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The Scientific Miracles of the Holy

1) The Earth’s Atmosphere
“By the sky which returns.” (Quran 86:11)

“[He] who made for you the earth a bed [spread out] and the sky a ceiling…”
(Quran 2:22)

In the first verse God swears by the sky[1] and its function of ‘returning’ without
specifying what it ‘returns.’ In Islamic doctrine, a divine oath signifies the
magnitude of importance of a special relation to the Creator, and manifests His
majesty and the supreme Truth in a special way.

The second verse describes the Divine Act that made the sky a ‘ceiling’ for the
dwellers of earth.

Let us see what modern atmospheric science has to say about the role and function
of the sky.

The atmosphere is a word which denotes all the air surrounding the earth, from the
ground all the way up to the edge from which space starts. The atmosphere is
composed of several layers, each defined because of the various phenomena which
occur within the layer.
This image shows the average temperature profile through the Earth’s atmosphere.
Temperatures in the thermosphere are very sensitive to solar activity and can vary
from 500°C to 1500°C. Source: Windows to the Universe,
(http://www.windows.ucar.edu), the University Corporation for Atmospheric
Research (UCAR). ©1995-1999, 2000 The Regents of the University of Michigan;
©2000-04 University Corporation for Atmospheric Research.

Rain, for one, is ‘returned’ to Earth by the clouds in the atmosphere. Explaining the
hydrologic cycle, Encyclopedia Britannica writes:

“Water evaporates from both the aquatic and terrestrial environments as it is

heated by the Sun’s energy. The rates of evaporation and precipitation depend on
solar energy, as do the patterns of circulation of moisture in the air and currents in
the ocean. Evaporation exceeds precipitation over the oceans, and this water vapor
is transported by the wind over land, where it returns to the land through

Not only does the atmosphere return what was on the surface back to the surface,
but it reflects back into space that which might damage the flora and fauna the
earth sustains, such as excessive radiant heat. In the 1990’s, collaborations
between NASA, the European Space Agency (ESA), and the Institute of Space and
AstronauticalScience (ISAS) of Japan resulted in the International Solar-Terrestrial
Physics (ISTP) Science Initiative. Polar, Wind and Geotailare a part of this initiative,
combining resources and scientific communities to obtain coordinated,
simultaneous investigations of the Sun-Earth space environment over an extended
period of time. They have an excellent explanation of how the atmosphere returns
solar heat to space.[3]

Besides ‘returning’ rain, heat and radio waves, the atmosphere protects us like a
ceiling above our heads by filtering out deadly cosmic rays, powerful ultraviolet (UV)
radiation from the Sun, and even meteorites on collision course with Earth.[4]

Pennsylvania State Public Broadcasting tells us:

“The sunlight that we can see represents one group of wavelengths, visible light.
Other wavelengths emitted by the sun include x-rays and ultraviolet radiation. X-
rays and some ultraviolet light waves are absorbed high in Earth’s atmosphere.
They heat the thin layer of gas there to very high temperatures. Ultraviolet light
waves are the rays that can cause sunburn. Most ultraviolet light waves are
absorbed by a thicker layer of gas closer to Earth called the ozone layer. By soaking
up the deadly ultraviolet and x-rays, the atmosphere acts as a protective shield
around the planet. Like a giant thermal blanket, the atmosphere also keeps
temperatures from getting too hot or too cold. In addition, the atmosphere also
protects us from constant bombardment by meteoroids, bits of rock and dust that
travel at high speeds throughout the solar system. The falling stars we see at night
are not stars at all; they are actually meteoroids burning up in our atmosphere due
to the extreme heating they undergo.”[5]

This is an image of Earth’s polar stratospheric clouds. These clouds are involved in the creation of
Earth’s ozone hole. Source: Windows to the Universe, (http://www.windows.ucar.edu/) at the University
Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR). ©1995-1999, 2000 The Regents of the University of
Michigan; ©2000-04 University Corporation for Atmospheric Research.

Encyclopedia Britannica, describing the role of Stratosphere, tells us about its

protective role in absorbing dangerous ultraviolet radiation:

“In the upper stratospheric regions, absorption of ultraviolet light from the Sun
breaks down oxygen molecules; recombination of oxygen atoms with O2 molecules
into ozone (O3) creates the ozone layer, which shields the lower ecosphere from
harmful short-wavelength radiation…More disturbing, however, is the discovery of a
growing depletion of ozone over temperate latitudes, where a large percentage of
the world’s population resides, since the ozone layer serves as a shield against
ultraviolet radiation, which has been found to cause skin cancer.”[6]
The mesosphere is the layer in which many meteors burn up while entering the
Earth’s atmosphere. Imagine a baseball zipping along at 30,000 miles per hour.
That’s how big and fast many meteors are. When they plow through the
atmosphere, meteors are heated to more than 3000 degrees Fahrenheit, and they
glow. A meteor compresses air in front of it. The air heats up, in turn heating the

This is an image which shows the Earth and its atmosphere. The mesosphere would be the
dark blue edge located on the far top of the image underneath the back. (Image courtesy of

Earth is surrounded by a magnetic force field - a bubble in space called “the

magnetosphere” tens of thousands of miles wide. The magnetosphere acts
as a shield that protects us from solar storms. However, according to new
observations from NASA’s IMAGE spacecraft and the joint NASA/European
Space Agency Cluster satellites, immense cracks sometimes develop in
Earth’s magnetosphere and remain open for hours. This allows the solar
wind to gush through and power stormy space weather. Fortunately, these
cracks do not expose Earth’s surface to the solar wind. Our atmosphere
protects us, even when our magnetic field does not.[8]
An artist’s rendition of NASA’s IMAGE satellite flying through a ‘crack’ in Earth’s magnetic

How would it be possible for a fourteenth century desert dweller to describe

the sky in a manner so precise that only recent scientific discoveries have
confirmed it? The only way is if he received revelation from the Creator of
the sky.


[1] Al-Samaa’, the Arabic word translated here as ‘sky’ includes earth’s
atmosphere as indicated by the verse 2:164.

