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8

Part 20 Flexible Sheet Pile Bulkheads 1995


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Section/Article

Description

Page 8-20-2 8-20-2 8-20-2 8-20-3 8-20-3 8-20-3 8-20-3 8-20-3 8-20-3 8-20-5 8-20-5 8-20-5 8-20-9 8-20-10 8-20-10 8-20-10 8-20-10 8-20-11 8-20-11 8-20-12 8-20-12 8-20-13 8-20-13 8-20-14 8-20-14 8-20-14 8-20-14 8-20-16 8-20-17

20.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.1.1 Scope (1995) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.1.2 T ypes of Flexible Bulkheads (1995) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.2 Information Required. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.2.1 Field Surveys and Records (1995) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.2.2 Soil Investigation (1995) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.2.3 Loads (1993). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.2.4 Drainage (1993) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.2.5 Character of Backfill (1993) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.3 Computation of Lateral Forces Acting on Bulkheads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.3.1 Active Earth Pressure Due to the Weight of Backfill (1993) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.3.2 Active Earth Pressure Due to Surcharge Loads (1993) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.3.3 Active Earth Pressure Due to Unbalanced Water Pressure (1993) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.3.4 Passive Earth Pressure (1993) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.3.5 Reduction of Weight in Passive Wedge Due to Upward Seepage (1993) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.4 Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.4.1 Stability Calculations (1993). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.5 Design of Anchored Bulkheads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.5.1 Depth of Embedment (1993). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.5.2 Maximum Moment (1993). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.5.3 Anchor Pull (1993) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.5.4 Flexibility of Anchorage (1993). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.5.5 Anchorages (1993) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.5.6 Connections (1993) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.5.7 Allowable Stresses (1993) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.6 Cantilever Bulkheads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.6.1 Scope (1993) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.7 Notations (1993) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Commentary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 8-20-1 8-20-2 8-20-3 8-20-4 8-20-5 8-20-6 8-20-7 8-20-8 8-20-9 Description Lateral Pressure Diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pressure Distribution for Strip Load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pressure Distribution for Line Load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pressure Distribution for Point Load. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Flow Net for Upward Seepage of Water After Rapidly Receding High Water. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stability Analysis Massive Earth Movements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Depth of Total Embedment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum Moment Calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Anchorage Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page 8-20-6 8-20-7 8-20-7 8-20-9 8-20-10 8-20-11 8-20-12 8-20-13 8-20-15

LIST OF TABLES
Table Description Page 8-20-4 8-20-4 8-20-4

8-20-1 Granular Soils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-20-2 Silt and Clay Soils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-20-3 Unit Weights of Soils, and Coefficients of Earth Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

SECTION 20.1 GENERAL 20.1.1 SCOPE (1995)1


a. b. These specifications provide a recommended practice for the design of flexible sheet pile bulkheads. The specifications are intended for SERVICE LOAD DESIGN only. Braced excavations and cofferdams are not within the scope of these specifications.

20.1.2 TYPES OF FLEXIBLE BULKHEADS (1995)2


a. A sheet pile bulkhead is a structure designed to provide lateral support for a soil mass and derives stability from the passive resistance of the soil in which the bulkhead is embedded. Bulkheads are frequently referred to as retaining walls of the waterfront or as seawalls. For purposes of this specification, the bulkhead is considered to include the sheet piling, the soil masses behind and in front of the sheet piling, and the various kinds of anchors. Sheet pile bulkheads may be constructed of steel, concrete, or timber. They may be cantilevered; or they can be anchored by tie rods connected to deadman, pile foundations, or existing structures. Bulkheads may be anchored by batter piles secured to wales connecting the sheet piles. Sheet piles bulkheads are generally designed as flexible structures which yield sufficiently to mobilize full active earth pressure and a portion of the passive pressure. For anchored bulkheads, movement at the anchor rod in the range of 0.001Hf to 0.002Hf is needed to develop full active pressure. Where adjacent structures would be endangered by a flexible bulkhead, a rigid type bulkhead not covered in this specification must be utilized.

b. c.

d.

e.

1 2

See Commentary See Commentary

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f.

Braced excavations and cofferdams, not included in the scope of this specification, exhibit different types of deformation with resulting higher earth pressures.

