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TOPIC I Geometry of Single Point Cutting Tool Angles and their

MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY II
Significance

Importance of clearance angle in cutting process &


Cu!!"n# Lead"n# Ed#e Tool (a) Heel fouls work and pre en!s lead"n# 'orkp"e%e ed#e fro$ %u!!"n#
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Compiled by Dr ! PA""##! Ph D

&

Clearance Angle
$a% )lat Surface $*+ !o ,+% F Clearance angle $b% &eel cleared a'ay allo'ing leading edge to
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enter the 'or-piece. cutting action

Clearance angle "s Clearance Angle def"ned as( !)e an#le *e!ween !)e flank fa%e of !)e !ool and !)e !an#en! !o !)e work surfa%e or"#"na!"n# a! !)e %u!!"n# ed#e+ All %u!!"n# !ools $us! )a e %learan%e an#le+ Howe er, an e-%ess" e an#le w"ll no! "n%rease !)e eff"%"en%. of %u!!"n# and $a. weaken !)e !ool+ I! "s affe%!ed *. !)e s)ape of !)e work+ (a) Fla! surfa%es (s)ap"n#) (*) E-!ernal %.l"nders (!urn"n#) (%) In!ernal %.l"nders (*or"n#)
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&

Clearance Angle
$a% #0ternal Cylinder $ 1o to 2o % F

Clearance !educed

Shape of 'or- helps to create Clearance

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&

Clearance Angle
$b% Internal Cylinder $ ,o up'ards% 3

Primary Clearance

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Secondary Clearance pre4ents fouling at point 3 through shape of 'or-

(a) /%)e$a!"% "llus!ra!"on of a r"#)!0)and %u!!"n# !ool for !urn"n#+

Single Point Cutting Tool


Al!)ou#) !)ese !ools )a e !rad"!"onall. *een produ%ed fro$ sol"d !ool0 s!eel *ars, !)e. are now repla%ed *. "nser!s of %ar*"de or o!)er !ool $a!er"als of ar"ous s)apes and s"1es, as s)own "n (*)+
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!ight5&and Cutting Tool

Cutting Tool Angles Page ,

Single Point Cutting Tool


!ight5&and Cutting Tool

2es"#na!"ons for a R"#)!0Hand Cu!!"n# Tool R"#)!0)and $eans !)e !ool !ra els for$ r"#)! !o lef!+

Single Point Cutting Tool

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Cutting Tool Angles Page 78

Single Point Cutting Tool


General recommendations for tool angles in turning

T'o5Dimensional Cutting Process


/%)e$a!"% "llus!ra!"on of a !wo0 d"$ens"onal %u!!"n# pro%ess, also %alled or!)o#onal %u!!"n#( (a) Or!)o#onal %u!!"n# w"!) a well0def"ned s)ear plane, also known as !)e Mer%)an! Model+ No!e !)a! !)e !ool s)ape, dep!) of %u!, !o, and !)e %u!!"n# speed, 3, are all "ndependen! ar"a*les, (*) Or!)o#onal %u!!"n# w"!)ou! a well0def"ned s)ear plane+
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#nd cutting edge angle $#C#A%

Single Point Cutting Tool


Geometry of positi4e ra-e single point cutting tool
Top 9ie' "ose !adius $"!% Side cutting edge angle $SC#A% :ac- ra-e angle $;b% Side ra-e angle $;s% <ip angle )ront 9ie' Side 9ie' Side relief angle $S!A% #nd relief angle $#!A%

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Top 9ie'

Single Point Cutting Tool


Geometry of negati4e ra-e single point cutting tool
#nd cutting edge angle $#C#A% "ose !adius $"!% Side cutting edge angle $SC#A% Side ra-e angle $;s% :ac- ra-e angle $;b% <ip angle Side 9ie' )ront 9ie' Side relief angle $S!A% #nd relief angle $#!A%

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Single Point Cutting Tool


The most important geometry=s to consider on a cutting tool are>

4a%k Rake An#les End Rel"ef An#les /"de Rel"ef An#les

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The geometry of a cutting tool is determined by> &roper!"es of !)e !ool $a!er"al &roper!"es of !)e workp"e%e T.pe of %u!

