of related information recorded on the ___________. 2. ___________ is best suited access method where most of the records in a file are to be processed. 3. _______________ requires a file to occupy continuous blocks on the disk. 4. In a linked allocation ________________ is not possible. 5. Problems of external fragmentation and size declaration present in contiguous allocation are overcome in ______________. Unit 9 1. Distributed processing and parallel processing have a common goal of _______________ 2. Distributed processing systems are also called ________________. 3. The communication management software runs on ________________. 4. In RPC _______________ is very difficult because it is difficult to let processors on different machines to share a common address space. 5. A virtual circuit analogous to a telephone service is an example of _____________. Unit 10 1. Unauthorized use of service (tapping) and unauthorized disclosure of information (disclosure) are _______________. 2. ________________ is verification of access to system resources. 3. One of the safest ways to prevent virus attacks is to use ____________. 4. ______________ plays an important role in the effectiveness of the password. 5. In transposition ciphers the contents of the data are not changed but _________________.

Unit 11 1. _____________ can be improved by executing a number of unrelated user processes on different processors in parallel. 2. MIMD means ___________________. 3. _____________ occurs when more than one processor attempts to access the same memory at the same time. 4. Processors and memory in a multiprocessor system can be interconnected by use of ______________. 5. In a uniprocessor system an illusion of multiprocessing is created by multiplexing the processor among _____________.

Computer organization
Unit 1 Self Assessment Questions 1. The word digital implies that the information in the computer is represented by variables that take a limited number of ____________ values. 2. The _________ of the computer consists of all the electronic components and electromechanical devices that comprise the physical entity of the device. 3. The ______________ of a computer consists of a collection of programs whose purpose is to make more effective use of the computer. 4. The ____________ contains electronic circuits for communicating and controlling the transfer of information between the computer and the outside world. 5. ASCII stands for _________________________. Unit 2 1. The operations executed on data stored in registers are called __________. 2. The symbolic notation used to describe the microoperation transfers among registers is called a __________________. 3. The register that holds an address for the memory unit is usually called a _________________. 4. It is convenient to separate the control variables from the register transfer operation by specifying a ______________. 5. A more efficient scheme for transferring information between registers in a multipleregister configuration is a ______________.

Unit 3 1. ____________ are used for business data processing, when computing and storage capacity are larger than what the minicomputers can handle. 2. ____________ refers to those attributes of a computer system which are visible to a programmer. 3. A ____________ is an entity that interacts in some or the other way with its external environment. 4. Bus can also be a wire or a communication line or in general it can be referred to as a ____________. 5. ____________ performs the calculations on the input data.

Unit 4 1. CPU consists of a set of registers that function as a level of memory above ______________. 2. ______________ enable the machine or assembly language programmer to minimize main memory references by use of registers. 3. Flags of 8085 are nothing but ______________. 4. ______________ number of flag bits is defined in 8085. 5. The processing required for a single instruction is called an ______________ . Unit 5 1. The collection of paths for connecting the modules is called the ____________. 2. The location of the memory is provided by the input called as ____________. 3. A bus which carries a word to or from memory is called ____________. 4. A bus that is used to carry control signals is ____________. 5. The method of using the same bus for multiple purposes is known as ____________. Unit 6 1. ___________ specifies the operation to be performed. 2. Opcodes are represented using ___________. 3. Floating point numbers are ___________. 4. ___________ is referred as ASCII in USA. 5. ___________ instructions are reserved for the use of operating system. Unit 7 1. In binary arithmetic, we simply reserve ___________ bit to determine the sign. 2. The infinite precision tens complement of -2 and +5 is ___________ and ___________. 3. The finite precision three digit tens complement of -2 and +5 is ___________ and ___________. 4. Using finite precision tens complement, if both numbers for addition are positive and results negative, then the circuit reports ___________. 5. ___________ is not very common in the hardware of a computer.

