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Abhor (v.) [ aj ]
=to regard with extreme repugnance
or aversion.
I abhor all forms of racism.
Abhorrent (adj.) [, n]
Abhorrence (n.)

Absolve (v.) [k (/pr )]
=to free someone from guilt, blame or
responsibility for something.
The report absolved her from all blame
for the accident.
Absolution (n.) []
=formal redemption as pronounced by
a priest in the sacrament of penance.
She was granted/given absolution.

Abstruse (v.) [d ]
=difficult to understand.
An abstruse philosophical essay.
Abstruseness (n.)

Alacrity (n.) [ ]
=liveliness and eagerness.
She accepted the money with alacrity.

Allay (v.) [ (s/ut/)]
=(1) to make someone feel less
worried or frightened (2) satisfy
(thirst).
The government is desperately trying
to allay public fears/concern about the
spread of the disease.
She allayed my fears by saying that she
also had heard nothing.
Alleviate (v.)
The ointment soon alleviated the
discomfort.
Alleviation (n.)

Allege (v.) [a , ]
=to state sth as a fact but without
giving proof.
An alleged thief [ k]
Alleged (adj.)
Allegedly (adv.)
Medical Question paper allegedly
leaked out.
Allegation (n.) =a public statement
that is made without giving proof.




Aloof (adj.)
=remote in manner.
She kept herself aloof from her
husband's business.
Aloofness (n.)

Altercation (v.) [, ]
=a loud argument or disagreement.
According to witnesses, the altercation
between the two men started inside the
restaurant.

Ambiguous (adj.) [d]
=open to two or more interpretations.
She gave an ambiguous smile.
Ambiguously (adv.)
Some questions were badly or
ambiguously worded.
Ambiguity (n.) [d]
=an expression whose meaning cannot
be determined from its context.
There are some ambiguities in the
legislation.

Ambivalent (adj.)
=having two opposing feelings at the
same time.
I felt very ambivalent about leaving
home.
Ambivalently (adv.)
Ambivalence (n.)
Her ambivalence towards men

Amble (v.) [sn ]
=to walk in a slow and relaxed way.
He was ambling along the beach.
Amble (n.)
There's nothing I enjoy more than a
leisurely amble across the moor.

Ameliorate (v.) [ak ur o ]
=to make a bad or unpleasant situation
better.
Foreign aid is badly needed to
ameliorate the effects of the drought.
Amelioration (n.)


Word List of Rizvi
Part-1

2
Amenable (adj.) [p, , ,
t ()]
=something that you can control or
treat in a particular way.
We are all amenable to the law.
Amenable to reason [k e]

Amicable (adj.) [ ]
Ronaldo seeks an amicable end to his
5-year career at Old Trafford.
Amicably (adv.)
Live together amicably.
Amicability (n.)

Amity (n.) [ m ]
=friendship.
The two groups had lived in perfect
amity for many years before the recent
troubles.

Anachronism (n.) [ a]
=something located at a time when it
could not have existed or occurred.
For some people, marriage is an
anachronism from the days when
women needed to be protected.
Anachronistic (adj.)
He described the law as anachronistic
(=more suitable for an earlier time)
and ridiculous.
Anachronistically (adv.)

Anecdote (v.) [s k/ m
]
=a short often amusing story,
especially about something someone
has done.
He told one or two amusing anecdotes
about his years as a policeman.
Anecdotal (adj.)
Anecdotal evidence.

Annals (n.) [ t ]
=a chronological account of events in
successive years.
Annalist (n.)
=a historian who writes annals.

Anomaly (n.) [as = ]
A bird that cannot fly is an anomaly.
Anomalous (adj.) [, =]
Anomalously (adv.)
Antagonize (v.) [=r , ]
I didnt want to antagonize him.
Antagonist (n.) [pk, pd+]
Antagonistic (adj.) [=r]
Antagonistically (adv.)
Antagonism(n.) [= ]

Aphorism (v.) [p]
=a short pithy instructive saying.
Oscar Wilde was famous for such
aphorisms as 'Experience is the name
everyone gives to their mistakes'.
Aphoristic (adj.)