[2] ”Biosphere.” Encyclopedia Britannica from Encyclopedia Britannica

Premium Service.


[3] (http://www-spof.gsfc.nasa.gov/stargaze/Sweather1.htm)

[4] Atmospheric, Climate & Environment Information Programme of the

Manchester Metropolitan University at

[6] “Earth.” Encyclopedia Britannica from Encyclopedia Britannica Premium



[7] (http://www.space.com/scienceastronomy/solarsystem/meteors-ez.html)

[8] (http://www.firstscience.com/SITE/ARTICLES/magnetosphere.asp)

2) The Quran on Human Embryonic Development

In the Holy Quran, God speaks about the stages of man’s embryonic

“We created man from an extract of clay. Then Wemade him as a drop in a
place of settlement, firmly fixed. Then We made the drop into an alaqah
(leech, suspended thing, and blood clot), then We made the alaqah into a
mudghah (chewed substance)…” (Quran 23:12-14)

Literally, the Arabic word alaqah has three meanings: (1) leech, (2)
suspended thing, and (3) blood clot.
In comparing a leech to an embryo in the alaqah stage, we find similarity
between the two[1] as we can see in figure 1. Also, the embryo at this stage
obtains nourishment from the blood of the mother, similar to the leech,
which feeds on the blood of others.[2]

Figure 1: Drawings illustrating the similarities in appearance between a leech and a human
embryo at the alaqah stage. (Leech drawing from Human Development as Described in the
Quran and Sunnah, Moore and others, p. 37, modified from Integrated Principles of Zoology,
Hickman and others. Embryo drawing from The Developing Human, Moore and Persaud, 5th
ed., p. 73.)

The second meaning of the word alaqahis “suspended thing.” This is what
we can see in figures 2 and 3, the suspension of the embryo, during the
alaqah stage, in the womb of the mother.

Figure 2: We can see in this diagram the suspension of an embryo during the alaqah stage in
the womb (uterus) of the mother. (The Developing Human, Moore and Persaud, 5th ed., p.
Figure 3: In this photomicrograph, we can see the suspension of an embryo (marked B)
during the alaqahstage (about 15 days old) in the womb of the mother. The actual size of
the embryo is about 0.6 mm. (The Developing Human, Moore, 3rd ed., p. 66, from Histology,
Leeson and Leeson.

The third meaning of the word alaqahis “blood clot.” We find that the
external appearance of the embryo and its sacs during the alaqahstage is
similar to that of a blood clot. This is due to the presence of relatively large
amounts of blood present in the embryo during this stage[3] (see figure 4).
Also during this stage, the blood in the embryo does not circulate until the
end of the third week.[4] Thus, the embryo at this stage is like a clot of

Figure 4: Diagram of the primitive cardiovascular system in an embryo during the

alaqahstage. The external appearance of the embryo and its sacs is similar to that of a
blood clot, due to the presence of relatively large amounts of blood present in the embryo.
(The Developing Human, Moore, 5th ed., p. 65.)

So the three meanings of the word alaqah correspond accurately to the

descriptions of the embryo at the alaqah stage.
The next stage mentioned in the verse is the mudghahstage. The Arabic
word mudghahmeans “chewed substance.” If one were to take a piece of
gum and chew it in his or her mouth and then compare it with an embryo at
the mudghah stage, we would conclude that the embryo at the
mudghahstage acquires the appearance of a chewed substance. This is
because of the somites at the back of the embryo that “somewhat resemble
teethmarks in a chewed substance.”[5] (see figures 5 and 6).

Figure 5: Photograph of an embryo at the mudghahstage (28 days old). The embryo at this stage acquires the
appearance of a chewed substance, because the somitesat the back of the embryo somewhat resemble teeth
marks in a chewed substance. The actual size of the embryo is 4 mm. (The Developing Human, Moore and Persaud,
5th ed., p. 82, from Professor Hideo Nishimura, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.)
Figure 6: When comparing the appearance of an embryo at the mudghah stage with a piece of gum that has been
chewed, we find similarity between the two.

A) Drawing of an embryo at the mudghahstage. We can see here the somites at the back of the embryo that
look like teeth marks. (The Developing Human, Moore and Persaud, 5th ed., p. 79.)

B) Photograph of a piece of gum that has been chewed.

How could Muhammad, may the mercy and blessings of God be upon him,
have possibly known all this 1400 years ago, when scientists have only
recently discovered this using advanced equipment and powerful
microscopes which did not exist at that time? Hamm and Leeuwenhoek were
the first scientists to observe human sperm cells (spermatozoa) using an
improved microscope in 1677 (more than 1000 years after Muhammad).
They mistakenly thought that the sperm cell contained a miniature
preformed human being that grew when it was deposited in the female
genital tract.[6]

Professor Emeritus Keith L. Moore[7] is one of the world’s most prominent

scientists in the fields of anatomy and embryology and is the author of the
book entitled The Developing Human, which has been translated into eight
languages. This book is a scientific reference work and was chosen by a
special committee in the United States as the best book authored by one
person. Dr. Keith Moore is Professor Emeritus of Anatomy and Cell Biology at
the University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada. There, he was Associate Dean of
Basic Sciences at the Faculty of Medicine and for 8 years was the Chairman
of the Department of Anatomy. In 1984, he received the most distinguished
award presented in the field of anatomy in Canada, the J.C.B. Grant Award
from the Canadian Association of Anatomists. He has directed many
international associations, such as the Canadian and American Association of
Anatomists and the Council of the Union of Biological Sciences.

In 1981, during the Seventh Medical Conference in Dammam, Saudi Arabia,

Professor Moore said: “It has been a great pleasure for me to help clarify
statements in the Quran about human development. It is clear to me that
these statements must have come to Muhammad from God, because almost
all of this knowledge was not discovered until many centuries later. This
proves to me that Muhammad must have been a messenger of God.”[8] (To
view the RealPlayer video of this comment click here).