Unit 8 1. Using 4-bit fixed length binary, the addition of 4 and 14 results in __________. 2. The twos complement of -5 is __________. 3. Floating-point numbers is to represent a number __________. 4. IEEE FPS represents numbers with __________. 5. Floating point hardware usually has a special set of __________ and __________ for performing floating point arithmetic. Unit 9 1. ____________ requires its own local memory in the form of registers. 2. ____________ is often equated with the main memory. 3. Disk units have ____________. 4. ____________ is dominant technology for designing large RAMs. 5. Static RAM cells use ____________ transistors to store a single bit of data. Unit 10

1. ____________ memory contains the copy of portions of main memory. 2. In ____________ design both CPU and main memory are directly connected to the system bus. 3. Efficiency of the system that uses cache is ____________, when all the references are confined to the cache. 4. Data are recorded on and later retrieved from the disk via a conducting coil named ____________. 5. User application programs reside in the ____________.

Unit 11

1. External devices can be broadly classified into ___________ categories. 2. ___________ is a device that allows a computer to exchange data with remote devices. 3. The data rate of a mouse is ___________.

4. In ___________ I/O, the I/O module doesnt interrupt the CPU. 5. In ___________, devices and memory share an address space.

Unit 12 1. In the ISA bus standard, up to ____________ of memory can be addressed for DMA. 2. In ____________ mechanism, CPU is suspended twice. 3. A ____________ is a device, usually peripheral to a computers CPU that is programmed to perform a sequence of data transfers on behalf of the CPU. 4. Channels must be enabled by the ____________ for the DMA controller to respond to DMA requests. 5. Keeping the interrupts disabled for a long time will increase the ____________.

Computer networks
Unit 1 1. A group of computers and other devices connected together is called a network, and the concept of connected computers sharing resources is called _______. 2. A simple cabling method, known as the _____ Topology, allows about 30 computers on a maximum cable length of about 600 feet. 3. ____ is a set of connecting links between LANs. 4. A ____ line considered as a fast WAN link, transmits at 1.5 Mbps, or 1 million bits per second. 5. The ______ elements are specialized computers to connect two or more transmission lines. 6. In ________, the network contains numerous cables or leased telephone line, each one connecting a pair of IMPs. 7. The entities comprising the corresponding layers on different machines are called _______ processes. Unit 2 1. The period of a signal is 100 ms. What is its frequency in Kilohertz? a) 10-2 KHz b) 10-4 KHz c) 102 KHz d) 104 KHz 2. If the value of a signal changes over a very short span of time, its frequency is ______ 3. The term _______ describes the position of the waveform relative to time 0. a) Frequency b) Phase c) Phase Shift d) Time Period 4. The wavelength of red light whose frequency is 4 x 1014 m is ______ 5. If a periodic signal is decomposed into five sine waves with frequencies 100, 300, 500, 700, and 900 Hz, what is its bandwidth? 6. Consider an extremely noisy channel in which the value of the signal to noise ratio is almost zero. i.e. the noise is so strong that the signal is faint. Calculate the capacity C of this channel. a) 100 b) 1000 c) 0 d) 1

Unit 3 1. The Data Link Layer of the ISO OSI model is divided into ______ sublayers a) 1 b) 4 c) 3 d) 2 2. The ______ layer is responsible for resolving access to the shared media or resources. a) physical b) MAC sublayer c) Network d) Transport 3. A WAN typically spans a set of countries that have data rates less than _______ Mbps a) 2 b) 1 c) 4 d) 100 4. The ________ model consists of N users or independent stations. 5. The Aloha protocol is an OSI _______ protocol for LAN networks with broadcast topology 6. In ______ method, each contention period consists of exactly N slots Unit 4 1. The _______ layer provides a well defined service interface to the network layer, determining how the bits of the physical layer are grouped into frames, a) Data Link b) Physical c) network d) Session 2. In ______ type of service, no connection is established before hand or afterwards. 3. In _____ type of service, each frame sent over the connection is numbered and the data link layer guarantees that each frame sent is indeed received 4. The ___ service primitives provide a way for the data link layer on the requesting side to learn whether the request was successfully carried out and if not, why. a) Request b) Indication c) Response d) Confirm 5. ________ is the process in which the receiver tries to guess the message by using redundant bits Unit 5 1. The _______ is a unidirectional protocol that has no flow or error control. 2. The detection of errors in ______ protocol is manifested by the silence of the receiver. 3. The maximum size of the window in a Sliding Window Protocol is _______ a) 2m 1 b) 2m + 1 c) 2m d) 2m-1 4. The bit size of the checksum field of HDLC frame format is ______ a) 24 b) 16 c) 8 d) 32 5. The bit sequence of frame delimiters used in HDLC frames to detect the end or beginning of the frames is ___________ 6. The ______ is the NCP for IP

