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DESIGN GENERAL SPECIFICATION

COLD INSULATION FOR PIPING AND EQUIPMENT

5 4 3 2 1 0 A
Rev

27/05/01 15/10/00
Date DD/MM/YY

ALI A.FATTAH ALI A.FATTAH


WRITTEN BY

JOHN DWYER JOHN DWYER


CHECKED BY

ABDUL AZIZ AL AMERI ABDUL AZIZ AL AMERI


APPROVED BY

ISSUED FOR IMLEMENTATION ISSUED FOR COMMENTS


STATUS

DOCUMENT REVISIONS Sections changed in last revision are identified by a vertical line in the left margin

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CONTENTS 1. GENERAL .................................................................................................................................................4 1.1 INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................................................4 1.2 PURPOSE...............................................................................................................................................4 1.3 DEFINITIONS ..........................................................................................................................................4 1.4 EXCLUSION ............................................................................................................................................5 1.5 FREQUENTLY USED ABBREVIATIONS ........................................................................................................5 2. CODES AND STANDARDS......................................................................................................................5 3. REFERENCE DOCUMENTS ....................................................................................................................6 4. DOCUMENT PRECEDENCE....................................................................................................................7 5. SPECIFICATION DEVIATION/CONCESSION CONTROL ......................................................................7 6. QUALITY ASSURANCE/QUALITY CONTROL .......................................................................................7 7. DOCUMENTATION ...................................................................................................................................7 8. RESPONSIBILITIES .................................................................................................................................8 8.1 CONTRACTOR....................................................................................................................................8 8.2 SUBCONTRACTOR ............................................................................................................................8 9. HANDLING................................................................................................................................................8 9.1 PACKAGING AND SHIPPING ......................................................................................................................8 9.2 PRESERVATION AND STORAGE .................................................................................................................9 10. DESIGN OF INSULATION SYSTEMS ...................................................................................................9 10.1 GENERAL .............................................................................................................................................9 10.2 INSULATION CLASSIFICATION .................................................................................................................9 10.3 INSULATION SYSTEMS ...........................................................................................................................9 10.4 EXTENT OF INSULATION ......................................................................................................................10 10.5 INSULATION THICKNESS ......................................................................................................................11 11. MATERIALS..........................................................................................................................................12 11.1 GENERAL ...........................................................................................................................................12 11.2 INSULATION MATERIALS ......................................................................................................................13 11.3 VAPOR BARRIERS ...............................................................................................................................18 11.4 JOINT SEALANT/ADHESIVE MATERIALS..................................................................................................21 11.5 METALLIC JACKET ..............................................................................................................................22 11.6 ACCESSORY MATERIALS .....................................................................................................................22

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12. APPLICATION ......................................................................................................................................23 12.1 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS...................................................................................................................23 12.2 PIPING ...............................................................................................................................................26 12.3 PIPE SUPPORTS .................................................................................................................................29 12.4 FITTINGS, VALVES, FLANGES AND INTRICATE SHAPES ...........................................................................30 12.5 MECHANICAL CONTRACTION JOINTS FOR BELLOWS EXPANSION JOINTS ..................................................31 12.6 EQUIPMENT .......................................................................................................................................31 12.7 INSULATION OF SPHERES 12.8 FIRE PROTECTION INSULATION (CELLULAR GLASS)................................................................................33 12.9 ACOUSTIC INSULATION........................................................................................................................33 12.10 SAFETY ASPECTS .............................................................................................................................33 12.11 INSPECTION .....................................................................................................................................33 APPENDIX 1............................................................................................................................................36 APPENDIX 2............................................................................................................................................37 APPENDIX 3............................................................................................................................................38 APPENDIX 4-1.........................................................................................................................................39 APPENDIX 4-2.........................................................................................................................................40 APPENDIX 4.3.........................................................................................................................................41 APPENDIX 5............................................................................................................................................42 APPENDIX 6............................................................................................................................................43 APPENDIX 7............................................................................................................................................44 APPENDIX 8............................................................................................................................................45 APPENDIX 9............................................................................................................................................46 APPENDIX 10..........................................................................................................................................47 APPENDIX 11..........................................................................................................................................48 APPENDIX 12..........................................................................................................................................49 APPENDIX 13..........................................................................................................................................50 APPENDIX 14..........................................................................................................................................51 APPENDIX 15..........................................................................................................................................52 APPENDIX 16..........................................................................................................................................53 APPENDIX 17..........................................................................................................................................54

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1. 1.1

GENERAL Introduction This specification gives minimum requirements for the design, manufacture, testing, supply, commissioning, start-up, performance testing of thermal insulation for cold and dual temperature services for piping and equipment. Cold service is defined as equipment and piping at operating temperatures below ambient where reduction of heat gain and the prevention of surface condensation is desired. Dual temperature service is defined as vessels, equipment and piping at operating temperatures below ambient and where intermittently temperatures may occur up to 150C, or with normal pipe operating temperatures which are above ambient but intermittently reach ambient temperatures for a longer period of time where good causes for occurrence of condensation within the insulation finish exist. Minimum/maximum operating temperatures shall be taken as those given for the flowing medium as stated on the Mechanical Line Schedule and the equipment data/requisition sheets. This specification covers application of PIR, PUF and Cellular Glass insulation. The recommended insulation for the Project shall be the cold insulation system meets the requirements of this specification. If more than one system meets the requirements, the economical one shall be used. Acoustic insulation for piping and equipment operating at temperatures below ambient is also covered by this specification. Where cross references are made, the number of the section or sub-section referred to is shown in brackets.

1.2

Purpose Cold insulation is required to reduce the transfer of heat to piping and equipment, to control process temperatures, avoid condensation and icing on the exterior surfaces, reduce excessive viscosity of fluids and materials and personnel protection.

1.3

Definitions For the purpose of this specification, the following definitions shall apply:

1.3.1 COMPANY ABU DHABI GAS INDUSTRIES LTD. (GASCO) 1.3.2 CONCESSION REQUEST A deviation requested by the SUBCONTRACTOR OR VENDOR, usually after receiving the contract package or purchase order. Often, it refers to an authorization to use, repair, recondition, reclaim, or release materials, components or equipment already in progress or completely manufactured but which does not meet or comply with ADNOC requirements. A CONCESSION REQUEST is subject to COMPANY approval. 1.3.3 CONTRACTOR The party which carries out all or part of the Design, Engineering, Procurement, Construction and Commissioning or Management of the Project. 1.3.4 MANUFACTURER / VENDOR The party which manufactures and/or supplies the insulation materials, technical documents/drawings and services to perform the duties specified by COMPANY/CONTRACTOR.

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1.3.5 PROJECT To be defined. 1.3.6 SHALL Indicates a mandatory requirement. 1.3.7 SHOULD Indicates a strong suggestion. 1.3.8 SUBCONTRACTOR The party which carries out all or part of the material takeoff, design (in special cases), procurement, installation, and inspection of the insulation and weatherproofing materials as specified by the CONTRACTOR. 1.4 Exclusion This specification does not cover the insulation or coatings for underground piping or equipment or insulation for hot services. 1.5 Frequently used abbreviations Throughout this specification the following technical abbreviations have been used: PUF PIR 2. Polyurethane foam Polyisocyanurate foam

CODES AND STANDARDS 2.1 The following codes and standards shall, to the extent specified herein, form a part of this specification. Where a specific edition date is not indicated, it shall be taken that the most current edition (including addenda) in effect at the time of SUBCONTRACTORS proposal or submittal shall apply. 2.2 The publications listed below form a part of this specification to the extent referenced. The publications are referred to, in the text, by the basis designations only.

AMERICAN STANDARDS ASTM A 167 ASTM B 209M ASTM C 165 ASTM C 167 ASTM C 177 ASTM C 240 ASTM C 303 ASTM C 518 ASTM C 547 ASTM C 552 ASTM C 585 ASTM C 612 ASTM C 623 Specification for Corrosion Resisting Chromium-nickel Steel plate, Sheet and strip Aluminum-Alloy Sheet and Plate (Metric) Compressive Strength of Preformed Block-Type thermal insulation Tests for Thickness and Density of Blanket or Batt-type thermal insulating Materials Steady State Thermal Transmission Properties by means of the Guarded Hot Plate Cellular Glass Insulating block, Standard Method of testing Density of Preformed Block-Type Thermal Insulation Steady State Heat Flux Measurements and Thermal Transmission Properties by means of a Heat Flow Meter Apparatus Specification for Mineral Fiber Preformed Pipe Insulation Cellular Glass Block and Pipe-Thermal Insulation Inner and Outer Diameters of Rigid Thermal Insulation for Normal Sizes of Pipe and Tubing (NPS System) Specification for Mineral Fiber Block and Board Thermal Insulation Young's Modulus, Shear Modules and Poisson's Ratio of glass and glass Ceramics by Resonance

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ASTM D 1621 ASTM D 1622 ASTM D 1692 ASTM D 303 ASTM D 2126 ASTM D 2856 ASTM D 3014 ASTM D 3014 ASTM E 84 ASTM E 96

Compressive Properties of Rigid Cellular Plastics Density Apparent or Rigid Cellular Plastics Rate of Burning and/or Extent and Time of Burning of Cellular Plastics using a Specimen Supported by a Horizontal Screen Test Method for Tensile Properties of Fiber Resin Composites Test Method for Response of Rigid Cellular Plastic to Thermal and Humid Ageing Open Cell Content of Rigid Cellular Plastics by the Air Pycnometer Flame Height, Time of Burning and Loss of Weight of Rigid Cellular Plastics in a Vertical Position Retention of Weight (Butler Chimney test) Surface Burning Characteristics of building Water Vapor transmission of Materials in Sheet Form

BRITISH STANDARDS BS 476 BS 1470 BS 2972 BS 4370 BS 5750 BS 5970 3. Fire Tests on Building Materials and Structures Part 7, Surface Spread of Flame Test for Materials Wrought Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys, Sheet and Strip Methods of Test for Inorganic Thermal Insulating Materials Methods of Test for Rigid Cellular Materials Quality Systems Thermal Insulation of Pipework and Equipment (Temperature Range of - 100C to +870C)

REFERENCE DOCUMENTS In this publication reference is made to the publications listed below. The latest issue of each publication shall be used together with any amendments/supplements /revisions unless otherwise stated. PROJECT SPECIFICATION STD-1300-001 DGS-6000-003 DGS-6500-010 DGS-6600-010 DGS-6710-001 Piping Standard Drawings Acoustic Insulation For Pipes, Valves and Fittings Hot Insulation For Piping and Equipment Painting Preservation and Export Packing

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4.

DOCUMENT PRECEDENCE It shall be the SUBCONTRACTORS responsibility to be or to become, knowledgeable of the requirements of the referenced codes and standards. The SUBCONTRACTOR shall notify the CONTRACTOR of any apparent conflict between this specification, product data sheets, the codes and standards, and any other specification or document noted herein. Resolution and/or interpretation precedence shall be obtained from the CONTRACTOR in writing before proceeding with application of any insulation material.

5.

SPECIFICATION DEVIATION/CONCESSION CONTROL Any technical deviation to the purchase order/contract and its attachment including, but not limited to, the data sheets and narrative specification shall be sought by the SUBCONTRACTOR only through the CONCESSION REQUEST format. CONCESSION REQUESTS require the CONTRACTORS and the COMPANYS review and approval, prior to the proposed technical changes being implemented. Technical changes implemented prior to COMPANY approval are subject to rejection.

6.