Apt (adj.) [v, k, ]
=mentally quick and resourceful,
quick to learn, likely.
He is one of our aptest politicians.
An apt remark.
The kitchen roof is apt to leak when it
rains.
Apt to do sth. [ pmr]
He is apt to make fun of his elders.
Aptly (adv.) []
Aptly said.
The branch of zoology dealing with
insects is aptly named entomology.
Aptness (n.)
Aptitude (n.) [s a k,
p]
His mathematical aptitude freed him
from cultivation with his brothers.
She shows great aptitude for music.
He has a remarkable aptitude for
language teaching.
Aptitude test [k r k]
Inapt (adj.) [a]
=Not elegant or graceful in
expression.
Inaptitude (n.)

Arcane (adj.) [, ]
=mysterious and known only by a few
people.
He was the only person who
understood all the arcane details of the
agreement.
This argument may seem arcane to
those not closely involved in the world
of finance.

3
Ardor (n.) [{, u]
=A feeling of strong eagerness.
Arduous (adj.) [d, ]
Arduously (adv.)
Ardent (adj.)[a u]
An ardent follower of Orthodox
Marxism.
Ardently (adv.)

Ascetic (adj.) [t]
=avoiding physical pleasures and
living a simple life, often for religious
reasons.
They live a very ascetic life.
Ascetic (n.)
He lived as an ascetic.
Ascetically (adv.)
Asceticism (n.)

Asinine (adj.) []
=complacently or inanely foolish.
An asinine comment.

Assiduous (adj.) [a]
=marked by care and persistent effort.
The Government has been assiduous in
the fight against inflation.
Assiduously (adv.)
Assiduousness (n.)

Assuage (v.) [p (d, , a,
)]
=to make unpleasant feelings less
strong.
I tried to assuage the old man's terror.
The government has tried to assuage
the public's fears.

Astute (adj.) [k]
=clever and quick to see how to take
advantage of a situation.
An astute investor/businessman.
Astutely (adv.)
Astuteness (n.)

Atrophy (v.) [k ]
=to become weaker.
After several months in a hospital bed,
my leg muscles had atrophied.
Atrophy (n.)


Attenuate (v.) [ ]
=to make something smaller, thinner
or weaker.
Radiation from the sun is attenuated by
the Earth's atmosphere.
Attenuation (n.)

Augment (v.) [ + o]
=enlarge or increase.
He would have to find work to
augment his income.
Augmentation (n.)

Austere (adj.) [ ]
=severely simple.
An austere childhood during the war.
Austerely (adv.)
Austerity (n.)
The austerities of life in a small rural
community were not what I was used
to.

Averse (adj.) []
=strongly disliking or opposed to.
A labor is by nature averse to work.
Aversion (n.)
=a feeling of strong dislike or a lack
of willingness to do something.
She has a deep aversion to getting up
in the morning.

Banal (adj.) [, ]
=obvious and dull.
He just sat there making banal remarks
all evening.
Banality (n.)

Banter (v.) [T/ ]
=be silly or tease one another.
He stood around bantering with his
colleagues.
Banter (n.) [T, ]
He considered himself a master of
witty banter.

Belie (v.) [ o]
=contradict, give a false impression.
His coarse, hard-bitten exterior belied
his innate sensitivity.
Her calm face belied the terror she was
feeling.

4
Belligerent (adj.) [+]
=quarrelsome.
When her husband had too much to
drink, he became belligerent.
Belligerently (adv.)
Belligerence (n.)
I can't stand his belligerence (=his
wish to argue with people all the time).

Blatant (adj.)
=extremely obvious.
The complain upon which you all
convicted me was a blatant lie.

Blemish (v.)
=mar or impair with a flaw.
This latest revelation has seriously
blemished (=spoilt) the governor's
reputation.
Blemish (n.) [, =, ]
=a mark on something that spoils its
appearance.