Consequently, Professor Moore was asked the following question: “Does this
mean that you believe that the Quran is the word of God?” He replied: “I find
no difficulty in accepting this.”[9]

During one conference, Professor Moore stated: “....Because the staging of

human embryos is complex, owing to the continuous process of change
during development, it is proposed that a new system of classification could
be developed using the terms mentioned in the Quran and Sunnah(what
Muhammad, may the mercy and blessings of God be upon him, said, did, or
approved of). The proposed system is simple, comprehensive, and conforms
withpresent embryological knowledge. The intensive studies of the Quran
and hadeeth(reliably transmitted reports by the Prophet Muhammad’s
companions of what he said, did, or approved of) in the last four years have
revealed a system for classifying human embryos that is amazing since it
was recorded in the seventh century A.D. Although Aristotle, the founder of
the science of embryology, realized that chick embryos developed in stages
from his studies of hen’s eggs in the fourth century B.C., he did not give any
details about these stages. As far as it is known from the history of
embryology, little was known about the staging and classification of human
embryos until the twentieth century. For this reason, the descriptions of the
human embryo in the Quran cannot be based on scientific knowledge in the
seventh century. The only reasonable conclusion is: these descriptions were
revealed to Muhammad from God. He could not have known such details
because he was an illiterate man with absolutely no scientific training.”[10]


[1] The Developing Human, Moore and Persaud, 5th ed., p. 8.

[2] Human Development as Described in the Quran and Sunnah, Moore and
others, p. 36.

[3] Human Development as Described in the Quran and Sunnah, Moore and
others, pp. 37-38.
[4] The Developing Human, Moore and Persaud, 5th ed., p. 65.

[5] The Developing Human, Moore and Persaud, 5th ed., p. 8.

[6] The Developing Human, Moore and Persaud, 5th ed., p. 9.

[7] Note: The occupations of all the scientists mentioned in this web site
were last updated in 1997.

[8] The reference for this saying is Thisis the Truth (videotape). For a copy of
this videotape, please visit www.islam-guide.com/truth.htm

[9] This is the Truth (videotape).

[10] This is the Truth (videotape). For a copy, see footnote no. 9.

3) The Quran on Mountains

A book entitled Earth is a basic reference textbook in many universities
around the world. One of its two authors is Professor Emeritus Frank Press.
He was the Science Advisor to former US President Jimmy Carter, and for 12
years was the President of the National Academy of Sciences, Washington,
DC. His book says that mountains have underlying roots.[1] These roots are
deeply embedded in the ground, thus, mountains have a shape like a peg
(see figures 1, 2, and 3).
Figure 1: Mountains have deep roots under the surface of the ground. (Earth, Press and
Siever, p. 413.)

Figure 2: Schematic section. The mountains, like pegs, have deep roots embedded in the
ground. (Anatomy of the Earth, Cailleux, p. 220.)

Figure 3: Another illustration shows how the mountains are peg-like in shape, due to their
deep roots. (Earth Science, Tarbuck and Lutgens, p. 158.)
This is how the Quran has described mountains. God has said in the Quran:

“Have We not made the earth as a bed, and the mountains as pegs?” (Quran

Modern earth sciences have proven that mountains have deep roots under
the surface of the ground (see figure 3) and that these roots can reach
several times their elevations above the surface of the ground.[2] So the
most suitable word to describe mountains on the basis of this information is
the word ‘peg,’ since most of a properly set peg is hidden under the surface
of the ground. The history of science tells us that the theory of mountains
having deep roots was introduced only in the latter half of the nineteenth

Mountains also play an important role in stabilizing the crust of the earth.[4]
They hinder the shaking of the earth. God has said in the Quran:

“And He has set firm mountains in the earth so that it would not shake with
you...” (Quran 16:15)

Likewise, the modern theory of plate tectonics holds that mountains work as
stabilizers for the earth. This knowledge about the role of mountains as
stabilizers for the earth has just begun to be understood in the framework of
plate tectonics since the late 1960’s.[5]

Could anyone during the time of the Prophet Muhammad have known of the
true shape of mountains? Could anyone imagine that the solid massive
mountain which he sees before him actually extends deep into the earth and
has a root, as scientists assert? A large number of books of geology, when
discussing mountains, only describe that part which is above the surface of
the earth. This is because these books were not written by specialists in
geology. However, modern geology has confirmed the truth of the Quranic

[1] Earth, Press and Siever, p. 435. Also see Earth Science, Tarbuck and
Lutgens, p. 157.

[2] The Geological Concept of Mountains in the Quran, El-Naggar, p. 5.

[3] The Geological Concept of Mountains in the Quran, p. 5.

[4] The Geological Concept of Mountains in the Quran, pp. 44-45.

[5] The Geological Concept of Mountains in the Quran, p. 5.

4) The Quran on the Origin of the Universe

The science of modern cosmology, observational and theoretical, clearly
indicates that, at one point in time, the whole universe was nothing but a
cloud of ‘smoke’ (i.e. an opaque highly dense and hot gaseous
composition).[1] This is one of the undisputed principles of standard modern
cosmology. Scientists now can observe new stars forming out of the
remnants of that ‘smoke’ (see figures 1 and 2).

Figure 1: A new star forming out of a cloud of gas and dust (nebula), which is one of the
remnants of the ‘smoke’ that was the origin of the whole universe. (The Space Atlas,
Heather and Henbest, p. 50.)
Figure 2: The Lagoon nebula is a cloud of gas and dust, about 60 light years in diameter. It
is excited by the ultraviolet radiation of the hot stars that have recently formed within its
bulk. (Horizons, Exploring the Universe, Seeds, plate 9, from Association of Universities for
Research in Astronomy, Inc.)