QUALITY ASSURANCE/QUALITY CONTROL Quality Management System shall comply with the applicable requirements of ISO 9001 : 1994. The SUBCONTRACTOR shall have in effect at all times, a QA/QC program which clearly establishes the authority and responsibility of those responsible for the quality system. Persons performing quality functions shall have sufficient and well defined authority to enforce quality requirements that initiate, identify, recommend and provide solutions to quality problems and verify the effectiveness of the corrective action. The SUBCONTRACTOR is solely responsible for all quality control activities and documentation. If the SUBCONTRACTOR is unable to comply with this specification, he shall inform the CONTRACTOR for resolution. A copy of the SUBCONTRACTORS QA/QC program shall be submitted to the CONTRACTOR with its quotation for the CONTRACTORS review and approval prior to award. The SUBCONTRACTOR shall identify in the purchase documents to its VENDORS all applicable QA/QC requirements imposed by the CONTRACTOR, and shall ensure compliance thereto. On request, SUBCONTRACTOR shall provide objective evidence of its QA/QC surveillance of its VENDORS activities. The SUBCONTRACTOR shall submit certified reports of production tests as soon as the tests are satisfactorily completed. The COMPANY/CONTRACTOR reserves the right to inspect materials and workmanship at all stages of manufacture and to witness any or all tests. The SUBCONTRACTOR, 30 days after award but prior to the pre-inspection meeting, shall provide the CONTRACTOR with a copy of its VENDORS manufacturing and its own inspection plan for review and inclusion of any mandatory COMPANY/CONTRACTOR witness points.

7.

DOCUMENTATION SUBCONTRACTOR shall submit the type and quantity of drawings material safety data sheets and other documentation for CONTRACTORS authorization or information as listed in the individual Material Requisitions and Purchase Orders. Mutual agreement on scheduled submittal of drawings and engineering data shall be an integral part of any formal Purchase Order.

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Comments made by CONTRACTOR on drawing submittals shall not relieve SUBCONTRACTOR or VENDORS of any responsibility in meeting the requirements of the specifications. Such comments shall not be construed as permission to deviate from requirements of the Purchase Order unless specific and mutual agreement is reached and confirmed in writing. Each drawing shall be provided with a title block in the bottom right-hand corner incorporating the following information: Official trade name of the COMPANY SUBCONTRACTORS drawing number Drawing title giving the description of contents whereby the drawing can be identified A symbol or letter indicating the latest issue or revision PO number and item tag numbers Revisions to drawing shall be identified with symbols adjacent to the alterations, a brief description in tabular form of each revision shall be given, and if applicable, the authority and date of the revision shall be listed. The term Latest Revision shall not be used. 8. 8.1 RESPONSIBILITIES CONTRACTOR The CONTRACTOR shall provide the SUBCONTRACTOR with a set of P&IDs, Mechanical Line List, length of insulation on pipe, insulation detail drawings, and type of insulation on pipe. 8.2 8.2.1 8.2.2 8.2.3 8.2.4 8.2.5 9. 9.1 9.1.1 SUBCONTRACTOR The SUBCONTRACTOR shall assume unit responsibility and overall guarantee for the installed insulation system. The SUBCONTRACTOR shall transmit all relevant purchase order documents including specifications to his VENDORS. It is the SUBCONTRACTORS responsibility to enforce all purchase order and specification requirements on his VENDORS. The SUBCONTRACTOR shall submit all relevant VENDOR drawings and engineering data to the CONTRACTOR. The SUBCONTRACTOR shall obtain and transmit all VENDOR warranties to the CONTRACTOR/COMPANY, in addition to the system warranty. HANDLING Packaging and shipping Preparation for shipment shall be in accordance with the SUBCONTRACTORS/VENDORS standards, project specification RP 5610Y 001-6710-001 and as noted herein. SUBCONTRACTOR/VENDOR shall be solely responsible for the adequacy of the preparation for shipment provisions with respect to materials and application, and to provide equipment at the destination in ex-works condition when handled by commercial carriers. Adequate protection shall be provided to prevent physical damage and atmospheric damage

9.1.2

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to insulation or weatherproofing materials in transit and at the jobsite. 9.1.3 Preparation for shipment and packing will be subject to inspection and rejection by the COMPANYS/CONTRACTORS inspectors. All costs occasioned by such rejection shall be to the account of the SUBCONTRACTOR/VENDOR. Preservation and storage Insulation materials shall be protected to withstand ocean transit and extended periods of storage at the jobsite for a minimum period of 18 months. Materials shall be protected to safeguard against all adverse environments, such as: humidity, moisture, rain, dust, dirt, sand, mud, salt air, salt spray, and seawater. All material shall be preserved and export packed in accordance with Project Specification DGS-6710-001. DESIGN OF INSULATION SYSTEMS General

9.2 9.2.1

9.2.2

10. 10.1

10.1.1 The insulation of cold and dual temperature services is required for: a. Cold conservation. b. Heat flux control of processes and product lines. c. Preventing vapor condensation on the outside surface of the insulating system of piping and equipment having a temperature below the dew point of the surrounding atmosphere. d. Personnel protection from hot or cold surfaces (cold burns and falling ice). 10.1.2 An important requirement of a cold insulation system is to prevent water ingress into the insulation. The presence of water as vapor, liquid or ice in the insulation will decrease its insulating value and may eventually lead to underlagging corrosion of the insulated metal surfaces. In order to prevent water ingress and underlagging corrosion, the vapor barriers and metallic jacketing should be properly selected and applied and all insulated metal surfaces shall be suitably painted (12.1.3). 10.2 Insulation classification

10.2.1 Cold Insulation Where required cold insulation prevents condensation or icing on the outside surface of the insulating system, conserve low temperatures or controls heat input into the contained fluid within a temperature range of ambient and below. 10.2.2 Dual Temperature 10.2.3 Where required, prevents surface condensation, conserves low temperatures or controls heat input into the contained fluid within the temperature range of -40 C up to +150 C. 10.3 Insulation systems

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For cold and dual-temperature services in the temperature range from below ambient up to 90 C PUF/PIR shall be used. Above 90 C, cellular glass shall be used. The insulation system for cold and dual-temperature services can be applied either completely with layers of pre-formed sections (PUF/PIR and/or cellular glass) or a combination of preformed sections with dispensed PUF. A secondary vapor barrier shall be applied between the outermost layer and the next inner layer of the insulation, except in the case when only cellular glass is used. The insulation shall then be finished with a primary vapor barrier on the outside and surrounded with a metallic jacket except in the case when cellular glass is used. On cellular glass it will be only applied a mastic vapor barrier reinforced with a polyester fabric. The various types of insulation systems are shown in APPENDIX 6. The SUBCONTRACTOR may propose alternative insulation systems, provided the materials used meet the requirements of this specification and that the systems have demonstrated thermal and structural integrity after "cryogenic condition" testing of 10 thermal cycles. The test pipe for cryogenic condition testing shall have a minimum diameter of 10" and a minimum length of 4.0 m. . Insulation system is acceptable if no icing or structural damage occurs during testing. 10.3.2 Piping and Equipment All piping and equipment shall be insulated as a unit with a vapor stop at each interruption, including but not limited to valves, flanges, elbows, tees, supports, hangers and other protrusions. The vapor stop to be executed in accordance with (12.1.4). Pipe supports at operating temperature below ambient shall be of a "pre-engineered design" incorporating a multi-layered monolithic high density polyurethane of half pipe sections, factory-assembled with a vapor barrier and protection shield. 10.4 Extent of insulation

10.4.1 General When cold insulation is required, the entire system shall be fully insulated to such an extent that all piping components, piping/tubing of instruments, drains, equipment nozzles and supports are properly included. All metal parts which protrude through the insulation, shall be insulated as shown in APPENDICES 13 and 14. There shall be a minimum of 300 mm of bare metal after termination of the insulation. Protruding metal parts include, but are not limited to, skirts, lugs, legs, saddles, clips and pipe trunnion supports. Each line shall be insulated as a single unit. A minimum clearance of 50 mm shall be provided between the outer surface of the insulation and any obstruction such as structural steel, electrical conduits, piping or other insulated lines, to prevent unnecessary cutouts, thickness reductions etc., which would influence the thermal performance.

10.4.2 Equipment Support When equipment is supported on metal saddles, the insulation shall be carried down the saddles (from the low point of the vessel shell) a minimum of 4 times the insulation thickness, as shown in APPENDIX 12. The saddles shall be of sufficient length to allow a minimum of 300 mm of bare metal after termination of the insulation. The insulation collar shall be constructed in such a manner to serve as a continuous vapor barrier for the insulation. The insulation collar shall be seal-welded at all contact points with the saddle, including main DGS- 6500-020/FH

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support members and all gusset and stiffener members. The insulation collar shall extend horizontally beyond the saddle to support the full thickness of insulation. The vapor barrier and metallic jacket shall extend over the edge of the insulation collar and terminate on the underside of the insulation collar. Skirts supporting vertical equipment shall be insulated inside and outside from the bottom tangent line for a distance of minimum four times the insulation thickness but not less than 300 mm, as shown in APPENDIX 12. The exception to this requirement are skirts less than 1.2 m in diameter and less than 2 m in height where the skirt shall be of sufficient length to allow for a minimum of 300 mm of uninsulated skirt at the bottom. For skirts less than 1.2 m in diameter and less than 2 m in height, the entire interior cavity of the skirt shall be filled with PUF. The skirt opening shall be sealed by a rigid PIR disk inserted into the opening and sealed with a 3.2 mm Primary Vapor Barrier Mastic (11.3.2). When skirts are to be insulated by filling the cavity, the bottom of the skirt cavity, including anchorbolt openings, shall first be vapor sealed with a 3.2 mm Primary Vapor Barrier Mastic. 10.4.3 Attachments All metal such as insulation support rings or stiffeners, which are an integral part of the vessel, shall be insulated with half the total insulation thickness. Full thickness is required for single layer application. Gauge glasses of insulated equipment operating at 0C and above shall be fully insulated except for the face of the glass. Gauge glasses of equipment operating below 0C shall be furnished with a frost-free extension which shall extend a minimum of 20 mm beyond the outer surface of the insulation. Nameplates, coding tags etc. shall be insulated with removable insulating covers. A duplicate nameplate shall be installed over the outside surface of the insulation cover. The method of attachment shall not puncture the vapor seal. The supply of the duplicate nameplates shall be the responsibility of the Contractor. 10.4.4 Pumps and Compressors When pumps and compressors are to be insulated, thermal dams shall be provided to isolate the pump support from supporting steel or concrete. 10.4.5 Personnel Protection Where personnel protection is specified for uninsulated process piping and equipment having an operating temperature of minus 10C and below and whose location presents a personnel hazard, the surfaces shall be determined and provided with a suitable protection. The extent shall be limited to within the confines of a normal working area bounded by distances of not more than 2.0 m vertically or 0.8 m horizontally beyond access ways, ladders, platforms and work areas at ground level or elevations used by operating and maintenance personnel. Insulation should only be used for personnel protection if other alternative protective measures such as expanded metal shields, handrailings or other physical barriers are not suitable. For personnel protection of hot surfaces reference is made to DGS-6500- 010. 10.5 Insulation thickness Typical insulation thickness to prevent condensation on the outside of the insulation system are indicated in : a. APPENDIX 1 for PUF/PIR DGS- 6500-020/FH