Bolster (v.) [k/u+/( p p
o u ]
=to support or improve something or
make it stronger.
She tried to bolster my
confidence/morale by telling me that I
had a special talent.
Bolster (n.) [ ]

Burgeon (v.) [F o, l o]
=to develop or grow quickly.
Love burgeoned between them.
Burgeoning (adj.)
The company hoped to profit from the
burgeoning communications industry.

Buttress (v.) [ ]
=support, prop up.
This pillar should be buttressed by
widening the bottom surface.
Buttress (n.)
=usually or stone or brick; supports
the wall of a building.

Capitulate (v.) [t ]
=surrender, give up all resistance.
Their forces capitulated five hours
after the Allied bombardment of the
city began.
Caprice (n.) [, z<+]
=a sudden and usually foolish desire
to have or do something.
The $300 million palace was built to
satisfy the caprice of one man.
Capricious (adj.)
He was a cruel and capricious tyrant.
Capriciously (adv.)
Capriciousness (n.)

Capsize (v.) [ul o/ ( )]
=to (cause a boat or ship to) turn
upside down accidentally while on
water.
When the boat capsized we were
trapped underneath it.

Carp (v.) [ , v , (n )
]
=complain continually.
A carping tongue, Carping criticism.
I can't stand the way he's always
carping.

Cataclysm (n.) [ e p ]
=deluge, upheaval.
A cataclysm such as a French
Revolution affects all countries.

Celerity (n.) [F, ]
=speed, rapidity, a rate that is rapid.
Hamlet resented his mother's celerity
in remarrying within a month after his
father's death.

Cerebral (adj.) [+]
=pertaining to the brain or intellect.
Writing is a cerebral artistic work.
She makes cerebral films that deal with
important social issues.

Charlatan (n.) [ s = ak k
]
=quack [ k], pretender to
knowledge.
At last Zakir realized that he had been
duped [dupe =p ] by a
charlatan.

5
Choleric (adj.) [, ]
=hot-tempered, bad-tempered,
irritable.

Circuitous (adj.) [k, , t]
=not straight or direct.
A circuitous route/explanation.

Cogent (adj.) [ e p]
=(of an argument) clear, logical and
convincing.
Cogently (adv.)
She argued most cogently for a
relaxation of the sanctions.
Cogency (n.)

Colloquial (adj.) []
=characteristic of informal spoken
language or conversation.
Colloquially (adv.)
Colloquialism (n.)

Commandeer (v.) [ p
]
=a draft for military purposes, to take
for public use.
The policeman commandeered the first
car that approached and ordered the
driver to go to the hospital.

Concede (v.) [ , s , a ]
=to admit that sth is true.
He was forced to concede (that) there
might be difficulties.
After losing this decisive []
battle, the general was forced to
concede (acknowledge defeat).

Conciliate (v.) [ a ]
=to make sb less angry or more
friendly, especially by being kind and
pleasant or by giving them sth.
Conciliation (n.)
A conciliation service helps to settle
disputes between employers and
workers.
Conciliatory (adj.)
Reconciliation (n.) [, ]
=an end to a disagreement and the
start of a good relationship again.
The reconciliation of rights and duties
within a democracy.
Condescend (v.) [ , n[
m an p pr ]
=do something that one considers to
be below one's dignity.
He often condescended to take bribes.
Our boss often condescends to chat
with us.
Condescension (n.)

Condone (v.) [k , ]
=overlook, forgive, give tacit []
approval.
Shajib's honesty condones his many
shortcomings.
If the government is seen to condone
violence, the bloodshed will never
stop.

Confide (v.) [ u ]
=reveal in private; tell confidentially.
He confided (to her) that his hair was
not his own.
Confiding (adj.)
Confidingly (adv.)

Confluence (n.) [ p/ ]
=a place where two things come
together.
Coincidence of peak flow of major
rivers causing congestions at
confluences.

Congenial (adj.) [, u, <m, a{]
=suitable to your needs or similar to
your nature.
He found nobody congenial to him in
the village.
We worked in a congenial atmosphere.

