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WING CHUN

In my second monthly column for Budo International, I would like to explain and discuss the CRCA Wing Chun concept of Facing. The term Facing (Ying Sai) in Wing Chun means the frontal reference of one fighter to another.

UFC GYM MARTIAL CINEMA


The largest mix martial arts and fitness gym in the East Coast. The addition of the new UFC Gym in New Hyde Park Nassau NY is a big step to get the UFC closer for approval as a mix martial arts legal sports in New York. "In martial arts there are only two words: horizontal and vertical. If you end up on the ground, you lose, if you are up and about, you've won". This is the phrase with which the character of Ip Man opens and closes this interesting film inspired by his life.

E-BUNTO
It is with deep appreciation and awe regarding the Masters of the past that I write this book. But I also want to extend my gratitude towards the ones who practice these traditions today and for those who will also learn to benefit from this knowledge by raising their consciousness and plunging deeper into unraveling the mystery that surrounds us.

LIANG KAM YUEN


Master Kam Yuen has written an important chapter in the current history of Martial Arts, especially in the West. He was already famous worldwide for his skills in Kung Fu, and nowadays he is not less known for his method of Chinese Energetic Medicine.

BUGEI
In this article, Shidoshi Jordan and Shidoshi Juliana will help you understand the essence and the true nature of the S a m u r a i , unquestionably the most famous figure of the Japanese tradition and the one that has more deeply conquered the hearts of the West, and will introduce you to the interesting history of their own Shizen lineage.

M.A. SPORTS POWER


The power of physical strength relies directly on muscularity; the larger the muscle mass, the greater its power of development, although there are some people who have counteracted this with other methods: does not hit harder he who has bigger muscles, but the one who has more skill in doing it... What makes a striker? What is the secret of the striking power?

BUDO INTERNATIONAL is a publication of: BUDO INTERNATIONAL PUBLISHING CO. Central: Office: Andrs Mellado, 42 28015 Madrid - Spanien Local pages: Maurice Elmalem mauricenterprise@aol.com International pages: Alfredo Tucci: budo@budointernational.com

SDS-CONCEPT
S.D.S. Concept is a holistic self-defense concept created by women, together with selfdefense experts, police officers, lawyers and pedagogues with the specific skills and needs of women and girls in mind.

SCS PANGAMOT

SDS-CONCEPT
The axe - used with one hand, as the American tomahawk, or with both hands, as a battle axe - is one of the oldest weapons known to mankind. Still, finding records or even training and teaching venues for this very special weapon is quite demanding. In this first part about axe fighting we will focus on the basics, special characteristics and concepts. Pangamot, the martial art from the Philippines is fairly unknown but is a very realistic, effective and aggressive fighting in my own way. Realistic, hard, fast and effective this is how I would describe Pangamot.

WINGTSUN
From Budo International we wanted to do an interview where we could give out to the community of martial artists, and especially the world of WingTsun, who is Sifu Salvador, which are his motivations and projects, but above everything, help the amateur who monthly reads our section "Columns of WingTsun" to know better this enthusiastic scholar of Martial Arts and constant WingTsun Kuen researcher.

KARATE NO KOKORO
Sensei Taiji Kase has been one of the greatest karate masters of the Twentieth century. Known worldwide as an outstanding fighter and as a teacher of high level, he never stopped perfecting his art and to develop it up to create his own style. Before passing away in 2004, he created an International Academy (Kase Ha Shotokan Ryu Karate-Do Academy) at the head of which he has placed his closest students, including Sensei Pascal Lecourt (for France), 6th dan, who hads been one of his closest assistants for nearly thirty years.

SHAOLIN HUNG GAR KUNG FU


The techniques of the snake increase vitality and internal power. Its technics are based on the philosophy of the element water. The snake is always moving. It uses the power of the Qi for fast and punctual strikes with the fingers to the opponents' weak spots or soft parts of the body.

KOMBATAN WORLD COMMUNITY


Grandmaster Presas diligently researched the Filipino martial arts for over 30 years to develop a systematic approach to the application of Arnis style into a complete hand-to-hand combat style called Mano-Mano.

General Director & Art Director: Alfredo Tucci. Advertising: Maurice Elmalem - mauricenterprise@aol.com International pages: Alfredo Tucci. budo@budointernational.com Columnists: Don Wilson, Yoshimitsu Yamada, Cass Magda, Antonio Espins, Jim Wagner, Coronel Sanchs, Marco De Cesaris, Lilla Distfano, Maurizio Maltese, Bob Dubljanin, Marc Denny, Salvador Herriz, Shi de Yang, Sri Dinesh, Carlos Zerpa, Omar Martnez, Manu, Patrick Levet, Mike Anderson, Boulahfa Mimoum, Franco Vacirca, Bill Newman, Jos M Pujadas, Paolo Cangelosi, Emilio Alpanseque, Sueyoshi Akeshi, Marcelo Pires, Angel Garca, Juan Daz. Photographers: Carlos Contreras, Alfredo Tucci.

"Reality is nothing but the ability our senses have to deceive themselves." Albert Einstein

"I hate reality, but it's the only place where you can eat a good steak." Federico Fellini "The only true realistic person is the visionary." Woody Allen

he collective unconscious had been announcing it. Films like Matrix struck severely the central axis of the consciousness of many. Artists and visionaries have been saying it; today, science itself opens its doors to new consciential setups to reconsider the reality and the real. In this editorial I'd like to share with you readers this point of change of conscience and for that we have to start by the beginning, like it belongs. The word "reality" comes from the Latin "realitas" which originates in the word "res". Res has many meanings: material thing, being, fact, object, matter, subject, circumstance, experience, power, cause and others. The adjective "realis" and the adverb "realiter" were commonly used in the Middle Ages. Thomas Aquinas considered the word "res" as a "transcendental". Transcendental were, in the classical doctrine, those properties that can be attributed to any Being. Finally, Duns Scotus introduced the neologism "realitas" to refer to that in which the various types of beings agree. The curious thing about this etymological introduction is that, by placing the term in its just original sense, it describes itself in a very different way than that we normally understand. Reality "is not" something monolithic, univocal; actually it's nothing else than a simple consensus. In the words of Carlos Castaneda: "The world is a description". Carl Jung said the same in other way: "Everything depends on how we see things, not on how they really are." Reality, paradoxically, beyond the tremendous power of the word, is nothing but an agreement, gentlemen. Surprise!! Everything you blindly believe, fruit of your senses and your apprenticeship, may not exist in that form beyond the particular own subjection of your description of things; of course, repeatedly concurred for the same consideration from those who surrounded you in your learning process, embedded with your special nature, crossed with your destiny, your evolutionary needs, your transformation opportunities, the energy that surrounds you and wraps you at all times and the energy that is crossing on your way, by virtue of the others with whom you relate or related in the past and the environments through which you move until the moment of every here and now. Does it seem a complicated formula to you? Well, you must know it, even so is incomplete! Who said understanding was easy? In opposition, how simple and plain is the flat description of the only, univocal and rocky reality of our current paradigm. But even this is gnawing itself by the edges! And, in light of recent quantum experiments, even by the middle! The dominant paradigm on the planet, the science and its method, is reaching its own level of incompetence; that is, through itself is questioning the basis of its own descriptive schema of reality.

This is not new; even within its own discourse and method, the Newtonian Universe was destroyed by Einstein, and poor Einstein is being swallowed up now by his own contradictions. God does not play dice ... but anyway, what if He does? I'll try to explain myself (if possible), and believe me I'm sorry, because this matter requires of more solid brains than mine and perhaps even a more appropriate means to "enter these gardens." In other words, as usual, the forum in which I express myself is apparently not the most suitable for such matter, or is it? But what can I do if life has placed me to preach in this (and not another) pulpit? The quantum entanglement experiment of Dr. Blake T. Dotta, at Laurentian University in Canada, seems to prove the existence of a kind of central computer, a "common field" that stores information from the activity of elementary particles. Dr. Gaona, who collaborated in the experiment, says that this "common place" is a "space", to which particles resort no only to "save" their information, but also the conscious (are we talking about the Akashic record?). The experiment itself was to create two identical quantic situations, but separated by several kilometers. In it, two innocuous substances with one another, but which respond with light in the presence of a third reactive element, were activated simultaneously, but from only one side of the space. Placing the reactant on one of the sides, the other one emitted light at the same and in the absence thereof. The consequences of this experiment are really extraordinary and would come to open the door to the proof of the deep knowledge that ancient people already had developed in their study of the invisible. It would also explain scientifically what we know commonly as telepathy, opening at the same time a field of study about concepts like wormholes, or inter dimensional communication. Even under the weight of that rocky imposition of what is real or not, we've all heard or experienced extraordinary stories of synchronicity in our lives or those of others: you're going to call someone and the person calls you ... a mother knows that something is going wrong with her son in the very moment he is having an accident ... someone is certain that his twin brother just died ... a son sees the image of his mother, who is at a 10,000 kilometers distance, when he passes the door of his room, just in the moment she dies ... etc. As in other times in history, several intertwined and virtually synchronous discoveries are occurring right now. It seems as if the very consciousness of the human group would be expanding at a time and touching specific understanding points. Not long ago we read in the journal Nature the publishing of the first quantum teleportation achieved by the team of Professor Nicolas Gisin, University of Geneva. As incredible as it might seem, it is the first time in history that teleportation of a photon at long distance has been achieved. Such

attainment, that just a few years ago was considered pure science fiction, is happening now. The funny thing is that scholars of hermetic, spiritual or occultist knowledge have been saying all this for centuries. Considered as heretics, demoniacs, ignorant witches, insane and all kinds of disqualifying labels, it turns out now that they not only were right, but they also explained, in their own but unequivocal way, what science is now just beginning to glimpse. The visible is only one category of reality. The reality is an agreement, but other realities coexist, intersect and collide with ours continuously. In my latest book, "On the threshold of the invisible", The Japanese Shamanism of the Shizen Culture, I place the reader at the gateway to the knowledge of the invisible of the Shizen Culture, an ancient culture that delved into the study of these mysteries in an exceptional way. The barrier between the physical and the metaphysical is cracking. The adventure of human consciousness is experiencing a new awakening. Today that science opens those doors, it's time to reconsider and hear with new ears and see with new eyes, how people like the Shizen, had the moral courage, the boldness and the infinite bravery to navigate these stormy seas, to bequeath a map of the invisible as detailed as practical. My book is a small, tiny, testimony to the immense hidden wisdom that they maintained and that I keep studying. Sending a photon through space-time is only a small step; ancient shamans went themselves to other dimensional planes or brought them here at will; they jumped between worlds as a child jumps with a rope; they touched high tension forces without being touched by these forces; they spoke with destinies, negotiated with immense forces or raised people on the border of life and death. The deeds and the power of those Shizen priests were legendary. Broken the conceptual limits, even the most brainless will be able to conceive and eventually try the quantum leap of the possible and the impossible. Alice crossed the mirror, but we all can do it, because achieving it is within our powers and potentiality. We are spiritual beings living a material existence and not vice versa. But reaching the knowledge and the power to make such leaps is another matter, because in this point, as in many others, nobody gives anything for free. The authentic spiritual paths always generate the necessary transformations in our energetic structure and function conditioning our energy and tension bubbles for that jump between worlds. The old reality is diluted in a sea of multiple realities; the flat Universe gets confounded in a multi-dimensional Universe; time as a linear concept is not sustained under the Universal relativity; the world, our univocal and rocky reality is crumbling. What a great adventure, my friends! It's time to learn to look and see with new eyes.

Alfredo Tucci is Managing Director of Budo INTERNATIONAL PUBLISHING CO. E-mail: budo@budointernational.com

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When I considered the idea of making a cover and an article on the figure of the Samurai, immediately came to my mind the image of Shidoshi Jordan. To my knowledge, no one like him embodies the noble and brave figure of the exponent of the Japanese warrior. Because, well beyond the idea of the Warrior, of the hard and devastating General, there is the other face of the man: brave, but tempered, faithful to his tradition and rules and, above all, fair. Shidoshi Jordan has compiled in more than 6,000 articles and thousands of videos available on the network, much of the tradition of his Martial Lineage, that of the Kaze no Ryu school. And not only in its martial aspects, because in his labor, and this is the most exceptional, Shidoshi Jordan has also retained the spiritual traditions of an entire culture, including its language, Shizengo. This titanic work is the basis that will allow in the future, not only the maintenance of such knowledge, but the rebirth of a culture extremely wise, deep and rich in multiple aspects, such as psychology, strategy, philosophy, metaphysics or the spirituality of the Shizen people. In the Shizen tradition which this man represents like nobody else in the world, there exist two archetypal figures among the categories of Senso Tengu, which perfectly express this duality: Ama, Senso Tengu of the Earth element in positive, the one who commands armies wisely and well organized, and his counterpart, Toshi, Senso Tengu of the Earth element in negative, the one that orders to destroy mercilessly and decimate the enemy. The figure of the Samurai has these two sides, but it also has a whole philosophy of life that has seduced the West. The charm of this archetype has been able to overcome even the strong aversion that produces the impact of an extreme form of seeing the world, when analyzed from the Western perspective. The idea of Seppuku (Hara Kiri), is without doubt one of the most shocking features in the Samurai idiosyncrasies, a sense of honor, almost scrupulous, impossible to be comprehended by an individualistic society, where the idea of the self-immolation is hard to assume and understand. However, digging into the archetypal patterns of the Indo-European tradition, the idea of the hero who sacrifices himself is not strange to us. The hero who, faithful to himself, fights to the end giving his live in the battle, even knowing he will die, advances impassively toward his destiny. Does it you sound to you? More than one religion was built in the past around a similar character! In this article, Shidoshi Jordan and Shidoshi Juliana will help you understand the essence and the true nature of the Samurai, unquestionably the most famous figure of the Japanese tradition and the one that has more deeply conquered the hearts of the West, and will introduce you to the interesting history of their own Shizen lineage. Alfredo Tucci

he culture of the Japanese warrior has always captivated the West transcending generations that have idealized it searching to learn its ethical, moral, and technical concepts that lead to shape up one's own character through that mystic aura which turns around the enigmatic and contradictory figure that conquered the world of the arts of war. Actually, each one of the aspects of the samurai culture could fill a whole book, if we were to delve into its most subtle aspects, hence, this article aims to outline only a brief introduction so that the reader can gain a better understanding of the habits and values of the warriors, and a legacy that has spread all over the world. However, the transmission of that heritage on foreign soil stops, inevitably, by the declining of the warrior status in Japanese soil itself. Therefore, it would be impossible indeed to get to understand the Japanese arts of war and the exportation process of its values without first studying the history of Japan. Japanese culture, in all its aspects, was deeply marked by the influence exerted by the military powers in many different aspects, from the moral behaviors, ceremonies and social events, to the indelible footmark they left in noble arts such as the Tea Ceremony. Since the warrior culture seems inherent to Japanese people, who believed they were destined to keep on fighting along history, it would be difficult to grasp the aspects that led to the development of the Japanese martial arts, and the reason for such specific characteristics which are present in all types of art, without a previous analysis of their contents and the social events that occurred in the historical stages of the Land of the Rising Sun. Trying superficially some of those details, even though the samurai caste had reached its golden age - especially in times of intense internal warfare - with the Edo Period (1615-1868) took place the decline of the warrior class. That would explain much of the historical process of the transmission of traditional arts of war to other countries in a past not so distant from our generation.

In the Edo period, Japanese social classes were mainly divided into: samurai, farmers, craftsmen and merchants. Certainly there were intermediate classes, like aristocrats, the imperial family and members of the nobility, but they didn't really have any political or economic power. Traders had reached living standards higher than the dominant warriors, they had even got to create a culture of their own, with aristocratic and warrior features. Such transformation had begun as an impulse toward freedom, since the goal at the time was material and economic welfare. The level of the cities rose to a point that many samurai had to get involved in luxury, which brought about major economic problems because the samurai led a life of little consumption and didn't produce anything. By living under the oppression of peasants, that generated a drop in productivity, a managerial crisis was embedded in society. The financial crack led many daimyo to borrow loans from traders and this marked the beginning of the demoralization of the samurai class. The long peace brought serious consequences for the warrior class, which was forced to live off manual services. The most cultured ones taught the children of merchants and those with military skills provided services of bodyguards (yojimbo). The decline of the class came to the point that many warriors had to sell their own swords, considered the soul of the samurai, and regrettably many turned into bandits or criminals. Even though it was an upper class, it became the most miserable of Japan. At that time, Confucianism was the base in

the government principles and it was taken so seriously that a specific event would mark forever the history of the Japanese people the 47 Ronin, shizushichi shi - already known to many Wester ners by reporting and demonstrating the depth of the Japanese concepts of fidelity and honor. At the end of the Edo Period, the idea of devotion to the emperor got back and the imperial restoration spirit grew, while reforms proved unable to bring concrete results. Also there were outside problems caused by the presence of foreign ships, in an attempt to force the opening of Japanese ports. In 1853, Commodore Matthew C. Perry arrived in Japan commanding a powerful naval fleet, and bringing with him commercial proposals from the President of the United States, M. Fillmore. The trade agreement, signed in 1858, would mark the entry of Japan in the international business world. Many feudal lords opposed, in a move against Tokugawa, and so they were persecuted. It was the socalled "Ansei Political Purge". Many antiTokugawa feudal leaders gathered strength to overthrow the government. Sakamoto Ryuma Sakamoto and Nakaoka Shintaro, Tossa feud leaders, joined Saigo Takamori and Okubo Toshimichi, of the Satsuma fief, to start out the anti-feudal armed movement. In 1867, Yamanouchi Toyoshige, feudal lord of Tossa (K_chi), addressed himself to Shogun Yoshinobu and advised him to return the executive power to the emperor, before the outbreak of a civil war. It was the end of the military government that had been ruling for 700 years. The Meiji Period (1868-1912) would mark the modernization of Japan. Without finding

much resistance, imperial troops easily took over the country and consolidated the political foundation of the Empire. The capital was moved from Kyoto to Edo, which from then on began to be known as Tokyo - Capital of the East. The modernization process continued and from 1926 (Showa Period), since the U.S. didn't accept Japanese immigration, they began heading towards Spanish America. Despite having been for generations away from the high social strata and political power, some families of samurai origin have maintained the pride of their ancestors, preserving a knowledge that was once synonymous of glory for the country. With no proper or decent financial conditions, many families saw emigration as a new chance to thriving, even if it was in foreign lands. Many of them brought with them just the old values of the past, developed in the ancient aspects of Bushido, now in disuse in the Land of the Rising Sun and revived in times of war, with the military purposes of a Japan which was rising as an international power, whilst its domestic demand wished modern technological and cultural advances. With the banning on "Jutsu" systems, many schools fell into ostracism, or their masters were persecuted and forced into a life in clandestineness. The traditional value given to the ancient martial arts changed, and the values of new objectives with only educational purposes emerged. Families that have kept the knowledge of their ancestors, brought the seeds of these arts to different distant lands and the process of trying to keep alive the traditions and cultures of the Japanese warriors sailed across the same ocean that once had isolated Japan. Thus, culture and thought were taken to other parts of the world thanks to Japanese immigration in other countries and, in the same way, knowledge of Kaze no Ryu Bugei Ogawa Ha reached Brazil. The Kaze no Ryu Bugei arrived in Brazil through the Ogawa family, who disembarked in Puerto de

Santos in 1935. Descendants of the Kawa village, in ancient times located on the island of Hokkaido, North of Japan, they settled in the southern state of Paran, where they began their activities as farmers. By occasional circumstances, with members of the colony began the Kenjutsu practice. Due to the intervention of the Shindo Renmei, Hiroshi Ogawa guided Japanese immigrants who were persecuted by the organization, in practical and quick ways of self-defense. This was a stimulus for the settlers to study the self-defense that the Ogawa brothers knew. The Shindo Renmei ("League of the Subjects' Path") was a patriotic organization, appeared in Brazil after the end of World War II, formed by Japanese who did not accept the defeat of Japan in the war. The short and violent history of this fundamentalist group, has been brilliantly told by journalist Fernando Morais, in his book "Dirty Hearts" published by "Companhia das Letras". The work won the 2001 Jabuti Prize to the best book in the category "non-fiction". In the 1930s, Brazil already had the largest Japanese community in the world, with more than two hundred thousand people, most of them living in the State of Sao Paulo. The big wave of Japanese immigration occurred between 1908 and 1938 and started to diminish by the pressure of Brazilians on the government of Getulio Vargas, since it was feared an "encysted" (the word used at the time) Japanese overpopulation forming a closed core in Brazil. Founded in Marlia, in the inner So Paulo, in 1942 (prior to the entry of Brazil in World War II), the Shindo Renmei emerged as one of the many Japanese nationalist organizations at the time, which were influenced by former Japanese military who immigrated to Brazil. In 1942, Brazil ceased to maintain its status of nonbelligerency and decide to intervene in the

Second War, supporting the Allies (United States, England and France) against the Axis powers (Japan, Italy and Germany). Thereafter, there was a strong persecution of immigrants arrived from Axis countries and the Japanese began to live in a land of enemies. Getulio Vargas issued severe laws against those immigrants, who could no longer speak or write in their native language, or gather in groups of more than three people. For the Shindo Renmei, the Japanese community was divided into only two groups: the "victorists" (kachigumi), belonging or sympathized with the organization, and the "defeatists" (makegumi) - also called "dirty Hearts" - who did not believe in the victory of Japan and therefore should be punished. Whoever spoke out publicly admitting disbelief in Japan's victory, was bound to die. The Shindo Renmei main goal was to silence those who "defamed" the image of Japan, using all possible means: slandering, removing the credibility and even killing those who disagreed with the organization. Only between January 1946 and February 1947, there were 23 people killed and 147 injured in actions of the organization. Due to these violent events and the need for defense, it was planted the first seed of Bugei on Brazilian soil. Many events marked the course of the Ogawa family in Brazil. Only in 1952, Hiroshi Ogawa accepted a small group to study the family tradition. In that group were Robert Kunio Araki, Massao Mizunaga, Abe Hideichi, Paulo Yoriki Hideoshi, Minoru Nagatame, Toshimitsu Muramoto and Kenichi Izawa, Isao Horibi, Miyoshi Massuda and Sadao Ebihara. Thus, Bugei started its path in Brazil.

