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Ministry of Education and Science of Russian Federation Novosibirsk State Technical University Department of Foreign anguage!

Engineering Faculties

Summary "Theory of linear antennas# by R$ %$ &$ 'ing

Faculty of Radio Engineering and Electronics (roup) RTM*+, Student) -ukhtiayrov D$ .$ Tutor) (ordeyeva M$ N$ Date) ,/$01$,+

Novosibirsk 10,+


,$ 2ntroduction 1$ "Theory of linear antennas# by R$ %$ &$ 'ing +$ 4onclusion (lossary -ibliography

1*+ +*3 3 3 3

1. Introduction
Ronold %yeth &ercival 'ing 5September ,6! ,607 * .pril ,0! 10038 9as an .merican applied physicist! kno9n for his contributions to the theory and application of micro9ave antennas$ :e published t9elve books and over three hundred articles in his area! as 9ell as mentored one hundred doctoral dissertations$ -orn in %illiamsto9n! Massachusetts! he moved to Rochester! Ne9 ;ork! 9here his father 9orked as a professor of (erman$ :e earned an .$-$ 5,61/8 and S$M$ 5,6168 degree in physics from the University of Rochester$ :e 9as an e<change student at the University of Munich 5,61=*168 and attended 4ornell University 5,616*+08! before completing his graduate studies at University of %isconsin>Madison 5,6+18 9here he obtained a &h$D$ on the thesis 4haracteristics of ?acuum Tube 4ircuits :aving Distributed 4onstants at Ultra* Radio Fre@uencies advised by Ed9ard -ennett and subse@uently 9as a research assistant 5,6+1*+A8$ 'ing 9as an instructor and assistant professor in physics at afayette 4ollege 5,6+A* +/8! and a (uggenheim Fello9 overseas 5,6+/! ,67=8$ :e Boined :arvard University as an instructor 5,6+=8! as assistant professor 5,6+68! associate 5,6A18! and as (ordon Mc'ay &rofessor of .pplied &hysics 5,6A3*/1! taken over by his former student Tai Tsun %u8! and professor emeritus 5,6/18$ :e resided at %inchester! Massachusetts! and 9rote the autobiography . Man of the 10th 4entury$ :is research group at :arvard spent the ,6A0s and C70s developing the theory of antenna 5radio8! using the cylindrical antenna as a boundary value problem subBect to Ma<9ellCs e@uations$ .lso! scattering and diffraction of electromagnetic 9aves from spheres! cylinders! strips! and disks! conducted 9ithin earth! under 9ater or in tissue$ &rofessor R$ %$ &$ 'ing is the author of several popular books)

,8 Electromagnetic engineering 5Mc(ra9*:ill! ,6A78 18 Transmission lines! antennas and 9ave guides 5Mc(ra9*:ill! ,6A78D +8 Theory of linear antennas 5E<ford University &ress! ,6738D A8 The scattering and diffraction of 9aves 5E<ford University &ress! ,6768D 78 .ntennas and 9aves! a modern approach 5M2T &ress! ,6/08D 38 .rrays of cylindrical dipoles 54ambridge &ress8D /8 .ntennas in matter 5M2T &ress! ,6=,8D =8 Fundamental electromagnetic theory and applications 5&rentice*:all! ,6=78D 68 4ylindrical .ntennas and .rrays 54ambridge &ress! 10018$ &rofessor R$ %$ &$ 'ing has been a9arded the follo9ing a9ards) ,8 2nstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers 52EEE8 ife fello9D 18 Distinguished Service .9ard from the University of %isconsin 5,6/+8D +8 &riFe &aper .9ard from the 2EEE Transactions on Electromagnetic 4ompatibility 5,6=+8D A8 4entennial Medal of the 2EEE 5,6=78D 78 Distinguished .chievement .9ard of the 2EEE 5,66/8D 38 2EEE (raduate Teaching .9ard from the 5,66/8D /8 4hen*To Tai Distinguished Educator .9ard from the 2EEE .ntennas and &ropagation Society 5100,8D =8 &rofessor R$%$&$ 'ing Education Fund 5,6/18$

2. Theory of linear antennas by R. W. P. King

2n present book an author carried out a systematic study of linear antennas! as the most common type of all antennas! 9ith comprehensive coverage of all @uestions related to antenna theory and design$ 2n Introduction author parts the antenna analysis as electrodynamics problem on such components as the theoretical analysis! the e<perimental investigation! and the correlation of theory 9ith e<periment$ Then in chapter ,! Essentials of electro agnetic theory! he introduces important symbols! defines fundamental formulas and e@uations! and gives brief definitions of main terms$ 2n chapter 1! !inear radiators as circuit ele ents ! author vie9s the differences bet9een practical 5engineering! consisting of the three above*mentioned components8 and analytical 5mathematical8 approaches to the antenna analysis! and e<plains the choice bet9een these approaches depending on the purposes! analyFing structures and e<pected