The illuminating stars we see at night were, just as was the whole universe,
in that ‘smoke’ material. God has said in the Quran:

“Then He turned to the heaven when it was smoke...” (Quran 41:11)

Because the earth and the heavens above (the sun, the moon, stars, planets,
galaxies, etc.) have been formed from this same ‘smoke,’ we conclude that
the earth and the heavens were one connected entity. Then out of this
homogeneous ‘smoke,’ they formed and separated from each other. God has
said in the Quran:

“Have not those who disbelieved known that the heavens and the earth were
one connected entity, then We separated them?...” (Quran 21:30)

Dr. Alfred Kroner is one of the world’s renowned geologists. He is Professor

of Geology and the Chairman of the Department of Geology at the Institute
of Geosciences, Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz, Germany. He said:
“Thinking where Muhammad came from . . . I think it is almost impossible
that he could have known about things like the common origin of the
universe, because scientists have only found out within the last few years,
with very complicated and advanced technological methods, that this is the
case.”[2] (To view the RealPlayer video of this comment click here). Also he
said: “Somebody who did not know something about nuclear physics
fourteen hundred years ago could not, I think, be in a position to find out
from his own mind, for instance, that the earth and the heavens had the
same origin.”[3] (View the RealPlayer video of this comment).


[1] The First Three Minutes, a Modern View of the Origin of the Universe,
Weinberg, pp. 94-105.

[2] The reference for this saying is Thisis the Truth (videotape). For a copy of
this videotape, please visit this page.

[3] This is the Truth (videotape).

5) The Quran on the Cerebrum

God has said in the Quran about one of the evil unbelievers who forbade the
Prophet Muhammad, may the mercy and blessings of God be upon him, from
praying at the Kaaba:

“No! If he does not stop, We will take him by the naseyah (front of the head),
a lying, sinful naseyah (front of the head)!” (Quran 96:15-16)

Why did the Quran describe the front of the head as being lying and sinful?
Why didn’t the Quran say that the person was lying and sinful? What is the
relationship between the front of the head and lying and sinfulness?
If we look into the skull at the front of the head, we will find the prefrontal
area of the cerebrum (see figure 1). What does physiology tell us about the
function of this area? A book entitled Essentials of Anatomy & Physiology
says about this area, “The motivation and the foresight to plan and initiate
movements occur in the anterior portion of the frontal lobes, the prefrontal
area. This is a region of association cortex...”[1] Also the book says, “In
relation to its involvement in motivation, the prefrontal area is also thought
to be the functional center for aggression....”[2]

Figure 1: Functional regions of the left hemisphere of the cerebral cortex. The prefrontal
area is located at the front of the cerebral cortex. (Essentials of Anatomy & Physiology,
Seeley and others, p. 210.)

So, this area of the cerebrum is responsible for planning, motivating, and
initiating good and sinful behavior and is responsible for the telling of lies
and the speaking of truth. Thus, it is proper to describe the front of the head
as lying and sinful when someone lies or commits a sin, as the Quran has
said, “...A lying, sinful naseyah (front of the head)!”

Scientists have only discovered these functions of the prefrontal area in the
last sixty years, according to Professor Keith L. Moore.[3]


[1] Essentials of Anatomy & Physiology, Seeley and others, p. 211. Also see
The Human Nervous System, Noback and others, pp. 410-411.

[2] Essentials of Anatomy & Physiology, Seeley and others, p. 211.

[3]Al-E’jaz al-Elmy fee al-Naseyah (The Scientific Miracles in the Front of the
Head), Moore and others, p. 41.

6) The Quran on Seas and Rivers

Modern Science has discovered that in the places where two different seas
meet, there is a barrier between them. This barrier divides the two seas so
that each sea has its own temperature, salinity, and density.[1] For
example, Mediterranean sea water is warm, saline, and less dense,
compared to Atlantic ocean water. When Mediterranean seawater enters the
Atlantic over the Gibraltar sill, it moves several hundred kilometers into the
Atlantic at a depth of about 1000 meters with its own warm, saline, and less
dense characteristics. The Mediterranean water stabilizes at this depth[2]
(see figure 1).
Figure 1: The Mediterranean seawater as it enters the Atlantic over the Gibraltar sill with its
own warm, saline, and less dense characteristics, because of the barrier that distinguishes
between them. Temperatures are in degrees Celsius (C°). (Marine Geology, Kuenen, p. 43,
with a slight enhancement.)

Although there are large waves, strong currents, and tides in these seas,
they do not mix or transgress this barrier.

The Holy Quran mentioned that there is a barrier between two seas that
meet and that they do not transgress. God has said:

“He has set free the two seas meeting together. There is a barrier
between them. They do not transgress.” (Quran 55:19-20)

But when the Quran speaks about the divider between fresh and salt water,
it mentions the existence of “a forbidding partition” with the barrier. God has
said in the Quran:

“He is the one who has set free the two kinds of water, one sweet
and palatable, and the other salty and bitter. And He has made
between them a barrier and a forbidding partition.” (Quran 25:53)

One may ask, why did the Quran mention the partition when speaking about
the divider between fresh and salt water, but did not mention it when
speaking about the divider between the two seas?

Modern science has discovered that in estuaries, where fresh (sweet) and
salt water meet, the situation is somewhat different from what is found in
places where two seas meet. It has been discovered that what distinguishes
fresh water from salt water in estuaries is a “pycnocline zone with a marked
density discontinuity separating the two layers.”[3] This partition (zone of
separation) has a different salinity from the fresh water and from the salt
water4 (see figure 2).

Figure 2: Longitudinal section showing salinity (parts per thousand ‰) in an estuary. We can
see here the partition (zone of separation) between the fresh and the salt water.
(Introductory Oceanography, Thurman, p. 301, with a slight enhancement.)

This information has been discovered only recently, using advanced

equipment to measure temperature, salinity, density, oxygen dissolubility,
etc. The human eye cannot see the difference between the two seas that
meet,rather the two seas appear to us as one homogeneous sea. Likewise,
the human eye cannot see the division of water in estuaries into the three
kinds: fresh water, salt water, and the partition (zone of separation).


[1] Principles of Oceanography, Davis, pp. 92-93.

[2] Principles of Oceanography, Davis, p. 93.

[3] Oceanography, Gross, p. 242. Also see Introductory Oceanography,

Thurman, pp. 300-301.