It was said that the Ogawa family descended from a samurai lineage that, as many other noble families, was in decline and living in poverty in their home country, so they decided to emigrate and become farmers, like everyone else in that time. By coming from a Shizen tradition, besides their military status and together with the arts of war, they also brought with themselves a mystical-philosophical cultural heritage. With a strong Japanese pride, the Ogawa clan kept the old Bushido values through modern times. As many know, the Warrior's Moral Code of Conduct is probably the most popular feature of the samurai culture. This canon continues to inspire young people and practitioners of Japanese martial arts worldwide and its full knowledge also goes by understanding the Japanese culture in its political and philosophical aspects. Literally Bushido - m - means ethical path of the samurai. Put simply: it consists of a set of laws that guided the life and behavior of ancient warriors of Japan. The term "SAMURAI", or "BUSHI", means "to serve and follow the Lord, accompany a higher to serve him." Already in the book "Nihon Shoki" Chronicle of Japan, written in 720 AD are to be found references of the samurai as being a person who serves the master. The Bushido evolved markedly after the conquering of power by the military class (1192), under the leadership of Minamoto Yoritomo (Kamakura Bafuku). The Kamakura period is characterized by the onset of feudalism in Japan. Fearing to fall into the same error than the Henshi, chief Genji Minamoto no Yoritomo settled in Kamakura so to stay away from Kyoto. In 1192 he was granted by the

emperor the honorary title of Shogun literally, "military commander" - and in order to maintain discipline, he implanted a military regime based on moral behavior, characteristic of feudalism, the relationship between lord and vassal. The strict conduct rules sought to stop vassals from imitating the decadent life of aristocracy and thus avoid unnecessary expenses. After organizing his government policy, Yoritomo perfected the standards of conduct and moral between vassal and lord, refining the samurai ethics. The link between the two sides would consist of the "on" and the "gi". A vassal was to have absolute loyalty to his lord, in peace or in war. In retur n, the lord should ensure the survival and welfare of the vassal. This would maintain the Kamakura government for 150 years. The Bushido Code is rooted in Buddhism, Shintoism and Confucianism. From Buddhism came tranquility and trust in fate, the silent capitulation to the inevitable, the stoic composure in sight of danger or misfortune, and detachment to life and not fear death. From Shinto came loyalty to sovereign, reverence to the memory of ancestors and filial piety. Finally, from Confucianism came the ethical teachings. "Transport every day a handful of earth and you will make a mountain" (Confucius) From all these influences, it was formed the main ETHICAL PRECEPTS of the samurai class: Righteousness and justice - "It's the power to decide without wavering upon a correct course of conduct in accordance with reason - to die when

to die is right, to strike when to kill is right -", is the most compelling moral precept of the samurai code. Giri - "He who receives a favor or benefit of someone or some institution, has an obligation to repay." It means right and just reason, or duty, sense of justice or duty. Courage - Inseparable from the samurai status. Spirit of courage and patience. Always in favor of justice and righteousness. Benevolence - "Bushi no nasake" means the samurai's mercy or compassion. The generosity and kindness with the weak and the vanquished is a highly appreciated virtue by the samurai. Manners - Courtesy and civility are features very cultivated by the warrior class. Truthfulness and Sincerity - "Bushi no Ichigon", "the word of the samurai". Lies and falsehood indicate weakness of character, deeply dishonorable for a warrior. The notion of shame (haji) forms a characteristic moral background in the Japanese people culture. Honor - "Full awareness of the dignity and personal value." It is one of the qualities that are a must in the samurai. Duty and loyalty - The notion of loyalty is so extreme that it is common for a samurai to commit suicide in order to accompany his lord in death. Education and Training - "Chi (wisdom), Jin (benevolence) and Yu (courage), form the tripod that supports the Bushido." Self-control - The discipline of personal control is another important quality of the samurai. "Endure Pain without groaning, or sadness without manifest it, aims to not spoil the pleasure or serenity of others". Institution of Suicide and Revenge Ritual suicide or Seppuku is based on

the belief that the belly is the seat of the soul, opening the bowels or seat of the soul to show that it is clean. Revenge (Kataki-Uchi) is considered a virtue. It applies in the case of avenging the death of one's father, brother or lord. After reaching a certain prosperity in Brazil, Hiroshi Ogawa decided to resume safeguarding the arts of Bugei, enriching it with the knowledge of other immigrants who had a legacy in the noble Japanese arts. To expand and improve the study of the arts, many disciplines were added, some even reached their specialization in Brazil, due to the personal character given to the development of techniques, as is the case of Jujutsu, which counted on the "hand" of Ogawa Hiroshi in the Kihon, since the Seiteigata or classic sequences were not altered by historical preservation. After reaching a certain prosperity in Brazil, Hiroshi Ogawa decided to resume safeguarding the arts of Bugei, enriching it with the knowledge brought by other immigrants who had a legacy in the noble Japanese arts. To expand and improve the study of the arts, many disciplines were added, some even reached their specialization in Brazil, due to the personal character given to the development of techniques, as is the case of Jujutsu, which counted on the "hand" of Ogawa Hiroshi in the Kihon, since the Seiteigata or classic sequences were not altered by historical preservation. Son of Saburo Ogawa, known as a great samurai of an exquisite skill in regard to Kaze no R yu, Ogawa Sensei was for years among the world's great authorities of Jujutsu and its derivations. However, few recognized him as such , because the higher Japanese authorities quoted his name p ermanently

attached to Brazil. Perhaps, because of the xenophobia experienced by the Jap anese in relation to immigrants, Ogawa Sensei took years for his name to be recognized as one of the b est. H is skills continued to be linked to the name of his father. The fact that his family was traditional did not influenced in Ogawa Hiroshi's personal evolution, due to the distance between Japan and Brazil. Communication between the two countries was always precarious at that time. Thus, only after the year 1978 , the Japanese began to visit Brazil to know the fantastic technique presented by Ogawa Sensei. His wit and preservation of tradition impressed several authorities of the Bugei. Because the dream of keeping alive the Japanese traditions, the 30 Bugei disciplines, in Europe inspired their introduction depending of cultural aspects and deepening in intellectual knowledge, since Ogawa Sensei dreamed of building a kind of a "university" where traditional Japanese culture could be taught as a whole. Much has been invested along this time, in courses and seminars with teachers of the respective subjects, expressly arrived from Japan, for the project to come to fruition. Finally, we can say that todays, much has been lost, and of this project, in an active way, there are in fact 30 subjects which are taught in classes. The remaining subjects are seen as extra or separate disciplines, which eventually are treated in more simplified or short courses. So Kaze no Ryu has this vast amount of disciplines, covering both physical arts (martial or not) and mental or spiritual disciplines, working on the preservation of Japanese arts.

Master Kam Yuen has written an important chapter in the current history of Martial Arts, especially in the West. He was already famous worldwide for his skills in Kung Fu, and nowadays he is not less known for his method of Chinese Energetic Medicine. Few masters and experts can boast of having been the instructor of celebrities such as the Jackson Five, Bob Dylan and, especially, David Carradine, of whom he was stunt and choreographer in the Kung Fu series. Along his career, he's also shared his martial knowledge with stars like Chuck Norris and Steven Seagal. Master Kam Yuen was also linked to Bruce Lee. Master Kam Yuen was a student and best friend of Wong Jack Man, who, as the reader will sure remember, challenged Bruce Lee. Should Jack Man win the fight, the "Little Dragon" would be forced to stop teaching Caucasians. Ironically, y e a r s l a t e r, K a m Yu e n c h o r e o g r a p h e d Brandon Lee and even gave him some lessons in the second installment of the Kung Fu series... He was also an actor and choreographer of the Bruce Lee's ill-fated project, "The silent flute". For all this and many other virtues, Budo International brings him today to its pages.
Text; Salvador Mgica & Pedro Conde. Photos: Salvador Mgica.

Reportage
Master Liang Kam Yuen
Master Liang Yuen Kam was born in Hong Kong on March 10, 1941. He was the youngest of 7 boys and 4 girls. At the age of eight he began practicing Kung Fu as a student at Seven Star; Qi Xing Tang Lang with Master Chen Zhen Yi, and Tai Ji Tang Lang with Master Chi Chuk Kai. In Master Yuen's own words: "As in the We s t p e o p l e b e g i n v e r y y o u n g practicing sports with football, baseball, etc., in China, the learning of Kung Fu starts from childhood. I started at eight and it was like a game, because given my age, I didn't perform intensive or adults workouts. Usually you begin with the Shaolin style and then you specialize in any of its styles; I opted by the Mantis". Years later, Shifu Liang Kam Yuen moved to America with his family, where he continued his Kung Fu training with Master Mon Wong, in New York. Afterwards, he studied Northern Shaolin in San Francisco with Master Wong Jack Man, from whom he also learned the Hsing Yi and Baguazhang styles. In 1964 he graduated from the Manhattan Institute with a degree in engineering, through which he got his first job as an engineer at Lockheed Aircraft, near San Jose, where he also opened his first Kung Fu school with his friend, Master Paul Eng (he also worked at Hughes Aircraft and US Engineering Corporation). In 1969, he left his job as an engineer and decided to devote himself to the Martial Arts. After a short stay in Los Angeles, Master Liang Kam Yuen returned to Hong Kong to continue his studies in Tai Ji Tang Lang with Master Chi Chuk Kai. Liang Kam Yuen practiced day and night for several months. On his return to the United States he settled in Los Angeles, where he wanted to share his new knowledge with other practitioners, giving numerous classes at the YMCA facilities, in the Chinatow n Recreation Hall, UCLA, and USC, in the State of California. Master Liang Kam Yuen founded the "Shaolin West Healing Center" and was co-found er of the "Tai Mantis Kung Fu Association". He soon attained great fame and was required by celebrities to impart his teachings, being also requested by the Warner Brothers Studio to take part in the ABC television series "Kung Fu". "At that time, it was only known about Karate and Judo in the West; not even Tae Kwon Do, which was originally called "Korean Karate", had still arrived. I started doing exhibitions and demonstrations in order to expand and make Kung Fu known to the western world. I thought the best way to do it was to reach the movies or TV, but in those days nobody knew anything about it and there was no chance to do it. However, thanks to the fame I had got in demonstrations and in my involvement in Martial Arts events, when they started filming the series, I was called..." Master Kan Yuen was the choreographer in the series, in which he also participated as an actor in some chapters as well as David Carradine's stunt man in action scenes: "Yes, indeed, I participated actively in the series, at the beginning we choreographed the fights with several people. Upon issuance of some chapters, David started coming to my gym, there he realized that what he had been really doing in the fights of the early chapters, was Judo, so I had to start being the body double of Carradine, because nobody knew almost nothing of Kung-Fu at the time.

Anyway, after doing the dirty work of the series, I had no recognition whatsoever, so I decided to leave; but David, being the star of the show, had a specific weight on the series and he spoke with the Warner managers and told them he wanted me in the series, so they decided to set aside the services of the former choreographer and gave me that responsibility." From that moment, Master Yuen became officially the master of David Carradine: "At first, David Carradine didn't know anything about Kung Fu. Keep in mind that in the beginning of the series, he practically made only judo; but he had good qualities and picked the movements quickly. Furthermore, for a year he had been practicing dancing, so he had good elasticity and coordination, therefore, as the series progressed, he improved significantly. He was very disciplined and had a real interest in learning, although sometimes it was a pain having to wait for him to start... When the series ended, I continued to give him lessons, but now and then, the time from one class to the next was too

long since his professional commitments forced him often to travel not only around the country but also abroad." To palliate that as far as possible, David Carradine introduced Master Kam Yuen in every project in which he participated; among them we must highlight his work as an actor and choreographer, along with Joe Lewis, James Coburn and Sterling Silliphant, in the Bruce Lee's ill-fated project: "The silent flute". In this film he fights with his student. The master recalls... "I participated with some of my students; there were many interesting ideas in the script, however, the result was not good; it was the first time Richard Moore directed a film on Martial Arts, a subject to which he was not accustomed and had no experience, it took him too long to record the scenes ... Also, the fights were not well shot, the angles were not the right ones." That was not the only time in which they both participated in a film, there were others: "David Carradine was always doing whatever possible so that we could

work together; in some of his projects I did odd jobs or collaborations, whilst in others I participated in a more active way, like in the film "Project Eliminator", or the documentary "Zen and Now: A Dinner with David Carradine & Friends". Master Yuen gets excited when he talks about his pupil; it's inevitable to ask him about the actor's death ... " That was a hard shock, really painful... Two days before his death we had been talking, I had given him my address in China so that he could come and visit me at home. David knew my method of Chinese Energetic Medicine and its beneficial effects, he wanted to help me make it known to the world. Unfortunately, that meeting never took place." It was not the first time that Liang Kam Yuen was going through this trance; formerly he had also suffered the loss of another famous pupil, Michael Jackson. For a time, Master Yuen was the teacher of the "Jackson Five": "I instructed the Jackson Five in the Northern Shaolin for five years, of course, when their commitments

allowed them. I taught the four of them, but especially Jermaine, who put a lot of interest. But Michael, being very disciplined and fast, stood over his brothers and because of his natural coordination he was the best of them all..." Michael Jackson was not the only superstar in the music world to whom he has coached. Bob Dylan and his family also benefited from Master Yuen's knowledge: "Bob is great, he has good concentration and memory for Kung-Fu. He grabs the movements immediately because he is a genius. But his children need more discipline. I should have been there every day for they to really learn, but at that time I could only attend them once a week. The only way to make Carradine and Dylan improve significantly their Kung Fu would have been that I had opened a gym in Malibu; but at that time I lived in Torrance, which is further south. Anyway, the most difficult thing with Dylan was that he could find spare time so that we could train". Another Master Yuan's famous pupil was Chuck Norris, but this was long before the American colossus was known for his feature films. " His house was relatively close to my gym so he used to come visit me with a certain frequency, and that pleased me. At that time I was working on the Kung Fu series, so he wanted me to help him have a photo shoot with David Carradine. Chuck Norris wanted to achieve fame and star movies, so he thought this would serve to promote himself. Chuck is a great person, we have a lot of stories together... We met before he became famous." The master Yuen also shared his knowledge with Steven Seagal: "I had less relationship with him; in those days he was very young and he was basically interested in Japanese Martial Arts, although he was really interested in any eastern discipline including Oriental Medicine." Witness of a unique time at martial level, Master Yuen knows many aspects of the Martial Arts and has deep information about historical facts; he was the best student of Wong Jack Man, who challenged Bruce Lee. If he won that fight, "Little Dragon" had to stop teaching westerners... "Wong Jack Man didn't talk much about that combat; if he ever mentioned it he'd make some comment, but nothing else, it was nothing to brag about it... We had a relationship beyond pupil and master, we were very good friends; we wanted to do something good for the Kung Fu, though I was in New York and he was in San Francisco. Now about the challenge, it was not an impressive

fight, at that time Bruce Lee was not as good as he became later. That challenge or duel was not because of teaching westerners, as it has been said, but for criticizing the methods of Chinese traditionalists teachings, very strict and closed; not the way he thought it was right. A proof of everything I'm saying is that I was choreographer for the series Kung Fu and I never had any problem showing Kung Fu to westerner people." Kam Yuen was not present at the challenge; however, he always remained close to his master and friend... "Bruce Lee gave his life to do that in which he believed, he had to make tough decisions to get where he got and I deeply respect this fact. While he was alive I didn't pay him much attention, i.e., he was doing his thing, his Martial Arts, and I was doing mine. We knew each other because a relative of mine was good friends with him, and so we met on some occasions; however, for respect to my friend and master Wong Jack Man, I avoided dealing with him; I kept my distance. It was after his death that he became famous and I began to appreciate what he had done for the Martial Arts and Kung Fu. It may seem odd, but sometimes I feel I connect with the spirit of Bruce Lee and his ideas, but not only with him, also with those of his followers and admirers. Some people think that if he was alive, he'd be probably doing what I do..." By a coincidence of destiny, Kam Yuen worked and helped spread the Kung Fu and Martial Arts in the West. The series was based on the original idea of Bruce Lee. Later, Master Yuen helped materialize Bruce's ill-fated project "The silent flute" and finally, he was the first "step" in the film career of Bruce's eldest son: "It's not that Brandon trained only with me, I simply was the choreographer in the pilot episode of the second installment and I had to arrange his fight scenes. Actually, his fighting instructor was Dan Inosanto. For Brandon, Martial Arts meant something very different than they were for his father. He was not so serious and dedicated in his training as was Bruce Lee. He was a very nice young man who had started Martial Arts and later he wanted to dedicate completely to interpreting and get as far as possible with his career as an actor. Martial Arts were not a priority in his life." Having reached the top at a martial level, Master Yuen decides to leave everything and devote himself entirely to the method of Chinese Energetic Medicine.

"This way of looking at things is a way to change them like never before has it been possible doing! You make changes quickly ... for example, when you train, changes come slowly and you have to make them faster." On what is based the Chinese Energetic Medicine method? Why has it so many fans around the world? What makes it different from others? "It is based on the universal law, not in the spiritual part, but in the physical, because it is generally assumed that the spiritual level is above the physical, but it is not so. I direct the energy they have to the weakness they suffer, in order to be aware of which is and so reinforce it. The result is instantaneous. I've been doing this for about 30 years." How do Martial Arts fit into all this? "I think the Martial Arts tradition is all right, but it's something that has to evolve. Although something has changed, they are basically the same as before, but there are more things that we ignore than those we know. So it's time for us to be more physical, because we are creatures on this planet. Hence we must separate the mind from the physical so that we can see the potential that corresponds to the physical universe. In that way we can be as fast as the universe, because the universe is very fast, coordinated and very strong, so we have to reciprocate with the physical potential of the universe and not just stay on the spiritual side. You have to give people confidence so they have enough energy, which cannot be obtained by using Martial Arts only as a path. Since Master Yuen began teaching his method, he has appeared in several publications and on different media. Since then he hasn't stopped sharing his knowledge and skills throughout the world, helping many people. Is in Spain where we did this interview. "I have been several times in Spain; I've been to Barcelona, Malaga and Madrid. With my method I have been able to help more than 1,000 patients here." Master Liang Kam Yuen lives currently in Canoga Park, California (USA); he keeps training Martial Arts although not in an intense or constant way: "I don't practice them physically, but I do the actions. If I realize what my weakest point is when I put them to work, I improve it immediately. So, almost in the moment, I can improve at neuromuscular level my strength, flexibility, endurance, etc." Master Yuen travels the world teaching and applying his method of Chinese Energetic Medicine.

Text: Emilio Alpanseque Photos: Sil-Metropole, Bona Film Group, The Weinstein Company.

The Grandmaster - Stories of the Martial Woodland


"In martial arts there are only two words: horizontal and vertical. If you end up on the ground, you lose, if you are up and about, you've won". This is the phrase with which the character of Ip Man opens and closes this interesting film inspired by his life, but that in turn allows us to appreciate certain traditions within the so-called Martial Forestland or Wulin, that now we pass to sketch for all of our readers.

Synopsis
In the China of the 30s, an old northern master, a Baguazhang expert and leader of the Chinese Martial Artists Society, decides to retire, but first requests a challenge in order to find a suitable candidate to integrate the teachings of the South of the country with those of the North. So, Ip Man (Tony Leung), a Wing Chun expert of some renown in the community of Canton, is chosen as a candidate and wins the match quite comfortably. With the defeat of the North teacher, his daughter Er Gong (Zhang Ziyi) immediately defies Ip seeking to avenge the honor of his family. However, during the fight, a special bond would arouse between them, which was to change the destiny of their lives, or maybe not...

Words of the Director


The acclaimed and noteworthy Hong Kong director Wong Kar-Wai has finally presented his magnum opus, in which he had been working for over ten years and that has been rolled along the last four. "THE GRANDMASTER" is the calmly report of a past time in which the central character is not exactly Ip

Man, but Martial Arts themselves. On this, the director says: "When people ask me what sort of film is this, I say it's the story about the concern of how to pass the martial knowledge to the next generation. It's about people in traditional circle of the Wushu arts, who want to overcome their own ability, experience and essence. That is the central point of the story. " Indeed, this artistic film conveys a very important message about the first generation of members of the Society of Chinese Martial Artists (Zhonghua Wushi Hui), founded in 1910, with the aim of using Martial Arts to strengthen people and save the country, although deep inside they hid revolutionary ideals. "It's not only are the values of the Martial Arts, it's part of our culture just as well and that's what I want to tell: where we come from, who we were in the past" explains Wong.

About the Cast


Tony Leung (Ip Man) - Born in Hong Kong and abandoned by his father when he was seven, he dreamed from a very early age of becoming an actor, but

what he didn't know is that he was to become one of the biggest movie stars of Hong Kong, with over 30 years of experience and more than a hundred films to his credit. Leung is one of the favorite actors of Hong Kong director Wong Kar-Wai, with whom he has worked seven times. Zhang Ziyi (Er Gong) - Born in Beijing, she began to be known after winning a national dance contest at the age of 15. It was then that director Zhang Yimou hired her to the film "The Road Home" (1999). The strength of her performing highly pleased the journalists in her country and in less than three months she was selected to star in the acclaimed "Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon" (2000). Since then, her figure has become very notable with blockbusters in both the Chinese and international cinema. Chang Chen ("The Razor") Born in Taipei in October 1976 (the year of the Dragon in the Chinese zodiac), Chang's foray into the film industry was not accidental. His father, Kuo-Chu Chang, is one of the most famous actors of Taiwan and his older brother, Chang Han, is also a wellknown actor. Chang achieved fame after starring in the film "Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon" (2000). Since then, Chang has shot many critically acclaimed films, collaborating with the best directors and actors.