results$ Then the author performs the most complete analysis of the thin 9ire 5cylindrical8 transmitting antenna driven from a conventional transmission line! 9hich is the most important of the simple isolated 5standalone8 radiating structures$ During the analysis the author accessibly sho9s that this 9idespread structure does not provide mathematically convenient boundary conditions! so itCs necessary to use appro<imate methods$ 2n chapter +! Circuit "ro"erties of arrays of linear radiators ! the author notes that in practice all radio communication systems re@uire at least t9o antennas! the transmitting antenna and the receiving antenna$ Eften a comple< antenna consists of a combination of many simple radiating elements! and called antenna array in this case$ .n antenna arrays have many valuable properties! detailed study of 9hich is given in chapter 3$ Elementary radiators of a transmitting array may be driven directly 5several or all of them8 if they are connected to a generator by a transmission line! so that both magnitudes and phases of the input currents of radiators may be controlled by generator$ .lternatively! if a radiator is not connected to a generator directly! but only by induction 5such elements are called parasites8! then both magnitude and phase of its current depends on array geometry and current of a driven radiator$ .nother one arrangement involves linear elements 9ith several driven points! or 9ith arms 9hich une@ual in length or nonparallel in the form of a ?$ For such radiators the coupled antennas problem 5definition and determination of self* and mutual impedances8 should be solved! 9hich is done by the author in this chapter$ The general analysis of t9o different and arbitrarily oriented antennas of 9hich the one is driven by a generator and the other is loaded is performed in chapter A! The recei#ing antenna as a circuit ele ent $ This problem can be formulated analytically in terms of a system of integral e@uations only 9ith arbitrary distance bet9een the antennas! but solution is available only for great distances! 9hen a receiving antenna is situated in the far*Fone field of a transmitting antenna$ Thus! essential properties of receiving and scattering antennas are derived as a result of such analysis$ 2n chapter 7! The electro agnetic field of center$dri#en and using are obtained$ 2n chapter 3! Electro agnetic fields of antenna arrays! author formulates the basic re@uirement for a transmitting antenna! namely the maintaining of necessary level of ulti"le half$%a#e antennas! the detailed analysis of such antennas is presented and the results for further

the far*Fone electromagnetic field intensity in the direction of the receiving antenna$ Supplementary re@uirement may include a vanishingly small field 5null in a radiation pattern of an antenna8 in some other directions$ Thus! an antennaCs pattern should be sharp directional for point*to*point communication and omnidirectional for broadcasting$ . re@uired kind of directivity may be obtained by superimposing the fields of arrays of linear radiators! depending on the number and relative locations of radiators and the magnitudes and phases of the currents in them$ 2f all radiators are identical and have currents of e@ual magnitude and progressive phase se@uence! the array is called uniform! other9ise nonuniform G1D 7/6H$ 2t is usually convenient to have all elements in an array of center* driven antennas a half*9avelength long or less G1D 7/6H$ 2t has been sho9n by the author! that in this case the distributions of current are very nearly sinusoidal$ .fter completion of study of the directional properties of the transmitting antenna arrays the author notes that all obtained results can be applied to the receiving antenna arrays by application of a reciprocal theorem$ Fre@uently antennas are located sufficiently far from the surface of the earth to make them appro<imately e@uivalent to isolated antennas$ -ut some antennas 5e$g$ broadcast8 are mounted on the earth! or so near to its surface that the interaction bet9een currents in the antenna and in the earth affects the distribution of the current in the antenna and its driving*point impedance$ 2nvestigation of such antennas is described in chapter /! &ntennas o#er a conducting region$ The degree of above*mentioned influence differs! but the far*Fone electromagnetic field of antennas al9ays strongly depends on the currents in the earth and in the tropospheric and ionospheric media surrounding it! so in order to determine this field it is necessary to solve the comple< boundary*value problem of an antenna above a conducting spherical earth$ 2n order to simplify the analysis this problem is subdivided into independent solvable components$ .t first the primary 5basic8 electromagnetic field induced by conduction currents in the antenna and in the earth 5so* called ground 9ave8 is determined! after that the secondary 5reflected8 field induced by displacement currents in the ionosphere or troposphere 5so*called sky 9ave8 is determined and then combined 9ith the primary field to give the complete field$ 2n this chapter the study only of the ground*9ave is performed! and also the old classic boundary*value problem of the electric and magnetic :ertFian dipoles over an infinite conducting ground is solved$

2n chapter =! The antenna as a boundary$#alue "roble ! author formulates the antenna problem 9ith emphasis on the mathematical approach and chooses the structures 9ith mathematically convenient boundaries in order to use 9ell*kno9n analyFing techni@ues$ -y this action the purely mathematical crudities in the practical approach 5chapter 18 are eliminated! but a ne9 problem of correlating the properties of mathematical abstractions 9ith the e<perimentally measurable properties of real devices arises$ Such a correlation is available only 9hen some appro<imation chosen 9ith criticism is made$ The author illustrates all above*mentioned items in e<amples during the analysis of a hemispheroidal and conical antennas$ Then chapters from 6 to ,+) &""endi'! Proble s! (ibliogra"hy! !ist of "rinci"al sy bols! and Inde' follo9s to the end of the book$

). Conclusion
2n present book! besides descriptions 59ord material8 of linear antennas! e@uations for current distributions! far*Fone electric and magnetic fields! input impedances as a function of fre@uency together 9ith figures! plots! tables and diagrams are given$ The book is still 9idely used by specialists for solving fundamental @uestions of the antenna theory and for development of many important kinds and constructions of antennas! and often cited in many other books and papers$

boundary value problem 5IJK$ LIMNOMP QMRMSM8 antenna array 5IJK$ MTUNTTMP INVNULM8 magnitude and phase 5IJK$ MWXYZUJRM Z [MQM8 radiation pattern 5IJK$ RZM\IMWWM TMXIMOYNTT]KUZ8 reciprocal theorem 5IJK$ UN]INWM OQMZWT]KUZ8 driving*point impedance 5IJK$ K]XI]UZOYNTZN O U]SLN XZUMTZP8 displacement currents 5IJK$ U]LZ KWN^NTZP8


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