7) The Quran on Deep Seas and Internal Waves

God has said in the Quran:

“Or (the unbelievers’ state) is like the darkness in a deep sea. It is

covered by waves, above which are waves, above which are clouds.
Darknesses, one above another. If a man stretches out his hand, he
cannot see it....” (Quran 24:40)

This verse mentions the darkness found in deep seas and oceans, where if a
man stretches out his hand, he cannot see it. The darkness in deep seas and
oceans is found around a depth of 200 meters and below. At this depth,
there is almost no light (see figure 1). Below a depth of 1000 meters there is
no light at all.[1] Human beings are not able to dive more than forty meters
without the aid of submarines or special equipment. Human beings cannot
survive unaided in the deep dark part of the oceans, such as at a depth of
200 meters.

Figure 1: Between 3 and 30 percent of the sunlight is reflected at the sea surface. Then
almost all of the seven colors of the light spectrum are absorbed one after another in the
first 200 meters, except the blue light. (Oceans, Elder and Pernetta, p. 27.)

Scientists have recently discovered this darkness by means of special

equipment and submarines that have enabled them to dive into the depths
of the oceans.

We can also understand from the following sentences in the previous verse,
“...in a deep sea. It is covered by waves, above which are waves, above
which are clouds....”, that the deep waters of seas and oceans are covered
by waves, and above these waves are other waves. It is clear that the
second set of waves arethe surface waves that we see, because the verse
mentions that above the second waves there are clouds. But what about the
first waves? Scientists have recently discovered that there are internal
waves which “occur on density interfaces between layers of different
densities.”[2] (see figure 2)
Figure 2: Internal waves at interface between two layers of water of different densities. One
is dense (the lower one), the other one is less dense (the upper one). (Oceanography, Gross,
p. 204.)

The internal waves cover the deep waters of seas and oceans because the
deep waters have a higher density than the waters above them. Internal
waves act like surface waves. They can also break, just like surface waves.
Internal waves cannot be seen by the human eye, but they can be detected
by studying temperature or salinity changes at a given location.[3]


[1] Oceans, Elder and Pernetta, p. 27.

[2] Oceanography, Gross, p. 205.

[3] Oceanography, Gross, p. 205.

8) The Quran on Clouds

Scientists have studied cloud types and have realized that rain clouds are
formed and shaped according to definite systems and certain steps
connected with certain types of wind and clouds.

One kind of rain cloud is the cumulonimbus cloud. Meteorologists have

studied how cumulonimbus clouds are formed and how they produce rain,
hail, and lightning.

They have found that cumulonimbus clouds go through the following steps to
produce rain:

1) The clouds are pushed by the wind: Cumulonimbus clouds

begin to form when wind pushes some small pieces of clouds (cumulus
clouds) to an area where these clouds converge (see figures 1 and 2).

Figure 1: Satellite photo showing the clouds moving towards the convergence areas B, C,
and D. The arrows indicate the directions of the wind. (The Use of Satellite Pictures in
Weather Analysis and Forecasting, Anderson and others, p. 188.)
Figure 2: Small pieces of clouds (cumulus clouds) moving towards a convergence zone near
the horizon, where we can see a large cumulonimbus cloud. (Clouds and Storms, Ludlam,
plate 7.4.)

2) Joining: Then the small clouds join together forming a larger

cloud[1] (see figures 1 and 2).

Figure 2: (A) Isolated small pieces of clouds (cumulus clouds). (B) When the small clouds
join together, updrafts within the larger cloud increase, so the cloud is stacked up. Water
drops are indicated by ·. (The Atmosphere, Anthes and others, p. 269.)

3) Stacking: When the small clouds join together, updrafts within

the larger cloud increase. The updrafts near the center of the cloud are
stronger than those near the edges.[2] These updrafts cause the cloud body
to grow vertically, so the cloud is stacked up (see figures 2 (B), 3, and 4).
This vertical growth causes the cloud body to stretch into cooler regions of
the atmosphere, where drops of water and hail formulate and begin to grow
larger and larger. When these drops of water and hail become too heavy for
the updrafts to support them, they begin to fall from the cloud as rain, hail,

Figure 3: A cumulonimbus cloud. After the cloud is stacked up, rain comes out of it.
(Weather and Climate, Bodin, p.123.)

Figure 4: A cumulonimbus cloud. (A Colour Guide to Clouds, Scorer and Wexler, p. 23.)

God has said in the Quran:

“Have you not seen how God makes the clouds move gently, then
joins them together, then makes them into a stack, and then you
see the rain come out of it....” (Quran 24:43)
Meteorologists have only recently come to know these details of cloud
formation, structure, and function by using advanced equipment like planes,
satellites, computers, balloons, and other equipment, to study wind and its
direction, to measure humidity and its variations, and to determine the levels
and variations of atmospheric pressure.[4]

The preceding verse, after mentioning clouds and rain, speaks about hail and

“....And He sends down hail from mountains (clouds) in the sky, and
He strikes with it whomever He wills, and turns it from whomever
He wills. The vivid flash of its lightning nearly blinds the sight.”
(Quran 24:43)

Meteorologists have found that these cumulonimbus clouds, that shower hail,
reach a height of 25,000 to 30,000 ft (4.7 to 5.7 miles),[5] like mountains, as
the Quran said, “...And He sends down hail from mountains (clouds) in the
sky...” (see figure 4 above).

This verse may raise a question. Why does the verse say “its lightning” in a
reference to the hail? Does this mean that hail is the major factor in
producing lightning? Let us see what the book entitled Meteorology Today
says about this. It says that a cloud becomes electrified as hail falls through
a region in the cloud of supercooled droplets and ice crystals.
As liquid droplets collide with a hailstone, they freeze on contact and release
latent heat. This keeps the surface of the hailstone warmer than that of the
surrounding ice crystals. When the hailstone comes in contact with an ice
crystal, an important phenomenon occurs: electrons flow from the colder
object toward the warmer object. Hence, the hailstone becomes negatively
charged. The same effect occurs when supercooled droplets come in contact
with a hailstone and tiny splinters of positively charged ice break off. These
lighter positively charged particles are then carried to the upper part of the
cloud by updrafts. The hail, left with a negative charge, falls towards the
bottom of the cloud, thus the lower part of the cloud becomes negatively
charged. These negative charges are then discharged as lightning.[6] We
conclude from this that hail is the major factor in producing lightning.