:ac- !a-e Angle>

!a-e Angles

I! "s def"ned as !)e an#le *e!ween !)e fa%e of !)e !ool and a l"ne parallel !o !)e *ase of !)e s)ank "n a plane parallel !o !)e s"de %u!!"n# ed#e+ I! affe%!s !)e a*"l"!. of !)e !ool !o s)ear !)e work $a!er"al and for$ %)"p+ I! %an *e pos"!" e or ne#a!" e Positi4e> redu%ed %u!!"n# for%es, l"$"!ed defle%!"on of work, !ool )older, and $a%)"ne "egati4e> !.p"%all. used !o $a%)"ne )arder $e!als0 )ea . %u!s
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T)e Rake an#le $a. also *e def"ned as( "s !)e an#le !)a! !)e
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!a-e Angles. cont

!ool $akes w"!) !)e workp"e%e nor$al, see F"#+

T)e s"de rake an#le and !)e *a%k

!a-e Angles. cont

Side !a-e Angles> I! "s !)e an#le *. w)"%) !)e fa%e


of !)e !ool "s "n%l"ned s"de wa.s+ rake an#le %o$*"ne !o for$ !)e effe%!" e rake an#le+ T)"s "s also %alled !rue rake an#le or resul!an! rake an#le of !)e !ool+
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T)e rake an#le "s alwa.s a! !)e !ops"de of !)e !ool+

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!a-e Angles. cont

The !a-e Angle has t'o ma?or effects during the metal cutting process One $a5or effe%! "s "!s "nfluen%e on !ool s!ren#!)+ A !ool w"!) ne#a!" e rake w"ll w"!)s!and far $ore load"n# !)an a !ool w"!) pos"!" e rake+ T)e o!)er $a5or effe%! "s "!s "nfluen%e on %u!!"n# pressure A !ool w"!) a pos"!" e rake an#le redu%es %u!!"n# for%es *. The !a-e allow"n# !)e Angle> %)"ps !o flow $ore freel. a%ross !)e rake surfa%e+ T)e *as"% !ool #eo$e!r. "s de!er$"ned *. !)e rake an#le of !)e !ool+

I! allows !)e %)"p !o flow "n %on en"en! d"re%!"on+

!a-e Angles. cont


The ra-e angle has the follo'ing functions> I! redu%es !)e %u!!"n# for%e re6u"red !o s)ear !)e $e!al and %onse6uen!l. )elps !o "n%rease !)e !ool l"fe and redu%e !)e power %onsu$p!"on+ I! pro "des keenness !o !)e %u!!"n# ed#e+ I! "$pro es !)e surfa%e f"n"s)+
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Positi4e !a-e Angle


Positi4e ra-e or increased ra-e angle>

Redu%e !)e s!ren#!) of !)e !ool se%!"on+

Positi4e !a-e Angle. cont


:ut. 'e ha4e Problems@ as 'e increase the angle> Redu%e !)e %apa%"!. of !)e !ool !o %ondu%! )ea! awa. fro$ !)e %u!!"n# ed#e+ !o %ondu%! )ea! *e!!er, "n so$e !ools, 1ero !o ne#a!" e
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&o'e4er. !o "n%rease !)e s!ren#!) of !)e !ool and allow "!

rake an#les are used+

w)en %u!!"n# !ou#), allo.ed $a!er"als !)a! !end !o work0

Positi4e !a-e Angle. cont


Some areas of cutting 'here positi4e ra-e may pro4e more effecti4e are>5 )arden, su%) as %er!a"n s!a"nless s!eels, w)en %u!!"n# sof! or #u$$. $e!als, or w)en low r"#"d"!. of workp"e%e, !ool"n#, $a%)"ne !ool, or f"-!ure allows %)a!!er !o o%%ur+ T)e s)ear"n# a%!"on and free %u!!"n# of pos"!" e rake !ools w"ll of!en el"$"na!e pro*le$s "n !)ese areas+
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)ea!

"egati4e !a-e Angle


To pro "de #rea!er s!ren#!) a! !)e %u!!"n# ed#e and *e!!er %ondu%!" "!., rake 1ero or are ne#a!" e an#les e$plo.ed on %ar*"de, %era$"%, pol.%r.s!all"ne d"a$ond, and pol.%r.s!all"ne %u*"%

*oron n"!r"de %u!!"n# !ools+

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!)e"r super"or )ardness a! )"#)

"egati4e !a-e Angle. cont

T)ese $a!er"als !end !o *e *r"!!le, *u! !)e"r a*"l"!. !o )old !e$pera!ure resul!s "n !)e"r sele%!"on opera!"on+ for )"#) speed and Ne#a!" e rakes "n%reases !ool for%es *u! !)"s "s ne%essar. !o %on!"nuous $a%)"n"n# pro "de added suppor! !o !)e %u!!"n# ed#e+ T)"s "s par!"%ularl. "$por!an! "n $ak"n# "n!er$"!!en! %u!s and "n a*sor*"n# !)e "$pa%! dur"n# !)e "n"!"al en#a#e$en! of !)e !ool and work+