Sanguine (adj.) [, k]
=positive and hopeful.
Sanguine of success.
Sanguinary (adj.) [kk, kk,
k]
A sanguinary battle.
A sanguinary ruler.
Consanguine (adj.) [k m k,
=]
Consanguinity (n.) [(k) m ,
=]
Consanguineous (adj.)
=related by blood.

6
Exsanguination (n.)
=depriving the body of blood.

Conscience (n.) []
=a feeling of shame when you do
something immoral.
You didn't do anything wrong, - you
should have a clear conscience (=not
feel guilty).
Conscience-stricken (adj.) []
Conscienceless (adj.) []
Conscientious (adj.) [+mr]
A conscientious student.
Conscientiousness (adj.)
Conscientiously (adv.)

Console (v.) [{ ]
=give moral or emotional strength to.
He tried to console her, but she kept
saying it was all her own fault.
Console (n.)
Consolation (n.)
I didn't know what to say - I just
offered a few words of consolation.
Consolatory (adj.)
A consolatory remark.

Contempt (n.) []
=a strong feeling of combined dislike
and lack of respect.
I felt contempt for the criminal.
She is beneath contempt [o a].
He rushed [rush = ] forward in
contempt of danger [ aj ].
Contemptible (adj.)
=deserving contempt.
Her behavior was contemptible.
Contemptibly (adv.)
Contemptuous (adj.)
=expressing contempt.
A contemptuous manner/laugh.
Contemptuously (adv.)
The waiter smiled contemptuously at
anyone who didn't know which wine to
order.

Content (adj.) [p]
=satisfied.
I am content with my present salary.
Content (v.)
You're quite easily contented, aren't
you?
Contented (adj.)
She smiled a contented smile.
Contentedly (adv.)
Contentment (n.)
His face wore a look of pure
contentment.
Discontent (n.) [a]
Discontent among junior ranks was
rapidly spreading.
Discontented (adj.) [az]
Discontentedly (adv.)

Contention (n.) [ , , kp]
=a dispute where there is strong
disagreement.
The matter has been settled - it's no
longer in contention.
Bone of contention [/ ]
Contentious (adj.) [, p]
A contentious
decision/policy/issue/subject.

Contrite (adj.) [ d ]
=feeling regret for a fault or offence.
A contrite apology/expression.
Contritely (adv.)
Contrition (n.) [a]

Contrive (v.)
=to manage to do sth despite
difficulties, devise, make or work out a
plan for.
She contrived to spend a couple of
hours with him every Sunday evening.
The convicts contrive a means of
escape from the prison.
Contrivance (n.) [, n, u ]
=any improvised arrangement for
temporary use.

Contumacious (adj.) [a, eg, o
]
=stubborn and disobedient.
Contumaciously (adv.)
Contumacy (n.) [a]
Contumely (n.) [d, a]

Convolute (v.)
=curl, wind, or twist together.
Convoluted (adj.) [, { ,
, e dr]
A convoluted argument.
Convolution (n.)

7
The convolutions of a snake.
Convolvulus (convolvuli) (n.) [
e ]

Cornerstone (n.)
=(1) the fundamental assumptions
underlying an explanation (2)
something of great importance which
everything else depends on.
In most countries, the family unit is
still the cornerstone of society.

Corpulent (adj.) [ e ]
=excessively fat.
He weighs 350 lbs; he is so corpulent
that he can hardly walk.
Corpulence (n.)

Countermand (v.) [ p ,
]
=annul by recalling or rescinding.

Covert (adj.)
=secret or hidden.
The government was accused of covert
military operations against the regime.
Covertly (adv.)
Terrorists have been operating covertly
in England for several years.

Curmudgeon (n.) [ a k]
=a crusty irascible cantankerous old
person full of stubborn ideas.

Cursory (adj.) [ (),
()]
=hasty and without attention to detail.
She gave the newspaper a cursory
look, and then put it down.
Cursorily (adv.)