Unit 6 1. The _______ layer is the topmost layer in the subnet. 2. The ________ routing is also referred to as non-adaptive. 3. The subnet gets increasingly loaded with packets causing increase in delay in the delivery of packets, which can lead to more retransmission, and ultimately increasing more and more traffic. This is a concept called as _________ . 4. The ____ routing algorithms change their routing decisions to reflect changes in topology and usually the traffic as well. 5. The set of optimal routes from source to a given destination form a tree rooted at the destination called a ____ tree. 6. ______ is a static algorithm in which every incoming packet is sent out on every outgoing line except the one it arrives on. This method usually generates vast number of duplicate packets. 7. In ________ routing algorithm, each router knows all details about how to route packets to destinations within its own region. But it does not have any idea about internal structure of other regions. Unit 7 1. The Internet addresses are ______ bits in length in IPV4 addressing scheme. a) 16 b) 64 c) 32 d) 48 2. The number of network segments on which the datagram is allowed to travel before a router should discard it is called _______ . 3. The IPV4 address is a ______ address because it is assigned at the Internet layer. 4. As an example, the IPV4 address prefix 131.107.0.0/16 specifies a range of _______ addresses. 5. In addresses for _______ networks, the first 16 bits specify a particular network, and the last 16 bits specify a particular host. a) class A b) class C c) class B d) class D 6. The ______ header field of IPV6 indicates the number of links on which the packet is allowed to travel before being discarded by a router. 7. The ____ is a set of ICMPv6 messages and processes that determine relationships between neighboring nodes. Unit 8 1. An application process is assigned a process identifier number (process ID), which is likely to be _______ each time that process is started.

2. A ________ is a 16-bit number used by the host-to-host protocol to identify to which higher-level protocol or application program (process) it must deliver incoming messages. 3. A ______ is a special type of file handle, which is used by a process to request network services from the operating system. 4. The ______ is basically an application interface to IP. 5. A UDP datagram of _____ bytes is acceptable to all implementations. a) 256 b) 512 c) 516 d) 1024 6. In ________ the application does not have to bother with chopping the data into basic blocks or datagrams. Unit 9 1. The service access points in Session Layer are called ________________ . 2. Sessions are ended with ________ primitive. 3. In principle, all OSI connections are __________ . 4. The process where in the session users can split the text up into pages and insert a synchronization point between each page, and in case of trouble, it is possible to reset the state of the session to a previous synchronization point and continue from there is called ____________. 5. A procedure included in the callers address space by the linker is known as ______. 6. Packing parameters into a message is called _______________. Unit 10 1. The ______ protocol is based on end-to-end delivery. a) SMTP b) TCP c) IP d) SCTP 2. The client SMTP uses the ______ to determine the IP address of the destination mailbox. 3. The sender SMTP establishes a TCP connection with the destination SMTP and then waits for the server to send a ____ Service ready message. a) 420 b) 320 c) 220 d) 120 4. _____ is a command-line tool designed for most UNIX-like operating systems. Unit 11 1. To avoid ambiguity, the names assigned to machines must be carefully selected from a ______ with complete control over the binding between the names and IP addresses. 2. A name in the _______ name space is a sequence of characters without structure. 3. The ____ namespace is based on a hierarchical and logical tree structure. 4. The ______ are programs that run on DNS clients and DNS servers and that create queries to extract information from name servers. 5. In a ______ query, the queried name server is requested to respond with the requested data or with an error stating that data of the requested type or the specified domain name does not exist. Unit 12 1. The ______ is a collection of protocols designed by Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) to provide security for a packet at the network level. 2. In ______ mode, a common technique in packet-switched networks consists of wrapping a packet in a new one.