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possess #ood !ou#)ness (low !rans erse rup!ure s!ren#!))+

"egati4e !a-e Angle. cont


Ne#a!" e rakes are re%o$$ended on !ool w)"%) does no! T)us ne#a!" e rake (or s$all rake) %auses )"#) %o$press"on,
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!ool for%e, and fr"%!"on, resul!"n# "n )"#)l. defor$ed, )o! %)"p+

Re du%ed

Summary Positi4e 4s "egati4e !a-e Angles

%u!!"n# for%es /$aller defle%!"on of work, !ool )older, and $a%)"ne Cons"dered *. so$e !o *e !)e $os! eff"%"en! wa. !o %u! $e!al Crea!es lar#e s)ear an#le, redu%ed fr"%!"on and )ea! Allows %)"p !o $o e freel. up !)e %)"p0!ool 1one Generall. used for %on!"nuous %u!s on du%!"le $a!er"als w)"%) are no! !o )ard or *r"!!le
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Positive rake angles:

Ne Summary Positi4e 4s "egati4e !a-e Angles gativ


e rake angles:
In"!"al s)o%k of work !o !ool "s on !)e fa%e of !)e !ool and no! on !)e po"n! or ed#e+ T)"s prolon#s !)e l"fe of !)e !ool+ H"#)er %u!!"n# speeds 7 feeds %an *e e$plo.ed+
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per$"!s !urn"n# a! er. )"#) speed+ A! )"#) speeds rake an#le )as l"!!le "nfluen%e on %u!!"n# pressure+ Under su%) %ond"!"on $"n"$u$ rake an#le or e en ne#a!" e rake an#le "s pro "ded

!a-e Angle Selection depends on>

Type of material being cut> A )arder $a!er"al l"ke %as!


"ron $a. *e $a%)"ned *. s$aller rake an#le !)an !)a! re6u"red *. sof! $a!er"al l"ke $"ld s!eel or alu$"nu$+ !o "n%rease !)e !ool s!ren#!)+
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Type of tool material> Tool $a!er"al l"ke %e$en!ed %ar*"de

suppor!ed !ool on old or worn ou! $a%)"ne %anno! !ake up

!igidity of the tool holder and machine> An "$properl.

)"#) %u!!"n# pressure+ /o w)"le $a%)"n"n# under !)e a*o e

!a-e Angle Selection depends on>. cont

Depth of cut> In rou#) !urn"n#, )"#) dep!) of %u! "s #" en !o


re$o e $a-"$u$ a$oun! of $a!er"al+ T)"s $eans !)a! !)e !ool )as !o w"!)s!and se ere %u!!"n# pressure+ /o !)e rake an#le s)ould *e de%reased !o "n%rease !)e l"p an#le !)a! pro "des !)e s!ren#!) !o !)e %u!!"n# ed#e+ %ond"!"on, !)e !ool used s)ould )a e lar#er rake an#le+
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!elief Angles

Rel"ef an#les are pro "ded !o $"n"$"1e

p).s"%al "n!erferen%e or ru**"n# %on!a%! w"!) $a%)"ned surfa%e and !)e workp"e%e+ Rel"ef an#les are for !)e purpose of )elp"n# !o el"$"na!e !ool *reaka#e and !o "n%rease !ool l"fe+ If !)e rel"ef an#le "s !oo lar#e, !)e %u!!"n# !ool $a. %)"p or *reak+ If !)e an#le "s !oo s$all, !)e !ool w"ll ru* a#a"ns! !)e workp"e%e and #enera!e e-%ess" e )ea! and !)"s w"ll "n !urn, %ause pre$a!ure dull"n# of !)e %u!!"n# !ool+ /$all rel"ef an#les are essen!"al w)en $a%)"n"n# )ard and s!ron# $a!er"als and !)e. s)ould *e "n%reased for !)e weaker and sof!er $a!er"als+
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A s$aller an#le !elief Angles. cont s)ould *e used for "n!errup!ed %u!s or )ea . feeds, and a lar#er an#le for se$"0f"n"s) and f"n"s) %u!s+ Side !elief Angle> T)e /"de rel"ef an#le pre en!s !)e s"de flank of !)e !ool fro$ ru**"n# a#a"ns! !)e work w)en lon#"!ud"nal feed "s #" en+ Lar#er feed w"ll re6u"re #rea!er s"de rel"ef an#le+ #nd !elief Angle> T)e End rel"ef an#le pre en!s !)e s"de flank of !)e !ool fro$ ru**"n# a#a"ns! !)e work+ A $"n"$u$ rel"ef an#le "s #" en !o pro "de $a-"$u$ suppor! !o !)e !ool %u!!"n# ed#e *. "n%reas"n# !)e l"p an#le+ T)e fron! %learan%e an#le s)ould *e "n%reased for lar#e d"a$e!er works+
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T)e follow"n# are !)e ad an!a#es of "n%reas"n# !)"s an#le(