In this film there are many styles and many teachers, but according to what history tells us, and given the circumstances of each one, only one of them was able to make transcend his art to the rest of the world

About the Production


The director Wong Kar-Wai is known for taking a long time to finish his films and his tendency not to stick to production deadlines. The original script was written in 2001, and after a long journey through deep China, visiting more than one hundred traditional Wushu Masters, the film would begin shooting in 2009, to be released on January 8, 2013. The original concept was to present ten teachers in ten separate chapters, but this would have resulted in an excessively long and complicated film. It is said that the production team came to have up to four hours of filmed material arranged and ready to be used, which had to be reduced to 130 minutes, which is the duration of the official version of the film. It's to be emphasized that the director Wong Kar-Wai required his three main actors practicing Traditional Wushu for three years before he started shooting. Tony Leung devoted himself to the practice of Wing Chun by the hand of Master Duncan Leung, a former student of the real Ip Man, his son Darren and his pupil Henry Araneda. As for Zhang Ziyi, she learned Baguazhang from the expert of modern and traditional Wushu, Ge Chunyan, female member of the original team of Beijing Wushu. Finally, Chang Chen trained Bajiquan under the tutelage of Master Wang Shiquan of Beijing for three years and got to compete in China, earning a gold medal at the 2009 national championships of traditional Bajiquan.

On the Fight Scenes


The martial arts sequences in THE GRANDMASTER were choreographed by the legendary action director Yuen Woo-Ping, who was also in charge of directing the M a r ti a l A r ts sc e ne s i n " T he M a tr i x " ( 1 9 9 9 ) , "Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon" (2000), "Kill Bill Vol 1" (2003), "The Forbidden Kingdom" (2008) and many other productions, along his career spanning more than four decades. And this time, Yuen also plays briefly the role of Chan Wah-Shun, the master of Ip Man in real life. Under the instruction of Wong Kar-Wai, the fight scenes appear really exquisite for those who appreciate the technical beauty of each style, their particular movements, or even of a single blow or stance. In addition to the aforementioned styles, we can see examples of Hung Gar, Xingyi, Mantis and more. Master

Martial Cinema
Yuen, along with French cinematographer Philippe Le Sourd, dazzle us repeatedly with their intensity and imagination, with a great cinematic style choreography instead of thrilling fights, such as those of "Ip Man" (2008) starring Donnie Yen. The fights become elegant and ceremonial encounters, in some cases demonstrating martial ethics and mutual respect. According to the key theme of the film, everything is to be seen in the details. The cameras zoom in and show the precise footwork, palm movements in spiral, torsion blows, etc. Martial movie legends like Bruce Leung, professional wrestler Cung Le, the expert of Hung Gar Lau Kar-Wing or the Wushu female champion Zhou Xiaofei, really force the actor Tony Leung to fully utilize his martial training and acting talent. Just as well, Zhang Ziyi and Chang Chen turn out to be totally convincing fighters before the cameras. War and the founding of the People's Republic of China, moment in which he fled to Hong Kong, where he began to teach publicly the art of Wing Chun, leaving behind old traditions and passing the baton of knowledge to subsequent generations beyond his own life. That's why the name of the movie is THE GRANDMASTER, singular.

Our Critics
THE GRANDMASTER certainly aims to provide more substance than simple bumps and this is important, it is something to keep in mind before visioning this film. It is not "Ong Bak" (2003) or "The Raid" (2011), but rather a contemplative film in which Wong Kar- Wai, very much in his line, uses traditional Wushu styles and other visual elements as tools of expression of his ideas. For example: the central characters, Ip Man and Er Gong represent through Wing Chun and Baguazhang respectively, their own attitudes toward life itself. The Wing Chun basically considers the straight line as the best way of attack, while the Baguazhang is famous for its circular steps and spiraling energy. This describes the personality of Ip Man, who is always direct and looks ahead, while Er Gong merely sticks to his past and tries to escape from his present. And this is just one example of the kind of metaphors that the director uses. In this film there are many styles and many teachers, but according to what history tells us, and given the circumstances of each one, only one of them was able to make transcend his art to the rest of the world. We are referring to Ip Man, who, born in 1893, lived in the era of Emperor Guang Xu, the last emperor Pu Yi, the establishment of Nationalist China, the Second Sino-Japanese

Best Karate Kumite. George Bierman Generally speaking, if you ask someone, why are you in Martial Arts, they will tell you it's because they want to learn how to fight. You usually never hear them say that they wanted to learn kata, weapons or wazas. I guess all of us have a little of that I want to be a tough guy or you could be motivated by a real need to protect yourself. Whatever the reason, in this DVD I discuss Basic and Advanced kumite techniques and concepts that all of us should know, whether you are an advanced student or just beginning, and some things that have worked for me over and over. Some can be used on the street but I'm mainly focusing on tournament techniques. I can tell you over and over to keep your hands up to protect your face. Some of you may do it and some may not. Once you get hit in the face several times by not doing it, you will. I began my Martial Arts training in 1973 and this is a collection of proven techniques and strategies that have worked well for me in competition to present day. I have combined strategies, footwork, techniques and combinations that lead me to well over 2000 tournament wins and a World Champion fighter in St. Petersburg, Russia. They work! LANGUAGES: ENGLISH, ESPAOL, ITALIANO, FRANAIS

REF.: BIERMAN3

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Major Avi Nardia is one of the leading head official instructors for the Israelite army and police in anti terrorism and CQB, he along with Ben Krajmalnik have made a new basic dvd in the field of firearms and safety, training techniques in IPSC. Instinctive Shooting in Combat. Combat Instinctive Point Shooting - IPSC is a shooting method based on instinctive reactions and kinematics to shoot short distances fast and in dynamic situations. A self defense discipline in order to survive in life t h r e a t e n i n g situatuations , where you need a very fast and accurate shooting abilities, when you must take the gun out as soon as possible and shoot at a short distance without using the sight. In this first volume you will study how to handle the weapon ( revolver and semi -automatic ) dry firing practice and security, "Point Shooting" or instinctive shooting , at a close range and a series of movements and exercises for weapon retention , low stress and multiple attackers ; exercises on how to recharge with one hand, ... and finally practice shooting gallery with guns such as AK- 74, M -4 , M -249 machine gun and even M -16 grenade launchers .

REF.: KAPAP7
All DVDs, wichi is produced by Budo International, si provided and alone in the formats DVD-5 or MPEG-2, in VCD, DivX or the like is however neves offered with a special holograma sticker. Besides our DVD is characteristed coverings by the hig quality in pressure and material. If this DVD and/or the DVD covering do not corespond to the requirements specified above, it concerns illegal pirat copy.

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r nesto Amador Presas was bor n in Hinigaran, Philippines on May 20, 1945. He began his training in the Filipino martial arts at the age of eight under his father, Jose Presas. Grandmaster Ernesto Presas was a multi-talented athlete. He was a collegiate athlete in track and field, football and basketball. His training in the martial arts is eclectic. He held the rank of Lakan Sampu (10th Dan) in Arnis, Lakan Sampu (10th Dan) in Mano-Mano and 10th Dan in Filipino weaponry. He was recognized as a ranking expert in Judo, Jujitsu, Bo Jitsu, Kendo, Tonfa, Sai, Chaku, Balisong, and Karate. As a young man, his dream was to reintroduce the art that was so long an integral part of Filipino history and culture. However, he realized that the classical systems presented a limited appeal to those living in the modern world. By analyzing the conceptual framework of the classical systems, he revolutionized the native martial arts into a complete effective fighting system appealing to martial arts students in contemporary society. A turning point came in 1970 for Grandmaster Presas. He began teaching the Filipino martial arts at the University of the Philippines, University of Santo Tomas and the Lyceum of the Philippines.

In the same year, he was invited to Japan to demonstrate the art of Arnis at "Expo 70." Challenged to compare Arnis to the well-known sword styles of Japan, he quickly ear ned the respect of the Japanese masters who called his art Filipino Kendo. After retur ning to Manila, he established his first dojo. Later that year, Grandmaster Presas founded the Modern Arnis Association of the Philippines Inter national and ARJUKEN (Ar nis-Jujutsu-Kendo) Karate Association International to formally propagate the native art within the Philippines. His martial arts teaching duties expanded to include classes at the University of Santo Tomas, Central Colleges of the Philippines, the Far Eastern Military Academy, Philippine National Police Academy and the Philippines Air Force Officer's School. Grandmaster Presas yearned to introduce the Filipino martial arts to the outside world. In 1975, he founded the International Philippine Martial Arts Federation. From that point on, his Presas Arnis style and techniques became widely adopted in Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Switzerland, Canada, United States, Mexico, Puerto Rico, New Zealand, Saudi Arabia, South Africa and Australia. He has published extensively. His books, The Art of Arnis, published in 1981 and Arnis: Presas Style and

Balisong, in 1985 demonstrate the basic techniques of single and double cane, espada y daga and the balisong knife as well as co-authored Kicking and Stretching for Children with GM Juerg Ziegler. Grandmaster Presas diligently researched the Filipino martial arts for over 30 years to develop a systematic approach to the application of Arnis style into a complete

hand-to-hand combat style called ManoMano. In the June 1991 issue of Inside KungFu, he was featured in the cover article "Ernesto Presas: The Father of Mano-Mano." In the same year (1991) he was invited to a "Budo Gala" in Germany. "Budo Gala" gathers together all the respected martial artists from all around the world. Mano-Mano, introducing unique hand techniques, was a huge success. Grandmaster Presas traveled the world teaching seminars to propagate this Filipino art. In turn, numerous martial arts students and instructors from around the world express homage by taking advanced lessons from him in the Philippines. On September 6th, 1996 he was awarded the "Grandmaster's Award" in Jacksonville, Florida. On 8th July 1996 a great and fruitful relationship started between GGM Er nesto A. Presas and with GM Juerg Ziegler from Switzerland (www.kuungfu.ch) which became so intense that GM Juerg Ziegler became the Switzerland Representative for GGM Ernesto A. Presas. Also GM Juerg became the true Pioneer for Kombatan/Modern Arnis for many

countries worldwide and established the Art of GGM Ernesto A. Presas. In 2001 GM Juerg was promoted and tested to Master Instructor by his mentor, teacher, compadre and true friend, GGM Er nesto A. Presas, receving all the rights to further promote and establish Kombatan/Modern Arnis without any restrictions. Grandmaster Juerg Ziegler was responsible to launch Kombatan in Switzerland, Finland, Latvia (East European Countries), Portugal as well as Cambodia, Singapore and Malaysia, etc. All his family is active in Kombatan. On 21st Jan 2008 Grandmaster Juerg Ziegler was graded and promoted by Grandmaster Ernesto A. Presas to 9th Dan Kombatan. He is the Chairperson of the World Kombatan Community - appointed and authorised by Grandmaster Ernesto A. Presas. Sadly GGM Er nesto A. Presas

passed away on 1st November 2010 leaving behind a great legacy to be continued by his senior students worldwide and especially also with the World Kombatan Community (www.kombatan.eu) Kombatan combines several traditional Filipino styles that have been blended into a single art: Palis Hirada Batangueno Sungkiti Tutsada Abaniko Largo / Corto Doblada / Doblete Banda y Banda Sinawali Espada Y Daga Daga sa Daga Dulo Dulo Dos Puntas Tres Puntas Sibat / Bangkaw Mano-Mano Sipaan Dumog

Serie tcnica

Artes Flipinas

Interview
Interview with Sifu Salvador Snchez, founder of the TAOWS Academy and Technical Director of the WingTsun Department of the Spanish Federation of Wrestling
It is now a couple of years that Sifu Salvador Snchez began writing on these pages. During this time, many have wondered about the philosophy, objectives and method of his proposal. The world of WingTsun in Spain was orphaned from his father and founder, Sifu Victor Gutierrez. It seems indisputable that there is a before and an after the arrival of Dai Sifu Victor to Spain. His legacy was for all WT fans in this country. When Victor decided to take a step in the evolution of his personal style and create a new project, there were not few those who stayed alone. After all these events and several comings and goings, many left the practice to pursue other alternatives. Among the various projects and organizations that have begun to spread in Spain in the last years with a strong projection to Europe and America, it must be emphasized the TAOWS Academy, now on its way to become one of the most important references in the WingTsun world. In just two years it has managed to gather 40 instructors / schools and, what is more important, to bind many advanced degrees of the old OEWT that now, organized around the project of Sifu Salvador Sanchez, is conducting a daunting task. New ideas, new methods and, especially, new attitudes to prepare its opening to Europe and America. From Budo International we wanted to do an interview where we could give out to the community of martial artists, and especially the world of WingTsun, who is Sifu Salvador, which are his motivations and projects, but above everything, help the amateur who monthly reads our section "Columns of WingTsun" to know better this enthusiastic scholar of Martial Arts and constant WingTsun Kuen researcher. Budo International: Welcome. Thanks for attending us. Sifu Salvador: Thank you. It is an honor. B.I.: Tell us, how did you begin practicing Martial Arts? S. S.: It was long ago. I started when I was five years old, practicing Judo in my hometown (Caravaca de la Cruz / Murcia). Later I got into Sambo, Greco-Roman, Wrestling and Olympic Free Style Wrestling, Ninjutsu and some other systems. I was a lover of Martial Arts from the start and, in one way or another, I was always connected to the practice thereof. I've never stopped practicing for 35 years, but with no doubt, my approach both technically and professionally changed when I met my Sifu Victor Gutierrez and WingTsun and I decided to devote myself body and soul to this style. Sifu Victor was always a very inspiring person for me, in every way. B.I.: How were your beginnings in WingTsun? S.S.: Well, I must be honest about it ... it was almost by accident. I saw an ad in this same journal, where my Sifu Victor Gutierrez appeared with GM Leung Ting. I found it a very rare style (it didn't have the aesthetics of other Martial Arts). At that time I was always looking for things that could help me improve as a martial artist, so I called Sifu Victor and invited him to give a seminar in my small school of traditional Martial Arts (the Ta Sheng Yuan Institute). On the appointed day, there came a man with a strong Basque accent, dressed in black, with red striped trousers, accompanied by an attendant named Javier Manso Martin (his right hand and one of the most important exponents in the Spanish WingTsun) with an aspect that had little to do with the Martial Arts I knew so far. And they even walked into my tatami with their shoes on! (Laughter...) And, of course, that was too provocative. I tried to hit them! B.I.: And how was it? S. S.: Well, I tried. Believe me; I tried with all my might. My students told me: "Don't let them, master. Attack them! But the fact is they played with me as if I was a small child. There were several things that surprised me in that first meeting, but one of them was really shocking. It was when Sifu Victor said to me: "Attack me, please." To which I replied: How? Do you prefer a hand attack, with my leg...? Then he answered: "Since when the defender decides the attack of his aggressor?" And yes, it was that response that sparked something within me. It was like a shock. I fell in love with that style, now it's been twenty years that I started and I haven't stopped practicing ever since. I liked it very much. I was captivated. Shortly after I read the book of my Sigung KR Kernspecht, "The Art of Combat", and if I had any doubt left it

Interview
dissipated like smoke in the breeze ... This style of Chinese boxing had everything I wanted to do in the Martial Arts. B.I.: Has WingTsun changed much in Europe in those twenty years? S.S.: Oh, yes, much. Too much, I'd say! It looks like a totally different style. There have been many things that have made it worse, go backwards, while I recognize that other changes have been highly positive. I firmly believe that nothing is completely good or bad. It all depends from which perspective you look at it. The truth is that for many years things were badly done. As one of my teachers often says: "It was done much for business, but little for the art", and, in that equation, the art is always the loser. In any case, it's true that the WT went from being an art unknown in Spain to become highly recognized, at least in the MMAA world. Anyway, this style has been changing constantly since its inception, by a simple reason: styles are practiced by "live" people and therefore they are constantly evolving. B.I.: But you were practically Sifu Victor's right hand... What were the reasons for not following his new venture with him? S.S.: It is not my way (firm). It's no secret that I was directly and personally formed by him. I have accompanied him and served him as assistant in hundreds of courses throughout Spain, USA, Germany, Italy, etc... I have known from first hand all his concerns, thoughts, exceptional ideas. I lived his growth at the institutional level from the nothingness to his elevation in the world of Martial Arts, but what he is doing right now is not my way. I recognize it is a much more interesting matter than what it might seem at first, but it's not my theme. A certain MMAA master says that once reached a specific maturing moment in your martial apprenticeship you have to "kill the master" (not physically, it's obvious!) and I think my maturity time has come. I learned the entire system until the 5th GP in a direct way. Later I learned from another master (whom I don't cite by his express request) the Long Stick form and the Bart Cham Dao form, and, once completed the system, it came my time to work alone. I think it is the law of life. Something necessary without the imposition or supervision of anyone. B.I.: Why the TAOWS Academy? S.S.: Well, I must admit that I received some offers to be representative in Spain of several WingTsun organizations. I even evaluated the possibility of joining the EWTO again, under the orders of my Sigung (whom I deeply respect) but after assessing and reflect about all the important elements, I made up my mind that if I wanted to do something nice for me, for my family and for the WingTsun itself, I had to change all the things that in my opinion were not good for the Art. And that was not possible under the tutelage of anyone who wanted to impose his way of seeing things, his ideas or a business model. I was sure I could achieve a balance between Art and Profession. Please, understand me, I want to live from my classes and my organization. I have a series of economic needs (I have family and obligations like everyone else), but I will never let financial problems to be placed above this ancient art that came down to me transmitted for generations from father to son, for 500 years. My responsibility is to try to care for it so it can last at least another 500 years. Such is the responsibility of a Martial Arts master: to keep the pearls of ancient wisdom and transmit them to others. So I decided, without many ambitions, to found a small Martial Arts school with my most loyal instructors and friends. The surprise came when, in less than a year, the number of calls from schools and groups from different cities inquiring what I was suggesting and which my plans were for the WingTsun, didn't stop coming. I could barely meet the demand for seminars and courses! And we grew so fast that we were surprised at all levels (individual, institutional, etc.). To date we have achieved more schools than most of the organizations that offered me to be their representative in Spain and, frankly, that makes me feel very proud. It's the award to a well done job. We are happy. B.I.: How would you define your WingTsun? S.S.: If there's anything I do not like the in the world of WingTsun is the continuing search for labels. Most are much more concerned to put a name to what they do to distinguish themselves from the rest than to study, practice and deepen into the techniques, tactics and ideas of the system. I teach WingTsun. GM Yip Man said that if it met the principles it was WingTsun... and my training is constantly seeking to implement the four principles and the four laws of force. I therefore understand it is "pure" WingTsun. True, I am pretty much concerned in improving our training programs. I believe this system can be taught in a much better way than it what has been done until now, and I specially think that it can be practiced a lot better than it was. It may sound presumptuous, but it is a fairly simple matter ... Today we have many more technical, tactical and technological

Interview
knowledge than twenty years ago on many disciplines. And I firmly believe that it is necessary to rely on them if we are to improve our forming and training systems. Living with our back turned to them is just stupid. Excuses used by some that sound little consistent using arguments little convincing. I respect any option, path or election, but obviously I do not share it. I am convinced that if a practitioner knows the why, the what, the how and the when, can significantly improve his practice and therefore his general level will increase. I don't believe in the hackneyed phrase, "Do not ask, just practice ..." In fact, I find it absolutely vile. B.I.: You must be doing something well. You've grown a lot as an organization in recent years. Why do you think it has been? S.S.: I usually say that we have grown "accidentally", because although we are obviously very proud of our growth and that more and more schools, instructors and practitioners are joining our project, we never thought about it. For me, for us, the most important part of all this is to practice an ancestral ART, to enjoy doing it. The rest are "collateral effects" of the practice. In this time we have made great achievements: the creation of a department of WingTsun in the Spanish Federation of Olympic Free Fight Styles and Associated Disciplines (of which I have the honor of being national coach); to be the first association in Spain that imparts Official Training Course in the Spanish University (Universidad de Alicante). We have opened 35 schools in just over two years and in the midst of the worst economic crisis in living memory in our country. Undoubtedly, all of these things are very important but, recognizing these tremendous achievements, let me cite as much more important, in my view, the fact of being able to see the smile in the face of many instructors, practitioners and students when they are practicing this beautiful system. Some, quite reluctant in the start to get to know our work, "dared" to do it and today they are quite happy with the practice. That is for me the most important achievement: being happy and making many people happy by practicing Martial Arts. B.I.: Which are your plans for the WingTsun and for your organization? S.S.: Well ... as I said, for me it is essential to maintain a spirit of practice above anything else. Currently there is already a solid structure that has four departments (WingTsun, Escrima Concepts, BJJ / Grappling and Internal Martial Arts). We have formed these departments with confirmed professionals of internationally prestige like GM Steve Tappin, Jair Correa or Dr. Pedro Garcia Arteaoitia. Having completed these structures and alliances with such extraordinary masters we can now focus on what is really important for us: Martial Arts training. As for WingTsun, which is undoubtedly the cornerstone of TAOWS Academy, I am finishing my second book which will be available in a few months and shortly it will also be published a DVD, where we will show our ideas about WingTsun and our point of view. Also, next year we will begin our "opening" to other countries for which we are already organizing some events in Germany, France, Italy and England. We also have almost settled a seminar tour of South America and USA, which will take place in the final phase of next year. And keep training and working humbly in this that we like so much. B.I.: Your career backs you. You have a lot of work ahead. S.S.: They are significant challenges, but I am eager and full of enthusiasm. I worked over 15 years for my old organization, being responsible for the OEWT in the East Coast of Spain. I had the honor of being the instructor that formed the highest number of technical degrees (Black Belts) in Spain. Today, some of them are leaders in WingTsun organizations and they lead large groups. I have trained over 1000 students in my career. I find that now, starting from zero, I have the required point of maturity to make things a little better and I feel highly motivated and eager. I receive invitations and projects from different parts of the world who want to know my training system and offer me to participate in various Martial Arts events. I feel proud and that gives me the strength to go forward. B.I.: Thank you for having dedicated your time with us. S.S.: Thank you. It is an honor being able to express and show my ideas in this magazine which is now, without doubt, the most important publication of MMAA in the world. Thanks also to Mr. Alfredo Tucci and the whole team of Budo International. I also wish to express my gratitude to my instructors and students, to the whole TAOWS Academy team without which nothing would be possible, and to my family. They are everything to me. Greetings and RESPECT!