Cynic (adj.) [, k]
=someone who is critical of the
motives of others.
I'm too much of a cynic to believe that
he'll keep his promise.
Cynical (adj.) [ mr]
Cynically (adv.)
Cynicism (n.) [, ]
He's often been accused of cynicism in
his attitude towards politics.

Dazzle (v.) [ ]
=to cause someone to lose clear
vision, esp. from intense light.
I was dazzled by the sunlight.
Dazzling (adj.)
=extremely attractive or exciting.
A dazzling performance/display.
Dazzlingly (adv.)

Dearth (n.) [a, a, ]
=an amount or supply which is not
large enough.
A dearth of daily necessities.

Debilitate (v.) [ ]
=make weak.
A debilitating climate.
His health is debilitated from not
getting enough good food.

Decimate (v.) [ / ]
=to kill a large number of something,
or to reduce something severely.
A population decimated by famine.
Decimation (n.)
=destroying or killing a great
proportion of the population (literally
every tenth person).

Cipher (v.) [gp p ]
=convert ordinary language into code.
Cipher (n.)
The message was written in cipher.
Decipher (v.) [a+ ]
=to discover the meaning of
something written badly or in a
difficult or hidden way.
Can you decipher the writing on this
envelope?
Decipherable (adj.)

Decorous (adj.) [, , ]
=characterized by propriety and
dignity and good taste in manners and
conduct.
Decorously (adv.)
Decorum(n.) [, , ]
Even the best-mannered students have
trouble behaving with decorum on the
last day of school.
Indecorous (adj.) [a, {<]

8
=lacking propriety and good taste in
manners and conduct, behaving badly
or rudely.
Indecorously (adv.)
Indecorum (n.) [a, a]

Decry (v.)
=express strong disapproval of.
He is a rebel who decries society as it
is.

Defunct (adj.) [, p]
=dead, no longer in use or existence.
That company is now defunct; it closed
last month.

Degenerate (v.) [a o]
=to become worse in quality.
Educational standards are degenerating
year by year because of a lack of
funds.
Degenerate (adj.)
=having low standards of behavior.
a degenerate young man
Degenerate (n.) [a k p]
Degeneration (n.)
High blood pressure can cause
degeneration of the heart muscles.
Degenerative (adj.)
A degenerative disease/condition.

Deleterious (adj.) [k]
=harmful.
These drugs have a proven deleterious
effect on the nervous system.
Deleteriously (adv.)

Delineate (v.) [=/ /a ]
=to describe or mark the edge of
something.
The main characters are clearly
delineated in the first chapter of the
book.
The boundary of the car park is
delineated by a low brick wall.
Delineation (n.)

Demur (v.) [t u , p ]
=raise objections, show reluctance.
The lawyer requested a break in the
court case, but the judge demurred.
Without demur [d ]
Demure (adj.) [pr]
=affectedly modest or shy especially
in a playful or provocative way.
A demure old gentleman.
She gave the young man a demure
smile.
Demurely (adv.)
She sat with her hands folded
demurely in her lap.
Demureness (n.)

Denigrate (v.) [ ]
=belittle.
You shouldn't denigrate people just
because they have different beliefs
from you.
Denigration (n.)

Denizen (n.)
=a plant or animal naturalized in a
region.
Deer, foxes and squirrels are among
the denizens of the forest.

Deprecate (v.) [a ]
=(1) belittle (2) express strong
disapproval of.
The teacher should not deprecate his
student's efforts.
We deprecate this use of company
funds for political purposes.

Descend (v.) [a , o,
= , ]
=come from.
Humans are descended from (=
developed from) ape-like creatures.
Descendent []

Despise (v.) [j ]
=look down on with disdain.
She despised him for the way he
treated her sister.
Despicable(v.) []
=morally reprehensible.
He was drunk and his behavior at the
party was despicable.
Despicably (adv.)

Despondent (adj.) [, -]
=without or almost without hope.