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b. APPENDIX 2 for cellular glass. Insulation thickness for other relative humidities, ambient air temperatures and wind velocities other than indicated in the above APPENDICES shall be calculated separately. SUBCONTRACTOR and CONTRACTOR shall agree on the method of calculation to be applied. The thickness of the basic insulation on equipment heads shall be the same as the thickness on the cylindrical sections of the vessel. The thickness of the basic insulation on pipe fittings, valves and flanges shall be the same as the thickness applied on the adjoining pipe. The thickness of insulation for protruding parts shall be based upon the fluid temperature of the pipe or equipment to which the part is attached and the "size" determined as follows: a. For cylindrical attachments, use the nearest pipe size corresponding to the diameter of he attachment. b. For structural shapes, use the longest dimension (of the nominal section size) corresponding to the pipe size. For example : an 8" wide flange (WF) is equivalent 8" pipe a 6" x 4" angle is equivalent to a 6" pipe. The thickness of insulation on vessel clips shall be tapered down from the full thickness at the outside surface of the vessel shell insulation to the inside face of the outer flange (APPENDIX 13). The insulation thickness for personnel protection shall be a minimum of 25 mm thick.. For layering of insulation thickness see APPENDIX 5. 11. 11.1 MATERIALS General Materials furnished under this specification shall be standard catalogued products, new and commercially available, suitable for service requiring high performance and reliability with low maintenance and free from all defects. Materials include insulation materials, accessories (staples, bands, mesh wire, clips, pins, screws, tape, anchors, corner angles and similar recommended accessories) and compounds (adhesives, coatings and sealers) and protective finishes and similar items recommended for the applications indicated. The SUBCONTRACTOR, unless clearly otherwise stated, shall supply materials which meet the requirements in this specification with respect to design criteria, thermal conductivities and all other noted standards. The SUBCONTRACTOR shall warrant that materials furnished and installed are free of defects for a period of two (2) years from the time the system is completed. The SUBCONTRACTOR shall be responsible for the compatibility of all accessories, compounds, finishes and paint systems of piping/equipment with the insulation materials proposed. The SUBCONTRACTOR shall be responsible for the insulation materials or its accessories not effecting the materials of the components insulated. All accessories and materials (i.e. coatings, adhesives, sealants, sealers etc.) are to be DGS- 6500-020/FH

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shipped to the job site in the original, marked, unopened containers/boxes as provided by the MANUFACTURERS. The following alternative methods of manufacture/transportation of the pre-formed PUF/PIR materials should be considered and the SUBCONTRACTORS are required to submit details for consideration: a. Manufactured and fabricated complete at the MANUFACTURER'S works. b. Manufactured at the MANUFACTURER'S works and transported as bun stock for fabrication in field workshop facilities. c. Manufactured and fabricated completely in the field employing mobile manufacturing facilities. If foam materials in the form of bun stock are transported by ship, protection against salt spray and weathering shall be provided by wrapping buns in ultraviolet resistant polyethylene, tarpaulins or in closed containers. Following fabrication, all pre-formed insulation is required to be transported to and stored on the site in approved boxes/cartons. Basic premixed chemicals for the in situ molded foam shall be produced freshly and used within the factory advised shelf life of the product, taking into account all time lapses for transportation and storage. Transport of the basic premixed chemicals for the in situ molded foam shall be done in accordance with the factory instructions for transporting/storing of the chemicals. 11.2 Insulation materials

11.2.1 Pre-formed PUF/PIR Pre-formed PUF/PIR shall have the following minimum properties: a. Thermal conductivity at 20 C mean temperature per ASTM C-177 measured on 25 mm thick foam, cut on both sides and aged at 21 C for 180 days shall be no greater than 0.023 W/m.K. The thermal conductivity for freshly blown foam shall be no greater than 0.020 W/m.K. Minimum percentage of closed cells 90% (percent) per ASTM D-2856. Maximum water vapor permeance at 38 C and 100% RH shall be 4.38 x 10-3 g/Ns (ASTM E-96). Linear coefficient of thermal expansion/contraction 70 x 10-6 per C (BS 4370). Fire resistive properties: ASTM D-1692 (10/10 SE): self-extinguishing ASTM D-3014: 90% retention of weight f. g. Maximum leachable halides content 90 ppm. Structural properties.

b. c. d. e.

The density and the chemical formulation of the foam shall be selected in such a way that the following relation is satisfied :

where:

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= Tensile strength of the foam at -165C (minimum value of all directions in kPa) = Tensile modulus of the foam at -165C (maximum value of all directions in kPa) = Average linear contraction coefficient of the foam from -165 up to +21C (maximum value of all directions)

T2-T1 = 185C; temperature difference between cold surface and surroundings = 0.4; Poisson's ratio at -165C estimated value. Other values may be used if substantiated by experimental data.

The formula above is a safety factor, expressing the ratio of the tensile strength of material and the tensile stress induced in the material under cryogenic circumstances. In addition to the above requirements the foam shall have : a. b. A minimum density of 45 kg/m3, measured per ASTM D-1622 Compressive strengths of at least 200 kPa and 250 kPa at 10% deformation and at 20 C, perpendicular and parallel to foam rise respectively, as per ASTM D-1621 The above thermal and structural properties shall be supplemented by the following data : a. b. Test reports on compressive, tensile and shear strength and moduli in X, Y and Z directions at 21 C and also at -165 C. (ASTM C-165). Thermal conductivity versus temperature curve of the foam from -165 C to 65 C with adequate definition as per ASTM C-177 or C-518 measured on sample cut from freshly blown foam, after initial cure, parallel to foam rise. Minimum of six data points are required. Thermal conductivity versus time curve of foam aged for 180 days at 21 C and 50% RH measured by ASTM C-518 at 24 C parallel to foam rise. Adequate points are required to define curve. Thermal conductivity versus temperature curve of foam aged for 180 days from -40C to 65C measured by ASTM C-518 parallel to foam rise. Minimum of six data points are required. Contraction/expansion coefficients versus temperature curves from -165C to 21C in X, Y and Z directions.

c.

d.

e.

Where supplied in two halves, pipe sections shall be oversized to accommodate contractions (APPENDIX 3). For all sizes up to and including 10" NPS, the PUF/PIR shall be applied in two half sections. For sizes over 10" NPS and equipment between 250 mm and 3600 mm diameters, the PUF/PIR shall be supplied in radiuses and bevelled segments having a width on the outside radius of minimum 450 mm. For equipment in excess of 3600 mm diameter, the PUF/PIR may be supplied in flat bevelled blocks of maximum 150 mm wide. For equipment heads, the PUF/PIR shall be supplied preferably all in radiused and bevelled head segments for diameters between 900 mm and 3600 mm. For equipment heads up to 900 mm these shall be supplied in one piece blocks. DGS- 6500-020/FH

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For equipment heads over 3600 mm flat and bevelled blocks shall be used. 11.2.2 Pre-formed Spacers Pre-formed Spacers shall be of PUF/PIR with the following minimum properties: a. The spacers shall consist of fully monolithic molded (180) half pipe sections with a minimum density of 50 kg/m3, designed to form compartments for the in-situ molding operation. The foam shall have a fire-resistive property as defined in ASTM D-1692 (10/10 SE) : self-extinguishing. Minimum percentage of closed cells 90% per ASTM D-2856. Compressive strength: kPa minimum perpendicular to foam rise kPa minimum parallel to foam rise. e. Thermal conductivity at 20 C mean temperature per ASTM C-177, measured on 25 mm thick foam cut on both sides and aged at 21 C for 180 days shall be no greater than 0.025 W/m.K. The leachable halides content shall not exceed 90 ppm.

b. c. d.

f.

11.2.3 In-Situ Molded/Dispensed PUF The foam injection process shall be compatible with the atmospheric site conditions and a minimum temperature of 15C shall be maintained for foam components. The products are to be delivered on site in two components ready for use with the following foam properties : a. b. c. Fire properties Self-extinguishing in accordance with ASTM D-1692 (10/10 SE). Density after molding shall be 45 kg/m3, 5%, in accordance with ASTM D-1622. The free rise density shall be 28 ( 2) kg/m3, to ensure good compaction of the foam and good homogeneity due to high compression rate. Thermal conductivity shall be as in (11.2.1). Minimum percentage of closed cells 90% (percent) per ASTM D-2856. The leachable halides content shall not exceed 30 ppm. Structural properties shall be as follows: Property Water absorption Coefficient of linear thermal contraction Tensile strength parallel DGS- 6500-020/FH Unit % vol. m/mC Requirement 3 or less (50-100)10-6 Test ASTM D-2842 ASTM D-696

d. e. f. g.

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to rise: -at room temperature -at -196C Tensile strength perpendicular to rise: - at room temperature - at -196C Tensile modulus parallel to rise: - at room temperature - at -196C Tensile modulus perpendicular to rise - at room temperature - at -196 C h. i. j.

kPa kPa kPa kPa MPa MPa MPa MPa

500-700 600-800 500-700 700-800 Average 14 Average 27.5 Average 13 Average 28.5

ASTM D-1623 ASTM D-1623 ASTM D-1623 ASTM D-1623 ASTM D-1623 ASTM D-1623 ASTM D-1623 ASTM D-1623

In addition to the above requirements, the foam shall also comply with the compressive strengths as specified in (11.2.1 h). The above thermal and structural properties shall be supplemented by test reports as specified in (11.2.1 I). PUF material for pipe supports shall be the following (See also APPENDIX 4): For pipe sizes 6" and under, foam shall be 160 kg/m3 high density polyurethane with a minimum ultimate compressive strength of 2 MPa at 20 C and a design stress of 735 kPa. For pipe sizes 8" through 24", foam shall be 224 kg/m3 high density polyurethane with a minimum ultimate compressive strength of 4 MPa at 20 C and a design stress of 1.15 MPa. For pipe sizes 24" and larger foam shall be 320 kg/m3 high density polyurethane with a minimum ultimate compressive strength of 7 MPa at 20 C and a design stress of 1.8 Mpa. When tested at cryogenic temperature of -160C, the maximum apparent thermal conductivity shall be as follows :

160 kg/m3 224 kg/m3 320 kg/m3

0.022 W/m.K 0.025 W/m.K 0.035 W/m.K

The above values shall be substantiated by the vendor by independent laboratory test reports. 11.2.4 Cellular Glass Cellular glass shall have the following minimum properties : a. Rigid cellular glass, factory shaped/cut into half sections, radiused and bevelled segments, and slabs of minimum 600 mm length. b. Average density 120 kg/m3 (+/- 10%) in accordance with ASTM C-303. c. Thermal conductivity, as per ASTM C-518 : DGS- 6500-020/FH

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Mean temperature, C +20 0 -20