This information on lightning was discovered recently. Until 1600 AD,

Aristotle’s ideas on meteorology were dominant. For example, he said that
the atmosphere contains two kinds of exhalation, moist and dry. He also said
that thunder is the sound of the collision of the dry exhalation with the
neighboring clouds, and lightning is the inflaming and burning of the dry
exhalation with a thin and faint fire.[7] These are some of the ideas on
meteorology that were dominant at the time of the Quran’s revelation,
fourteen centuries ago.

[1] See The Atmosphere, Anthes and others, pp. 268-269, and Elements of
Meteorology, Miller and Thompson, p. 141.

[2] The updrafts near the center are stronger, because they are protected
from the cooling effects by the outer portion of the cloud.

[3] See The Atmosphere, Anthes and others, p. 269, and Elements of
Meteorology, Miller and Thompson, pp. 141-142.

[4] See Ee’jaz al-Quran al-Kareem fee Wasf Anwa’ al-Riyah, al-Sohob, al-
Matar, Makky and others, p. 55.

[5] Elements of Meteorology, Miller and Thompson, p. 141.

[6] Meteorology Today, Ahrens, p. 437.

[7] The Works of Aristotle Translated into English: Meteorologica, vol. 3, Ross
and others, pp. 369a-369b.

9) The Miracle of Iron

Iron is one of the elements highlighted in the Quran. In the chapter known Al-
Hadeed, meaning Iron, we are informed:

“And We also sent down iron in which there lies great force and
which has many uses for mankind…” (Quran 57:25)

The word “anzalna,” translated as "sent down" and used for iron in the verse,
could be thought of having a metaphorical meaning to explain that iron has
been given to benefit people. But, when we take into consideration the literal
meaning of the word, which is, "being physically sent down from the sky, as
this word usage had not been employed in the Quran except literally, like the
descending of the rain or revelation, we realize that this verse implies a very
significant scientific miracle. Because, modern astronomical findings have
disclosed that the iron found in our world has come from giant stars in outer
Not only the iron on earth, but also the iron in the entire Solar System,
comes from outer space, since the temperature in the Sun is inadequate for
the formation of iron. The sun has a surface temperature of 6,000 degrees
Celsius, and a core temperature of approximately 20 million degrees. Iron
can only be produced in much larger stars than the Sun, where the
temperature reaches a few hundred million degrees. When the amount of
iron exceeds a certain level in a star, the star can no longer accommodate it,
and it eventually explodes in what is called a "nova" or a "supernova." These
explosions make it possible for iron to be given off into space.[2]

One scientific source provides the following information on this subject:

“There is also evidence for older supernova events: Enhanced levels of iron-
60 in deep-sea sediments have been interpreted as indications that a
supernova explosion occurred within 90 light-years of the sun about 5 million
years ago. Iron-60 is a radioactive isotope of iron, formed in supernova
explosions, which decays with a half life of 1.5 million years. An enhanced
presence of this isotope in a geologic layer indicates the recent
nucleosynthesis of elements nearby in space and their subsequent transport
to the earth (perhaps as part of dust grains).”[3]

All this shows that iron did not form on the Earth, but was carried from
Supernovas, and was "sent down," as stated in the verse. It is clear that this
fact could not have been known in the 7th century, when the Quran was
revealed. Nevertheless, this fact is related in the Quran, the Word of God,
Who encompasses all things in His infinite knowledge.

The fact that the verse specifically mentions iron is quite astounding,
considering that these discoveries were made at the end of the 20th century.
In his book Nature’s Destiny, the well-known microbiologist Michael Denton
emphasizes the importance of iron:
“Of all the metals there is none more essential to life than iron. It is the
accumulation of iron in the center of a star which triggers a supernova
explosion and the subsequent scattering of the vital atoms of life throughout
the cosmos. It was the drawing by gravity of iron atoms to the center of the
primeval earth that generated the heat which caused the initial chemical
differentiation of the earth, the outgassing of the early atmosphere, and
ultimately the formation of the hydrosphere. It is molten iron in the center of
the earth which, acting like a gigantic dynamo, generates the earth’s
magnetic field, which in turn creates the Van Allen radiation belts that shield
the earth’s surface from destructive high-energy-penetrating cosmic
radiation and preserve the crucial ozone layer from cosmic ray destruction…

“Without the iron atom, there would be no carbon-based life in the cosmos;
no supernovae, no heating of the primitive earth, no atmosphere or
hydrosphere. There would be no protective magnetic field, no Van Allen
radiation belts, no ozone layer, no metal to make hemoglobin [in human
blood], no metal to tame the reactivity of oxygen, and no oxidative

“The intriguing and intimate relationship between life and iron, between the
red color of blood and the dying of some distant star, not only indicates the
relevance of metals to biology but also the biocentricity of the cosmos…”[4]

This account clearly indicates the importance of the iron atom. The fact that
particular attention is drawn to iron in the Quran also emphasizes the
importance of the element.

Moreover, iron oxide particles were used in a cancer treatment in recent

months and positive developments were observed. A team led by Dr.
Andreas Jordan, at the world famous Charité Hospital in Germany, succeeded
in destroying cancer cells with this new technique developed for the
treatment of cancer—magnetic fluid hyperthermia (high temperature
magnetic liquid). As a result of this technique, first performed on the 26-year-
old Nikolaus H., no new cancer cells were observed in the patient in the
following three months.

This method of treatment can be summarized as follows:

1. A liquid containing iron oxide particles is injected into the tumour by

means of a special syringe. These particles spread throughout the tumour
cells. This liquid consists of thousands of millions of particles, 1,000 times
smaller than the red blood corpuscles, of iron oxide in 1 cm3 that can easily
flow through all blood vessels. [5]
2. The patient is then placed in a machine with a powerful magnetic field.

3. This magnetic field, applied externally, begins to set the iron particles in
the tumour in motion. During this time the temperature in the tumour
containing the iron oxide particles rises by up to 45 degrees.