SECTION 20.2 INFORMATION REQUIRED 20.2.1 FIELD SURVEYS AND RECORDS (1995)
Sufficient information shall be furnished in the form of a profile and cross sections, or a topographical map to determine general design and structural requirements. Present and proposed grades and alignment of tracks and roads shall be indicated together with records of: reference datum, maximum and minimum high water, mean high water, minimum and mean low water, existing ground water level, location of utilities, construction history of the area, indication of any conditions which might hamper proper installation of the piling, depth of scour, allowance for overdredging, wave heights, and seiches.

20.2.2 SOIL INVESTIGATION (1995)1


The characteristics of the foundation soils shall be investigated as indicated in Part 22, Geotechnical Subsurface Investigation.

20.2.3 LOADS (1993)


a. All design criteria, temporary and permanent loading, boring and laboratory test results, and properties of construction materials, including yield stress, should be clearly stated in the design calculations and on the contract and record plans. Temporary loads include, but are not limited to: construction equipment, construction materials, lower water levels adjoining the bulkhead causing unbalanced hydrostatic pressure. Permanent loads include, but are not limited to: future grading and paving, railroads or highways, structures, material storage piles, snow and earthquake. The allowable live load after construction should be clearly shown in the plans and painted on the pavements behind the bulkheads or shown on signs at the site and also recorded on the record plans. The loads listed above are external to the total bulkhead system. There are also internal effects that are treated as loads in the design of individual members of the bulkhead system. These internal loads are active and passive soil pressures, acting separately or combined algebraically, saturated or dry as appropriate, for granular or cohesive soil or a combination thereof.

b. c.

20.2.4 DRAINAGE (1993)


a. The drainage pattern of the site before and after construction should be analyzed, and adequate drainage provisions incorporated into the plans and specifications. Consideration should be given to underdrainage as well as surface drainage. Drainage provisions for backfill should be compatible with the assumed water conditions in design.

b.

20.2.5 CHARACTER OF BACKFILL (1993)


a. A reconnaissance survey should be made of cost and availability of local materials. At major structures, gradation, maximum and minimum density, specific gravity, and shear strength determinations should be performed and classified with reference to granular soils (Table 8-20-1) and Silt and Clay Soils (Table 8-20). 2).

b.

Granular backfill is recommended where the depth of the bulkhead is great or the bulkhead deformation must be minimized.

See Commentary
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c. The range of the unit weight of soils and the coefficients of active pressure, Ka, and passive pressure, Kp , for horizontal ground surface are shown in Table 8-20-3.

Table 8-20-1. Granular Soils Descriptive Term for Relative Density Standard Penetration Test Blows per Foot N Very Loose Loose Medium Dense Very Dense Table 8-20-2. Silt and Clay Soils Descriptive Term for Consistency Very Soft Soft Medium Stiff Very Stiff Hard Unconfined Compressive Strength Tons per Square Foot Less than 0.25 0.25 0.50 0.50 1.00 1.00 2.00 2.00 4.00 Over 4.00 04 4 10 10 30 30 50 Over 50

Table 8-20-3. Unit Weights of Soils, and Coefficients of Earth Pressure


Coefficient of Active Earth Pressure, Ka Friction Angles For Soils (Note 2) in Place Coefficient of Passive Earth Pressure, Kp For Soils in Place (10)
9.0 7.0 5.0 7.0 5.0 3.0

Unit Weight of Moist Soil, J Type of (Note 1) Soil

Unit Weight of Submerged Soil, J c (Note 1)

For Backfill

Friction Angles (Note 2)

Minimum Maximum Minimum Maximum (1)


Clean Sand: Dense Medium Loose Silty Sand: Dense Medium Loose Silt and Clay (Note 3)
Note 1: Note 2: Note 3:

I
(6) (7)
0.20 0.25 0.35 0.30 0.25 0.30 0.50 1.00 0.35

G
(9)
20 17 15

I
(11)
38 34 30

G
(12)
25 23 20

(2)
110 110 90 110 95 80

(3)
140 130 125 150 130 125

(4)
65 60 56 70 60 50

(5)
78 68 63 88 68 63

(8)
38 34 30

165 1 + w ---------------------------1 + 2.65w

103 ------------------------1 + 2.65w

qu 1 -------------p + Jz

qu 1 + -------------p + Jz

In pounds per cubic foot. These angles, expressed in degrees, are I, the angle of internal friction, and G, the angle of wall friction, and are used in estimating the coefficients under which they are listed. The symbol J represents J or J c, whichever is applicable; p is the effective unit pressure on the top surface of the stratum; qu is the unconfined compressive strength; w is the natural water content, in percentage of dry weight; and z is the depth below the top surface of the stratum.
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SECTION 20.3 COMPUTATION OF LATERAL FORCES ACTING ON BULKHEADS 20.3.1 ACTIVE EARTH PRESSURE DUE TO THE WEIGHT OF BACKFILL (1993)
a. b. The active earth pressure due to the weight of the backfill may be computed by the Coulomb Theory, and is represented in the loading diagram by area I, Figure 8-20-1. The active earth pressure at depth z is:

pA = KaJ z

20.3.2 ACTIVE EARTH PRESSURE DUE TO SURCHARGE LOADS (1993)


20.3.2.1 Uniform Load q
The active earth pressure due to a uniform surcharge load q (pounds per square foot) is:

pu = Kaq
which is represented by area II, Figure 8-20-1.

Figure 8-20-1. Lateral Pressure Diagrams

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20.3.2.2 Strip Load q


a. A continuous strip of surcharge load q (pounds per square foot) parallel to the bulkhead is shown in Figure 8-20-2. The intensity of pressure at a given point may be computed by:
2 2 2q p s = ------ E + sin E sin D sin E cos D S

b.

The Strip Load is not shown in Figure 8-20-1. Symbols and notations are shown in Figure 8-20-2.

20.3.2.3 Line Load


a. A very narrow strip surcharge load qc (pounds per linear foot) may be considered as a line load. The intensity of lateral pressure, p1, may be computed by the following semi-empirical formulas:

1.27q c m n p 1 = ---------------- ---------------------------- For m ! 0.40 H 2 2 2 m + n qc n p 1 = 0.203 ---- ------------------------------- For m d 0.40 H 2 2 0.16 + n

Figure 8-20-2. Pressure Distribution for Strip Load

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b.

The pressure is represented by area IV, Figure 8-20-1. Symbols and notations are shown in Figure 8-20-3.

Figure 8-20-3. Pressure Distribution for Line Load 20.3.2.4 Point Load
a. The lateral pressure due to a point load, Q, Figure 8-20-4, varies with the depth as well as the horizontal distance from the load. The intensity of lateral pressure pq on line ab directly opposite the load may be computed by the following formulas:

Q m n p q = 1.77 ------- ---------------------------- For m ! 0.40 2 3 2 2 H m + n Q n p q = 0.28 ------- ------------------------------- For m d 0.40 3 2 2 H 0.16 + n
b. The unit pressure on any other point, on both sides of ab is smaller than pq at the same depth, and may be computed by:
2

2 2

p2 = pqcos2(1.1<).
c. Point loading is not shown in the diagram in Figure 8-20-1. Symbols and notations are shown in Figure 8-20-4.

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d.

A Trial Wedge analysis, Part 5, Retaining Walls, Abutments and Piers, Commentary, is accepted as an alternate solution for the loading obtained in Article 20.3.2.2, Article 20.3.2.3, or Article 20.3.2.4.

Figure 8-20-4. Pressure Distribution for Point Load

20.3.3 ACTIVE EARTH PRESSURE DUE TO UNBALANCED WATER PRESSURE (1993)


a. When bulkheads are used for waterfront construction, the bulkhead is subjected to a maximum earth pressure at the low water stage. During a rainstorm or a rapidly receding high water, the water level behind the bulkhead may be several feet higher than in front, as shown in Figure 8-20-5. The unbalanced water pressure is represented by area III in Figure 8-20-1. Drained conditions in backfill apply when clean sand or clean sand and gravel, as defined in Article 20.2.5 are used and adequate permanent drainage outlets are provided. Where drained conditions exist, the design water level may be assumed at the drainage outlet elevation.

b.

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20.3.4 PASSIVE EARTH PRESSURE (1993)


The passive earth pressure, pp, in front of the bulkhead may also be computed by the Coulomb Theory. This pressure is also shown in Figure 8-20-1.

pp = KpJ z

20.3.5 REDUCTION OF WEIGHT IN PASSIVE WEDGE DUE TO UPWARD SEEPAGE (1993)


a. During a rainstorm or rapidly receding high water, the water level behind the bulkhead may be several feet higher than in front. The receding water percolates downward through the backfill and then upward in front of the bulkhead as illustrated in Figure 8-20-5. The upward flow causes a significant reduction in the effective weight of the soil J c and consequently must be considered in the design using passive pressure where applicable. Piping under the sheeting may be a problem for bulkheads driven to a shallow depth.

b.