MMA

The addition of the new UFC Gym in New Hyde Park Nassau NY is a big step to get the UFC closer for approval as a mix martial arts legal sports in New York.

The largest mix martial arts and fitness gym in the East Coast

Front view of UFC Gym UFC Champ, Joe James & Maurice Elmalem UFC Champ, Forrest Griffin. Demo.. UFC Champ, Frankie Edgar.

Text & Photos: GM Maurice El Malem

New UFC The Largest of the East Coast


The UFC Gym is the largest mix martial arts and fitness gym in the East Coast with 37000 square foot facility all on the street level floor with its own parking. This outstanding gym equipped with these massive amount of exercise machines especially design for the new edge of sport and body work out is suitable for anyone who can and will use it to enhance their body, soul and mind. There are thread mills, bike steps machines, punching bags, weight lifting free style, pick up and sit up benches, and combination weight machines to work out all parts of your body. The facility has a special element to it, even a jujitsu work out club is there to learn the Brazilian martial arts which is big part of all UFC training and fighting needs to qualify to fight in the Octagon. When I stepped inside to test the ring it felt safe for practice. The floor is padded to absorb all elements that are part of UFC fights such as hard falls to the floor, slams, wrestling, take down, body flips and elbow strikes. This padded floor technology is safe and well built to avoid injuries which is a concern for everyone that gets involve in contact sport. The punching bag area has over 30 bags that are set in different heights to allow the practitioners to push themselves to reach their maximum when kicking or striking the bags. The floor area is also well padded for safety. The new UFC Gym has a large reception area, caf, sports boutique shops that sell merchandise such as uniforms, shirts and all mix martial arts equipment. The cost to join the gym is $50 a month for basic training and $100 for extended programs. There are personal trainers for each section that specialize in several mix martial arts that the gym has to offer. The facility operates 24hrs a day seven days and in close proximity to the LI Expressway. What made my day special was the UFC stars that came to show their support and gave me a chance to meet some of my old friends as well. I took the privilege to interview the great UFC World Champion Chuck Liddell, a native of California who goes by the nickname The Iceman because of his knock outs of some of the best fighters UFC Champions such as Tito Ortiz and UFC 47 Jeremy Horn at UFC 54 Show and Randy Couture UFC 43 rematch. During this brief moment I managed to do a Q&A with him. Q: At what age did you start training mix martial arts? A: At the age of 12 - I was very active in wrestling and moved on to mix martial arts, working out 7 days a week. Q: What was the most exciting and memorable fight of your mix martial arts career as UFC ultimate fighting champion. A: With regards to the rematch fight at UFC 52 with Randy Couture. I had to get back my light heavy-weight UFC champion belt and prove to the world that I am the ultimate champion by becoming the first and only man to ever knock out Randy Couture. I just couldn't take another loss to Randy as I did in UFC 43. Q: How do you keep yourself busy as a retired UFC champion. A: I enjoy my family, coaching and help promote UFC organization World wide. I also give seminars and visit UFC gyms. Q: What is your advice to the new UFC comers. A: Discipline yourself, practice and exercise daily. Be good to your friends and family and be good example, no drugs. Thank you for your time all the best to you. Among other UFC stars that were in attendance were: Jon Jones who was the busy UFC champion signing autographs taking pictures with everyone, smiling and definitely was a gentleman. Jon is a big UFC champion defeating Rashad Evans at UFC 145, Mauricio Shogun Ria by TKO at UFC 128, Stephan Bonnal at UFC 94, and Andre Gusmao at UFC 87. He is still very much active as mix martial arts UFC champion. Forrest Griffin former light heavy weight champion with a record 19-7-0 from Columbus Ohio. A former police officer who now makes UFC his full time job. Frankie Edgar former UFC lightweight champion, a very charming man who treats everyone with respect and professionalism. B.J. Penn a favorite, former UFC champion, Muay Thai and Jiu Jitsu practitioner, ambitious and very charismatic. He's a good MMA rising star.

Thoughts about Martial Arts


First of all, you need to consider the time period you are in. There is a saying that, To learn something new, you must seek in the past, and I think this is very true. An example from everyday life is when a daughter-in-law hears these kinds of words from her mother-in-law: No matter how many times I tell her about the past, she just doesnt listen. Does it mean that a daughter-in-law should work harder as life is much easier now? When raising my two children, and having to put them through the miserable experience of divorce, I often told my children that, My mom, your grandmother, has been through a lot of hardship, and maybe because of that, she

can understand someone elses hardships, even if they are less than hers, and when the troubles are over, they dont even show in her face. I struggled much more than you are struggling. She was the kind of person who said that the more hardship you have, the more you will become the kind of person who can understand the feelings of others. So that people wouldnt say things like, Children who have been brought up without a father have struggled to grow, and dont trust others, or see people in an odd light, or are depressed, I provided as many things as I could to my children without even thinking about saving money. Aikido is also something where you need to look at the past in order to

understand the present situation, and I think its important to teach to meet the needs of the present. In the past, bujutsu used to be ascetic training. This meant that if you didnt understand what the teacher said at the time, you kept practising and training until the meaning eventually sunk in. I think this kind of training is important for people today, too. If you dont understand ask. I think this idea is wrong. Before asking, I believe that you should first try by yourself to find the meaning of the teachers words or teachings by experiencing it through practice. If you have it explained to you, you may understand, but that understanding is difficult to grasp. Its something that you can only learn by doing, by learning through your body, not your head. This old Japanese style of teaching is not actually that old, but I think it is a good method of instruction. In the same way, if you had just heard about algebraic formulas and then were suddenly asked to make calculations using a difficult formula, you would find it impossible to understand how to do it; if you try to understand Aikido just by asking questions without even moving your body, you will not understand how it is done. So, before saying things like, But if do it like this, he doesnt fall down, or If I do it this way, hell punch me, or This technique doesnt work if I do it like this, you need to practise and feel the technique with your body. If you do this, you will gradually come to understand what Aikido is about, and will make progress more quickly. To find out whether it is a reasonable technique or not, you need to learn it thoroughly and apply all of your life experience up till now. A reasonable technique is one that looks beautiful no matter who sees it. Without showing off, doing a technique naturally, throwing someone without touching them this is what some teachers say should be the way, and this kind of extreme technique is what Aikido founder Ueshiba Morihei O-sensei was able to achieve on the day that he died. The spiritual essence of Aikido comes from the Omoto-kyo sect. At a time when Yamamoto Ogie Sensei was

Aikido
inquiring about O-sensei on behalf of the second leader of Omoto-kyo while O-sensei was in bed, O-sensei suddenly rose from bed (the people beside him tried to stop him, but he didnt listen) and went to the dojo. Saying, Yamamoto-san, please watch this carefully, He took a student as his opponent. And without even touching him, O-sensei threw him to the ground. He then said, Did you see that? Please tell Naohi-sama (the name of the famous second leader of Omoto-kyo). So saying, he went back to the bed, and shortly thereafter, he died. I heard this story from the late Yamamoto Sensei when he visited my house. When the report of O-senseis achievement was given to the second leader, he apparently said, Is that right? So he was able to do it, was he? and other such comments. Ive been fortunate enough to have articles published in Budo International magazine. And taking this opportunity, I wrote about a story that happened 600 or 700 years ago, about a man who was expert in Kempo. One day, the younger brother of the master of YoshiokaDojo received a challenge to a match, and he fought hard and won. The older brother said to him, I knew you would win. The younger brother asked, How did you know that? and the older brother replied, I went to watch your opponents techniques the day before the match, and they were very rough, so I knew you would easily beat him. In the past, starting at a dojo was very strictly controlled. These days, the ideas of the people who enter a dojo are quite varied, but I think that it doesnt matter what people believe when they start Aikido. This is because I believe that you come to understand Aikido and budo through your practice of it, and I am happy with that. In my case, rather than teaching through explanations, I teach my students through actual practice. Those who dont understand will always do their techniques stiffly or put too much strength into them, and some still wont be able to do techniques properly even after practising for 10 years. People like this are not actually unskilled. They just need to thoroughly change their way of thinking. Chiba Shusaku, a very well-known (to Japanese people) warrior, was an expert in the way of the sword. People, even those who had no idea about swordfighting, who watched him practising Kenjutsu reported that his techniques were very elegant, almost like a Japanese dance. I continue to instruct students

To learn something new, you must seek in the past


about form, because I believe it is very important. For example, if you put too much strength into your shoulders, or let your shoulders rise up, before long your shoulder muscles will grow too much, and your techniques will become rougher. The older brother of the Yoshioka Dojo went to watch the techniques of his brothers opponent before the match, and having become convinced that his brother would win, calmly went fishing. Correct techniques do not use unnecessary strength, and Aikido is about circular movement. Having said that, many people misunderstand that you always need to move in a circular way, but if its a technique that moves in a

straight line, without wasteful movement, and without colliding with your opponent, then a semi-circular movement, or one where the flow of Ki is circular, should be fine. It is very strange to see a technique that requires your opponent to follow you, or even run after you, until you complete the technique moving in a circle. Doing a breakfall (Ukemi) is something meant to protect your body from injury, it is not intended to force you to follow your partner all over the place. So, an opponent should be ready to attack their partner at any time, with good balance, and then do a breakfall. If it looks like a stabbing attack is coming at your throat, you should turn aside in order to protect your throat. If your joint is being forced, you should do a breakfall, instead of fighting it, in order to protect your joints. If a stabbing attack is coming towards you, you should rotate your body to avoid it. To do a technique, you need to move in the same manner. Therefore, each of the movements in Aikido techniques must be done quickly.

Miyako Fujitani Tenshin Dojo Akido e-mail: tenshin@gol.com

Realistic, hard, fast and effective this is how I would describe Pangamot. Pangamot, the Filipino street fighting, means total combat", and in it everything is permitted. Victory is its only goal

PANGAMOT - Created for the Street


Pangamot, the martial art from the Philippines is fairly unknown but is a very realistic, effective and aggressive fighting in my own way. Realistic, hard, fast and effective this is how I would describe Pangamot. Pangamot, the Filipino street fighting, means total combat", and in it everything is permitted. Victory is its only goal. The Philippine unarmed combat style is also called 'Panatukan', 'Panajakman' or 'Mano Mano'. The reason it has so many different names because every Islands have different dialects.

dirty boxing we find a different way. We turn the fist at the time when we make contact with the opponent. We use 'anti- boxing' as we block punches with our elbows and try to destroy the fist. From our hands to the shoulders we can use 10 weapons in a very effective way. An important part of Pangamot is described by the word: 'Anti'. Like anti-boxing, anti- clinching, anti-grappling. Actually we are trying to break the opponents' rhythm with all these anti-techniques. If you fight a boxer, and you will follow the boxing rhythm, it is very likely that you will lose. Keep it simple, don't try to box, try using elbows, your head, shoulders, fingers, use grappling and locking.

TRANSLATION OF STICK AND KNIFE


There is a lot of teachers who combine boxing with some elbow techniques, a head butt some groundwork and then call it Panantukan or Sikaran. This is of course not the way to teach Philippine Martial Arts. Unarmed combat must be an translation of Philippine Weapons training stick and knife. You can only claim a name like Panantukan, Mano Mano or Pangamot if you apply the principles of Philippine Martial Arts. The movements in Pangamot are almost the same movements as with a stick or knife, made with the necessary adaptations.

DISTANCES
The distances we use in the Pangamot are the same as the distance we use with stick or knife. Long distance, this is the distance where it is possible to block punches with your elbow. The second distance ( middle ) is where we can use trapping and low-line kicking and breaking techniques. The closest distance is the distance where we can use our whole body as a weapon, our knees, head, elbows, shoulders, and fingers. Here we can also use locks, throws, punches, or use clinching techniques called Sirada todo .

HOW TO FIGHT
In Pangamot it is important to create a flow in your movements. This principle of the flow is the same as stick and knife. Many times in the Filipino Martial Arts when the opponent throws a right punch the counter is with ones right elbow to the opponents biceps. If you do not counter fast and immediate you will suffer the opponents left punch crossing over your defence. If you counter fast, with your right arm using the principle of zoning, and hit the opponents face, you immediately follow the elbow strike with a left punch on the face. We call this manipulation of the body; this means that a series of blocks, counters, and blows will rapidly follow the initial defence.

DUMOG
Dumog known as Filipino grappling, the traditional Dumog have simple techniques to bring the opponent to the ground and finish as quick as possible. The reason is simple most Filipino have a knife with them. In Philippines knives are the primary weapons of choice. It is their culture to use them in a fight. Ground combat in the Philippines is very risky after all there are different weapons on the

DIRTY BOXING
In pangamot we use dirty boxing. This is not comparable to traditional boxing. In

ground like sand, stones or small pieces of wood etc. Nowadays Dumog is supplemented with techniques from other martial arts.

PEN AS A WEAPON
I myself have witnessed a battle of two guys. The battle began with punches and kicks. One Filipino was clearly a practitioner of judo or jujutsu as he grabbed his opponent and worked him to the ground with a perfect throwing technique. At the time they both landed on the ground on his back, the man on his back, get a pen and stab the man to his eye. I will not go into details but the battle was over. So everything can be use as a weapon.

MODERNIZED
I created Pangamot in a different way using traditional principles and modernized techniques for the street and adapted to modern times. My principles in Pangamot are base on Espada Y Daga , Tapi tapi , Figure eight and more . Nowadays it is a very realistic martial art, and easy to learn. If you would like to learn Pangamot or want to be an instructor in this form of self-defence you can contact me and be welcome to my world the world of Eskrima.

The Disarming Dilemma

ince the first caveman picked up a tree branch to use as a club and, shortly after, figured out how to use a sharp stone as a knife and a spear point, humans have used weapons to hunt and to fight other humans. Over the centuries, the warrior classes of every culture developed specific and intensive weapons training methods and systems to varying degrees of scientific complexity. In our moder n society, advanced, professional weapons training is primarily reserved for the military and law enforcement communities. However, due to their historical roots in the warrior classes, many modern martial arts schools also continue to include weapons training in their syllabus. Although different in style and ethnic origin, martial arts weapons training can be divided in 3 major groups:

TRADITIONAL WEAPONS
Here you will find the "kobudo" type weapons of the Samurai; the exotic weapons of the Ninja; the " farming and fishing" implements transformed into devastating weapons of the Okinawans and the "tribal' stick and blades systems of the Filipino and Indonesian arts.

MODERN WEAPONS
This group includes most firearms, modern tactical blades, collapsible batons, tactical flashlights, and chemical sprays.

IMPROVISED WEAPONS
While virtually anything can be used as a weapon in an emergency (a beer bottle, a rock, a laptop, etc..), here I am referring to items that have actually been included in systemized training programs with specific techniques and, in some cases, even their own expert certification. They include the cane, the belt (or rope), the umbrella (long or short) and certain kind of "keychains". Now that we have reviewed the background of weapons training in the martial arts, it's time to address the controversial question of "disarming" . This debate has divided martial arts instructors and combat experts of all styles and has been

raging unresolved forever. On one side are those who believe that safe, realistic and effective disarming techniques can and should be thought by competent instructors. On the other side are those who are strongly convinced that fighting empty hands against any weapon is foolish, hopeless, even suicidal and should not be contemplated. Both sides can present "logic" and powerful arguments for their position but, ultimately, there can be no answer, only individual preferences based on personal experiences. So, where does Combat Hapkido stand on this important issue? As the founder I will state unequivocally that I stand firmly in the disarming camp. Our philosophy is that a modern self defense system must include effective, realistic disarming techniques based not on tradition or theory but on sound research and proven application in real life situations. With my background that, besides over 40 years of martial arts experience, includes 20 years as a police and security professional and extensive work with special military units around the World, I felt qualified to include in our Combat Hapkido system a strong component of disarming techniques and, in this article, I will share with you a list of basic but essential ground rules that I have developed over the years. We jokingly refer to them as "the ten commandments of weapons disarming". 1. Disarming is always dangerous with a high probability of injury. If another strategy (escape, negotiation, improvised weapon, etc..) is safely available with a better chance of success, employ it. 2. If you have not been properly trained by a truly competent and qualified instructor in this specific area, do not attempt. 3. If you are not really confident in your skills or are uncomfortable with what you must do, do not attempt. Use the techniques only if you trust your ability and have the courage to "explode" with ferocity and determination. 4. Attempt only at proper range. You cannot take away a weapon you cannot reach with your hands. 5. Practice the techniques often and intensely. Perform thousands of repetitions. Aim for lightening speed. Power is not an issue. 6. Train only with the most realistic training weapons. Cheap, light, plastic, wood, rubber, imitation knives and guns do not have the look, feel, weight of the real thing. It is not a game so do not use toys! 7. Do not train in disarming techniques while wearing a martial arts uniform and barefooted. Street clothes and shoes are essential for a realistic training environment. 8. Remember the difference: against bladed weapons control the weapon hand; against firearms control the weapon; against blunt weapons you can control both. 9. Practice disarming techniques both in bright light or sunshine and in a very dark, low light setting. You will appreciate the experience. 10. To disarm effectively it is best to know the weapons involved and their mechanical operation and to understand their tactical applications and limitations. It is strongly recommended that you receive at least some basic training in the operation and use of sticks, knives and firearms. In conclusion, weapons disarming is not for everyone. It is a much more intellectually complex and emotionally charged choice than defending against an empty hand attack. It is also potentially much more deadly, therefore, regardless of any opinion on the subject, it will ultimately always remain a very personal decision.

Wheel Circle Chakrsana


As we are all symmetrical in many aspects, there are corresponding rear chakras to the better known frontal chakras. These allow for the connection to the universe as they communicate with it in vibratory as well as light influences. The varied postures in Yoga are performed not only to relax and open the body, they serve to open and influence the mind and body as it accepts and communicates with these energies as well as light. Perhaps most extraordinary of all is the possibility that our bodily surface contains cells capable of efficiently trapping the energy and information from ultraviolet radiation. To explain this further; the sun's energy turns a chemical in your skin into vitamin D3, this is then transported to your liver and your kidneys to transform it to active vitamin D. Low levels of vitamin D can lead to low bone calcium stores, increasing the risk of fractures. Now if vitamin D did nothing more than protecting bones, it would still be essential, but evidence reveal that it does much more. Many of the body's tissues contain vitamin D receptors, proteins that bind to vitamin D. In the intestines, the receptors capture vitamin D, enabling efficient calcium absorption. But similar receptors are also present in many other organs, from the prostate to the heart, blood vessels, muscles, and endocrine glands. And work in progress suggests that good things happen when vitamin D binds to these receptors. Increasingly science agrees we are made up of more than the atoms and molecules, but also of composed of light as well. We all realize that light not only affects our body but is also absorbed by it stimulating certain biological rhythms, but science has also shown that bio photons are emitted by the human body and can be released through mental intention. The existence of this endogenous light has been discovered in the 1920's by the Russian embryologist Alexander Gurwitsch and has been conclusively demonstrated by modern biophysicists since the late 1960's with state-of-the-art technology and methods. Light

may also modulate fundamental processes within cell-to-cell communication and DNA. Bio photons are used by the cells of many living organisms to communicate, which facilitates energy and information transfer that is far faster than chemical diffusion. Cell to cell communication by bio photons have been demonstrated in plants, bacteria, animal neutriophil granulocytes (the most abundant type of white blood cells in mammals and form an essential part of the innate immune system) as well as kidney cells. Researchers were able to demonstrate that different spectral light stimulation (infrared, red, yellow, blue, green and white) at one end of the spinal sensory or motor nerve roots resulted in a significant increase in the bio photonic activity at the other end. This suggests that light stimulation can generate bio photons that conduct along the neural fibers, probably as neural communication signals. Even at the molecular level of our genome, DNA (the bio photon wave is emitted from the chromatin of the cell nucleus. Calculations show that the helix form of the DNA molecule exhibits the ideal geometric form of a hollow resonator, which allows it to store light very effectively) can be identified to be a source of bio photon emissions as well. These bio photons emitted are in affect the aura of the body. Bio photons are characterized by an extremely high degree of order which can be described as a type of biological laser light which is capable of interference and appears to be responsible for many effects which ordinary incoherent light could not achieve. This high coherency gives the bio photon wave the capability of creating order and transmitting information while chaotic, incoherent light simply transmits energy. These bio photons have the power to order and regulate, and, in doing so, to elevate the organism to a higher oscillation or order. This is manifested as a feeling of vitality and well-being. As Yoga practitioners are inclined to do, proper respect and nutrition of the body is in alignment with higher development of the functionality, spirit and awareness. As such diet is a critical factor in the practitioners ascent into higher realms of

Text: Evan Pantazi Yoga Instructor: Carolina Lino - Ponta Delgada, Azores Photo by: Tiago Pacheco Maia - Ponta Delgada, Azores

energetic realization. Sunlight is vital as without the sun there is no life. We all notice very clearly what a revitalizing effect sunlight has on our body and spirits when, after a long winter, we enjoy the first rays of spring sun. But we can absorb sun energy via our food as well as through the skin. The latest research shows that, in addition to the chemical composition of our food, light energy (bio photons) are also an important factor in food quality. The more light a food is able to store, the more nutritious it is for us. Fro example, naturally grown fresh vegetables and sun-ripened fruits are rich in light energy. The capacity to store bio photons can therefore be a measure of the quality of our food. This stored sun energy finds its way into our cells via food in the form of minute particles of light. These light particles (bio photons), which are the smallest physical units of light, contain important bioinformation, which in turn controls complex vital processes in our bodies.

especially as you are stretched back. This stretches the facial muscles as well to allow greater energetic and light absorption. This will give you the youthful feeling (as well as appearance) and the enjoyment of a small unstressed, care free child.