W/mK 0.042 0.038 0.035

d. Average compressive strength in accordance with ASTM C-165 shall not be less than 415 kPa. e. Water vapor transmission: 0 (ASTM E-96). f. Linear coefficient of thermal expansion: 9.0 x 10-6/ C. ( 10% ). g. Fire resistive properties as per BS 476: Non-combustible. h. Average modulus of elasticity as per ASTM C-623: 800 Mpa. i. For pipe sizes involving a diameter of 8 diameter and under, cellular glass insulation shall be supplied in two half sections a minimum of 600 mm long. j. For pipe sizes with diameters exceeding 10 and for equipment up to 7000 mm diameter, cellular glass insulation shall be supplied in radiused and bevelled segments. For pipe and equipment diameters up to 1000 mm, the width of the outside radius of the insulation shall be between 140 mm to 160 mm. For pipe and equipment diameters above 1000 mm and up to 7000 mm, the width of the outside radius of the insulation shall be between 210 mm and 435 mm. k. For equipment in excess of 7000 mm diameter, cellular glass insulation shall be supplied in flat blocks of minimum 300 mm wide. l. For equipment heads and spherical tanks special factory radiused and bevelled segments to suit the curvature of heads/tanks as much as possible shall be used. m. All circumferential and longitudinal joints in pipe sections, radiused and bevelled segments and slabs shall be of the butt type. n. For all temperatures from -175 C up to +150 C, the fabrication adhesive for laminating cellular glass billets shall be hot asphalt (ASTM D312 Type III) o. For temperatures exceeding 150 C a double layer construction shall be used. Both layers shall be bonded by means of a high temperature gypsum adhesive. 11.2.5 Medium Density Rock Wool Board Medium density rock wool board stock having the following properties shall be used for contraction joints: a. Density 32 kg/m3 ( 10%). b. Thermal conductivity at 25C mean temperature: 0.035 W/m.K or less. c. The material shall be free from delamination or fiber fallout when tested to BS 2972. 11.2.6 Low Density Rock Wool Blankets Low Density rock wool blankets having the following properties shall be used for packing voids between piping/equipment and insulation. a. Density: 24 kg/m3 ( 10%). DGS- 6500-020/FH

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b. Thermal conductivity at 25C mean temperature: 0.034 W/m.K or less. c. The material shall be free from delamination and fiber fallout when tested to BS 2972. 11.2.7 Heavy Density Rock Wool Pipe Sections/Slab Heavy Density Rock Wool having the following properties for fire protection insulation. a. The insulation shall be in accordance with ASTM C-547, Class 3, with the following amendments. b. The insulation shall be made rigid with an organic binder. c. The minimum density shall be 130 kg/m3. d. The length of the insulation sections/slabs shall be 500 mm or 1000/1200 mm. e. Half pipe sections are to be used up to and including inside dimensions of 24 diameter. f. 11.3 For sizes over 24 diameter suitably bevelled segments are to be used, which shall be adhered together with high-temperature fibrous adhesive.

Vapor barriers

11.3.1 Primary Metal Vapor Barrier The vapor barrier shall be of a corrugated aluminum sheet, alloy 3003 or 5005 in accordance with ASTM B-209. Material to have a factory applied moisture barrier of a laminate of chemically inert polyethylene and a layer of Kraft paper (without adhesives), to ensure the highest adhesion with the foam. Thickness of the vapor barrier to be at least 0.2 mm minimum. Primary metal vapor barrier shall only be applied on PIR or PUR insulations. 11.3.2 Primary Vapor Barrier Mastic for PIR The vapor barrier mastic shall be a heavy duty highly durable flexible elastomeric polymer "Hypalon" based fire-retardant coating with exceptional dry film strength and good puncture resistance and shall have the following minimum properties:

Property Temperature resistance Water vapor transmission ASTM E-96 at 0.75 mm dry film thickness Average non-volatile Fire resistance : ASTM E-84/76A flame spread Smoke developed Fuel Contribution Spread of flame (BS 476) Specific gravity Consistency Minimum applied thickness (dry film) Minimum HYPALON content Minimum coats 11.3.3 Secondary Foil Vapor Barrier (PIR Only) DGS- 6500-020/FH

Unit C perms* vol. %

Value -40 to +120 0.02 30 20 5 10 Class 1 1.1-1.3 1.2 15 3

kg/l Thixotropic soft paste mm %

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The vapor barrier shall be a three-layer lamination of polyester film/aluminum foil/polyester film, with the following minimum properties : Physical and Chemical Properties Polyester layer Aluminum foil Elongation: - LD - TD Tensile strength: - LD - TD Humidity absorption Water vapor transmission Temperature resistance * perms WVT Dp = = = permeance = Unit m m % % kg/15x100 mm2 kg/15x100 mm2 % perms* C WVT/Dp (ASTM E96) Value 12 25 50 50 8 10 0.3 max. <0.001 -60/+150

rate of water vapor transmission, g/hm2 vapor pressure difference, mm Hg

11.3.4 Vapor Stop Coating/Adhesive The vapor stop coating/adhesive shall be a two-part elastomeric material suitable for use in cryogenic conditions with the following minimum properties: Property Specific gravity Non-volatile content Tensile strength (ASTM D-412) Two-component minimum thickness (dry film) Service temperature Halides Unit kg/l vol. % kg/cm2 mm C ppm Value 1.1-1.2 55-60 >8 1.2 -196 to +120 10

11.3.5 Glass Fiber Reinforced Epoxy (GRE) Vapor Stop (PIR Only) The epoxy resin used shall be Epikote 816 with an aromatic/cycle-aliphatic amine type curing agent. The fabric glass fiber reinforcement shall be of low alkali fibrous glass which is compatible with the epoxy resin. Minimum weight of glass fiber reinforcement shall be approximately 220 g/m2. The epoxy resin and glass fiber shall be capable of producing a reinforced vapor stop over the surface of the PUF insulation, self-extinguishing type and shall withstand ambient/subambient conditions and ultra-violet light exposure. The GRE vapor stop shall have the following minimum properties : a. Tensile Strength (ASTM D3039): Longitudinal 15.7 MPa Circumferential 78.5 MPa b. Maximum water vapor transmission 0.03 perms* DGS- 6500-020/FH

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c. Minimum dry film thickness 5.5 mm, comprising of 5.0 mm reinforced and 0.5 mm unreinforced outer layer. 11.3.6 Vapor Barrier Options for Cellular Glass An asphalt cutback vapor barrier mastic with an embedded reinforcing membrane (11.6) or a self sealing bituminous sheet membrane shall be used as the primary vapor barrier over cellular glass. The bituminous membrane can be installed on straight runs of piping and equipment instead of the usual vapor barrier mastic/fabric system. The vapor barrier mastic/fabric system shall be used on fittings, elbows and irregular surfaces. Vapor Barrier Mastic for Cellular Glass Unit Value Minimum flash point shall be 40C when in accordance with ASTM D 3828 C -20 to 93 perm-cm No greater than 0.005 perm-cm (metric perm tested in accordance with ASTM E96) Black 67% by volume (minimum) mm 3.0

Property Flammability Service Temperature Water Vapor Permeanance Color Volume Solids Dry Film Thickness

Vapor Barrier Membrane for Cellular Glass (Bituminous Sheet) Unit Value Thickness mils 30 Tensile Strength lbs/in 30 Service Temperature C -32 to 38 Color gray Permeability perm-cm 0.003 Property

11.4

Joint sealant/adhesive materials

11.4.1 The joint sealant used to seal all cellular glass insulation for dual temperatures and those parts in the insulation system that shall be readily removable shall have the following minimum properties: Material: Butyl Sealant Property Unit Value Consistency Soft paste Color Gray C -56.6 to +82 Service temperature (Material shall remain soft and tough in service and shall not crack or shrink with thermal cycling) Water vapor transmission (at 3 mm dry-film perms 0.03 thickness) ASTM E-96 Solids Vol. % 84 Flame spread ASTM E-84 5 Smoke development 5 * perms WVT DGS- 6500-020/FH = = permeance = WVT/Dp (ASTM E96) rate of water vapor transmission, g/hm2

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Dp =

vapor pressure difference, mm Hg

11.4.2 The joint sealant/adhesive used to seal all PUF/PIR inner/intermediate layers shall be as described in (11.3.4). 11.4.3 The fabrication adhesive used for bonding together pieces of prefabricated PUF/PIR insulation for removable fittings/flange covers and valves, shall be a fire resistive two-part component material with the following minimum properties : Property Color Consistency Specific gravity Flammability: Service temperature Unit Value Gray Soft paste 1.3-1.8 Non-flammable Fire resistive -70 to +90

kg/l wet dry C

11.4.4 The adhesive used to bond insulation and/or supports to piping/equipment in cold insulation shall be a virtually 100% solids free, three component cryogenic adhesive, enabling bonding between non-porous surfaces without problems of evaporation and having the following minimum properties : Property Color Consistency Specific gravity Service temperature range Unit Value Black Thixotropic 1.8 -196 to +121

kg/l C

11.4.5 The anti-abrasive coating to be applied as a bore coating to all cellular glass in insulation, applied to aluminum piping and/or piping under vibrational influences shall be Hydrocal B11, an inorganic gypsum coating designed for the specified purpose and having the following minimum properties: Property Color Appearance Consistency/When mixed with water pH Service Temperature Combustibility Unit Value Gray Heavy, fine, odorless powder Brushing Alkaline -268 to 427 Incombustible wet or dry

11.4.6 The metal sealant suitable for gun extrusion to a minimum of 4 mm at all overlaps in the metallic jacket, shall be a tough flexible elastomer based material, comprising polymeric vapor sealant of butyl rubber with permanent flexibility, good adhesion and having the following minimum properties: Property Color Consistency Specific gravity Average non-volatile content Flammability: wet dry Service temperature range DGS- 6500-020/FH Unit Value Light gray Soft paste 1.55 65-70 Non-flammable Class 1 -70 to +120

kg/l % wt BS 476, Part 7 C

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11.5

Metallic jacket

11.5.1 General Galvanized sheeting shall not be used. Galvanized sheeting is vulnerable to corrosion in coastal and arid areas. In areas with potential fire hazard, stainless steel sheeting shall be used. 11.5.2 Jacket Material The jacket materials shall be one of the following: a. Aluminum sheet. The material shall be of a quality meeting ASTM B-209M requirements and shall be half hard, alloy 3003 or 3005, temper H14 or H24. b. Stainless steel sheet. The material shall be of a quality meeting the requirements of ASTM A-167 Type 316. 11.5.3 Profiles of Sheets for Vessels, Equipment and Piping Vertical equipment/vessels over 1000 mm diameter shall use corrugated sheets with 16.0 mm. 3 mm. deep corrugations with a pitch of 64 mm. 3 mm. Vertical equipment/vessels over 1000 mm diameter with stiffener rings shall use sheets as above but with lengths modified to minimize cutting, subject to the specified length not exceeding 3.0 m. Vertical equipment/vessels up to 1000 mm diameter and all horizontal equipment/vessels shall use flat sheets. Dished top heads of vertical equipment/vessels, dished bottom heads of skirt supported vessels and dished end heads of horizontal equipment/vessels shall use flat sheets. For protective removable covers, where required for a specific application, flat sheets shall be used. Flat sheets shall be used on piping. 11.5.4 Thickness of Sheets The thickness of the sheets shall be as follows: Thickness of sheets in mm Aluminum Stainless steel 0.8 0.6 0.8 0.8 1.0 0.8

Outside diameter of insulation Up to 200 mm Over 200 to 500 mm Over 500 mm

Removable covers for flanges, valves, etc. shall be made of 1.0 mm sheets, independent of the type of material. 11.6 Accessory materials All metal fastening materials shall be austenitic stainless steel that meets the requirements of ASTM A-167, type 304. Stainless steel bands shall be 10 mm to 20 mm wide with a minimum thickness of 0.5 mm (AISI 304). Wires shall be 1.0 mm diameter stainless steel (AISI 304). Expander type bands shall be of a stainless steel type, and capable of remaining in tension during heating and cooling cycles experienced in normal operation. DGS- 6500-020/FH

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Breather springs for bands shall be of a stainless steel type and capable of remaining under tension during the heating and cooling cycles experienced in normal operation. Seals for banding shall be of the wing-type construction. Quick-release toggle fasteners for securement of removable boxes shall be of spring shackle lock type and shall be sized commensurate with the weight of the box concerned. They shall be spot-welded to the stainless steel bands which are to be incorporated in the box design. Rivets where permitted in place of screws for metal fabrication shall be expanding stainless steel pop, blind eye type and of the following sizes: Pipework and equipment up to 1000 mm shall be 3.2 mm diameter. Pipework and equipment over 1000 mm shall be 4.8 mm diameter.