Figure 8-20-5. Flow Net for Upward Seepage of Water After Rapidly Receding High Water

3
SECTION 20.4 STABILITY 20.4.1 STABILITY CALCULATIONS (1993)
a. The stability condition referred to herein concerns a local condition immediately under the bulkhead. Massive earth movements such as the type indicated in Figure 8-20-6 are not covered by this calculation. Massive movements may occur independently of the type and design of the bulkhead and constitute a slope stability problem. The vertical effective pressure behind the bulkhead at the elevation of the mud line is denoted by p . It is made up of the effective submerged unit weight of the soil below the low water line, the weight of the soil above the low water line, the uniform surcharge load q as shown in Figure 8-20-1, and a distributional load of any line, point, and other loads. For purposes of this stability calculation line, strip, and point loads may be distributed uniformly over the area covered (behind the bulkhead only) by a 2:1 (horizontal:vertical) distribution to the elevation of the mud line. The stability calculation is carried out by treating the area behind the bulkhead as though it were a spread footing resting on the surface of the soil at the elevation of the mud line. Generally, stability problems will arise only with weak silts and clays. To meet the stability requirements the passive pressure must satisfy the following:

b.

c.

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Concrete Structures and Foundations p d 5.14c ------------FS where: c = the cohesion which can be taken as one-half the unconfined compressive strength of soft clays below the mud line FS = the factor of safety For well defined loading conditions and thoroughly determined soil parameters, the minimum factor of safety for permanent construction may be 1.50. If temporary loading is included, the minimum factor of safety may be reduced to 1.30.
d. e. If weaker layers exist below, then the shear strength value applicable to these layers should be used in the above calculations. If the above criteria for stability are not satisfied, then these specifications are not applicable. In such an event, a thorough soils investigation and analysis, combined with field observations, may lead to a satisfactory design, but this condition is considered beyond the scope of this Manual.

Figure 8-20-6. Stability Analysis Massive Earth Movements

SECTION 20.5 DESIGN OF ANCHORED BULKHEADS 20.5.1 DEPTH OF EMBEDMENT (1993)


a. The total depth of embedment D is found by extending the active and passive pressures downward to the bottom of the pile as schematically shown in Figure 8-20-7. The total embedment D, is satisfactory when the moment about the elevation of the anchorage Ap, due to the passive pressure resultant Pp equals that due to the active pressure resultant Pa with a factor of safety of 2.0 for permanent construction and 1.5 if temporary loads are included. The designer should be on guard against shallow penetration of sheet piling into relatively strong soil layers. The moment summations described above are greatly affected when a relatively strong layer is encountered. It is suggested that arbitrary reductions in strengths, or assumption of the lowest probable elevation of the mudline, be made for such layers in order to avoid unrealistically short penetrations.
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b.

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20.5.2 MAXIMUM MOMENT (1993)1


a. It will usually be found that a maximum positive moment controls the selection of the sheet pile section. The maximum moment for design is to be not less than that calculated according to the assumed equivalent beam shown in Figure 8-20-8. The structure has been made statically determinate by assuming that a hinge occurs at the lowest elevation of the mud line. Naturally, the designer shall make a structural check for all loading conditions. If a thin layer of relatively soft soil exists at the mud line, the point of contraflexure is moved to the base of said layer, but not deeper than 0.1D. It may be assumed that the maximum negative moment, below the dredge line as shown in Figure 8-20-8, is less than the maximum positive moment. In selecting a structural section, interlock friction is to be ignored. If materials other than steel are used, their flexural stiffness EI should not be greater than that for the required steel sheet pile section; otherwise, this part of the design procedure does not apply.

b.

3
Figure 8-20-7. Depth of Total Embedment

20.5.3 ANCHOR PULL (1993)2


For design of the anchorage system, the anchor pull shall be increased arbitrarily by at least 20% when determined according to the equivalent beam theory given in Figure 8-20-8.