Breathing and Intention:


Start by standing with the feet together and deeply inhale through the nose allowing all energy to flow into the ground. The balance induced by right and left brain activity, creates the downward surge of energy into the motor nerves and into the heels and outer foot. During the inhale, sense the air or energy flow down the center front through the perineum and backs of the legs to the heels and outer foot as described (creating a mind body connection) where it is then grounded. Then as the practitioner forms the triangular space of the hands with thumbs and index figures touching, exhale slowly feeling the energy rise up the spine from the root charka to the hands as the shoulders and spine are slightly rounded to allow the flow unimpeded. Again as you slowly raise the arms overhead and back, inhale deeply feeling the vibrations of the palms, inner arms and frontal body transcend to the ground, cleansing the body fully. Allow yourself to fully exhale slowly in this fully realized posture to settle the body weight to further demand electrical stimulus from the brain to the muscles supporting this posture. As you again inhale feel the sunlight as warmth of finer vibrations absorb into your core and transcend down to the ground. Let the light manifest fully throughout you as your mind, body and spirit are rejuvenated and completely nourished. Next issue: Standing Forward Bend Pdahastsana

Wheel Circle Chakrsana


With the feet placed together to inhibit energy rising up the inner legs, the practitioner first touches the index fingertips and thumb tips touch together forming a triangular shape mimicking the shape of several frontal chakras. This is first formed with hands in front of the root chakra with the triangular pattern matching, the practitioner then stretches up the arms over their head with palms outstretched. As the practitioner leans back the palms, inner arms, frontal body and rear lower legs all stretch in conjunction allowing the practitioner to feel the strengthened energetic vibrations. This is allowing the energy from the sun or atmosphere enters through the frontal chakras as well as the smaller nadis on the stretched body. The stretched lower legs transfer this energy safely to the ground as the light also pours into the body when performed in the sunlight. As the body is leaned back the energies are not allowed to rise as the inner legs are sealed, the back and shoulders are compressed, preventing the free flow neurological or energetic transference. This posture also shades these particular areas from the sunlight focusing this light absorption solely on the frontal energy gates as compared to a balanced input on frontal and rear chakras and nadis. As the light is absorbed through the frontal portals and nadis it focuses the incoming spectral light (infrared, red, yellow, blue, green and white) into the sensory nerves increasing the dispersal in the bio photonic activity through the entire structure. The light conducted along the neural fibers, as neural communication, induces an ordered and regulated messaging that elevates the organism to a higher vibrational frequency down to the DNA level. This frontal focus cleanses the energy of the body with pure direct sunlight washing through to the ground, purging the stresses and stagnant energetic issues. In conjunction with proper energetic light also entering the internal body from the foods we eat, we have a complete cycle on energetic nutrition for our soul. Smile throughout the entire posture (and as with all positions, actions and postures), but

AUTHOR: B. RICHARDSON

REF.: DVD/TV2

AUTHOR: SALVATORE OLIVA TITLE: J.K.D. STREET SAFE: REF.: DVD/SALVA DVD/SALVA2 TITLE: KNIFE FIGHTING: DVD/SALVA3 DVD/SALVA4 TITLE: PROFESSIONAL DVD/SALVA5 FIGHTING SYSTEM: DVD/SALVA6 TITLE: PROFESSIONAL DVD/SALVA6 FIGHTING SYSTEMKINO DVD/SALVA7 MUTAI: TITLE: HOMENAJE A BRUCE LEE AUTHOR: TED WONG & CASS MAGDA

REF.: DVD/BURTON REF.: DVD/BURTON2 TITLE: JEET KUNE DO TITLE: JEET KUNE UNLIMITED DO UNLIMITED

TITLE: BRUCE LEE: THE MAN AND HIS LEGACY

AUTHOR: JOAQUIN ALMERIA

AUTHOR: RANDY WILLIAMS

REF.: DVD/ALM2 TITLE: JKD TRAPPLING TO GRAPPLING

REF.: DVD/ALM3 TITLE: FILIPINO MARTIAL ARTS

REF.: DVD/ALM4 TITLE: STREETFIGHTING! JEET KUNE DO

REF.: DVD/RANDY1 REF.: DVD/RANDY2 TITLE: WING TITLE: WING CHUN KUNG FU: CHUN KUNG FU: SIU LIM TAO CHUM KIU
English / Spanish / Italian English / Spanish / Italian

REF.: DVD/BL

TITLE: JKD STREET DEFENSE TACTICS: TITLE: EXPLOSIVE DUMOG TITLE: JKD STREET TRAPPING

TITLE: THE WOODEN DUMMY ENGLISH / ITALIAN


REF.: DVD/RANDY3 TITLE: WING CHUN KUNG FU: BIU JEE
English / Spanish / Italian

OTHER STYLES
AUTHOR: TIM TACKETT DVD/RANDY4 TITLE: CONCEPTS & PRINCIPLES

REF.: MUKRANDY1

REF.: MUKRANDY2

REF.: DVD/JKDTIM

REF.: DVD/JKDTIM3

ENGLISH

REF.: DVD/EFS1

TITLE: JKD

REF.: MUKRANDY3

REF.: MUKRANDY4

TITLE: JEET KUNE DO BRUCE LEES YMCA BOXING

TITLE: JKD EFS KNIFE SURVIVAL AUTHOR: ANDREA ULITANO

REF.: DVD/YAW2 TITLE: YAWARA KUBOTAN AUTHOR:: MASTER PEREZ CARRILLO

REF.: DVD/JKDTIM2

REF.: DVD/JKDTIM4

REF.: DVD/DP1 TITLE: 5 EXPERTS EXTREME STREET ATTACKS AUTHOR:ES: VICTOR GUTIERREZ, SERGEANT JIM WAGNER MAJOR AVI NARDIA, J.L. ISIDRO & SALVATORE OLIVA

AUTHOR: BOB DUBLJANIN


REF.: DVD/SILAT4

REF.: MUKRANDY5

REF.: MUKRANDY6

TITLE: JEET KUNE DO

TITLE: JEET KUNE DO ELEMENTS OF ATTACK

TITLE: PENTJAK SILAT

REF.: DVD/SILAT3

REF.: DVD/SILAT

TITLE: TITLE: ESPADA & DAGA BUKA JALAN SILAT

The Snake Techniques of Shaolin Hung Gar Kung Fu


Snake : The techniques of the snake increase vitality and internal power. Its technics are based on the philosophy of the element water. The snake is always moving. It uses the power of the Qi for fast and punctual strikes with the fingers to the opponents' weak spots or soft parts of the body. The techniques of the snake style are very accurate and lesser ferocious. It is very important to imitate the smooth and flexible movements of the snake. The snake moves easily but its strikes are direct and fast, at which the stretched fingers, symbolizing the head or the poisonous teeth, hit.

Photos: Mike Lehner Written by: Peter Weckauf & Irmi Hanzal iolent crimes against women are among the most despicable acts ever. As females usually are physically not as strong, we considered it important to devise an instrument which will probably allow women to successfully defend themselves against an aggressor. S.D.S. Concept is a holistic self-defense concept created by women, together with self-defense experts, police officers, lawyers and pedagogues with the specific skills and needs of women and girls in mind. Crime statistics show that in nearly 90% of all cases of aggression against women and girls the attackers stopped their aggressive acts when they encountered massive resistance, be it physical or verbal. The consequences of the attacks were therefore comparatively harmless. These numbers h a v e encouraged us to t e a c h women and girls adequate means of self-defense. The use of everyday objects is crucial for women's self-defense. Unlike men, who almost naturally use their fists, women tend to try to avoid direct contact with the aggressor, whenever possible. This turns any object "between" the female and her attacker into an attractive alternative. In addition to this, a person using an object to defend herself is less likely to get hurt than

Not only keys, key-rings (Kubotan) or mobile phones can be used to effectively defend oneself, handbags, lipsticks, spoons, pens, umbrellas, books, magazines, and many more things work quite nicely, too

somebody who fights empty handed. Physically weak people have always used weapons or other objects to help them feel stronger and safe and thus have a realistic chance to fight off an aggressor. Everyday objects vs. selfdefense weapons Everyday objects used for self-defense are no weapons. They cannot be bought in gun-shops, they don't look dangerous and they are not easily identified as weapons, they are rather just normal stuff. All this creates a number of advantages for us. Problems overcoming personal limitations on the one hand, and probably too much respect for a "real" weapon on the other hand, may be the reasons why females tend not to purchase weapons. In addition to this, if you buy and own a weapon, if you use it, or threaten to do so, you may just trigger excessively brutal reactions by an aggressor which may not have happened, had there been no weapons involved. Blank pistols, pepper spray and tasers are weapons which probably provoke an attacker to act even more aggressively, making a given situation even more hazardous. "Bluffing" is often used as a tactical element in women's self-defense. This means that we first fog our willingness to defend ourselves when we use unobtrusive objects, only to put them to effective use when push comes to shove. Not only keys, key-rings (Kubotan) or mobile phones can be used to effectively defend oneself, handbags, lipsticks,

spoons, pens, umbrellas, books, magazines, and many more things work quite nicely, too.

Fighting spirit - technique - tactics


Females have to consider two important facts in a self-defense context. First and foremost, the willingness to defend is the most important fundament in any selfdefense situation. Selling oneself as dearly as possible, fighting unconditionally for one's integrity and not giving up until the threat has ended are the pillars of the kind of fighting spirit which is a precondition for any kind of action. Secondly, it is important to consider WHAT to use and HOW to use it, i.e. understand and use techniques and tactics. Understanding, practicing and internalizing the principles of women's self-defense is more important than drilling sequences of techniques. If we have an emergency plan, which we can follow in a self-defense situation, we will not be helpless. We will rather have access to an automatized program which we can access and use in any given situation. Only the most straightforward and simple techniques should be

Only the most straightforward and simple techniques should be employed in women's selfdefense
employed in women's self-defense. A good hard grip of the object, hammerfists, the principle of attacking the opponent's weak spots, training in various distances and even fighting on the ground should be parts of a successful training program. To sum up, tactics training should include "bluffing" training, i.e. mimicking helplessness up to the moment of focused self-defense, as well as the basics of body language and confident attitude, the use of the voice as well as verbal tactics for immediate and uncompromising use.

What to do if there is nothing at hand


It would make perfect sense to always have an appropriate object at

hand, for example to always carry a key or a mobile phone, but it is also necessary to train your mind in a way which allows you to perceive o b j e c t s a ro u n d y o u a s p o t e n t i a l weapons and to understand how to use them for self-defense purposes. A handful of pebbles or even some piece of rubbish salvaged from the dustbin might buy some precious seconds. Still, any self-defense system should be designed in a way which allows effective self-defense empty handed, i.e. without using any objects. S.D.S. Concept is a defense concept which meets all of these criteria. Leading defense experts teach S.D.S. Concept to men and women all over the world. As it can easily be included in existing systems and adds yet another aspect to empty hand systems, more and more selfdefense instructors appreciate S.D.S. Concept and participate in courses in Europe. For more information on how to become and S.D.S. Concept instructor, go point your browser to www.sds-concept.com Next instructors' courses in March 2014. For more information go to www.sds-concept.com

Reportage

Written: Peter Weckauf & Irmi Hanzal Photos: Mike Lehner

The axe - used with one hand, as the American tomahawk, or with both hands, as a battle axe is one of the oldest weapons known to mankind. The Romans, Vikings, Celts, Scots, Germans, and many others used the dreaded battle axe to devastating effects. And even in our days the axe is used by numerous military special units. Still, finding records or even training and teaching venues for this very special weapon is quite demanding. In this first part about axe fighting we will focus on the basics, special characteristics and concepts.

Self-defense

Technical progress in building weapons has eradicated many ancient martial arts, in particular axe and tomahawk fighting. But progress has also enabled us to develop a new martial art which connects an old weapon to modern methods of training and structures

AXE AND TOMAHAWK FIGHTING CONCEPT


Technical progress in building weapons has eradicated many ancient martial arts, in particular axe and tomahawk fighting. But progress has also enabled us to develop a new martial art which connects an old weapon to modern methods of training and structures. Adaptation to modern day circumstances is critical for us. Learning to fight with big axes on horseback isn't very appropriate for the 21st century, and so we came up with new and more modern ideas. Make no mistake, we have always considered

teachings and findings from other martial arts as well as the principles, characteristics, special handling and, of course, the weaknesses of the axe. And this is what makes our system so interesting, as you can achieve a high skill level with this weapon. The axe can be used in extreme situations, e.g. to defend oneself against an armed aggressor. Dealing with non-lethal attacks, like chokes or controlling techniques, is equally important for the user, just as defense against the axe itself. ATFC (Axe & Tomahawk Fighting Concept) is no real self-defense system, but rather a martial arts concepts which is based on principles and concepts. This allows us to teach

more advanced concepts, like the perfect use of the weapon.

Why is the axe better than other close-distance weapons?


Longer reach - compared to a knife, the axe has longer reach, if you change the grip, though, it is very useful for short distances, too. More options - the axe offers a lot more options than most close-distance weapons. Chops, cuts, blocks, stabs, manipulations, locks, control techniques and hits are clear advantages. Devastating impact - highly

powerful punches can have devastating effects on limbs, the head and other parts of the body, and they don't require sophisticated techniques. The axe-arm is a difficult target due to its shape, the axe is quite difficult to attack, disarming is even harder. Psychology - an axe looks extremely threatening and gives its user a psychological advantage. Tool - just as a knife, an axe is also a very useful tool.

Parts of the axe


Axe-handle - can be used to block, manipulate, hit, and stab. Poll, butt - can be used to hit, cut, push, manipulate and chop. Axe-blade, bit - can be used to hit, cut, manipulate and chop. Axe-eye - can be used to stab.

Grips
We differentiate between Grips with one hand or both hands Long grip Short grip Middle grip Grip with both hands (for block/central punch) Grip with both hands (top bottom)

Why should I learn axe fighting?


One of the cor nerstones of my philosophies is, we don't do exercises with a particular weapon, but rather train our bodies. The weapon is a tool which helps us to learn moves, to better understand distances, to improve our body mechanics. Any weapon has its own characteristics and appeal. This is why the axe is another facet of the martial arts, not least through its tremendous advantages over other weapons. Let's not forget that axe fighting is a re-discovered martial art, and being among the first to teach it is something special.

Axe techniques
Cutting punches, pulling punches, hammer blows (retracting the axe), pulling hammer blows, stabs, punches with the poll/hammer, short slashes, pushing and manipulating with the axe-handle, using the axe-blade as a hook. Of course, size and weight only allow certain techniques.

basic principle which allows all sorts of attacks and defense moves and does not restrict the student's option, as may be the case in sports or selfdefense (appropriateness). Aggressive fighting - ATFC does not include passive defense moves or de-escalating techniques. Using all your body weapons (hands, elbows, legs, knees, head) in addition to the axe or tomahawk will make you an opponent to be reckoned with. Attacking the aggressor until all danger is eliminated. Keep flowing - one move will initiate the next. Training skills, like speed, power or explosiveness is a major part of our training concept. Techniques alone will not win a fight, skills are equally important, especially in combination with the techniques. Therefore we teach programs to improve skills.

Some concepts for axe-fighting


A concept is a plan how to behave in an emergency situation. Concepts are not to be confused with principles, there must always be the option to alternate between concepts. Some strategies may be more useful in certain situations than others. Therefore, a concept can only be one version which might be replaced should the situation change. Disturb and destroy the attack destroy the attacking arm or leg, making further attacks impossible. Checking hand - a program for defense against an armed aggressor. As we always assume that an aggressor carries a weapon, it is crucial to control the attacking arm.

Principles of ATFC
Principles are basic ideas and fixed rules which rank above all other procedures concepts and strategies. They are the preconditions and basics if you want to understand and apply a certain system. Therefore, principles can be seen as the "backbone of a system". Principles help to understand and apply a given systemAxe & Tomahawk Fighting Concept knows no rules. This is a

Change angles - use all angles and levels. Attack the nearest target - longest weapon (axe) to the nearest target Body manipulation - pull and/or push an aggressor to break his balance. Get him in a position which allows you further attacks. Interception - intercept the attack, before it happens, while it happens and even after it has happened. Up/down attacks - change the levels of your attacks. Create opening - open up the defense or cover of your opponent, using manipulation, trapping or feinting. Counter attacks immediately - every defensive move (dodging, parry, block) should be used to start a counter-attack. Understand distances - read the distance to your opponent, correctly estimate reach, understand timing, preparation and closing the distance. Simultaneity in defense -block/parry and attack at the same time

Self-defense
Defense against attacks with the axe
There are two concepts against attacks with an axe: "hit & run" and "defense & control". "Hit & run" is a simple concept. Stop the attacker with a counterattack and escape. "Defense & control" on the other hand, is based upon a defensive move, such as blocking, dodging or deflecting the attack. The next step is an attempt to control the armed hand and to massively attack the aggressor. Then try to control the weapon and destroy the arm carrying the weapon. drills, skills training, single axe/tomahawk, double axe/tomahawk, axe/tomahawk and knife

In summary
My main intention as an ATFC instructor is to be a good teacher for my students and to teach something meaningful and useful. ATFC is in no way opposed to other systems, it rather enriches them and complements them. For many martial artists ATFC is a way to improve their skills and abilities and to be among the first and best in this field.

Training contents
Training contains principles, concepts and attributes of ATFC, as well as techniques, e.g. carrying, handling of the axe, stance/distance, hitting templates, applications, checking hand, defense & counter, defense against bladed weapons, defense against dull weapons, defense against handguns and rifles, concepts and applications of disarming, trapping, grappling, long range fighting, control fighting program (energy drills, attacking flow), combat drills, feeding skill

Axe & Tomahawk Fighting Concept knows no rules. This is a basic principle which allows all sorts of attacks and defense moves and does not restrict the student's option, as may be the case in sports or self-defense (appropriateness)

Self-defense

There are two concepts against attacks with an axe: "hit & run" and "defense & control"

REF.: DVD/KFW
In this project, Sifu Cangelosi, one of the most renown experts in the Chinese martial traditional, presents us with the most representative weapons of Kung Fu: the spear and the curved sword. With his characteristic pedagogical exactitude, Master Cangelosi reveals the secrets of the handling of the spear as well as the Nam Pak Siu Lam form and its applications, a spectacular and complex high-level form that is very useful to the practitioner in training. In this first video in the series, we will familiarize ourselves with curved sword work, the way to hold it, positions, guards, attacks and defenses, as well as sequences of different forms and pre-established combat. A project respectful to tradition that will delight the true fans of Kung Fu.

ORDERS: Budo international. net

I feel highly privileged to have had the fortune of accessing a hermetic knowledge of so much richness and spiritual depth as the one bequeathed to us by the Shizen people. As much as their practices remained secret and dedicated only to the initiated, I wrote this book to share the amazement and depth of a knowledge, otherwise completely unknown. Not even Google showed a single quotation! I am also privileged by having had the blessing of my teachers to continue studying something that, in any case, will guide me all my life, however long it may be. Although the ebunto is and will be something, in Shiniyuke Shidoshi's words, "to be admired by many and practiced by few," mankind must at least know about its existence.

could have chosen to write about e-bunto in the first person, building the narrative as Carlos Castaneda has done, based on the adventures and fantastic experiences that have led me to discover this wonderful and almost extinct tradition. I think that the reader of this book would have been grateful, because the outcome would have been a lot more colorful, amusing and surprising. I do not discard writing such a book in the future, however I did not want to be in the spotlight when the focus needs to be entirely on the subject of Ebunto; and in this way to uphold the traditions and knowledge which otherwise could be on their way to extinction. It is with deep appreciation and awe regarding the Masters of the past that I write this book.

But I also want to extend my gratitude towards the ones who practice these traditions today and for those who will also learn to benefit from this knowledge by raising their consciousness and plunging deeper into unraveling the mystery that surrounds us. Life and consciousness are forms of miracles in our world. However, to live life without awareness, in other words, to go through life breathing, eating, defecating, procreating (or simply having fun trying it!) and to eventually die, none of these acts carry any special virtue if done without awareness or consciousness. When life and by extension the Universe is seen in a purely materialistic light, this

generates a tendency for many people to think that everything is a result of fortunate or evil randomness. Most people today accept and are satisfied with this interpretation of the Universe that they cannot control. I believe that it is a sad way to see the world and in fact most of the people who share this vision are frequently unhappy. If anything, this malaise felt by people should motivate them to reflect deeper on these matters. My father used to say that if thieves knew about the advantages of being honest, they would be so if only just for convenience sake. I think that the same is true for those who hide their fears of the unknown behind a completely materialistic vision of the Universe. Fortunately an unexpected ally has emerged in recent times and has helped shatter the imposition that comes from the dualistic foolishness and materialistic monotheism: science. Since the 70's, there has been a departure from the classic and Newtonian approaches to the physical understanding of our world. This has led the more intelligent people to open their eyes towards the paradox of the material world. This revolution uncovered thousands of new perspectives and questions, and ushered in a new era of collective consciousness. This leap forward in new understanding (and there were many who pointed it out) has amazingly brought us full circle back to some of the knowledge and understandings of ancient people. Suddenly, it became clear that there was so much more to the world that we did not know, and our ancestors knew much more than we ever could imagine. This shift in the collective consciousness brought forward many new paths for the seeker to chose from. These multiple paths have drawn from ancient as well as more modern traditions, all with the aim to help the seeker find answers to this mysterious world of ours. The rebirth of e-bunto should be addressed within this wider process of brining human consciousness from the past into the future. Imbued with

the most absolute form of secrecy, the Ochikara, as it is known in Japanese, has miraculously survived in small clusters, mostly far away from its origins. Over time, e-bunto was no doubt subjected to cultural transformations and adaptations, however, it is amazing how this tradition has in fact remained virtually intact in both its essence as well as its more formal aspects. Even the Shizen language, called Shizengo, has survived thanks to e-bunto, even in faraway lands, while it is almost unknown in its homeland. In my opinion, there are two reasons for this survival. The first one being the character of the Shizen people. They would not let adversity get the better of them, they were fighters, and not afraid of sacrifice. The second reason is that the effectiveness of their discoveries and practices all of which enabled their successors to achieve incredible results and therefore to continue practicing these traditions. However I am certain that if the basic knowledge of e-bunto has been magnificently preserved, it is no doubt due to the tenacity of the Miryoku (Shizen Shamans) over generations. The Shizen tradition has always been a very open and inclusive one. Anyone, regardless of race or origin could become part of the tribe as long as they had shown themselves worthy of being accepted. In that sense they were quite similar to the Native Americans, proud of their conquests, their traditions, and aware of the fact that their superiority was not founded on racial grounds but rather on the wisdom inherited from ancient times and its ability to interact with the forces of the universe. With this open mindedness it is natural that e-bunto priests and priestesses were willing to integrate knowledge and wisdom gained from other cultures into their inherited and ancient tradition. Today, this process has meant that the essence of ebunto remains the same even if some of the traditions have been modified. In the same way that martial arts

training had to modify its essential purpose in order to survive, the Shizen heritage from the past has also gone through transformations that go hand in hand with the changes that have taken place in our collective consciousness. However, in its essence, e-bunto that we know today is very similar to the one inherited from the past. Perhaps the change rests only in the evolution and nature of people themselves. In order to survive, it is clear that ebunto should evolve side by side with the changes taking place in our collective consciousness by constantly renewing its purpose while adapting to new contexts. E-bunto is so filled with marvelous and incredible material that its continued evolution seems possible, however in order to do so, I think that it must open a window out towards the world so that others may also hear the magnificence of its song. The more I learn about e-bunto, the more I understand the need for the secrecy of its practices and the fact that the depth of knowledge behind it should only be given to a few trusted people who have shown merit and who have been chosen by fate. However its vision and wisdom should be shared with the world, so that humankind can welcome this incredible consciousness and the wisdom of the Shizen people. And with this new openness for the Miryoku of the future to be able to break the hex of being looked upon with distrust, and on the contrary, for them to be honored with the respect they deserve as wise heirs of a huge spiritual culture, powerful and extremely positive for the individual and the evolution of the collective consciousness. A culture and a knowledge that will allow us to sail farther than anyone has ever gone before, to reach the borders of the great mystery, where the vast power of creation resides, the power over life and death from where the father itself of e-bunto resides, Sussunda no Tengu.