Screws required for metal jacket fabrication shall be slotted pan head self-tapping type A No. 10 x 12 mm long in accordance with BS 4171, complete with chloroprene rubber washers under the head. Galvanic action shall be avoided. "S" and "J" clips shall be formed from 20 mm wide 0.5 mm thick banding. Aluminum rivets shall be hard aluminum blind rivet pop-type, 4 mm dia x 8 mm long. The reinforcing membrane for embedding between the coats of the vapor barrier mastic in preformed PUF/PIR insulation or cellular glass shall be a high strength resilient synthetic fabric, having minimum 20 x 10 threads per 25 mm and a weight of 33 g/m2, or an open weave glass cloth, with a weave lock finish and having minimum 18 x 12 threads per 25 mm. The tape used to secure the inner layers of PUF/PIR and cellular glass to the pipework shall be a pressure sensitive glass fiber reinforced tape of minimum 19 mm wide. The vapor barrier cover for contraction joints in the outer layer of insulation shall be a corrugated butyl rubber sheet with 1.2 mm minimum thickness. The adhesive for the secondary foil vapor barrier, shall be an adhesive suitable for adhering the polyester and stay flexible within the service temperature range from -60C up to ambient. The glued overlaps of the secondary foil vapor barrier shall be sealed off with a 50 mm wide adhesive tape of similar material (adhesive on one face) capable of sealing the foil within the temperature range from -60C up to ambient. The tape to seal all longitudinal/circumferential joints of primary metal vapor barrier shall be a composite type aluminum foil, reinforced and with a self-bonding layer made of butyl rubber on the back face. Minimum width of 75 mm to allow for sufficient cover of the joints. 12. 12.1 APPLICATION General requirements

12.1.1 SUBCONTRACTOR Involvement The SUBCONTRACTOR shall be responsible for proper coordination of his work and cooperation with the CONTRACTOR and other SUBCONTRACTORS. Progressive testing of systems to be insulated shall be completed, inspected and approved by the CONTRACTOR/COMPANY before insulation may be applied. Suitable application temperature and conditions shall be observed and eventually be provided for by the SUBCONTRACTOR before applications are done. 12.1.2 Storage Requirements The SUBCONTRACTOR is responsible for proper material storage at the work site, in accordance with the MANUFACTURER'S instructions. DGS- 6500-020/FH

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PUF/PIR materials shall at all times be protected from moisture and limited ultraviolet exposure (12 hours). The following conditions are to be observed: Material shall be stored in an area to provide sufficient protection from moisture, ultraviolet exposure and abuse. Insulation showing evidence of moisture shall be rejected.

12.1.3 Surface Preparation The SUBCONTRACTOR shall prepare surfaces to be insulated. Before any insulation material is applied, the surfaces to be insulated shall be absolutely dry, free of dirt, dust, grease, frost, moisture and other imperfections. All metal surfaces of piping, equipment or vessels under insulation shall be suitably painted by CONTRACTOR with a complete paint system required for uninsulated surfaces in accordance with Project Specification DGS 6600 010 Specification for Painting. SUBCONTRACTOR shall notify CONTRACTOR prior to installation of insulation of any problems with the painted surfaces. 12.1.4 Typical Application Aspects Where insulated pipes or ducts pass through sleeves or openings, the full specified thickness of the insulation shall pass through the sleeve or opening, unless otherwise noted on the drawings. Vapor barriers shall be continuous through sleeves, openings etc. On all vertical lines and equipment the insulation shall be supported by support rings at approximately 4.5 m interval. The width of the support ring shall be such that the inner layer(s) and one half of the outer layer of insulation shall be supported (see APPENDIX 11). All material applied in one day should have the primary/secondary vapor barrier applied the same day, or if impractical, the exposed insulation shall be temporarily protected with a combination moisture/ultraviolet barrier, such as an appropriate polyethylene film, and sealed to the surface to be insulated. All exposed ends shall be protected before work stoppage. Zinc containing coatings shall not be applied near or at stainless steel piping/nickel alloys. Vapor stops (APPENDIX 7) shall be installed at all pipe support locations, and at all changes in configurations, such as elbows/flanges/valves etc., and at all locations on piping and equipment requiring potential maintenance including instrumentation connections. a. A bond shall be effected between the pipe and the insulation terminal by the application of the vapor stop coating (11.3.4) to a dry film thickness of minimum 1.2 mm, or GRE coating (11.3.5) with a dry film thickness of 5.5 mm. Application shall be extended over the prepared roughened pipe surface for 50 mm. b. For all applications except as specified under (12.2.1 k.), the vapor stop coating shall be dressed under the primary vapor barrier metal/mastic for a minimum of 50 mm and carried over the layer or stepped layers onto the pipe as described above. For application in accordance with (12.2.1.k.) the vapor stop shall be applied (minimum length 75 mm) over the metallic jacket. c. The vapor stop coating (11.3.4) shall be applied in three coats to provide a minimum overall dried film thickness of 1 mm reinforced between the first and second coats with synthetic fabric or open weave glass cloth as per (11.6). 12.1.5 Contraction Joints a. The location of contraction joints shall be determined considering the expected pipe movements. Contraction joints shall be installed in the inner and outer layers of horizontal piping and equipment, and in all single layer installations, at maximum intervals of 5 to 6 DGS- 6500-020/FH

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m, with a minimum of one contraction joint midway between any two fixed pipe supports or pipe protrusions more than 0.8 m apart. For single layer application, two layers shall be used at the contraction joint. The second layer shall be the same thickness as the first and shall extend 75 mm on each side of the contraction joint in the outer layer. An additional contraction joint shall be installed at each end of expansion loops (APPENDIX 10). b. Vertical lines and equipment having support rings shall have a contraction joint immediately below each support ring, except at the bottom (APPENDIX 11). c. Each contraction joint shall be filled with resilient rock fiber as per (11.2.5). Cutting of the rock wool shall be normal to the orientation and layup of the fibers to allow for expansion and contraction without crushing the fibers. d. When PUF/PIR is used, the rock wool shall be compressed to a 50% of the thickness of the rock wool board which shall have a minimum thickness of 50 mm. This shall apply to the inner layer of prefabricated foam. For the outer layer of the in situ molded foam, the rock wool shall be compressed at installation to approximately 75% of the thickness. e. When cellular glass is used, the rock wool shall be compressed to 75 % of the thickness of the rock wool board, which shall have a minimum thickness of 50 mm. This is applicable for both inner and outer layers. f. Expansion and contraction joints shall consist of sections cut from flat board stock for pipe sizes 16" and below. Above 16" pipe sizes and for equipment, segments are permitted but layup orientation of the fibers shall be as (c.) above.

g. The cover over the outer layer shall be a double bellows extruded butyl-rubber sheet (11.6), 1.2 mm thickness, with a minimum of two extruded bellows, 6 mm max. height from top to bottom. The length of the cover shall be 100 mm plus length of contraction joint, and shall be secured on both sides with bands. The butyl cover shall be applied over the primary vapor barrier mastic before thorough curing, or over the primary metal vapor barrier with sufficient sealant (11.4.6) to ensure complete vapor tightness. 12.1.6 Securement/Fixture/Fastening a. The securement of the pre-formed PUF/PIR sections shall be done by means of glass fiber filament tape (11.6). b. The securement of the cellular glass shall be done by means of stainless steel bands (11.6) or glass fiber filament tape on pipe diameters less than 220 mm. c. The principal securement of the metal jacket shall be done by means of stainless steel bands (11.6) and by means of rivets and screws only where permitted. Screws and rivets shall not be used whenever circumferential and/or longitudinal expansion or contraction of the metal jacket is expected or required (APPENDIX 15). 12.1.7 Joint Executions a. b. c. Preformed PUF/PIR sections for piping and equipment for thickness above 50 mm shall be of the shiplapped type. Cellular glass shall have butted joints. All joints shall be carefully fitted. The edges of blocks shall, where necessary, be rubbed or cut to a level so that all joints are tight and uniform. Where butted joints do not fit closely the voids shall be eliminated by refitting or replacing of the insulation. Filling

DGS- 6500-020/FH

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voids with joint sealer or mastic are not acceptable. Any damaged corners shall be trued before application. 12.2 Piping

12.2.1 Application of In Situ Pressure Molded/Dispensed PUF a. For the construction using the combination of dispensed PUF (outer layer) and preformed PUF/PIR sections (inner layers), a secondary foil vapor barrier (11.3.3) shall be applied over the preformed sections before dispensing the outer PUF layer. The secondary foil vapor barrier can also be shop-applied. b. For single layer constructions no secondary foil vapor barrier is required. c. Preformed spacers are applied in both of the above cases and fastened securely by means of stainless steel bands, filament tape or glued. d. The placing of the preformed spacers will vary in function of: Location of the supports. Location of the welds. Location of auxiliaries. Location of the intermediate sectors determined by the width of the primary metal vapor barrier, the width of the metal jacket and size of the form work. All this shall be accurately spaced to limit and define the necessary injection volumes. e. The primary metal vapor barrier (11.3.1) shall be installed over the preformed spacers with bands and with all joints and overlaps sealed. f. The metallic jacket or other form work will be applied with all necessary overlaps and bands.

g. Clamps or special tools shall be fitted over the metallic jacket in order to withstand the pressure loads resulting from the foam expansion. h. The components of the dispensed PUF (11.2.3) shall be injected in accordance with the required time, the volume to be filled as established in (d.) above, and the injection rate of the machine that is used. i. j. When the PUF has set, the clamps and other form work are to be removed and all joints of the primary metal vapor barrier sealed with the aluminum jointing tape (11.6). The metallic jacket is replaced and secured with the stainless steel bands. Overlaps in the jacket shall be sealed with metal sealant (11.4.6).

k. For operating temperatures above minus 70C, the primary metal vapor barrier (e.) may be omitted. The components of the dispensed foam shall be injected between the secondary vapor barrier and the metallic jacket. This jacket shall be installed with minimum overlaps of 50 mm and secured with self-tapping screws (11.6) at 100 mm centers. The inside of the jacket shall be provided with an appropriate lamination to ensure good bonding between jacket and PUF. All joints and injection points shall be sealed with the aluminum jointing tape (11.6) after hardening of the PUF and removal of clamps and formwork. 12.2.2 Application of Preformed PUF/PIR Sections DGS- 6500-020/FH

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a. Insulation shall be preformed to fit the diameter of the pipe, fitting or underneath layer of insulation, and shall be applied in staggered positions with all joints tightly fitted together. Gaps resulting from poor fit or damaged material are not permitted to be filled with joint sealer or mastic but shall be refitted. b. Preformed PUF/PIR insulation materials shall be supplied as curved cylindrical sections/segments and in half-pipe sections in either 915 or 1000 mm length with or without a shop-applied secondary foil vapor barrier, meeting the requirements of paragraphs (11.2.1) and (11.2.2). c. For two-piece pipe sections of PUF/PIR, a clearance between the pipe surface and the inner layer of insulation shall be provided in accordance with APPENDIX 3. Therefore, the pipe sections must be fabricated oversized to suit. No clearance is required on the inner layer where radiused and bevelled segments are employed. d. PUF/PIR sections shall be supplied with circumferential and longitudinal joints shiplapped for thickness below 50 mm. e. Prior to application of the PUF/PIR sections a joint sealer/adhesive shall be applied to the outside half of all the circumferential and longitudinal shiplapped joints and over the full height of butt joints, to a wet film thickness of approximately 1.5 mm. Application shall be to only one of the mating surfaces for the full depth of the outside half of the shiplapped joints, before bringing the surface together. No sealant or adhesive shall be applied to any other insulation contact/bore faces. f. PUF/PIR inner layer, where applied in two halves, shall be secured with 19 mm wide pressure sensitive filament tape bands (11.6), spaced at 450 mm centers and applied with a 50% overlap. Where applied in radiused and bevelled segments, securement shall be by 12 mm wide x 0.5 mm thick stainless steel bands (11.6), at 450 mm centers, machinetensioned and sealed.