9
She started to feel despondent about
ever finding a job.
Despondently (adv.)
Despondency (n.)

Desultory (adj.) [u+, ag, e]
=(1) marked by lack of definite
plan/regularity/purpose (2) jumping
from one thing to another.
Desultory reading.

Deter (v.) [< , ]
=try to prevent, show opposition to.
Nothing can deter me from trying
again.
Deterrence (n.) []
Deterrent (n.) []
Do you think that capital punishment is
a deterrent to crimes?

Detriment (n.) [k]
These effluents have detrimental
effects on the living environment.
Detrimental (adj.) [k]
Detrimentally (adv.)

Diaspora (n.)
=the spreading of people from one
original country to other countries.

Dichotomy (n.) [d-]
=classification into two opposed parts.
There is often a dichotomy between
what politicians say and what they do.

Didactic (adj.) [k , k]
=instructive especially excessively.
Nobody likes his didactic attitude.
Didactically (adv.)

Digress (v.) [ p
o]
=to move away from the main subject.
The lecturer temporarily digressed
from her subject to deal with a related
theory.
Digression (n.)
Talking about money now would be a
digression from the main purpose of
this meeting.


Dire (v.) [, ].
=causing fear or dread or terror.
These people are in dire need of help.

Discern (v.) [ ub ]
=to know, recognize or understand
sth, especially sth that is not obvious.
I could just discern a figure in the
darkness.
Discerning (adj.)
Mahdi is a discerning [amr]
person.
Discernible (adj.) =Distinguishable,
Perceivable [perceive =a o,
h ]
Discernment (n.)

Discount (v.)[
a ]
=ignore, to decide that something or
someone is not worth consideration or
attention.
You should discount about fifty
percent of what he says.

Disdain (v.) [/aj ]
=reject with contempt.
The older musicians disdain the new,
rock-influenced music.
Disdain (n.)
He regards the political process with
disdain.
Disdainful (adj.)
A disdainful expression.
Disdainfully (adv.)

Disparage (v.) [a ]
=express a negative opinion of.
The actor's work for charity has
recently been disparaged in the press
as an attempt to get publicity.
Disparaging (adj.)
Disparagingly (adv.)
Disparagement (n.)

Dispute (v.) [ , , ]
=have a disagreement over something.
Few would dispute his status as the
finest artist of the period.
Dispute (n.)
They have been unable to settle/resolve
the dispute over working conditions.

10
Disputed (adj.)
Disputable (adj.)
It's claimed that they produce the best
athletes in the world but I think that's
disputable.
Disputation (n.)
Disputatious (adj.)
He's a disputatious young man (=he
argues a lot).
Undisputed (adj.) [av, ]
Bill Goldberg is the undisputed
champion in the history of wrestling.

Dissemble (v.) [M ]
=hide under a false appearance.
Dissembler (n.) [p, ]
He accused the government of
dissembling.

Dissuade (v.) [ ]
=turn away from by persuasion.
He dissuaded his son from joining the
army.

Diurnal (adj.) [h, e, ]
=(1) having a daily cycle or occurring
every day (2) active in daytime.
Diurnal motion of the sun.


Docile (v.) [ e]
=easily handled or managed.
The once docile population has finally
risen up against the ruthless regime.
Docility (n.)

Dogged (adj.) [n, eg]
=stubbornly unyielding.
Her ambition and dogged
determination ensured that she rose to
the top of her profession.
Doggedly (adv.)

Dolor (n.) [, d, ]
=great sorrow/distress.
Dolorous (adj.) []

Domicile (v.) [ /o]
Domicile (n.) [, ]
=the place where a person lives.
Domiciled (adj.)
He was domiciled in Saudi Arabia
during the 1980s.

Drone (v.) [e / /k ]
=talk in a monotonous voice.
He was droning on (and on) about his
operation.
Drone (n.)

Dubious (adj.) [n]
=feeling doubt or uncertainty.
These claims are dubious and not
scientifically proven.
Dubiously (adv.)