20.5.4 FLEXIBILITY OF ANCHORAGE (1993)


The anchor, anchor rod, and the connecting details are to be sufficiently flexible that a deformation of 0.001 Hf to 0.002 Hf can develop at the wall without distress to the structural system. If the specified deformation cannot develop, then the active earth pressures should be recomputed as for a braced cut and the bulkhead redesigned accordingly.

20.5.5 ANCHORAGES (1993)


a. All reactions to the anchor pull are developed entirely beyond the active pressure wedge behind the face of the bulkhead as indicated in Figure 8-20-9. If batter piles are used as the anchorage, the piles are to develop

1 2

See Commentary See Commentary


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Figure 8-20-8. Maximum Moment Calculations

the anchor pull entirely below and back of the active earth pressure wedge. Deadman anchorages as shown in Figure 8-20-9 are designed utilizing passive earth pressures as resistance against anchor pull. (1) Deadman type anchorages are preferred. (2) Next in order of preference, is the A-Frame shown in Figure 8-20-9, utilizing a combination of tension and compression batter piles connected by a pile cap. (3) The least desirable anchorage is a tension pile as shown in Figure 8-20-9. The tension pile may be difficult to develop and costly. The flexibility requirements may be difficult to develop because of the high axial stiffness of the pile; further, this is frequently a very expensive anchorage. b. c. Corrosion protection of the anchor rods shall be provided consistent with the electrochemical properties of the soil and external factors affecting corrosion. The probable settlement of the backfill should be estimated and the anchor rods designed to withstand the added loading. Alternately, the rods may be encased in tubes sufficient in size to enable the settlement to occur without adding loads to the rods. Anchorages should never be proportioned for a factor of safety less than 2.0.

d.

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Figure 8-20-9. Anchorage Design

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20.5.6 CONNECTIONS (1993)


The walers, brackets, and all connections shall be designed in accordance with the provisions of Chapter 15, Steel Structures.

20.5.7 ALLOWABLE STRESSES (1993)


a. The allowable stresses shall be determined on the following basis: (1) Sheet Pile Sections: 1/3 compressive strength for concrete. 2/3 tensile yield strength for steel. (2) Anchor Rods 1/2 tensile yield strength for steel. (3) Other structural Members: According to the applicable section of the Manual. b. All connections shall be designed for the computed structural loads after allowances for wear and corrosion. The minimum corrosion allowance for anchor rods shall be 1/32 inch for each surface. Provision should be made to facilitate maintenance of structural elements subjected to significant wear and corrosion.

SECTION 20.6 CANTILEVER BULKHEADS 20.6.1 SCOPE (1993)1


Cantilever bulkheads are not covered within these Specifications.

See Commentary

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SECTION 20.7 NOTATIONS (1993)


Ap = Anchor Pull c= D= Dc = EI = FS = H= Hf = Cohesion Depth of embedment below mud line Minimum depth of embedment below mud line for equilibrium Flexural Stiffness Factor of Safety Length of sheet pile Length from top of sheet pile to mud line

Hu = Unbalanced head of water Ka = Active earth pressure coefficient Kp = Passive earth pressure coefficient m= n= N= Pa = Horizontal distance from top of sheet pile as a percentage of H Vertical distance below top of sheet pile as a percentage of H Blows per foot, Standard Penetration Test Resultant horizontal active earth pressure

Pp = Resultant horizontal passive earth pressure pa = Horizontal active earth pressure p1 = Horizontal active earth pressure due to a Line Load pp = Horizontal passive earth pressure p2 = Horizontal active earth pressure due to a Point Load Q ps = Horizontal active earth pressure due to a Strip Load of intensity q pu = Horizontal active earth pressure due to a Uniform Surcharge pq = Maximum horizontal active earth pressure due to a Point Load p = Vertical effective pressure behind the bulkhead at elevation of mud line p= Q= q= qc = qu = w= x= z= D= E= J= Jc = G= I= \= Vertical effective pressure behind the bulkhead at lowest elevation of the mud line Point Load intensity of strip load or surcharge load intensity of line load Unconfined compressive strength of cohesive soil Water content Horizontal distance from top of wall Vertical distance from top of sheet pile Angle (in radians) from wall to center of a uniform strip load Article 20.3.2 Angle (in radians) made by a uniform strip load Article 20.3.2 Moist unit weight of soil Submerged unit weight of soil Angle of wall friction Angle of internal friction of soil Angle of point in question from maximum Article 20.3.2

2010, American Railway Engineering and Maintenance-of-Way Association

AREMA Manual for Railway Engineering

8-20-15

Concrete Structures and Foundations

COMMENTARY
The purpose of this part is to furnish the technical explanation of various articles in Part 20, Flexible Sheet Pile Bulkheads. In the numbering of articles of this section, the numbers after the C- correspond to the section/article being explained. See Reference 1, 22, 33, and 101.