The author Shidoshi Juliana Shidoshi Jordan and his Masters of e-bunto.

At the verge of the invisible


Science can be memorized by heart, but wisdom can't. Lawrence Sterne After thoroughly reviewing what content about e-bunto might be missing in this book, I suddenly realized that in order to fully appreciate it an introduction was required, almost a decompression chamber, as large or more than the one that was given to study of the Shizen shamanic traditions. I was so deeply immersed in its culture, that I forgot a very crucial aspect, which was to explain how I was able to accept certain concepts, ideas and perspectives as plausible and normal. In other words, how was I able to espouse these theories, which would probably be very difficult for the vast majority of my peers' to accept. Mi life has been full of singular and certainly particular experiences, so when e-bunto came to my knowledge, it was without much difficulty that I understood the wondrousness of what I was facing. However, the overwhelming force of events that surrounded my introduction is what undoubtedly pushed me to accept the wisdom of the Shizen people as a path of knowledge. The nature of my prior experiences is what made it a lot easier to comprehend the big picture of this huge treasure chest of wisdom. Nevertheless I recognize my role as guide for people along this journey,

and I therefore believe that this foreword is essential. Western man's XXI century vision of the world has become such an impenetrable barrier that it impedes us from crossing over into understanding the wisdom of people who lived long ago. This is no exception in the study of e-bunto. To this we have to add the difficulty of understanding the exotic cultural context of XII century Japanese society. However I believe that the biggest obstacle lies in moder n wester n man's lack of ability to use certain tools and intuition, all of which has just been buried but not lost. And if man were more open to using these, it would allow him to automatically develop others. All of our attention has been focused exclusively on material concer ns and this has resulted in all spiritual concerns falling by the wayside. Of late, the majority of our cognitive efforts have been focused on our material needs and logic. There is no arguing that science has brought forth great achievements and that this in turn has transformed the world we live in and has improved our quality of life faster than ever during our evolution as a species. However these advances have been made by completely overshadowing other forms of knowledge. As a result science has virtually eradicated any remnants of ancient wisdom. In addition to this, leading religious organizations have trampled, and in some sense they are continuing to

squash any trace of spirituality from the past. The method used for such pillage was to treat anyone who did not confirm as infidel, and also its success to misconstrue the true sense of spirituality, as this term became synonymous to religion. This is why I would like to clarify this mistake from the outset, because it would render the comprehension of what I pretend to discuss impossible. All religions are based on beliefs and these are then set upon dogmas that are in turn accepted without much questioning if any by the faithful. Traditions, rules and customs are then placed above it all, and finally all of this is turned into moral law. Meanwhile spirituality is no more than the approach, interaction and comprehension of the invisible plane, that which connects with matters of the spirit, and seeing the spirit as the counterpart to that which is visible or material. Accordingly, there could be spirituality without religion and religion without spirituality; they are not in any way analogue concepts. Of course when pronouncements were made such as: you are either with me or with the devil (and therefore burnt on the became stake), both terms interchangeable. Even science bowed down to sayings such as Eppur si muove. The three biggest monotheistic religions, do not seem satisfied with destroying the gods within the pantheons of ancient cultures, they would like to claim it all, from the heavenly plane to more earthly issues with their slogan: You are either with me or against me

No matter how intelligent or educated a person is, the simple fact of being bor n into this backdrop inevitably conditions us to a way of thinking. Even the most atheist and secular people confuse spirituality with religion, and they create another form of exclusivity that is derived from a more recent doctrine: Scientific truth as established by Isaac Newton prevails over all else. Newton's vision however was overturned and crushed by Einstein's genius, the immediacy and urgency of daily matters have not even allowed for the majority of humankind to explore all the consequences of this leap. Quantum physics has paved the way for new and very advanced ways of thinking and ironically it has been the link that has allowed us to look into the wisdom of ancient cultures with fresh eyes and new perspective. Scientific understanding of the Micro and Macro has broken the materialistic simplicity that fuelled the way of thinking during the Enlightenment. Post Newtonian modern science has placed us in front of so many paradoxes and so many mind-blowing concepts that it's complete understanding is way beyond most human comprehension. Nevertheless we all know the material benefits we enjoy from such breakthroughs such as internet development, computers, modern communication networks, etc All of this will allow us to understand the courage and boldness of the Shizen people much better. These people who used tools and formulas for understanding the world that were different from the scientific methods. They knew amazingly well how to decode and interact with the invisible plane, how to establish guidelines, that are equally valid today and in many ways parallels discoveries made by quantum physics and leading edge mathematics.

The use of analogy as a key tool by our illustrious ancestors


A sad fact of life is that science gains in knowledge faster than society gains in wisdom Isaac Asimov The use of analogy is perhaps one of the oldest tools that man developed in order to face the great unknown. The word analogy has Latin roots and means similarity, proportionality. It also has a Greek root: it is composed of the prefix, ana (about, against) and logos (the verb: reason), so it could be translated as reason for similarity.

Homo sapiens began its triumph when evolution granted us with a brain with incredible potential. We were not as strong as tigers or as big as mammoths; our advantage rested entirely on our brain. Our ancestors' intelligence was based on necessity. Intelligence is a function of the brain that was developed thanks to our ability to filter information that we perceive through our senses and to then use it to create associations and comparisons. The use of intelligence as a tool towards heightened consciousness acted as a spark in our evolution. This leap forward allowed us to move away from simply accepting information at face value, and to move towards associative interpretation by means of abstract thought. If I say apple you will imagine the fruit that comes from an apple tree in your mind without needing to see an actual fruit. Our ancestors understood that regardless of the existence of a common link between beings, things and events, their characteristics both structural and functional allow for the possibility of association. Therefore they began to use the elements in nature that they were surrounded with as associative elements. Fire ascends; it was therefore seen as powerful, changing, active it destroys everything it touches. Water is steady, persistent, penetrating, everything it touches is fertilized and contrary to fire it always goes downward. Following these associations, when someone got angry they would be associated to fire, whereas if someone slept they would be associated to water. If someone moves they generate heat, if something is agitated with vehemence it gets heated, friction during sex ignites the spark of life all of these actions were attributed to fire and the reverse to water. As you can see, analogy is an intelligent and useful method of understanding things, it is highly instinctive and a great portion of what we know and learn is based on this associative capacity. Ancient people used this method to try to understand the universe's secrets. With this tool for analyzing information, and through experience, trial and error, our ancestors gained incredible knowledge all of which allowed them to develop herbal medicine, calendars, better systems for growing crops etc Miryokus did not just content themselves with worldly issues, such as how to grow better crops; they also applied their knowledge to further their relationship with the realm of the mysterious. According to them, the entire universe visible or

invisible was the result of a primordial vibration. This vibration however could be broken down into specific frequencies. They studied these frequencies and the way they related with each other. Their discoveries and practices led to an extremely rich and complex culture, as was also the case in other parts of the world.

Jumping to the other side


What Shizen wise men discovered, is that the Universe is born out of tension of forces. These forces can be measured and categorized, and the fact that they have specific qualities makes them to some extent predictable when the interaction of these energies is studied. If you pour water onto fire it extinguishes, but if you add air, fire will reignite; if you let it die down the byproduct is soil. While the laws and mechanisms that govern how matter operates at a subatomic level are still a mystery for modern physics, ancients Miryoku had a clear understanding of it. According to them all matter is just the manifestation of certain forces, the tip of the iceberg that vibrates according to and because of the various energies present. The invisible filled everything, and was at the beginning and end of all. For that reason, solid matter is a combination of filled and empty spaces, which is comprised of invisible vibrations. And even though these are invisible, that does not mean that they cannot be identified. However they discovered that the nature of the visible and invisible worlds was so different that even time and space could be altered by their interaction. This understanding led to unprecedented experiences and practices and gave them the confidence to go deeper and deeper into dimensions of consciousness, farther than any modern man could imagine. A lot of discoveries were the product of their frenetic research into the invisible realm. They deciphered how both planes, spiritual and material, were always in contact; while one was mutable, the other was rigid; the interaction of energies and forces present in both worlds are what create specific types of transformations and events. According to the Miryoku, human beings are a package of vibrating energies. These energies change as a result of food, activity, and the surrounding environment. Man, as everything in nature has its own vibration, always unique for each individual, but each vibration can react to similar vibrations that are found both in nature and in the spiritual world. Man therefore is at the

mercy of two big forces, the sky and earth, man in the middle, is the result of this encounter. Everyone has inherent frequencies that react according to the surrounding environment; it is as if we are magnets that send out and receive energy all of which follow specific laws of nature. For ancients Miryoku every individual is a magnet that attracts unto himself the same type of frequencies that they transmit. When these energies leave the physical body, these frequencies settle in a subtler adjoining layer that surrounds the body as though a shining shell. This layer creates a unique atmosphere for each individual, and also acts as a filter for what comes in and out of the person. If the filter is dirty and dense, it not only attracts similar dark forces, but it also impedes other energies to pass through. The nature of these energies could also be categorized as either positive or negative and therefore allowing or delaying certain outcomes. They called these filters Ni ban ki or San ban ki. Today we have been able to measure and even photograph thanks to the Kirlian camera the electromagnetic fields surrounding a person or living being. But a Kirlian camera is not necessary for us to relate to the fact that we are energy transmitters. The heat released by our bodies is proof itself since we all know that this heat is the result of the acceleration and vibration of electrons that are inside of us. When we pass our hands near another person without touching them, our presence can be felt. A stare, if is strong enough, can even cause someone to turn around without knowing why. This is due to the force beams generated by the stare that causes an alteration in someone's vibration. The Miryokus took things further, through experiments and exercises they managed to alter their vibrational fields and to interact with their environment. One of the keys to their success was the understanding that our consciousness is a powerful generator of energy that could be redirected at will. Man's force however is limited, whereas forces in the universe are limitless. Shizen wise men searched for a method that would allow them to interact with these forces, and therefore to figure out a way to pluck certain strings which would then result in specific vibrations far beyond their own personal limits. If you want to buy a steak you go to the butcher, but no matter how much you insist you won't find it in a hardware store. Miryoku people learned how to pluck these strings, to summon and to interact with these energies and to achieve concrete results.

Meanwhile spirituality is no more than the approach, interaction and comprehensio n of the invisible plane

I am White Crane
I was once asked by a student why the way I did White Crane Boxing was entirely different to the way it was taught and the way he had learned it. My reply was simple and direct: You are doing White Crane, I am not. He look at me with a puzzled look, you could see him trying to make some form of sense about my statement. He said he did not get it. What did I mean? I replied that he should look at all the others students and instructors of our White Crane and learn from them when he could then to come back to me and tell me if he understood what I meant. Upon his return he said that many of the others seemed like it was a great effort when they moved and I looked as if I was taking in the local scenery and not trying very hard if at all when taking the students through the forms and other aspects. I asked him why is this?. He said he did not know. I put him out of his misery and finally answered his original question: You see I am not doing White Crane Boxing. I am not striving for the art. I am not doing an exhibition for the gratification of others or my own ego. Simply put, I am White Crane Boxing! I explained that if one simply continues to 'do' White Crane Boxing then they will only ever grasp the most base levels of the art. They will become proficient but never really embody the art itself. They will not understand the fighting nor energetic aspects of the art. The expression of the essence , energy , and spirit of the White Crane Boxing art. Forced action is not natural action and what is more natural than the White Crane within nature? When does one see a magnificent White Crane move in a static manner? Our White Crane arising from the Zhenlan tradition of Master Lin Yuan Dun of Fuzhou China is a traditionally based and practically focused martial way that sets itself apart by not supreme athleticism or flexibility as it is designed for real people defending themselves in real world situations. White Crane Boxing has evolved over time as all good martial arts must. But its related styles and schools have remained faithful to the tradition of using the Crane as the boxing form, imitating its external appearance and appropriating its inner essence, merging form with spirit says Shifu Goninan Zhenlan White Crane Gongfu shares technical similarities with the original form but also embodies unique methods and theories. Paramount emphasis is placed upon fundamental training which itself consists of the skills, theories, concepts and principles as passed on by White Crane Founder Fang Qiniang. The simplicity yet hidden depth of the Zhenlan system is in sharp contrast to most Martial Arts taught today ... given that many so-called professional martial artists make a living from teaching, it is then understandable that certain commercially based changes have taken place in such teachings and styles. This compromising situation arose

when traditional culture collided head on with the market economy leading to the advent of the professional martial artist and professional martial arts school. One can only lament this sad state of affairs. The movements of Zhenlan Gongfu are beautiful, graceful soft, smooth and natural. They look elegant and they continuously change from one to another. The movements can be big or small, high or low and fast or slow. It depends on what is natural for individuals. The body is held straight and upright movements are even, circular, light, quick, soft and lively. The Zhenlan Gongfu practitioner should move like a river flowing smoothly or a cloud drifting lightly. Goninan explained to the student that Zhenlan White Crane Gongfu is more circular than other styles, and herein lies much of it's grace and energy. The circles generate energy. Trying to punch into those circles and your arm feels as though it has been caught in a powerful cyclone of energy. It has unrelenting and non-retracting hand techniques. At the same time Zhenlan has an economy of motion that makes it's applications unique, neat, discreet and lethal - perfect for dispatching would be attackers I told the student that in order to embody this natural action that he should strive to understand Qiujin a physical sensitivity and sensorial mind awareness sometimes known as a full and circular form of Qi which and is natural, penetrative and rapid and can be manifested at any time. Qiujin is most distinguished by being without the need to retract body or limbs. Its full and penetrating force is freely and fully transmitted through simple arm and leg movements.

Connecting one's bodily movements with the internal thus acquiring the ability to act through intuitive feeling. Through the learning process, (which is to recognize and realize, not to accumulate or imitate) the he should begin to understand how "mental and physical" affect each other and starts to develop the skill to unify and coordinate them. You train through the process of understanding your muscular movement, body structure (skeletal, ligaments and tendons, incorporating Qi (energy) and your mental process. Relaxation is an essential component of the art. Relaxation contains the process of looseness, softness, elasticity, and fa jing (issuing power). As soon as the Zhenlan practitioner touches an opponent's hands or body, he can feel instantly where the opponent's weight and center of gravity is and what strike or technique the opponent is going to use. Ultimately, the Zhenlan practitioner is able to sense the opponent's intention without contact, through awareness. He can redirect the force and use it against the opponent or incorporate the use of Fa Jin (energy release strikes) depending on the threat level. Many times I have watched others do their White Crane and Martial Arts. They moved with speed and power but they also moved like boxes, lacking in the essential connectivity of the art. Many were doing 'demonstrations' for their own ego embroidery and the adulation of others who may be watching. Their movements were flamboyant and showy, hard and external, lacking in

You see I am not doing White Crane Boxing. I am not striving for the art. I am not doing an exhibition for the gratification of others or my own ego. Simply put, I am White Crane Boxing!
natural action and flow, lacking the true essence, energy and spirit. Even when their movements become soft, they will have to push their levels to the state of being natural. When they reach the state of being, their movements become very natural and they can command their energy at will. One must understand that we are all connected to that and those who have gone before. Swiss psychologist Carl Jung rediscovered this and called it collective unconscious. Reality is always physic, lying between us and the world, partly inside, partly outside; partly personal, partly impersonal, partly material, partly immaterial. This is why in a world where reason is supposed to prevail, the more than half the world believes in the spirit and the spiritual. Within the martial arts everything is energy. Seek that energy and your whole world view changes as will your Martial Arts. This is not philosophy but physics. Sometimes during our study of the martial arts we have Flashes. What I simply call Flashes of Brilliance, of understanding, of technique, of applications unconsidered or known. These are those times when we experience something truly special about the arts. They come

quick and are meant to teach us something special. It's almost as if a Temple Gate opens for a few seconds enabling us to see or experience something wonderful .. a new way of thinking, moving, understanding! As our subconscious and our conscious mind comes together, these flashes will occur and we will something in a totally new light. The human mind and body connection was the only technology the ancient Master had to work with. Is it any wonder that they knew so much that only now we are re-discovering to be true. The Masters of old actually understood thought, making Intention into action! The old way of Martial Arts is profoundly deeper and holding true knowledge than that we do today. Aristotle said: Educating the mind without educating the hearty is no education at all. A true teacher teaches himself first and foremost. He does not care if anyone follows his teachings and ideas. To care would be to have ego. The true teacher does what he has to, not what he is told to or is viewed upon by others to do. If no one listens to him he does not despair. He is secure within himself. I am at a point in my life that I find it that I have lear ned to be simply human without unnecessary striving and ego. I've no need for rank, titles and other such self-embroidery. I am happy simply being. This is not to be found within success or failure and striving at every turn in your life but what is at the very heart and spirit that truly matters. It's not what happens in life but how you react that matters. Stop trying so hard and simply be. This then is the essence, energy and spirit of White Crane Boxing. Zhenlan White Crane Gongfu's softer, more fluid, graceful and dance-like movements embody a subtle naturalness leading to one being natural and complex, subtle yet intricate.The end result is one becomes White Crane.

ABOUT THE AUTHOR:


Ron Goninan can be contacted via email at: shifu@whitecranegongfu.info The WCRI Web Site is at: www.whitecranegongfu.info . He is always on the lookout for suitable Representatives and seekers of the Way!

Photo: Master Lin Yuan Dun in action Photo: Statue of White Crane Founder Fan Qiniang Photo: Shifu Ron Goninan & his Number One Student Wayne Jacobson

Karate
Sensei Taiji Kase has been one of the greatest karate m a s t e r s o f t h e Tw e n t i e t h century. Known worldwide as an outstanding fighter and as a teacher of high level, he never stopped perfecting his art and to develop it up to create his own style. Before passing away in 2004, he created an International Academy (Kase Ha Shotokan Ryu KarateDo Academy) at the head of which he has placed his closest students, including Sensei Pascal Lecourt (for France), 6th dan, who hads been one of his closest assistants for nearly thirty years. The whole legacy of Sensei Kase's teaching is still alive. A rare testimony.

Interview of 6th Dan Sensei Pascal Lecourt. Master Kase's Assistant.

Text: Franois Lehn Photos: Franois Lehn & Sensei Christian Leromancer, 5th Dan

Interview
Sensei Taiji Kase: the very essence of the way of karate Sensei Pascal Lecourt, Master Kase's heir
To mark the DVD release of "The Fundamentals of the Kase-Ha School", an meeting interview with Sensei Pascal Lecourt, 6th dan, who teaches in Rouen and, is also an International Instructor. He was also the student and assistant of Master Kase for nearly 30 years. He gives us a unique testimony of the essence of the practice and teaching of Master Kase and of the man he was: one of the greatest karate fighters of the Twentieth century, in love devoted to with research studying and development perfecting his art, and a man of great humility totally dedicated to others and very humble. Q: Sensei Kase is considered as one of the greatest karate masters of the Twentieth century and as an outstanding fighter. Where does his reputation come from? Prior to being Whilst he was a great Master, a leading expert and pioneer of karate in France, Sensei Kase was mostly above all a great fighter. He has not only been the source of the first rules of the JKA (Japan Karate Association) karate competitions in Japan, after the death of Master Funakoshi, but he it was also the one who responded to the challenges launched against karate by competitors of other fighting sports. At that time, it was done quite often a common occurrence, and as karate was just starting to make itself known, it was necessary important to prove its value. He was sent around the world to promote the JKA karate along with a group of experts which included Sensei Enoeda, Shirai, and Kanazawa. He had to fight real combats, without any judges or rules, against boxers, wrestlers, etc. For him, it was not so much to a matter of fighting for pleasure or to assess his technique, but it was for the honor of Japan and the honor of Karate. In the DVD, Ms. Kase speaks about those fights and, according to her, he hasn't lost a single fight one. This aspect of his life has contributed to its his reputation as an outstanding fighter, which he certainly was for sure. There are many many stories about the real fights he delivered. When we hear some say that traditional karate, and especially that of Sensei Kase, is not realistic, I don't see what they are talking about... The military spirit of the time and the fact that Japan was at war have contributed to giving a tough and unforgiving spirit to the training. At 16, Sensei Kase had joined enlisted in the Navy, in the Kamikaze. The day he received his order to take off, it was the day the armistice was signed. He had received the military training, he would have gone. I'm quite glad that History has spared him.