Dwindle (v.) [; o]
=to become smaller in size or amount,
or fewer in number.
Her hopes of success in the race
dwindled last night as the weather
became worse.
Dwindling (adj.)
Dwindling numbers/supplies.

Eccentric (adj.) []
=a person with an unusual or odd
personality.
Eccentric behavior.
Eccentric (n.)
My mother's a bit of an eccentric.
Eccentrically (adv.)
Eccentricity (n.)
Her eccentricities get stranger by the
day.

Ecclesiastic (n.) []
=a Christian priest or official.
Ecclesiastical (adj.)
Ecclesiastically (adv.)

Eclectic (adj.) [ (k + m )]
=selecting what seems best of various
styles or ideas.
An eclectic taste in literature.
Our bookshelves at home display a
range of books on wide-ranging
subjects and in many languages,
reflecting the eclectic tastes of our
family members.

Edible (adj.) [, k]
=suitable for use as food.
Inedible[a, a]

Eloquence (n.) []
=powerful and effective language.

11
She was renowned for her eloquence
and beauty.
Eloquent (adj.)
She made an eloquent appeal for action
before it was too late.
Eloquently (adv.)
He spoke eloquently.

Emaciate (v.) [- o ]
=cause to grow thin or weak.
Emaciated (adj.)
=very thin and weak, usually because
of illness or extreme hunger.
There were pictures of emaciated
children on the cover of the magazine.
Emaciation (n.)

Emancipate (v.) [k ]
=free from slavery or servitude.
Emancipated (adj.)
=not limited socially or politically.
The twenties and sixties are often
regarded as the most emancipated
decades.
Emancipation (n.)

Eminent (adj.) []
=famous, respected or important.
Eminence (n.)
=the state of being famous, respected
or important.
His eminence as a film director
Empiric/ Empirical (adj.) [p]
=derived from experiment and
observation rather than theory.
This theory needs to be backed up with
solid empirical data/evidence.
Empirically (adv.)
Empiricism (n.)
Empiricist (n.)

Encounter (v.) [= , ap
o]
=to meet someone unexpectedly.
On their way home they encountered a
woman selling flowers.
Encounter (n.)

Encumber (v.) [ , ,
o, o]
=hold back.
A country encumbered with debts.
A room encumbered with useless
books.
Encumbrance (n.) [, , ]
Cumbersome (adj.) [ , ]

Endeavor (n.) [p]
=an attempt to do something.
Crossing the North Pole on foot was an
amazing feat of human endeavor.
Endeavor (v.)
=to try to do something.
Engineers are endeavoring to locate the
source of the problem.

Endemic (v.) [ /a/
]
=especially of a disease or a condition,
regularly found and very common
among a particular group or in a
particular area.
Malaria is endemic in many of the
hotter regions of the world.

Endorse (v.)
=give support or one's approval to.
The National Executive is expected to
endorse these recommendations.
Endorsement (n.)

Franchise (n.) []
=the right to vote in an election.
Enfranchise (v.)
=grant voting rights.
Women in Britain were first
enfranchised in 1918.
Enfranchisement (n.)
Disenfranchise (v.)
=deprive of voting rights.

Engross (v.) [ ]
=engage wholly.
He is engrossed in his work.

Rage (n.) [=]
=(a period of) extreme or violent
anger.
I was frightened because I had never
seen him in such a rage before.
Rage (v.)
The hurricane raged for a full day.
Raging (adj.)

12
The rains had turned the stream into a
raging torrent.
Enrage (v.)
=to cause someone to become very
angry.
Plans to build a new nightclub in the
neighborhood have enraged local
residents.

Shroud (v.) [ , ]
=cover/hide.
The hills were shrouded by mist.
Suddenly all the lights went out and
the house was shrouded in darkness.
Shroud (n.)
A shroud of mist.
Enshroud (v.) [m r ]
= cover as if with a shroud.

Snare (n.) [, p]
His promises are a snare.
Snare (v.) [ ]
Snare a bird/rabbit.
Ensnare(v.) [ ]
=catch in or as if in a trap.
Spiders ensnare flies and other insects
in their webs.