C - SECTION 20.1 GENERAL C - 20.1.1 SCOPE (1995)


a. This specification has been prepared for permanent construction. Braced excavations and cofferdams are not included.

b. This specification is primarily based on the references listed in the References. c. Tiebacks drilled into in situ soil are not included within the scope at this time.

C - 20.1.2 TYPES OF FLEXIBLE BULKHEADS (1995)


a. Most bulkheads or sheet pile walls are sufficiently flexible to meet the design criteria of a total deflection more than 0.0015 times the wall height. If this requirement is not satisfied, the magnitude and distribution of the earth pressures can be much greater and the loads must be calculated on the basis of a braced cut. See any major soil text for the pressure distribution for braced excavations.

b. This specification has been prepared assuming waterfront construction and designed backfill. The principles given are fully applicable to other situations, i.e. sheeting used for a retaining wall or wingwall. When natural soil is retained, consideration must be given to several other conditions:
(1) Swelling soils. (2) Poor drainage which may result in higher pressures. (3) Difficulty in the tieback installation, including necessary shoring for this installation. (4) Unknown driving conditions for piling.

Though some or all of the above conditions can be a part of any installation, they are more apt to occur where virgin ground is retained.

C - 20.2.2 SOIL INVESTIGATION (1995)


a. Consideration must be given to the importance of the structure and anchorages when planning geotechnical work. A thorough study may result in shorter piling lengths and/or lower anchor loads, and thus result in an economical design. The present and future location of the water table is of great importance since water reduces the passive pressure, and increases the active pressure. Corrosiveness of the soil shall be investigated. (See Reference 101.) Considerations shall be given to possibility of liquefaction due to seismic loadings.

b. c. d.

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8-20-16

AREMA Manual for Railway Engineering

Flexible Sheet Pile Bulkheads

C - 20.5.2 MAXIMUM MOMENT (1993)


For sheeting in water, the elevation of mud line shall be considered at minimum 2c-0s below the dredge line. If site investigation reveals that the mud and/or silt build-up is more than 2c-0s, the lowest elevation of mud and/or silt build-up shall be used as mud line elevation. Effect of sloping soil in front of the bulkhead which would reduce passive resistance should be investigated.

C - 20.5.3 ANCHOR PULL (1993)


a. The anchor pull is determined by an assumption that the sheet pile penetration below the mud line is sufficient to provide for fixed support of the piling at the bottom. Considerations should be given to future construction possibilities and design should be modified accordingly.

b. Since the pressure behind a bulkhead will build up if the deflection of the bulkhead is not sufficient to fully mobilize the active pressure, rigid anchorages can be a problem, and this condition should be recognized by the designer.

C - SECTION 20.6 CANTILEVER BULKHEADS C - 20.6.1 SCOPE (1993)


a. Since cantilever bulkheads are not recommended for permanent construction, they are not covered in these specifications.

b. Cantilever sheet pile bulkheads often undergo large lateral deflections which are not easily calculated. Erosion in front of the bulkhead materially affects the stability of the structure. For these reasons, cantilever sheet pile bulkheads are recommended only for temporary installations and not for permanent construction. Further, the use of cantilever sheet pile bulkheads is generally not recommended where a track will be located on the higher elevation behind the bulkhead. c. Cantilever sheet pile bulkheads receive all of their lateral support from passive pressure exerted on the embedded portion of the bulkhead. For this reason, the depth of penetration can become very large, which can result in very high stresses and deflections in the sheet piling.

d. The recommended restrictions on cantilever sheet pile bulkheads are:


(1) Temporary construction only. (2) No track or railroad loads behind the bulkhead, except for very short cantilevers in medium to very dense or hard soil. (3) Maximum height not to exceed 12 feet.

2010, American Railway Engineering and Maintenance-of-Way Association

AREMA Manual for Railway Engineering

8-20-17