Cutting #dge Angles


Side Cutting #dge Angle>
I! "n%reases !ool l"fe as, for !)e sa$e dep!) of %u!8 !)e %u!!"n# for%e "s d"s!r"*u!ed on a w"der surfa%e+ I! d"$"n"s)es !)e %)"p !)"%kness for !)e sa$e a$oun! of feed and per$"!s #rea!er %u!!"n# speed+ I! d"ss"pa!es )ea! 6u"%kl. for )a "n# w"der %u!!"n# ed#e+
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Cutting #dge Angles. cont


Side Cutting #dge Angle> T)e s"de %u!!"n# ed#e an#le of
!)e !ool )as pra%!"%all. no effe%! on !)e alue of !)e %u!!"n# for%e or power %onsu$ed for a #" en dep!) of %u! and feed+ Lar#e s"de %u!!"n# ed#e an#les are l"#)!l. !o %ause !)e !ool !o %)a!!er+

#nd Cutting #dge Angle> T)e fun%!"on of end %u!!"n# ed#e


an#le "s !o pre en! !)e !ra"l"n# fron! %u!!"n# ed#e of !)e !ool fro$ ru**"n# a#a"ns! !)e work+ A lar#e end %u!!"n# ed#e an#le unne%essar"l. weakens !)e !ool+ I! ar"es fro$ 9 !o :; de#rees+

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T)e nose of a !ool "s sl"#)!l. rounded "n all !urn"n# !ools+

"ose !adius

The function of nose radius is as follo's>


Grea!er nose rad"us %lears up !)e feed $arks %aused *. !)e pre "ous s)ear"n# a%!"on and pro "des *e!!er surfa%e f"n"s)+ All f"n"s) !urn"n# !ool )a e #rea!er nose rad"us !)an rou#) !urn"n# !ools+ I! "n%reases !)e s!ren#!) of !)e %u!!"n# ed#e, !ends !o $"n"$"1e !)e wear !ak"n# pla%e "n a s)arp po"n!ed !ool w"!) %onse6uen! "n%rease "n !ool l"fe+ A%%u$ula!"on )ea! "s less !)an !)a! "n a po"n!ed !ool w)"%) per$"!s )"#)er %u!!"n# speeds+
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I! "s !)e s.s!e$ of des"#na!"n# !)e pr"n%"pal Tool Signature an#les of a s"n#le po"n! %u!!"n# !ool+ T)e s"#na!ure "s !)e se6uen%e of nu$*ers l"s!"n# !)e ar"ous an#les, "n de#rees, and !)e s"1e of !)e nose rad"us+ T)ere are se eral s.s!e$s a a"la*le l"ke( A$er"%an s!andard s.s!e$ (A/A), Or!)o#onal rake s.s!e$ (OR/), Nor$al rake s.s!e$ (NR/), and Ma-"$u$ rake s.s!e$ (MR/)+
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T)e s.s!e$ $os! Tool Signature. cont %o$$onl. used "s A$er"%an /!andard Asso%"a!"on (A/A), w)"%) "s( rel"ef an#le, End %u!!"n# ed#e an#le, /"de %u!!"n# ed#e an#le and Nose rad"us+ 4a%k rake an#le, /"de rake an#le, End rel"ef an#le, /"de For e-a$ple a !ool $a. des"#na!ed "n !)e follow"n# se6uen%e(

,57/5*5*5*57157

:+ 4a%k rake an#le "s 9 <+ /"de rake an#le "s := >+ End rel"ef an#le "s ? @+ Nose rad"us "s : $$ =+ /"de rel"ef an#le "s ? ;+ End %u!!"n# ed#e an#le "s ?
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?+ /"de %u!!"n# ed#e an#le "s :;

2es"#na!"ons for a R"#)!0Handed Cu!!"n# Tool


(a) Designations and symbols for a right-hand cutting tool; solid high-speed-steel tools have a similar designation. (b) Square insert in a righthand tool holder for a turning operation. A wide variety of tool holder is available for holding inserts at various angles. hus! the angles shown in (a) can be achieved easily by selecting an appropriate insert and tool holder.
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