g. The secondary foil vapor barrier shall be applied between the outer most layer and the next inner layer of the insulation, and shall be arranged with 50 mm overlaps. These overlaps shall be glued with an adhesive (11.6). All joints shall then be sealed with tape (11.6). h. A primary vapor barrier mastic (11.3.2/12.4.2), shall then be applied on the outside surface of the insulation. 12.2.3 Application of Cellular Glass a. For the application of cellular glass, the material shall be applied in one layer up to 100 mm thick and in two layers for thickness in excess of 100 mm, arranged with all circumferential and longitudinal joints staggered. No secondary foil vapor barrier shall be applied. b. Longitudinal joints in pipe-sections when applied in two halves shall be offset 90 in successive layers. Longitudinal joints in the application of radiused and bevelled lags shall be arranged with an offset equivalent to half the segment width or with the maximum offset that can be obtained. The middle of the bottom inner most segments shall always be placed on the vertical plane. c. Prior to the application of cellular glass insulation a joint sealant shall be applied at all circumferential and longitudinal joints to a wet film thickness of approximately 3.5 mm. Application shall be to only one of the mating surfaces, to the full depth of the insulation thickness before bringing the surfaces together. No sealant/adhesive shall be applied to DGS- 6500-020/FH

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any other insulation contact/bore faces. This joint sealant shall only be used for temperatures up to 120C in one layer constructions but always in the outer layer of two layer constructions. d. Cellular glass sections shall be secured by 12 mm wide x 0.5 mm thick stainless steel bands at 225 mm centers, machine-tensioned and sealed. The seals shall be taped to provide a smooth surface for the outer coating. Cellular glass can be secured to piping less than (200 mm), with glass fiber filament tape (11.6). e. The cellular glass outer layer shall be applied as in (12.2.3(b.)) to (12.2.3(d.)) inclusive and arranged with all joints offset at least 75 mm. f. The inside surface of all cellular glass insulation shall receive a bore coating of antiabrasive compound (11.4.5) and allowed to dry thoroughly before application on the pipes.

g. The entire outer surface of the cellular glass insulation shall be sealed with a single layer self sealing bituminous sheet membrane vapor barrier (11.3.6) for straight runs of piping, and a double layer of vapor barrier mastic/fabric (11.6) on elbows, fittings and irregular surfaces. 12.2.4 Application of Preformed PUF/PIR Sections with Cellular Glass a. The insulation shall be applied with inner layers of preformed PUF/PIR and an outer layer of cellular glass. b. Application of preformed PUF/PIR sections shall be in accordance with (12.2.2) c. The secondary foil vapor barrier(11.3.3) shall be introduced between the preformed PUF/PIR and cellular glass. d. Application of cellular glass outer layer shall be in accordance with (12.2.3) e. The outside of the cellular glass layer shall then be coated with primary vapor barrier mastic as in (12.2.3(g)).

12.2.5 Application of the Metallic Jacket on PIR insulation a. Insulation of all pipework shall be covered with a protective metal jacket (11.5), shopfabricated to conform to the outside insulation diameter and applied in 1.0 m lengths. The metal jacket shall be applied with minimum longitudinal overlaps of 50 mm and minimum circumferential overlaps of 75 mm. b. All longitudinal overlaps on horizontal pipes shall be arranged weatherside down to the prevailing wind and to shed water and shall be located along the lower half at approximately 135 or 225 positions. Longitudinal overlaps on the vertical pipes shall be arranged away from the prevailing site weather conditions and also overlapped circumferentially to shed water. c. Both the longitudinal and the circumferential overlaps shall incorporate an 8 mm ball swage in the upper sheet only, located as near to the edge as practicable. The laps shall be sealed with a gun-extruded metal sealant (11.4.6) located in the ball swage, minimum 4 mm diameter (dry) or sufficient to provide an effective seal with overlaps drawn tight. d. The jacket shall be secured with 12 mm wide x 0.5 mm thick stainless steel bands positioned adjacent to the ball swage at circumferential overlaps and intermediately at a minimum of 225 mm centers. Bands shall be machine-tensioned and sealed employing stainless steel seals (11.6). e. Following satisfactory installation of contraction joints to the requirements of paragraph (12.1.5), 0.6-0.8 mm thick flat metal protective outer covers shall be screwed and banded to the adjacent straight pipe jacketing at one side only in the case of horizontal pipes, or at the top side only in the case of vertical pipes. The opposite side shall be left free to absorb expansion/contraction by the formation of a folded or labyrinth joint arranged to accommodate the adjacent straight pipe jacket to absorb anticipated movement while DGS- 6500-020/FH

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remaining weather tight and functional in service. 12.3 Pipe supports

12.3.1 General requirements PUF and Cellular glass cradles shall be furnished as complete assemblies as shown on Piping Standard Drawings STD-1300-001. The SUBCONTRACTOR shall assume full responsibility for designing and fabricating the PUF cradles in accordance with the specified operating and service conditions. A typical pipe support for PUF or Cellular glass insulation is shown in the Piping Standard drawings STD-1300-001. 12.3.2 PUF Cradle Construction PUF cradle may be either single or multi-layer construction. For multi-layer constructed cradles, each separate layer shall be cut in pre-expanded blocks (after aging at least six weeks to avoid distortion) in 180 seamless sections. Longitudinal and/or circumferential seams in the PUF cradles are not acceptable since they do no maintain the structural integrity of the support during thermal movement of the piping system.

PUF cradles that are not in half-pipe (180) sections are not acceptable.
12.3.3 Foam Layering System The PUF cradle shall be furnished as an integral unit and have a thickness identical to the line insulation thickness. The foam outside diameter and the layering of the multilayer construction shall be done in accordance with the ASTM C-585. For both single layer and multi-layer systems, all parts of the PUF cradle shall be factory bonded into one integral unit, except for multi-layer supports, where the top protection shield and the structural cradle are not to be bonded for ease of installation. 12.3.4 Painting All carbon steel parts shall be suitably protected/coated against corrosion in accordance with (12.1.3). 12.3.5 Vapor Barrier The factory assembled PUF cradle shall have a bonded extended vapor barrier with a vapor permeance of not more than 0.02 perms. 12.3.6 Weather Proofing/Protection Jacket The factory assembled PUF cradle shall have a bonded extended 0.6-0.8 mm thick metal jacket of the same type as used for the line insulation. The top metal jacket shall overlap the bottom metal jacket. 12.3.7 Material Extension All layers of PUF, vapor barrier and metal jackets shall be extended beyond the steel bearing cradle.

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12.3.8

Bearing Steel Cradle and Insulation Protection Shield Unless otherwise specified, 360 assembled PUF cradles for all pipe sizes shall have the top and bottom steel cradles executed with bent ears or welded angles to accept stainless steel bolts and nuts. Half-pipe sections (180) assembled PUF cradles for all pipe sizes shall have the top insulation protection shield and bottom steel cradle executed with bent ears or welded angles to accept stainless steel bolts and nuts.

12.3.9

Adhesive The PUF cradle shall be bonded to the bearing plate assembly. If the polyurethane foam cradle is in a multi-layer construction, layers shall be bonded together. The adhesives shall remain flexible to accommodate the contractions within the foam and remain effective within the required temperature range.

12.3.10

Protective Coating All exposed cut surfaces of the PUF without skin shall be coated with a layer of fireretardant weather barrier mastic. This is to protect the foam between time of installation and line insulation application.

12.4 12.4.1

Fittings, valves, flanges and intricate shapes General All insulation for fittings, valves and flanges shall be equal in thickness and type to that applied to adjacent or equivalent sized piping. The insulation shall fit the surface of the valve or fitting to the maximum extent and with as few voids as possible with all joints tightly fitted together and staggered where possible.

12.4.2

Fittings All fittings, such as elbows, reducers, tees, branch connections and intricate shapes, shall be insulated and executed in a similar process as for pipe insulation. The entire outer surface of the insulation shall be sealed with a reinforced double layer primary vapor barrier mastic (11.3.2) before covering with shop fabricated metallic jacket, and applied as follows (film thickness shall be per MANUFACTURERS recommendation, but no less than stated below): a. Apply a tack coat of mastic at a minimum wet film thickness of 1.2 mm by spray or trowel. b. Embed into the wet tack coat the reinforcing membrane (11.6). Smooth the membrane to eliminate wrinkles and overlap all seams at least 100 mm. c. Apply a uniform finish coat of mastic in two layers yielding a minimum wet film thickness of 2.8 mm. d. The finished application shall provide a total minimum dry film thickness of 2.0 mm with the fabric completely coated, showing minimum profile.

12.4.3

Valves and Flanges a. When using dispensed PUF insulation, valves and flanges shall be insulated as follows: A 25 mm thick layer of low density rock wool/glass wool blankets, with a

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secondary vapor barrier foil laminate on one face, shall be applied as close as possible to the surface of the valve or flange, leaving no voids. Shop-fabricated metal boxes to encase the valve or flange designed to withstand the pressure generated by the foam, shall be positioned over the valve/flange. All seams of the metal box to be suitably sealed with sealant (11.4.6) and all joints on the inside coated with a 2-layer coating of vapor barrier mastic (11.3.2). The hollow between the rock wool/glass wool blanket and the outside metal box to be injected with PUF foam to a minimum density of 45 kg/m3. All penetrations shall be properly sealed (11.6). b. When using preformed sections, the insulation shall be preformed or fabricated in single-matched halves to the maximum extent possible. Where multi-layer is necessary, longitudinal and circumferential joints shall all be staggered. All individual segments shall be cemented together with the suitable fabrication adhesive (11.4).

12.5

Mechanical contraction joints for bellows expansion joints Pipe contraction joints (bellows) located in lines which are insulated shall also be insulated. A stainless steel 1.0 mm thick sheet shall be cylindrically formed with a "C" lock construction to the outer diameter of the bellows, in order to ensure free movements of the bellows inside of this cylinder. The length of the cylinder to be the "maximum expanded length" of the bellows plus two times the insulation thickness. This thickness shall be equal to the thickness required for the outside diameter of the stainless steel cylinder (see APPENDIX 17). This mounted construction will now be insulated as a standard pipe with a two layer construction with the exception that all insulation material shall be prefabricated insulation material. The CONTRACTOR shall propose the design of the bellows in accordance with the above principles. Such design shall be reviewed and approved by the COMPANY.