4. In a few minutes the cancer cells, unable to protect themselves from the
heat, are either weakened or destroyed. The tumour may then be completely
eradicated with subsequent chemotherapy.[6]

In this treatment it is only the cancer cells that are affected by the magnetic
field, since only they contain the iron oxide particles. The spread of this
technique is a major development in the treatment of this potentially lethal
disease. Iron has also been found to be a cure for people suffering from
anemia. In the treatment of such a widespread diseases, the use of the
expression “iron in which there lies great force and which has many uses for
mankind” (Quran, 57:25) in the Quran is particularly noteworthy. Indeed, in
that verse, the Quran may be indicating the benefits of iron even for human
health. (God knows best.)


[1] Dr. Mazhar U. Kazi, 130 Evident Miracles in the Qur'an (New York, USA:
Crescent Publishing House: 1998), 110-111; and
www.wamy.co.uk/announcements3.html, from Prof. Zighloul Raghib El-
Naggar’s speech.

[2] Ibid.

[3] Priscilla Frisch, “The Galactic Environment of the Sun,” American

Scientist, January-February 2000,

[4] Michael J. Denton, Nature’s Destiny (The Free Press: 1998), 198.

[5] www.inm-gmbh.de/cgi-
[6] "Nanotechnology successfully helps cancer therapies," IIC Fast Track,
Nanotech News from Eastern Germany, Industrial Investment Council,
October 2003; www.iic.de/uploads/media/NANO_FT_Nov2003_01.pdf

10) The Quran on the Expanding Universe and the

Big Bang Theory
Hubble’s Law

For thousands of years, astronomers wrestled with basic questions

concerning the universe. Until the early 1920’s, it was believed that the
universe had always been in existence; also, that the size of the universe
was fixed and not changing. However, in 1912, the American astronomer,
Vesto Slipher, made a discovery that would soon change astronomers’ beliefs
about the universe. Slipher,noticed that the galaxies were moving away
from earth at huge velocities. These observations provided the first
evidence supporting the expanding-universe theory.[1]

Before the invention of the telescope in 1608, man could do little more than wonder about
the origin of the universe. (Courtesy: NASA)

In 1916, Albert Einstein formulated his General Theory of Relativity that

indicated that the universe must be either expanding or contracting.
Confirmation of the expanding-universe theory finally came in 1929 in the
hands of the well known American astronomer Edwin Hubble.
By observing redshifts[2] in the light wavelengths emitted by galaxies,
Hubble found that galaxies were not fixed in their position; instead, they
were actually moving away from us with speeds proportional to their
distance from earth (Hubble's Law). The only explanation for this
observation was that the universe had to be expanding. Hubble’s discovery
is regarded as one of the greatest in the history of astronomy. In 1929, he
published the velocity-time relation which is the basis of modern cosmology.
In the years to come, with further observations, the expanding-universe
theory was accepted by scientists and astronomers alike.

With the Hooker Telescope, Hubble discovered that the galaxies were moving away us.
Above are photos of known galaxies. (Courtesy: NASA)

Yet, astonishingly well before telescopes were even invented and well before
Hubble published his Law, Prophet Muhammad used to recite a verse of the
Quran to his companions that ultimately stated that the universe is

“And the heaven We created with might, and indeed We are (its)
expander.” (Quran 51:47)
At the time of the revelation of the Quran, the word “space” was not known,
and people used the word “heaven” to refer to what lies above the Earth. In
the above verse, the word “heaven” is referring to space and the known
universe. The verse points out that space, and thus the universe, happens to
be expanding, just as Hubble’s Law states.

That the Quran mentioned such a fact centuriesbefore the invention of the
first telescope, at a time when there was primitive knowledge in science, is
considered remarkable. This is more so considering that, like many people in
his time, Prophet Muhammad happened to be illiterate and simply could not
have been aware of such facts by himself. Could it be that he had truly
received divine revelation from the Creator and Originator of the universe?
The Big Bang Theory

Soon after Hubble published his theory, he went on to discover that not only
were galaxies moving away from the Earth, but were also moving away from
one another. This meant that the universe happened to be expanding in
every direction, in the same way a balloon expands when filled with air.
Hubble’s new findings placed the foundations for the Big Bang theory.

The Big Bang theory states that around 12-15 billion years ago the universe
came into existence from one single extremely hot and dense point, and that
something triggered the explosion of this point that brought about the
beginning of the universe. The universe, since then, has been expanding
from this single point.

Later, in 1965, radio astronomers Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson made a
Noble Prize winning discovery that confirmed the Bing Bang theory. Prior to
their discovery, the theory implied that if the single point from which the
universe came into existence was initially extremely hot, then remnants of
this heat should be found. This remnant heat is exactly what Penzias and
Wilson found. In 1965, Penzias and Wilson discovered a 2.725 degree Kelvin
Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMB) that spreads through the
universe. Thus, it was understood that the radiation found was a remnant of
the initial stages of the Big Bang. Presently, the Big Bang theory is accepted
by the vast majority of scientists and astronomers.
A microwave map of the leftover from the Big Bang that gave birth to the universe.
(Courtesy: NASA)

It is mentioned in the Quran:

“He (God) is the Originator of the heavens and the earth…” (Quran

“Is not He who created the heavens and the earth Able to create the
likes of them? Yes; and He is the Knowing Creator. His command is
only when He intends a thing that He says to it, ‘Be,’ and it is.”
(Quran 36:81-82)

The above verses prove that the universe had a beginning, that God was
behind its creation, and all that God needs to do inorderto create is to say
“Be,” and it is. Could this be an explanation as to what triggered off the
explosion that brought about the beginning of the universe?

The Quran also mentions:

“Have those who disbelieved not considered that the heavens and
the earth were a joined entity, thenWe separated them, and made
from water every living thing? Then will they not believe?” (Quran

Muslim scholars who have explained the previous verse mention that the
heavens and earth were once one, and then God caused them to separate
and form into the seven heavens and Earth. Yet, due to the limitations of
science and technology at the time of the revelation of the Quran (and for
centuries to follow), no scholar was able to give much detail about how
exactly the heavens and earth were created. What the scholars could
explain was the precise meaning of each word in Arabic in the verse, as well
as the overall meaning of the verse.