"A technique must kill"


From that period, from that style of training, he has kept something essential that has marked his karate throughout his life. On the one hand, it was an instinct for life and combat, but also a very strong attachment to the "Ippon shobu," which he favoured a lot. That is, the victory through a single technique, strike and knock out an opponent in a single move, perfect and decisive in its speed, power and accuracy. "A technique must kill," he used to say. Master Kase had no match equal in this way of practicing. He was known and recognized for his unparalleled Kime. He knew how to focus a maximum energy in each of his techniques. On the other hand, his

"During the training sessions, it did happened that theire were sometimes deaths"
Kase Sensei has been trained at a time when Japan was at war, life and death were held by a thread. Karate was then taught in a rigorous and realistic way. He told us that during trainings, it happened that s there were sometimes deaths as the karateka were totally dedicated to their practice and because karate was turned aimed attowards realism. The ministry chose to look in the other direction. It was necessary to train in order to fight the American invasion.

Karate

Interview
education and, his family has also helped to shape his personality as a man and as a fighter. He told me once, I remember, that his father, who was very strict, forbade him to complain. Once when he was a child, coming back from school, he fell and hurt his knees, he cried all the way back home. In front of the house, he dried his tears, walked pass his father without crying, went to his room and resumed crying. The personal anecdotes of his life or the historical context that I give are just some elements to help us to grasp what built developed him in his practice at certain point of his life. But if he has attained the status of great Master, it's because he has surpassed those hard parameters and because he has always sought to improve his karate. Throughout his life he excelled at getting closer to the very essence of karate. Q: What are the characteristics that made his karate a unique style? Sensei Kase was a karate genius. His vision of the practice was unique. He is the only one, for example, who have merged the principles of the school of two swords "Ninten Ryu", of Miyamoto Musashi, belonging to the history of foeudal Japan, with the modern karate, of M a s t e r Funakoshi. T h i s exploration led him to develop many techniques with open hands, as if the arms and open hands were swords themselves. This discovery is equally applicable in both guards, adapted to different heights depending on the circumstance, but also in the blocks and double blocks, in the counterstrikes, the strikes, in the moving or in the timing. This design feature is unique to his study. He has also developed several combinations dedicated to the deepening of this discovery, both with open hands or clenched fists. The different techniques: O-Wasa, Chu-Ko-and Wasa and Ko-Wasa (long, medium or short distance) also characterize his practice. Another feature of his study is the subtle knowledge and the mastery of breathing. His energy was profoundly based on his breathing. It was for him, the crucial factor to in increasinge his power, the flow of energy that comes from it was essential. The four breathing principles, with their ramifications, which he developed and which are described in the DVD, are the key. Furthermore, Master Kase was capable of attaining a deep relaxation of the body which gave him an unparalleled easiness of movement, of motion, and favoured a pure expression of energy. He taught how to go from 0 (relaxed) reach to 100 (contraction) from 0 (relaxed) in a split fraction of a second, and then go back to 0 just as quickly. There is also a whole aspect of energy and vibration that is specific to his study. He insisted on the connection to the ground: "ten shin jin", he often said: skyheaven-earthman. The unification of man to heaven and earth can develop a strong energy through the technique. Feet

Karate
on the ground, head up towards the sky, an inhalation that can capture energy from the sky and feet anchored in order to capture the energy from the ground, emanations from the earth. "The man is like a bridge between the two, the man is the expression of the two energies. The more the exhalation is concentrated at one point, the more your technique will work", he used to say. Sensei Kase also taught that if the spirit is dispersed, then the energy is lost in the universe. He also insisted a lot on visualization, which was a crucial point. But there would arebe so many other things to say about the fantastic discoveries he made during his research. Q: You knew the man, how was he in daily life? Master Kase used to say that "Karate is life and life is karate". Art or life have the same mechanisms. He pushed this saying as far as he could. He was a humble man, determined, with a deep longing for research and studying and perfecting his art, opened to others and full of kindness to his students. He loved human beings. There was no vulgarity and brutality in his practice, the artistic level, in its profound meaning, was valued. I mean, aggressive energy is vulgar. The energy of the master is positive, creative, it allows you to go towards the other person , while the negative one destroys the other person. In kumite, for example, when the ego takes precedence, it is an aggressiveness that faces aggressiveness. Sensei Kase used to tell us: "It's better to break your opponent's arm with opened hand techniques (shuto) rather than destroy the physical integrity of the person." We protect the individual and we protect ourselves. It was somehow ironic for a karate master, but it also was the mark of his inner work and of his progress in the understanding of the essence of Karate. Master Kase lived for the study, he was the most advanced masters of his generation in this quest. Like many artists, these are individuals that who feed themselves by their studies. He was not interested in what the effects could be or any international recognition. He did not know how much money he earned, how many people attended his trainings, or what kind of glory he could achieve. He had no interest for in interest. While he was an internationally recognized Master and highly demandeds after, his own brother said, on the day of his funeral at Pere Lachaise, that he did not know how much well-known his brother was in the world. He was not seeking any "high office". I remember while I was in Japan with him, in 1987, that the JKA was then looking for a true leader, I asked him if he was interested in this position. He replied that if he had to take over this organization again, he would never be able to wear his kimono anymore, but he would just have "a suit, a tie and a pen." He always wanted to practice and go deeper into his studies. In France too he never sought-after any

95

Interview
position what so ever. He often said "Number 1: freedom." thing that mattered in his practice was the research on the essence of karate. Research Study and teaching. His teaching was for everyone, no elitism. You had to surpass yourself, however, in order to have access to it.

"His teaching was for everyone"


He cared neither for glory nor recognition. He did not like interviews very much , he did not like to put himself forward either. When he was told that he was a great teacher ... he just smiled and kept walking. It was his answer. One day I told him: "Sensei, sooner or later you will die and there is nothing of you, no books about you, your research study or your understanding of the practice, no DVD, nothing." He replied that "the day I will write a book is that I will have nothing more to say. If I write today, I may very well have to contradict myself in ten years." The only

"Love, forgiveness, kindness, honor"


A final aspect of his unusual personality is that he disliked conflict. I remember that during a special training session, we trained really hard. A group of individuals suddenly sat down in the middle of the gym, just like that. I was outraged to see them behave in such fashion. I wanted to go over to them but the Master stopped me just by nodding. Another time, in Finland, in 1996, the weather was fine, we were outside after a training course and he said to me, "I feel well here because there is no conflict, it's like a vacation." He was also a good father. He had also a passion for cameras (he had several of them at home), astronomy, French, Russian or Japanese classical literature. He was always looking for balance in all aspects of his life. One last point comes back to me. At his funeral in France, a Zen monk who knew well enough Sensei Kase well read a funeral oration. It is traditional that the deceased be remembered according to his major qualities. The monk recalled him as love, forgiveness, kindness, and honor. I keep these virtues in my heart and try as best as I can to return them in my teaching and in the preservation of the karate developed by Master Kase.

The life of Master Kase in key dates


Sensei Taiji Kase was born February 9, 1929 in Tokyo. In February 1944, at age 15, goes to the Honbu Dojo Shotokan where he trains with Yoshitaka Funakoshi In March 1945 he joins the Navy sSchool in the section of kamikaze pilot sections. He remains there until the end of the war In 1949, Sensei Kase is, at age 20, the youngest to the reach the rank of

Karate
Sandan. He becomes a teacher in charge of the Kumite practice and trains young instructors such as Enoeda, Shirai, Kanazawa and, Ochi In 1965, appointed by the president of the JKA, also Japanese Minister of Foreign Affairs, he is asked to spread Karate-Do around the world He arrives in Paris in August 1967 where he settles with his family. He will live there throughout for the rest of his life From 1976 on, he gives workshops around the world In May 1999, Sensei Kase has first heart attack. After six months of forced rest, he resumes teaching and training. 2004, foundation of the International Academy (Kase Ha Shotokan Ryu Karate-Do Academy) November 24, 2004, death of Sensei Kase. The funeral takes place at the crematorium of Pre Lachaise Cemetery in Paris. His family, relatives and many students from around the world are there to pay their last respects

Sensei Pascal Lecourt: un DVD et des stages pour transmettre l'hritage


Sensei Pascal Lecourt: a DVD and training courses to pass on the legacy._After thirty six years of practice, including thirty passed as a student and assistant of Sensei Taiji Kase, and appointed by him Technical Director (France) "Kase Ha Shotokan Ryu Karate Do Academy," Sensei Pascal Lecourt, 6th Dan, has brought together and explains for first time in a DVD the fundamentals of the School Kase-Ha School. Sensei Lecourt has brought together and explains the whole world of techniques and expression of energy that have become the hallmark of the Kase-Ha sSchool. The unparalleled science of combat and the subtlety of the research study undertakenook by Sensei Kase, which he developed until his death, justify that one of the few experts who knew him best known and followed him for many years takes the time to explain the essence of Sensei Taiji Kase's karate to all Martial Arts' passionate. In particular we find in this DVD a lively interview of with Sensei Pascal Lecourt, who tells us about his proximity to the teacher and the entire inner, spiritual and philosophical transmission that took place during the thirty years of close relationship. We also find an interview of with Ms. Kase Chieko, Sensei Taiji Kase's wife, who tells us what was the Master's life was like from postwar Japan until his last breath.
For further information and to know about the training courses he gives in France and in Paris, order the DVD, you can contact Sensei Pascal Lecourt on the internet : http://www.lecourtpascal.fr/ and for any information, chat with him on his Facebook page: Pascal Lecourt Kase-Ha

A Zen monk who knew well enough Sensei Kase well read a funeral oration. It is traditional that the deceased be remembered according to his major qualities. The monk recalled him as love, forgiveness, kindness, and honor

WING CHUN GUNG GUNG FU: FU: The Explosive Art of Close Range Combat

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Wing Chun
Facing/Encarar/Affrontare
Hello again everyone! In my second monthly column for Budo International, I would like to explain and discuss the CRCA Wing Chun concept of Facing. The term Facing (Ying Sai) in Wing Chun means the frontal reference of one fighter to another. Another term, Ying Chiu refers to the Facing Posture of one fighter in relation to another. Facing Advantage occurs when one fighter's Facing is frontally referenced to the other's side or back. This advantageous position in itself does not constitute victory, only an advantageous position from which to attack or defend. A simple illustration of Facing Advantage can be found in the way that old war ships did battle on the high seas. Because they had their guns mounted on both sides pointing out 90 from the bow and stern, in order to fire on the adversary, they had to pull up alongside the enemy craft before opening fire. The disadvantage was that although they were able to focus their firepower on the enemy, that enemy was equally well positioned for his own simultaneous counterattack. This equal positioning resulted in heavy damage to both parties, regardless of who sunk whom in the end. After some experience with this type of sea battle, some clever strategist came up with the ploy, which came to be known as Crossing the T. This term means to position your own ship facing the broadside of the enemy craft, thereby allowing yourself to fire freely on the enemy without risk of being hit by return fire. His guns were pointed out to sea while half of yours were right on target. This is idea is the essence of Facing Advantage-to position yourself so that your guns are on him, but his are pointed out to sea. Facing Advantage - When the Wing Chun fighter is able to achieve Facing Advantage by facing the opponent's side or back, he is said to be approaching from the Dead Side. Anywhere outside the Live Area - the 90 spectrum with its vertex at the Self Centerline and symmetrically referenced 45 to each side-is considered to be on the Dead Side. This area is the most difficult to defend, and when the opponent is facing it, it is also a very difficult angular relationship from which to counterattack. Thus, the opponent's Dead Side is therefore the safest area to face when attacking. The diagram below shows an overhead perspective of the Live Area and the Dead Side from three different fighting positions. You are said to have the Advantage of Facing when any fraction of your Live Area (however small) is on any part of his Dead Side, and no fraction of his Live Area is on any part of your Dead Side. In a typical Wing Chun analogy, the 90 Live Area can be compared to the searchlights used by prison guards to spotlight an escaped prisoner running through a field. In combat, the Wing Chun fighter plays two roles; he is the escaped prisoner, as he uses footwork and technique to avoid being illuminated by the opponent's searchlight. He is also the prison guard, as he attempts to always keep the opponent lit up within his own Live Area. Thus, there is a constant jockeying for position between two high-level Wing Chun players in Chee Sau (Sticky Hands), sparring or drills practice. With this in mind, the importance of Facing to the CRCA Wing Chun man is clearly illustrated. As will be seen in its many combat techniques, including those illustrated here, the CRCA Wing Chun fighter will always take the resulting Facing relationship into consideration before making any type of footwork that will change that relationship. Whenever possible, he will always step in the direction that will give him the Advantage of Facing, no matter how slightly. The reason for this strategy is that the slightest Facing advantage created by the Wing Chun fighter's first step may be compounded by the opponent himself, possibly even unintentionally. Thus, from a ready position in an Open Relationship, even if you were to make just a small step to the outside of the opponent's leading foot for the slightest advantage, the opponent may add to it by stepping further inside of your foot - perhaps not even knowing that he is giving up Facing advantage as he moves in the only direction that is not blocked by your foot. He is just following the unobstructed path, which can lead him into disadvantage of Facing if you have stepped correctly to begin with to set him up. The opponent may not even be aware that such an advantage exists. For example, when executing a technique from an Open Relationship (you in a left lead and he in a right), you will almost always step your leading left foot to the outside of his leading right. Although the inherent Facing advantage that you are building might not be readily apparent, if you continue to move in, or if he instead moves forward inside of your foot, he will end up with his back to you - Dead Side exposed. From a Closed Left relationship (both fighters in a left leading stance), it would be better to step to the inside of his leading left foot as you execute Tan Da to stop his lead left Jab. Stepping to the outside would give him your back. This concept works together with the Centerline Theory, which will be described in a future Budo International column. The ultimate goal is to get at least one if not both advantages any time you execute a technique with footwork. Stepping with correct Facing in mind also works extremely well with Self- and Applied Structure. In the previous Tan Da example, had you stepped to the outside, you would have also weakened the Tan Sau AND the punch by moving your body away from the direction you wanted them to be powered, creating an awkward, offbalance delivery. Instead, stepping inside to at least an equal Facing Advantage would actually add power and Angle Structure to both motions. In fact, the further you step to the outside, the more he will be crossed-up and pushed off balance by the Tan Sau and the more your punch will be driven into the Centerline (up to a point). The Theory of Facing also sets the limit of the spectrum within which you can pivot in relation to the opponent you may never pivot beyond the point where either

The Live Area and Dead Side. In the three figures (image number 1), the Live Area - the area from which one can most effectively attack and defend is illustrated by the open sector of the circle. All other areas around the circle comprise the Dead Side. Note the effect that different facing has on the angle that the Live Area references to the Centerline.

outermost limit of your Live Area coincides with the Centerline or you will give the opponent the Advantage of Facing. Thus one can see that it is normally in the fighter's best interest to keep his own Self Centerline referenced directly to the opponent's Dead Side. This positioning not only allows him at least equal opportunity to attack but also keeps his own Dead Side focused 45 or more from the Facing of the opponent. This is why the upper body of the Wing Chun

fighter is always referenced within the 90 angle spectrum introduced by the Choh Ma stance pivot, regardless of the placement of the feet. In other words, if the entire lower half of the body from the waist down were shrouded in a heavy mist, the opponent should have no way of knowing whether you are in a turned, braced, forward or rear stance, only that you are tur ned to face him somewhere within your own 90 of Live Area.

So it can be seen that correct use of Facing strategy can be an asset to the martial artist from any style. The concept of Facing and its relationship to the Centerline was analyzed in greater detail in Volume II of my book series when the Loy Seen Wai and Ngoy Seen Wai footwork was described in the Ma Boh essay. Information on how to obtain these books is detailed on a later page of this issue.

Wing Chun

Sequence 1 Photo 1A - Fighters ready in an Open Relationship. Photo 1B - When Thomas attempts a right Jab with his front hand, Mario Lopez uses a Ngoy Seen Wai Outside Facing Step and Pivot to the outside with his own front foot as he delivers a right Chop Kuen downward counterpunch to Thomas' now vulnerable ribs. Note that this punch must land during Thomas' punch, and before Mario's front foot touches the ground in order to maximize on Jyeh Lick (Borrowed Power) by hitting the opponent while he is trying to hit you. Photo 1C - As Thomas attempts to follow up with his own rear left Cross, which falls short due to Mario's superior Facing, Mario is once again able to borrow his power by taking an additional small Loy Seen Wai (Inside Facing Step and Pivot) to further improve his Facing Advantage as he drives in a left Cheh Kuen (Retraction/Extension Punch) to the jaw. Photo 1D - From his now clearly superior Facing Advantage nearly behind the opponent, Mario continues the punishment with a right Loy Doy Gock Kuen Diagonal Punch.

Two sequences that illustrate how to instantly obtain the Advantage of Facing from two different starting relationships using the same motions.

Sequence 2 Photo 2A - Fighters ready, this time in a Closed Relationship Photo 2B - When Thomas attempts a left Jab with his front hand, Mario uses a Ngoy Seen Wai Outside Facing Step and Pivot to the outside with his own rear right foot as he delivers a Left Chop Kuen downward counterpunch to Thomas' ribs. Again, this punch must land during Thomas' punch, and before Mario's front foot touches the ground in order to maximize on Jyeh Lick (Borrowed Power) by hitting the opponent while he is trying to hit you. Photo 2C - As Thomas attempts to follow up with his own rear right Cross, which again falls short due to Mario's superior Outside Facing position, Mario borrows his power by taking an additional small right Loy Seen Wai (Inside Facing Step and Pivot) to further improve his Facing Advantage as he drives in a right pivoting Cheh Kuen (Retraction/Extension Punch) to the jaw. Photo 2D - From his now clearly superior Facing Advantage nearly behind the opponent, Mario finishes the engagement with a left pivoting Choh Ma Loy Doy Gock Kuen Diagonal Punch exactly as he did in the previous sequence.

Kenpo
HOW IS THE "FU-SHIH KENPO" OUTLINED
(Part One) Now and then I usually carry out a cleaning and a technical refinement of all the knowledge I gained in the past through my personal martial background around the world. This includes my contacts with traditional masters of different styles of Karate, Kenpo, Kung-Fu, Tae-Kwon-Do, FullContact and Kick-Boxing as main styles. So I merge and replace those methods which, in my own judgment, have to be eliminated, renovating them with new approaches that, applying to the same principles, I find to be correct and suitable for my purposes. The program meets all the necessary requirements to obtain and embrace the physical, mental and spiritual terms that every martial artist must develop, always keeping in mind the personal objectives that each one pursues: traditional art, selfdefense, sports fighting, real encounters, police defense or even action films. Our conventional program first includes the Traditional Forms of Kosho-Ryu Kenpo of the Mitose family, history, philosophy and lineage of Kosho-Kenpo teachers. In my first contact with Grand Master Thomas Mitose, I separated both styles because of their clear and noteworthy difference, subsequently I merged them into a single program, and now, for my approach to this Master, our remarkable friendship, shared experiences, and for respect and honor, I've retur ned to consider performing again the Kosho Forms as a sign of support and high esteem, although its practice is voluntary and not forced. Then we develop a complete method of Self-Defense, empty handed or with the use of Weapons. Subsequently, these techniques give rise to the system's exclusive SelfDefense Forms (Katas). Also a personalized weapon handling system (9), six of which are traditional (Bo, Sai, Kama, Nunchaku, Yawara, and Tonfa), and 3 modern (Knife, Street Baton and Short Stick, Kali or Arnis style). The third aspect of Fu-Shih Kenpo is the specific training program for amateur sports and/or Professional Semi or Full-Contact events, not forgetting the harsh system of FuShih Contact, in which everything's permitted. The latter is private and internal of the style, since in no way could it be of a sports nature. The Dragon within the Fu-Shih Kenpo logo represents intelligence and serenity, Yin aspect. It is by excellence the mythological animal of Eastern philosophy. It is calm, clever, sure. It is the passive and mental part in the development of the Fu-Shih Kempo tactics and techniques, including leg skills. It's the spiritual strength that is achieved with maturity, an attitude to be obtained through training, perseverance, and personal efforts. It represents humility that dominates the Earth. The Tiger represents the physical aspects of the student, his bodily and technical preparation. It's the Yang part, i.e., strength, speed, flashing movements, fluid and continuous motion, fist and hand techniques at large (arms), the strength and earthly rootage obtained during the early stages of learning. At this stage the student is basically attracted and impressed by his or her own physical ability which he can develop and reach more easily through his first endeavors. SHIH-FU. Japanese Chinese Terminology that describes the most innovative, customizable, functional and effective system of Current Teaching and is within the Triangle: three specific points that trace the path to the training, fulfillment and harmony of the individual with his or her environment. FU = Tiger (Japanese = man; Chinese = strength, ax) and SHIH = Spirit or Energy (Master, School, Teaching, Instructor). KENPO. Japanese Terminology that refers to the most ancient oriental fighting style, descending from the Kosho Monks Clan down to the Grand Master Mitose, Ken = Fist; Po = First Law. That is, First Law of the Fist. Te c h ni cal l y, Fu- S hi h K enp o c o n s i s t s of l i near and ci rcul ar movements conjugated in different directions and senses in order to obtain a high mastery and skill in all physical angles, spreading Blinking Power in a fluid and continuous sparkling movement. For this task, Fu-Shih appeals to all senses and physical and mental resources. In Fu-Shih Kenpo you always move forwards in the construction of a defensive technique in order to set up a natural, decisive and coordinated counter-attack. A full c o n c e n t rat i on i s req ui red , wi t h penetrating look and deep breathing. We must be ready to respond effectively to any offensive act or to an attack, but it does not mean we have authority to cause seri ous i nj ury or even k ill an adversary. Is it possible to accomplish an effective and energetic counterattack without causing serious injuries to an opponent? Fu-Shih Kenpo primarily analyzes the 8 angles of Evasion and Escape, "OCTANGLE", from which a disciple of the system can smoothly avoid any possible attack without making contact with his opponent. These are the fundamental techniques of "Nonviolence", which, subsequently, and depending of the opponent's degree of dangerousness, can be applied in certain reduction and control movements, and even in the most effective counter-offensive maneuvers. It is also vital to Fu-Shih Kenpo the knowledge and mastery of the vital points and nervous centers of t h e h u m a n b o d y, w h i c h i n t u r n requires the hardening of the hands, t h ro u g h c l a s s i c a l a n d m o d e r n eastern methods to develop strength, hardness and resistance in the palm and fingers. Without this q u a l i t y, t h e u s i n g o f t h e s e techniques applied in pressure, gripping or percussion would be disastrous.