12.6

Equipment Insulation for equipment up to 750 mm outside diameter shall be applied as described for straight pipework. For diameters of equipment above 750 mm, the insulation shall be preformed sections to fit the diameter of the equipment or underneath layer of insulation, and shall be applied in staggered positions with all joints tightly fitted together. Gaps resulting from poor fit or damaged materials are not permitted to be filled with joint sealer or mastic and shall be refitted. All parts extending beyond the surface to be insulated, shall be insulated first with preformed sections and a vapor stop. Insulation for heads and skirts shall be executed as follows: a. The heads of both vertical and horizontal equipment shall be insulated with mitered block insulation trimmed to fit the contour of the head. b. The equipment with diameters less than 750 mm shall have flat board insulation at both ends. c. The insulation on the bottom heads of the vertical equipment shall be secured by 19 mm wide x 0.5 mm thick stainless steel bands with maximum 300 mm centers measured around the equipment's circumference on vessels that are skirt-supported. The bands on the bottom head shall be attached to the inside skirt support angle.

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d. For top head of vertical equipment, and both heads of horizontal equipment, the insulation shall be secured by using a welded floating ring fabricated from 6.0 mm diameter type 304 stainless steel rod. e. The floating ring shall be laid over the insulation and positioned in the center of the head. f. 19 mm wide x 0.5 mm thick stainless steel bands shall be installed and spaced on 300 mm centers measured around the circumference of the equipment. One end of the band shall be fastened to the floating ring, and the other end shall be anchored to a band or ring welded around the cylindrical section of the equipment close to the head. Pipe covering shall be used where allowed for on vessel diameters. For two-piece sections, a clearance between equipment surface and inner layer shall be provided in accordance with APPENDIX 3. PUF and PIR segments shall be supplied with circumferential/longitudinal joints either shiplapped, keyed or butted to the requirements of (11.2.1). All butt joints shall be installed without a gap. All joints in a single layer construction with PUF/PIR shall be executed as per (12.2.2.(e.)). In multi-layer constructions, the first layer will be applied without sealant. A secondary foil vapor barrier (11.3.3) shall be introduced between the outermost layer and the next inner layer of the PUF/PIR insulation. This laminate foil shall be arranged with 50 mm overlaps, completely sealed with the specified adhesive/tape (11.6). Cellular glass insulation shall be applied in the same manner as for pipe-insulation described in (12.2.3). All layers shall be secured with stainless steel bands. The outer layers shall be applied in the same manner as the inner layer(s) with joints staggered at least 150 mm from the inner layer(s). Band spacing shall be a minimum of two (2) bands per course of blocks. Bands supporting the insulation on vessel heads shall radiate from a 6 mm diameter stainless steel floating ring. All seals over the stainless steel bands on all layers shall be taped to provide a smooth surface for the next layer/vapor barrier. Contraction joints in horizontal and vertical equipment shall be installed as specified in (12.1.5). Insulation support rings shall receive the thickness of insulation as specified in (10.4.3). Insulation below the insulation collar on skirts, legs and saddles is strictly prohibited. The entire outer surface of the insulation shall be sealed with a double layer of the specified vapor barrier mastic (11.3.2) and reinforced with the appropriate fabric (11.6), all to be applied to the requirements of (12.4.2). Insulation on cylindrical vessels insulated with PIF or PUF shall be covered with a metal jacket, employing corrugated sheeting for vertical vessels and flat sheeting for the horizontal vessels. The metal jacket shall be applied with a minimum longitudinal and circumferential laps of 75 mm; the laps being arranged to shed water and located away from the prevailing weather conditions. Where corrugated sheets are used, a minimum of two corrugations overlap shall be employed at vertical joints. All metal jacket overlaps shall be sealed by the application of fire-resistant metal sealant (11.4.6). The jacket shall be secured with stainless steel bands at 450 mm centers employed 12 mm wide x 0.5 mm thick bands for vessels up to 750 mm outside diameter and 19 mm wide x 0.5 mm thick bands for vessels 750 mm and larger outside diameters. Bands shall be machine-tensioned and secured. In the case of vertical vessels, arrangement of bands shall coincide with all circumferential overlaps. "J" bands/clips shall be installed for additional support and to ensure adequate equal spacing. When stainless steel bands exceed 7600 mm between securement/sealing points, breather DGS- 6500-020/FH

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(expansion) springs shall be used for every 7600 mm length. 12.7 Insulation of spheres Coating of sphere shall be roughned using Emry paper to form a key and then clear the surfaces with high-pressure water wash. Damaged surfaces shall be touched-up . 40 Kg/m PUF (CAPUR-MB40) shall be evenly sprayed to 40mm. thick. Apply 1 coat of elastomeric vapor barrier (Encacel V). Apply 1 coat of aliphatic polyurethene to 50 m. (Hardtop AS).

12.8

Fire protection insulation (cellular glass) Where in addition, fire protection insulation is required, the general insulation application procedures as described for pipework and equipment in (12.1) to (12.6) shall be implemented with the following considerations: Cellular glass is to be double layered with each layer a minimum thickness of 78 mm. Each layer is to be secured with 304 stainless steel bands (10 mm to 20 mm wide with a minimum thickness of 0.5 mm). Metal jacketing shall be 304 stainless steel per ASTM A-167. Aluminum sheets shall not be used as the metallic jacket for fire protection of insulation.

12.9

Acoustic insulation Acoustic insulation shall be as described in Project Specification DGS-6000-003. The insulation shall follow the general application procedures as described for pipework and equipment in (12.1) to (12.6).

12.10

Safety aspects The MANUFACTURER shall provide the SUBCONTRACTOR with appropriate information regarding any hazards associated with the use of his materials and shall recommend the protective measures to be taken for their safe installation and use.

12.11 12.11.1

Inspection Inspection of Materials Inspection of materials shall be made either at the MANUFACTURERS works or in the field.

12.11.2

Pre-Insulation Inspection To avoid failures of the insulation system as designed, a thorough inspection of the design and installation of the mechanical systems shall be performed by CONTRACTOR, SUBCONTRACTOR and VENDOR prior to insulation installation. This inspection shall include the following: a. b. c. Surfaces - All equipment/piping surfaces shall be clean/dry and coated. Hydrostatic Testing - All equipment/piping shall be hydrostatically tested. Hangers/Supports - All hangers and supports must be of the correct size and properly located according to the project specifications. All supports, anchors, guides or hangers on low temperature piping must be free from obstructions to allow sufficient space for support insulation application, condensation control

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treatment and normal expansion and contraction of the system. d. e. f. Expansion/Contraction joints - All positions for installation of the expansion/contraction joints in the insulation shall be clearly defined and marked. Clearances - Sufficient accessibility and clearance must be provided for both the insulation and the space necessary for workmen to install the insulation. Heat tracing and control instrumentation - All tracing, steam/electrical and all wiring/tubing for instrumentation shall be pre-installed as specified, tested and accepted.

12.11.3

Inspection Procedure for In Situ Molded/Dispensed PUF Foam injections shall be done only after examination of the control scheme for each pipe to be insulated. The inspection procedure shall be implemented by the SUBCONTRACTOR and control sheets shall be established for each pipe/spool to assess the step-by-step inspection status on a continuous basis. The inspection procedure shall include (but not be limited to) the following tests, documented in appropriate data sheets and performed daily: a. Manual foaming test to establish cream, rise and string time as well as free rise density and a visual examination of the foam sample to verify that it has the closed cell structure. b. Machine foaming test in free expansion to verify the same values as in the manual foaming test. c. Measuring and recording of all data such as: ambient temperature relative humidity operating and recirculation pressures for the pouring machines. d. Inspection of the cavities to be foamed on the following: temperature humidity accessibility properly placed/designed pouring/vent holes. e. Inspection of the foamed cavities by examination of the quantity and quality of the foam escaping from the vent holes. f. Periodic random checks by cutting samples. strength shall also be tested. On these samples the compressive

g. Injection control data sheets shall be maintained for all insulated pipes/spools to record all operating and material data for easy cross-reference in case of failure. h. All samples obtained shall be catalogued and submitted together with copies of the data sheets monthly. 12.11.4 Final Inspection and Release Final inspection shall be conducted by all parties involved at the point when the installation is considered complete or as soon as possible thereafter. An agreed warranty DGS- 6500-020/FH

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or official release shall be determined at that time, and the responsibility for protection of the insulation from damage done by others transferred from the SUBCONTRACTOR to the CONTRACTOR. Complete installations shall be accepted in their entirety. The installation shall be inspected to determine the insulation is of the proper thickness, that its materials, workmanship and finishes meet the specifications and amendments, and that all contractual obligations have been met. Infrared inspection technique can be used after start-up to verify proper thermal performance of the insulation system(s).

12.12

Testing The SUBCONTRACTOR shall submit test reports and adhere to the quality control requirements on all insulation materials described in (11.2) and (12.3). For the In Situ Molded/Dispensed PUF, the SUBCONTRACTOR shall establish a site laboratory to carry out the day to day testing in accordance with the QA/QC program and testing of the foam characteristics as follows : Closed cell structure (visual test). Free rise density as per ASTM D-1622. Foam stability. Visual inspection of color. For each batch of chemicals supplied to the job site, the following tests have to be carried out a minimum of three times during the usage of this batch, at the beginning of usage, halfway through and at the end: Density as per ASTM D-1622. Closed cells content as per ASTM D-2856. Thermal conductivity as per ASTM C-518 at 24C mean temperature. Compressive strength as per ASTM 1621. Flammability in accordance with ASTM D-1692 to be 10/10 SE minimum. Results of Quality Control tests as per above shall be recorded on two samples of foam from each batch of chemicals and reported to the principal as requested. Batches shall be identified by serial number and date.

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APPENDIX 1 PUF - INSULATION THICKNESS (in mm), HUMIDITY 95%

Ambient temperature, C : Humidity, % : Wind velocity, m/s : Emissivity :

32.2 95 0 0.9

PIPE DIAMETER
nominal (nps) outside (mm) T > 20 19 / 0 0 / 20

FIELD OF SERVICE PROCESS TEMPERATURE (C)


-21 / -40 -41 / -60 -61 / -80 -81 / -100 -101 / -120 180 190 200 210 230 250 270 280 310 330 350 370 370 380 390 400 420 460 -121 / -140 -141 / -160 -161 / -180

1/4 1/2 3/4 1 11/2 2 3 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 24

13,7 21,3 26,7 33,4 48.3 60.3 88.9 114.3 168.3 219.1 273.1 323.9 355.6 406.4 457.2 508.0 609.6 Vessels

30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40

40 50 50 50 60 60 70 70 80 80 80 90 90 90 90 90 90 100

70 70 80 80 90 90 100 110 110 120 130 130 130 140 140 140 150 160

90 100 100 110 120 120 130 140 150 160 180 180 180 180 190 190 200 220

110 120 130 140 150 160 180 180 200 210 220 230 230 240 250 250 260 280

140 150 160 180 180 190 210 220 250 260 270 290 290 300 310 310 330 360

160 180 190 200 210 220 250 260 290 300 320 330 340 350 360 370 380 420

190 210 220 230 250 270 290 310 340 360 380 400 400 420 430 440 450 500

200 220 240 250 270 280 310 330 360 390 410 420 430 440 450 470 480 540

220 240 250 260 280 300 330 350 380 410 430 440 450 470 480 490 510 570

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Note : All piping over 24 inch shall be insulated in accordance with the thickness specified for vessels.