3. The ______ is used to provide integrity and authentication to IP datagrams. 4. The next header t is an _____ field of Authentication Header that identifies the type of what follows. a) 16-bit b) 32-bit c) 64-bit d) 8-bit 5. The _______ is used to provide integrity check, authentication, and encryption to IP datagrams. 6. The primary goal of the _____ protocol is to provide a private channel between communicating applications, which ensures privacy of data, authentication of the partners, and integrity. 7. The client code recognizes the SSL request and establishes a connection through TCP port ____ to the SSL code on the server. a) 402 b) 1023 c) 443 d) 8080 8. A _____ should be considered as a means to divide the world into two or more networks: one or more secure networks and one or more non-secure networks.

Technical communication
Exercise 1: Pick out the nouns in the following sentences: 1. The shopman hasnt opened his shop today. 2. Ravis grandfather has lost his walking stick. 3. Trees are the kindest things for they do no harm. 4. After the rains, the grass and plants have started growing well. 5. Children are fond of toys and sweets. 6. This is silk. See how shiny and soft it is! 7. Lots of tea is grown in China. 8. Quite a few people follow Buddhism in China. 9. Yangtse-Kiang flows in China, doesnt it? 10. Dont you think that all religions, more or less say the same thing? Answers: Exercise 1: 1. shopman, shop 2. Ravi, grandfather, stick 3. Trees, things 4. Rains, grass, plants 5. Children, toys and sweets 6. Silk

7. Tea, China. 8. People, Buddhism, China 9. Yangtse-Kiang, China 10. Religions

Exercise 2: Fill in the blanks with appropriate articles (a / an / the) And they lived happily ever after, say ___ fairy tales. Have you ever wondered if they really did? They could have in fairy tales but in reality, we are still chasing happiness and it only gets more elusive by ___day. Mankind has been united in the conviction that happiness is __ very desirable state. We are driven by ___ need to be happy behind everything we do. When young, we study well to get good grades so we can be happy with ___accolades. We grow up; get jobs to earn money, security, status all for happiness. And then inevitably get into relationships/marriage all again for happiness. We chase money, health, growth, fame, power, property and relationships, not for what they are, but because we think they could lead to happiness Yet, you will acknowledge that this is fleeting happiness. Getting into ___ foreign university is what you always wanted, but leaving your girl friend behind, that totally kills it. Losing weight may transform your life but it means never having Death by chocolate again. Promotions mean no holidays, and highend cars means gallons of petrol. No matter what or how much you have, nothing seems quite enough. Is there ___ irrefutable, permanent and absolute happiness? Or better, What makes people happy? ___ good bank account, ___ good cook, and ___ good digestion, said Jean Jacques Rousseau. Exercise 2: Articles Answer And they lived happily ever after, say the fairy tales. Have you ever wondered if they really did? They could have in fairy tales but in reality, we are still chasing happiness and it only gets more elusive by the day. Mankind has been united in the conviction that happiness is a very desirable state. We are driven by the need to be happy behind everything we do. When young, we study well to get good grades so we can be happy with the accolades. We grow up; get jobs to earn money, security, status all for happiness. And then inevitably get into relationships/marriage all again for happiness. We chase money, health, growth, fame, power, property and relationships, not for what they are, but because we think they could lead to happiness Yet, you will acknowledge that this is fleeting happiness. Getting into a foreign university is what you always wanted, but leaving your girl friend behind, that totally kills it. Losing weight may transform your life but it means never having Death by chocolate again. Promotions mean no holidays, and high-end cars means gallons of petrol. No matter what or how much you have, nothing seems quite enough. Is there an irrefutable, permanent and absolute happiness? Or better, What makes people happy? A good bank account, a good cook, and a good digestion, said Jean Jacques Rousseau.