PRINCIPLES ON TECHNICAL APPLICATIONS IN FU-SHIH KENPO


Knowledge and mastery of the 8 angles of displacement (Evasion and Escape), or reaction in the advancing directions. Approaching to the opponent. Control of distance and angle of confrontation. Natural defensive guards. Analysis of the environment and use of natural elements thereof. Deterring and Persuasive Tactics. Commanding voice. Defensive reactions of "No Physical Contact" (so-called "Nonviolence"). Defensive reactions with controlled contact. Defense with medium contact to specific areas of reduction and control. Defense against attacks with varying degrees of "pain". Using of the center line which, although more dangerous, allows us controlling the basis of all the aggressor's limbs.

But even at his level of training at this time, people were starting to take notice of this powerful system. His training and learning has increased with his motivation of making sure he was training with his old instructor or making trips to California to train with the people at the very top every year. He even had Grandmaster Kuoha and his family fly in one year so he could improve his training and give his students an opportunity to train with the top through a seminar and classes. His expertise increased rapidly and soon Sensei Stephan Fabel's group of few students has grown quickly. In that same year, two instructors from Spain flew to California and wanted to join the system. Both trained, but it seemed as though there were no consistence with their training. It was soon learned that the interests had diminished and a year later Carlos, the main instructor was terminated from the system due to inactivity. In October 2001, contact was made from a 15-year veteran of the arts, Sensei Bruno Rebelo of Portugal, looking for a strong organization with validity and he wanted Professor Chow's System. He and his students then became members of the organization and he immediately flew Grandmaster Kuoha into Portugal to do some seminars. Much time was spent training with Sensei Bruno and a few of the instructors. Even Sensei Stephan flew in from Germany to lend a helping hand. The training was very intensive and many hours spent going over the value of being correct. Again in May of 2002, Grandmaster, Sensei Ka'imi (next Kara-Ho Leader and daughter of Grandmaster Kuoha) and Sensei John DeWitt flew in to do seminars and training for Sensei Bruno and his group of instructors and because of the dedicated time and energy put forth...they have excelled quickly. It is to be noted that even during the year, Sensei Stephan was flown in from Germany to teach and help Sensei Bruno with his techniques and forms. At the same time the organization was contacted by Sensei Santiago Gutierrez, who was one of the original instructors and Carlos's assistant from Spain that had first come to California to join the system, and he wanted to rejoin. He and his old instructor did not get along and parted ways over a year ago and he did not know that Carlos had been terminated from the organization. Sensei Santiago Gutierrez was accepted back into the system and now is the regional director for all of Spain. The dedication and excitement that we felt from Sensei Santiago was phenomenal and he will grow strong in the system, especially with other instructors helping him, like Sensei Bruno of Portugal and Sensei Stephan of Germany. Establishing a strong foothold with dedicated students was the first priority in building up Europe and that is now in place. So the only way it can move forward is with the national representatives and regional directors in place... the Chinese Kara-Ho Kempo System will flourish in Europe in the very near future. To obtain the two books written by Grandmaster Kuoha, see the website.

"(...) Lighting does not disturb the person, like the moon does not disturb the water. A person does not block the lighting, like the dewdrop does not hide the moon in the sky. (...) " Zen Master Dogen

KI IN THE ARTS OF THE SWORD


For some, it's really where we start to learn, for others, a new phase that begins. Kansatsu means observation in Japanese. It is the moment in which the student discovers that he can observe and understand the movements of others. It is the separation of mind and brain. Let me explain: The brain is only a part of the central nervous system - albeit the most complex. It consists of a mass of nerve tissue that occupies most of the skull and has the functions of ratiocination and language, among others. It has an ovoid shape with the most elongated portion backwards. It weighs about 1,100 grams average. The left side of the brain governs the right side of the body and the right side of the brain governs the left side. The left brain is logical, while the right side is intuitive. For Haragei masters and ancient specialists in the art of sword fighting, it can be described as a three-story castle. The 1st floor subconscious - is the "residence of our automatic impulses", symbolizing the live amount of services performed. The 2nd floor conscious - is the "domain of the current achievements", where emerge and consolidate the noble qualities that we are building. The 3rd floor - superconscious - is the "house of upper notions", indicating the eminences of what matters to achieve. For our mind to continue in the direction toward above, balance of these three areas of our brain is essential.

The mind is the guide of that microscope universe (the brains), in which billions of corpuscles and multiform energies are devoted to your service. From it emanate the flows of the will, determining a huge network of stimuli, reacting to the demands of the outside landscape, or responding suggestions from the inner zones. Various Zen masters and those who follow Japanese culture in a more mystical way, establish an internal road within the mind, which is located between the objective and the subjective; the mind is forced by the Divine Law to lear n, check, choose, reject , accept, collect, store , enrich, illuminate, always progress. From the objective plane, it receives the problems and influences of direct struggle; from the subjective sphere, it absorbs the inspiration, more or less intense, of the disembodied or embodied intelligences that are related to it and the results of mental creations which are peculiar to it. In the path of Kenjutsu, although it might remain apparently stationary, the mind goes on his way without looking behind, under the unfailing action of visible or invisible forces. Many students that became great teachers, discovered in this way of observation that in the course of a combat, life and death are mixed, the value of Ma-Ai is to be found in the separation of the feelings that are externalized in the form of "time and distance" between the opponent , causing the perfect and accurate distance! From the point of view of its application, and not only in the practice of the sword, every form

requires a preparation or forms that make possible a better understanding, Sujimichi, that years later has also been termed Kyoju-h; it refers to the methods of preparatory exercises for the forms specifically studied for war. They are primarily decided in the graduation of Shodan in: Iwa (Chku; t-sa; en-p;) Hend (Shita; Ue; Jge; Sayu; chikaku) Matsu (Chku; t-sa; en-p;) "It comes in and out before your eyes, responding to phenomena, following the emotions. When it's carefree, with no obstruction, all efforts are successful. (Hsin-wang-ming by Fu-yu - 497-569) The student is conceived as a dynamic being, which always interacts with reality, actively operating with objects and people. This interaction with the environment makes him build "mental structures" and acquire ways to make them work. The central axis, therefore, is the organism-environment interaction and that interaction takes place throughout two simultaneous processes: the internal organization and adaptation to the environment, which are functions performed by the body throughout life. In the past, it was through these exercises that great masters built the martial personality of each student. We must think that the development process is influenced

by factors such as: maturity (biological grow th o f o rg an s) , exercising (functioning of schemes and organs that have to do with the formation of habits), social learning (development of values, language, customs, and cultural and social patterns) and balance (internal self-regulation process of the body, which sets itself up as the continuous search fo r rebalancing after each suffered imbalance). It's here that we can see the building of various identities related to different "Ryu". In other words: in order to build that knowledge, the conceptions of the relationship Senpai - Kohai are combined with the information coming from the means (Ryu), to the extent that knowledge is scarcely conceived as being spontaneously discovered by the student (kohai), or mechanically transmitted by the exter nal environment or by adults, but as the result of an interaction, in which the subject is always an active element, who actively strives for understanding the world around him and seeks to resolve the questions posted by the world, and comprehend the application of energies in the traditional arts. In the history of sword practice, some of the most traditional masters forced their students to practice intensely with the Boken in the Makiwara, tires, tied bundles of bamboo rods... Incessant, exhaustive, lots of repeated movements and much emphasis on breathing. Logically, all these exercises aim to strengthen the impact of the sword, seeking to acquire a perfect cut. On the other hand, we must consider the extreme relevance of the influence of body energy. Repeating just the movement without understanding its deep motives, is transforming its essence

in a meaningless bunch of repeated gestures. Downward movement towards Makiwara (which is horizontal) represents the strength of the body, in this case generated by the Hara in the form of a cut. For this, the Haragei works on the Hara so that its contractions and expansions generate a movement producing heat that emerges in the center of the body and flows along the spine to the hands. The masters of the past, mainly in the mid-nineteenth century, studied the heat in a scientific and rational way. Heat was recognized as a kind of motion of the molecules of matter. Swords makers knew well this theory when they applied its expertise in the manufacturing of swords. Haragei exercises, in this case of the Makiwara practice, seek the two states of this heat: steam and solid. Furthermore, in solids, it was believed that molecules vibrated or oscillated around fixed points in the inner of the Hara and therefore in the blood, causing that many, through this awareness, would add aids to their food for strengthening the body energy. When Hara energy was looked at under the Water element, this movement corresponded to a heat in the form of a liquid. Thus, in this "liquefied" state, its movement was less restricted, as the molecules were able to develop away from the others with relative ease. For the most scholarly masters, it's the element that produces steam through the Hara, where molecular motion becomes the greatest of them all. Thence the assessment of KI in the form of steam. It was deeply concluded that, as gas molecules were far apart, their movement was not essentially affected by any attraction between molecules. Each molecule simply dislocated in a straight line until it

collided with another molecule that was on its path, whether of KI itself or any other started process. For the impact of sword training, teachers sought to fulfill a method that repeated every element a certain number of times, in order to strengthen the relationship of the Hara with all of them. The intention is to use the Hara in the Earth element, and, after the starting of the Fire element, apply it so that the Ki flows in the form of steam reaching both hands, which will direct the sword towards the Makiwara. This makes possible that, through the steam, the molecular motion can be relatively free of intermolecular attractive forces. Molecules move freely in the empty space, colliding one another and with the pathways of the arms strengthened by the exercise of impact. The arms are receiving a continuous bombing, as the molecules reach them and jump. Each one of these impacts produces a small force on the bony walls, which adds to the rest of them to form a constant average force per area unit. Thus, practicing just for the exercise itself will barely strengthen the physical body. The real motive of the impact is in the concentration of the forces in the form of energy during impact or cutting. It is known to all masters and practitioners of Haragei, that different cuts require different types of breathing and axes related to the Hara. Speaking more deeply, when an area gets loaded, the energetic fluid is released into the blood stream and is directed towards those zones so that they maintain the load and the pressure of the KI energy, distributing it gradually to the whole body and, in the Kenjutsu case, depositing in in the limbs, which, lengthened by the presence of the sword, get in conflict with the steel thereof.

The power of physical strength relies directly on muscularity; the larger the muscle mass, the greater its power of development, although there are some people who have counteracted this with other methods: does not hit harder he who has bigger muscles, but the one who has more skill in doing it... It is quite common to watch boxing matches in which someone scarcely muscled knocks out a Herculean and impressive opponent with just one blow. Julio Cesar Chavez, now retired, was not particularly well-built, yet he had a terrible striking power (over 80% of his matches were won by KO). Bruce Lee was only 5, 38 ft. tall and weighed 132 lb., but still all who knew him claimed he had an awesome punching power, as if his weigh was 35 more pounds than it really was. What makes a striker? What is the secret of the striking power?

n martial arts and contact sports, power is better defined as the force and physical strength that a person is capable to generate in a movement or a series thereof, and so, with the energy developed, the person can break, shift and even injure his opponent or sports activity fellow.In theoretical terms, power is the result of the mathematical equation "1/2 M (mass) x V_ (velocity squared). From which we can deduce that the speed factor becomes more important than mass when it comes to determine the power that a blow can acquire. But in the practice, we can check that most of the good strikers, those who can knock out someone with a single punch, do not outstand for their speed. The reason is they base to a great extent their striking power on a solid settlement on the ground, so that they can charge their whole body weight on the strike, leading the energy from their heels and through the hips, up to their knuckles. And, evidently, it is a lot faster hitting only with the arm than hitting with "the whole body weight, but it's also much less crushing. Fighters like Rocky Marciano, Mike Tyson, George Foreman, Marvin "the Wonder" Hagler, Roberto "Mano 'e piedra" Duran, Julio Cesar Chavez or Nigel Benn, all of them awesome punchers, were never noted for their speed, as neither did Kickboxers like Ramon Dekkers or Rob Kaman.Many circumstances must be given to convert a punch or a kick into a final blow; a real fighter must bring together many qualities in his work of punches and kicks. To start with, a real fighter must have a good technical basis (no need be a refined stylist) because, just like running requires first learning to walk, to become a conclusive striker first you must learn to strike. Now to achieve this, you should improve certain factors that are essential in the development of power, like:

SUPPORTING POINTS:
You can't hit without a supporting point. The fist-foot action depends on the fighter's balance disposition; in order to set his body in motion or even to keep its inertia, the fighter must secure his support. Supporting points are imperative to carry out powerful techniques, since every well-executed blow is supported by the mass of the body in motion. If during execution you miss your supporting point (by imbalance), the blow itself will lose all its effectiveness. TRAJECTORY LENGTH: According to physics, the longer the blow trajectory, the greater the speed you can achieve with your fist or your leg. That's why widespread "volley" type blows are so dangerous if they reach their goal. The same goes for kicks, the longer their path, the stronger the power they develop. ACCELERATION OF THE MOVEMENT: Whatever the path length of a blow, the most important thing is the speed reached by the fist or the foot at the time of impact. The element of acceleration of the movement is crucial to the development of power; without acceleration you can't hit with power. Muscles play a direct role in the acceleration factor; muscles are a type of tissue specialized in contracting

when it receives the appropriate stimulus. The relative weight of muscular tissue is 44'1 % of the individual's weight (in adults can be 45%). Its power reaches maximum development between 20 and 30 years of age. It largely depends on the workout of coordination of efforts or muscle exercises. In Martial Arts arise favorable circumstances for muscle coordination, especially with the upper extremities, starting from 11 to 13 years; getting power, but scarcely increasing the volume and therefore without altering the development of young pupils. This can be possible by making them perform the right exercises in their workout, avoiding as far as possible monotony in their physical preparation. The high stability of muscles around age 13, already ensures the possibility of a more justified and moderated development of the qualities of speed and strength, maintaining a perfect balance between technique and elasticity. Of course, body weight is determinant, but is not the only factor. Muscularity (understood as an important muscle mass) gives strength, greater resistance to punishment and increased thrusting power, but it seems that when it comes to hitting, it hardly counts. A few years ago, it was thought that the bigger the muscle volume was, the more power could be generated, that's why many martial art practitioners began to delve into the world of the Body Building, experiencing with different exercises. They soon discovered that in proprotion as their muscle mass their speed increased, diminished, and soon spread the black legend that both activities were incompatible.... Anyway, having a large muscle volume does not mean having power, but having the required attribute to develop it, because then you need to channel it and exercise it through practice. Normally, when you have a strong punching power and you can reach your adversary with precision, there's no need to combine too many blows to nullify him; one or two are usually sufficient. In fact, when we speak of "strikers", we mean those fighters who

decide a fight with one KO punch, and not those who get to knock out their opponents after countless series of blows. If you lack power, if you have (as it's said in boxing slang) "cotton fists," then it's but logical that you have to combine a lot of blows if you want to win. As stated by coaches and champions, the firmest and most effective fighter is the one

who manages to end the fight in less time, because in this way, he risks less to beating and exhaustion. But most people do not have such a strong power; on the other hand, in a fight there are too many factors involved that effectively reduce the efficacy of the striking power. Obviously, you can't carry out a combination of 6 or 7 movements

"In my DVD that I edited on training, I explained some exercises to work out and develop power. I hope they can be of help to you".

charging the entire body weight in each blow. That's why big strikers are fighters of one single blow, and not of blow combinations. In fact, in the pugilistic jargon and contact sports, these fighters are often called "hunters", since they seem to be constantly on the prowl, performing a few techniques, as if they were waiting for a chance to "hunt" the opponent with a decisive action. Apart from a strong punch, the main virtue that a striker has to grow to be

effective is timing or sense of opportunity (and this is one of the most difficult features to train). He not only should be able to hit hard, but also to know when. A good striker counts on many advantages: even if he is widely losing a fight to the points, if he can knock out his opponent in the last second, he will suddenly and unexpectedly get an undeniable victory. It is not so uncommon after all to see matches, in which one of the contestants is getting

a tremendous punishment, losing bout after bout, when suddenly he manages to throw a lucky and powerful punch, sending to the canvas his hitherto victorious opponent. A knock out is also an unquestionable victory, i.e., not subject to the opinions of judges, referee or commentators. As Bill Walace said: "A good fight, where there's no controversy, is when two enter the ring and one goes out on his own feet and the other on a stretcher..."

"By the laws of physics, as we have seen, techniques that develop power are those that are performed with the rear arm".

Logically, fist techniques shouldn't be as strong as leg techniques, since a kick crashes with more pounds of weight than a fist, legs being heavier than the arms. Nevertheless, watching full contact, kickboxing or even Thai boxing matches, is more common to see KOs produced by a punch or fist blow, than KOs, produced by a kick. This is partly explained by the speed, which is another power factor. A fist is faster than a leg, and speed (acceleration, in dynamic terms) increases the impact power. Anyone who has seen enough kick or Thai boxing encounters will have noticed that, although in theory a kick is much more powerful than a punch (legs are three times heavier than arms), about 80 % of KOs are the result of punching techniques. The explanation is that we, as human beings, handle our arms with much more ability and precision than our legs; also, it is a lot easier to charge the body weight on a punch than on a kick. Moreover, kicking is far more exhausting than punching, and so, in the second part of the fight, you start seeing less kicking and a lot more of punching; obviously, if we extrapolate this to the so called "classical martial arts", even to self-defense, it happens the same: they all show a clear preference for upper body techniques, something logical and natural on the other hand, since in all of these disciplines, combat usually opts for the middle distance, where rectilinear or direct fists are predominantly used for its simplicity and effectiveness. According to kinesiology (the science of human movement), in all combat hitting systems, the concept or direct fist dynamics is the same: all of them repeat the same path, there are only minor variations in throwing the blows from different positions or guards. Going deeper into the subject, the rear straight punch is usually the queen technique of any striker, but for it to be effective and reach successfully its goal, it requires the support of the advanced fist. Why? Simply by a physical law: since the shortest distance between two points is a straight line, in the case of the advanced fist, its features on executing this technique are: A SHORTER TRAJECTORY OF THE ARM. SHORTER TIME OF EXECUTION OF THE TECNIQUE. LOWER IMPACT POWER BY ITS LIMITED PATH. The advanced arm, being closer to the opponent, has to cover less distance to reach him, so it will be very fast, on the other hand, having a shorter path, in such a short space and time will result in a lower impact power. So far, almost no one has been K.O.'d by an advanced fist blow, as the mission of this technique is that of creating a repercussion, hammering, hitting repeatedly in order to open a gap or befuddle the adversary so as to connect the definite blow. It is undeniable that this punch is very fast, but not conclusive; this feature is held by its antagonist: the direct fist, executed with the rear arm. In boxing, this technique is called "direct", "cross" or right direct; in karate corresponds to the GYAKUTSUKI or direct blow with the opposite fist. In contact sports it is known as thrusting direct punch; as the name itself suggests, it defines the power generated in the execution; this is possible because it has the following characteristics: A LONGER ARM TRAJECTORY. LONGER TIME IN THE EXECUTION OF THE TECNIQUE. BIGGER IMPACT POWER. The straight punch executed with the rear arm, being further from the adversary, takes longer to

reach him, however it also has a longer way to go and therefore its impact is more powerful. On this subject, physics exposes the following example: if you throw an object weighing one kilogram from the first floor, having less path to travel, it will take less to reach the ground and therefore will fall with less strength than the same object thrown from the ninth floor, in which case, having a longer path, it will take longer to reach the ground, yet it will fall with more strength than from the first floor. As mentioned above, by their nature, they complement each other; it's something like the ying and the yang of Oriental Philosophy, night and day, man and woman, etc., Each has its own strong and weak points; many professionals don't even conceive one without the other. Both must coexist to be effective in combat; it is very difficult to connect a Jab or a percussing direct and knock out the opponent. However, it is the perfect start or chaining for a more effective attack: the rear fist direct punch. In short: the first punch, due to its speed, leaves the adversary baffled for a split second, or seconds. In this lapse of time we can execute the thrusting straight punch that may easily become the final blow. However, since it is performed with the rear fist and it has a longer path, it is more difficult (but not impossible) for the blow to reach by itself the adversary, if it's not been previously executed another technique. That's why in boxing these punches are defined as the "one-two", since the movement of both punches is usually conceived as a single attack technique. Of course, there is no rule without exception, and there are unusual cases in which individuals performing just one of these techniques have achieved their goal, although this is not the general trend. In addition, the jab, or percussive direct, is usually the beginning of an attack, namely, the movement that "opens" the door, whilst the thrusting direct punch is the movement that "closes" it. On several occasions, the percussive direct punch also serves to enchain with another slower technique that must not necessarily be the right direct, but a volley, a hook or even a leg technique.

By the laws of physics, as we have seen, techniques that develop power are those that are performed with the rear arm. Any of them can knock out an opponent, but to achieve this power

we must improve our speed in the execution of the blows. Also the action of switching our body weight from one foot to another, accompanying the path of a blow in order to increase the

mass set in motion, and therefore the power; for that we have to practice, first learning the technique and then selecting the suitable instrument with which we can train the movements. All

existing techniques require a complete and total dedication in training, so we have to work individually with the appropriate equipment (bag, paos, focus, shields, etc.).

In my DVD that I edited on training, I explained some exercises to work out and develop power. I hope they can be of help to you.