In the previous verse, the Arabic words ratq and fataqare used. The word
ratqcan be translated into “entity” “sewn to” “joined together” or “closed
up”. The meaning of these translations all circulate around something that is
mixed and that has a separate and distinct existence. The verb fataqis
translated into “We unstitched” “We clove them asunder” “We separated” or
“We have opened them”. These meanings imply that something comes into
being by an action of splitting or tearing apart. The sprouting of a seed from
the soil is a good example of a similar illustration of the meaning of the verb

With the introduction of the Big Bang theory, it soon became clear to Muslim
scholars that the details mentioned with regards to the theory go identically
hand in hand with the description of the creation of the universe in verse 30
of chapter 21 of the Quran. The theory states that all the matter in the
universe came into existence from one single extremely hot and dense point;
that exploded and brought about the beginning of the universe, matches
what is mentioned in the verse that the heaven and Earth (thus the universe)
where once joined together, and then split apart. Once again, the only
possible explanation is that Prophet Muhammad had truly received divine
revelation from God, The Creator and Originator of the universe.


[1] The First Three Minutes, a Modern View of the Origin of the Universe,

[2] When the light an object emits is displaced toward the red end of the
spectrum. (http://bjp.org.cn/apod/glossary.htm)

11) The Victory of the Romans and the Lowest

Point on Earth
In the early 7th century, the two most powerful empires at the time were the
Byzantine[1] and Persian Empires. In the years 613 - 614 C.E the two
Empires went to war, with the Byzantines suffering a severe defeat at the
hands of the Persians. Damascus and Jerusalem both fell to the Persian
Empire. In the chapter, The Romans, in the Holy Quran, it is stated that the
Byzantines had met with a great defeat but would soon gain victory:
“The Romans have been defeated in the lowest land, but after their
defeat they will soon be victorious. Within three to nine years. The
decision of the matter, before and after, is with God.” (Quran 30:2-4)

These verses, above, were revealed around 620 C.E, almost 7 years after
the severe defeat of the Christian Byzantines at the hands of the idolater
Persians in 613 – 614 C.E. Yet it was related in the verses that the
Byzantines would shortly be victorious. In-fact, Byzantine had been so
heavily defeated that it seemed impossible for the Empire to even maintain
its very existence, let alone be victorious again.

Not only the Persians, but also the Avars, Slavs and Lombards(located to the
North and West of the Byzantine Empire) posed serious threats to the
Byzantine Empire’s sovereignty. The Avars had come as far as the walls of
Constantinople and hadnearly captured the Emperor, himself. Many
governors had revolted against Emperor Heraclius, and the Empire was on
the point of collapse. Mesopotamia, Syria, Palestine, Egypt and Armenia,
which had earlier belongedto the Byzantine Empire, were invaded by the
Persians. In short, everyone was expecting the Byzantine Empire to be
destroyed, but right at that moment the first verses of the chapter, The
Romans, were revealed announcing that the Byzantines would regain
triumph in a few years time. Shortly after this revelation, the Byzantine
Emperor proceeded to order the gold and silver in churches to be melted and
turned into money in order both to meet the demanding expenses of the
army, and finance his drive to regain the lost territories.

Around 7 years after the revelation of the first verses of The Romans, in
December, 627 C.E, a decisive battle between The Byzantine Empire and the
Persian Empire was fought in the area around the Dead Sea,[2] and this time
it was the Byzantine army which surprisingly defeated the Persians. A few
months later, the Persians had to make an agreement with the Byzantines
which obliged them to return the territories they had taken from them. So, in
the end, the victory of the Romans proclaimed by God in the Quran
miraculously came through.

Another miracle revealed in the mentioned verses is the announcement of a

geographical fact that no-one would have been able to discover in that
period. In the third verse of TheRomans, it was mentioned that the Romans
were defeated “in the lowest land” (Quran 30:3). Significantly, the places
where the main battles took place (in Damascus and Jerusalem) lie in a vast
area of low-lying land called the Great Rift Valley. The Great Rift Valley is a
huge 5,000 km fault line in the earth’s crust that runs from northern Syria in
the Middle-East of Asia to central Mozambique in East Africa. The
northernmost extension runs through Syria, Lebanon, Palestine and Jordon.
The rift then extends south to the Gulf of Aden, makes its way through East
Africa, then finally ends at the lower Zambezi River valley in Mozambique.

An interesting fact that has been discovered recently, with the help of
satellite images, is that the area around the Dead Sea (located in the Great
Rift Valley) has the lowest altitude on Earth. In fact, the lowest point on Earth
is the shoreline of the Dead Sea, with an altitude of around 400 meters[3]
below sea level. The fact that it lies at the lowest point means that water
does not drain from the sea. No land point on earth has a lower altitude than
the shoreline of the Dead Sea.[4]
Dead Sea Rift Valley, Israel and Jordan October 1984. Seen from an altitude of 190 nautical
miles (350 kilometers) in this near-vertical photograph, the Dead Sea Rift Valley slices south-
north through the Middle East. The surface of the Dead Sea, 1292 feet (394 meters) below
sea level, is the lowest point on Earth. (Courtesy: The Image Science & Analysis Laboratory,
NASA Johnson Space Center, Photo #: STS41G-120-56, http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov)

Therefore it becomes clear that the country or prefecture which occupies the
rift valley in the vicinity of the Dead Sea is what is meant in the Quran by
“the lowest land.” This is a true miracle of the Quran because no-one could
have known or foreseen such a fact in the 7th century due to the fact that
satellites and modern day technology were not available at the time. Once
again, the only possible explanation is that Prophet Muhammad had truly
received divine revelation from God, The Creator and Originator of the


[1] The Arabs also refer to the Byzantines as the Romans.

[2] The History of Persia Part I: Ancient Persia by Scott Peoples

[3] (http://hypertextbook.com/facts/2000/SanjeevMenon.shtml)

[4] (http://www.elnaggarzr.com/index.php?l=ar&id=51&cat=6)