APPENDIX 2 CELLULAR GLASS - INSULATION THICKNESS (in mm), HUMIDITY 95%

Ambient temperature, C : Humidity, % : Wind velocity, m/s : Emissivity :

32.2 95 0 0.9

PIPE DIAMETER
nominal (nps) outsid e (mm) 13;7 21,3 26,7 33,4 48.3 60.3 88.9 114.3 168.3 219.1 273.1 323.9 355.6 406.4 457.2 508.0 609.6 T > 20 19 / 0 0 / 20

FIELD OF SERVICE PROCESS TEMPERATURE (C) :


-21 / -40 -41 / -60 -61 / -80 -81 / -100 -101 / -120 -121 / -140 -141 / -160 -161 / -180

1/4 1/2 3/4 1 11/2 2 3 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 24 Vessels

40 40 50 50 50 60 60 60 70 70 70 80 80 80 80 80 80 90

80 90 100 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 160 180 180 180 180 180 190 210

120 130 140 140 160 180 180 190 210 220 240 240 250 260 260 270 280 300

150 160 180 180 200 210 230 240 270 280 300 310 320 330 330 340 350 390

180 190 200 220 230 250 270 290 310 330 350 370 370 390 400 400 420 460

200 220 230 250 270 280 310 330 360 380 400 420 430 440 450 460 480 530

230 250 260 270 300 310 340 360 400 420 450 460 470 490 500 510 530 590

250 270 280 300 3120 340 370 390 430 460 490 500 510 530 540 560 580 650

270 290 310 320 350 370 400 430 470 500 520 540 560 570 590 600 630 700

290 310 330 350 380 390 430 460 500 530 560 580 590 610 630 640 670 750

310 330 350 370 400 420 460 480 530 560 590 610 630 650 660 680 710 800

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All piping over 24 inch shall be insulated in accordance with the thickness specified for vessels.

APPENDIX 3

CONTRACTION GAP BETWEEN PIPE/EQUIPMENT SURFACE AND INNER LAYER OF PUF (FOR PREFORMED PIPE SECTIONS ONLY) Minimum Gap in mm Operating Temperature Pipe/equipment O.D. range in mm D< 219 219< D< 406 406< D< 610 610< D< 800 2.0 4.0 6.0 7.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0

Operating Temperature C -196< T< -75 -75< T< -40 Note:

Diameter of preformed PUF sections shall be the contraction gap plus the O.D. of pipe/equipment. The maximum contraction gap shall not exceed 1.25 times the minimum gap.

CONTRACTION DIFFERENTIALS FOR DESIGN

Operating Temperature (C) -200 -150 -100 -50 0 50

Thermal Contraction Based on 20C Ambient Temperature (mm/m) Cellular Glass PIR/PUF Carbon Steel Stainless Steel -1.54 -15.4 -1.94 -2.83 -1.21 -11.9 -1.68 -2.37 -0.89 -8.4 -1.26 -1.76 -0.53 -4.9 -0.77 -1.06 -0.15 -1.4 -0.23 -0.32 0.24 2.1 0.34 0.47

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APPENDIX 4-1

LOADS for 160 kg/m3 PUF INSULATED PIPE SUPPORTS Density : 10 lb/ft3 - (160 kg/m3) Compressive strength : 94.2 psi (6.62226 kg/cm2) with 5:1 safety factor (cryogenic average temp.)
Pipe Diam. (inches) 1/2 3/4 1 1-1/2 2 2-1/2 3 4 5 6 7 8 150 mm Long lb 248.588 310.735 389.158 562.282 702.852 850.821 1035.78 1331.72 1646.3 1960.59 2256.53 2552.46 kg 112.71 140.887 176.444 254.938 318.673 385.762 469.623 603.802 746.433 888.93 1023.11 1157.29 300 mm Long lb 497.175 621.469 778.316 1124.56 1405.7 1701.64 2071.56 2663.44 3292.6 3921.18 4513.05 5104.93 kg 225.419 281.774 352.888 509.877 637.346 771.524 939.247 1207.6 1492.87 1777.86 2046.22 2314.57 450 mm long lb 745.763 932.204 1167.47 1686.85 2108.56 2552.46 3107.35 3995.16 4938.9 5881.76 6769.58 7657.39 kg 338.129 422.661 529.333 764.815 956.019 1157.29 1408.87 1811.41 2239.3 2666.79 3069.33 3471.86 600 mm long lb 994.35 1242.94 1556.63 2249.13 2811.41 3403.28 4143.13 5326.88 6585.21 7842.35 9026.1 10209.9 kg 450.838 563.548 705.777 1019.75 1274.69 1543.05 1878.49 2415.21 2985.73 3555.72 4092.43 4629.15

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APPENDIX 4-2

LOADS For 224 kg/m3 PUF INSULATED PIPE SUPPORTS (FROM DYNATECH/USA JAN. 1982)Density : 14 lb/ft3 - (224 kg/m3) 166.66 psi (11.7162 kg/cm2) with 5:1 safety factor(cryogenic average temp.)

Compressive strength :

Pipe Diam. (inches) 1/2 3/4 1 1-1/2 2 3 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 24

150 mm Long lb 439.805 549.756 688.504 994.796 1243.5 1832.52 2356.1 3468.7 4515.85 5628.46 6675.61 7330.08 8377.24 9424.39 10471.6 12565.9 kg 199.408 249.259 312.168 451.041 563.801 830.864 1068.25 1572.71 2047.49 2551.94 3026.72 3323.46 3798.24 4273.02 4747.8 5697.36

300 mm Long lb 879.609 1099.51 1377.01 1989.59 2486.99 3665.04 4712.19 6937.4 9031.71 11256.9 13351.2 14660.2 16754.5 18848.8 20943.1 25131.7 kg 398.815 498.519 624.335 902.081 1127.6 1661.73 2136.51 3145.42 4094.98 5103.88 6053.44 6646.92 7596.48 8546.03 9495.59 11394.7

450 mm Long lb 1319.42 1649.27 2065.51 2984.39 3730.49 5497.56 7068.29 10406.1 13547.6 16885.4 20026.8 21990.2 25131.7 28273.2 31414.6 37697.6 kg 598.222 747.778 936.503 1353.12 1691.4 2492.59 3204.76 4718.12 6142.46 7655.82 9080.16 9970.37 11394.7 12819.1 14243.4 17092.1

600 mm Long lb 1759.22 2199.02 2754.02 3979.19 4973.98 7330.08 9424.39 13874.8 18063.4 22513.8 26702.4 29320.3 33508.9 37697.6 41886.2 50263.4 kg 797.63 997.037 1248.67 1804.16 2255.2 3323.46 4273.02 6290.83 8189.95 10207.8 12106.9 13293.8 15193.0 17092.1 18991.2 22789.4

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APPENDIX 4.3

LOADS For 320 kg/m3 PUF INSULATED PIPE SUPPORTS 20 lb/ft3 - (320 kg/m3) 295.2 psi (20.7526 kg/cm2) with 5:1 safety factor (cryogenic average temp.)

Density Compressive strength

: :

Pipe Diam. (inches) 1/2 3/4 1 1-1/2 2 3 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 24 26 28 30 36 40 42 48 54 60 72

150 mm Long lb 779.013 973.767 1219.53 1762.05 2202.57 3245.89 4173.29 6144.0 7998.8 9969.52 11824.3 12983.6 14838.4 16693.2 18547.9 22257.5 24112.3 25967.1 27821.9 33386.3 37095.9 38950.7 44515.1 50079.4 kg 353.205 441.506 552.933 798.915 998.644 1471.69 1892.17 2785.69 3626.66 4520.18 5361.14 5886.74 6727.71 7568.67 8409.63 10091.6 10932.5 11773.5 12614.5 15137.3 16819.3 17660.2 20183.1 22706.0 -

300 mm Long lb 1558.03 1947.53 2439.05 3524.11 4405.14 6491.78 8346.57 12288.0 15997.6 19939.0 23648.6 25967.1 29676.7 33386.3 37095.9 44515.1 48224.6 51934.2 55643.8 66772.6 74191.8 77901.3 89030.1 100159.0 111288.0 133545.0 kg 706.409 883.012 1105.87 1597.83 1997.29 2943.37 3784.34 5571.38 7253.31 9040.36 10722.3 11773.5 13455.4 15137.3 16819.3 20183.1 21865.1 23547.0 25228.9 30274.7 33638.5 35320.5 40366.2 45412.0 50457.8 60549.4

450 mm Long lb 2337.04 2921.3 3658.58 5286.16 6607.7 9737.67 12519.9 18432.0 23996.4 29908.6 35472.9 38950.7 44515.1 50079.4 55643.8 66772.6 72337.0 77901.4 83465.7 100159.0 111288.0 116852.0 133545.0 150238.0 166932.0 200318.0 kg 1059.61 1324.52 1658.8 2396.75 2995.93 4415.06 5676.5 8357.07 10880.0 13560.5 16083.4 17660.2 20183.1 22706.0 25228.9 30274.7 32797.6 35320.5 37843.4 45412.0 50457.8 52980.7 60549.4 68118.0 75686.7 90824.0

600 mm Long lb 3116.05 3895.07 4878.11 7048.22 8810.27 12983.6 16693.2 24576.0 31995.2 39878.1 47297.3 51934.2 59353.4 66772.6 74191.8 89030.1 96449.3 103869.0 111288.0 133545.0 148384.0 155803.0 178060.0 200318.0 222575.0 267090.0 kg 1412.82 1766.02 2211.73 3195.66 3994.58 5886.74 7568.67 11142.8 14506.6 18080.7 21444.6 23547.0 26910.8 30274.7 33638.5 40366.2 43730.1 47094.0 50457.8 60549.4 67277.1 70640.9 80732.5 90824.0 100916.0 121099.0

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APPENDIX 5 LAYERING OF INSULATION Total insulation thickness (mm) 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 Combination of: Preformed Preformed PUF/PIR (mm) Cellular Glass 30 40 50 60 70 30 50 40 50 50 50 30/30 50 30/40 50 30/50 50 40/50 50 50/50 50 50/60 50 50/80 50 50/90 50 50/100 50 50/60/50 50 50/70/50 50 50/80/50 50 50/90/50 50 50/100/50 50 Preformed PUF/PIR 1 1.5 2 1/1 1/1.5 1.5/1.5 2/1.5 2/2 2/2.5 1/1.5/2 1/2/2 1.5/2/2 2/2/2 2/2.5/2 2/3/2 2/3.5/2 2/4/2 2/2/2.5/2 2/2/3/2 2/2/3.5/2 2/2/4/2 2/2/4/2 Preformed Cellular Glass 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4 2/2.5 2.5/2.5 2.5/2.5 2.5/3 2.5/3 3/3 3/3.5 3.5/3.5 3.5/4 4/4 2.5/3/3 3/3/3 3/3/3.5 3/3.5/3.5

Note : Insulation thickness are calculated in mm. (SI units), but layering is in inches (us units) in order to comply with norm ASTM C-585.

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APPENDIX 6

Details for INSULATION SYSTEMS

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APPENDIX 7 VAPOR STOP details

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APPENDIX 8 VALVE INSULATION details

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APPENDIX 9 MANHOLE COVER INSULATION details

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APPENDIX 10 HORIZONTAL CONTRACTION JOINT details

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APPENDIX 11 VERTICAL CONTRACTION JOINT detail AT a SUPPORT RING

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APPENDIX 12 Details for the EXTENT OF INSULATION ALONG EQUIPMENT SUPPORTS

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APPENDIX 13 VESSEL CLIP INSULATION DETAILS

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Appendix 14 PIPE TRUNNION SUPPORT INSULATION DETAIL

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APPENDIX 15 TYPICAL DETAILS for METALLIC JACKETING AND ATTACHMENT METHODS FOR PIPING

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APPENDIX 16 INSULATION ATTACHMENT METHOD for VERTICAL/HORIZONTAL EQUIPMENT TOP AND BOTTOM HEADS

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APPENDIX 17 CONTRACTION JOINT detail for a 'BELLOWS' expansion joint

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