Enthrall (v.) [+ , = ]
=hold spellbound, capture, enslave,
captivate.
After 120 minutes of an equally
enthralling and energy-sapping battle
of attrition in Moscow, we left the
stadium.

Entice (v.) [ /p ]
=provoke someone to do something
through promises or persuasion.
He enticed her to elope with him.
Enticement (n.)

Enumerate (v.) [ ]
=to name things separately, one by on.
She enumerated five things that she
liked about the new apartment.
Enumeration (n.)

Ephemeral (adj.) [s]
=lasting for only a short time.
Fame in the world of rock and pop is
largely ephemeral.
Epitome (n.) [-k]
=a brief abstract (as of an article or
book).
Even now in her sixties, she is the
epitome of French elegance.
Epitomize (v.)

Equable (adj.) [a]
=(1) not varying (2) not easily
irritated.
The south of the country enjoys an
equable climate.
As a manager she deals with problems
reasonably and equably, never losing
her temper.

Equivocate (v.) [ ]
=use language that can be understood
in more than one way in order to avoid
the truth
Equivocation (n.)
Equivocal (adj. [d, n]

Erratic (adj.) [a]
=irregular, uncertain or without
organization in movement or behavior.
He drove in an erratic course down the
road.
Erratically (adv.)
In her study, books were arranged
erratically on chairs, tables and
shelves.

Escalate (v.) [ + o, b o]
=increase in extent or intensity.
Escalation (n.) of complaint.

Eschew (v.) [e , ,
]
=avoid and stay away from
deliberately.
We won't have discussions with this
group unless they eschew violence.

Esoteric (adj.) [ k k
e, d ]
=confined to and understandable by
only an enlightened inner circle.
That branch of mathematics is so
esoteric that few study it.
Esoterically (adv.)

13
Euphemism (v.)
=a word or phrase used to avoid
saying an unpleasant or offensive
word.
'Senior citizen' is a euphemism for 'old
person'.
Euphemistic (adj.)
Euphemistically (adv.)

Evade (v.) [ e]
=escape, either physically or mentally.
J ust give me an answer and stop
evading the question!
Evasion (n.)
Her speech was full of excuses and
evasions and never properly addressed
the issue.
Evasive (adj.)
The Minister was her usual evasive
self, skillfully dodging reporters'
questions about her possible
resignation.
Evasively (adv.)
Evasiveness (n.)

Evanescent (adj.) []
=tending to vanish like vapor.
Evanescence (n.)

Evoke (v.) [ , ]
=call to mind.
=bringing strong images/feelings to
mind.
That smell always evokes memories of
my old school.
Evocation (n.)
Evocative(adj.) [ -]
Evocatively (adv.)

Evolve (v.) [s o]
=to develop gradually.
Agriculture evolved slowly over
thousands of years.
Evolution (n.)
Darwin's theory of evolution.
Evolutionary (adj.)
The change has been evolutionary (=
gradual) rather than revolutionary.

Exacerbate (v.) [ o,
ut ]
=make worse.
~exacerbated by human activities.
This attack will exacerbate the already
tense relations between the two
communities.

Exalt (v.) [r , up ]
=praise, raise in rank/character/status.
Exalted (adj.) [mr]
She rose to the exalted post of Foreign
Secretary after only three years in the
government.
Exaltation (n.) [ur, n]

Exult (v.) [ul o]
=to express great joy.
Sharapova exults after winning.
Exultant (adj.) [l]
Exultantly (adv.)

Exasperate (v.) [ut , ]
=to make someone very annoyed.
Exasperated (adj.)
He's becoming increasingly
exasperated with the situation.
Exasperatedly (adv.)
Exasperating (n.)
Exasperatingly (adv.)
Exasperation (n.)
After ten hours of fruitless
negotiations, he stormed out of the
meeting in exasperation.

Exigent (adj.) [<]
=needing urgent attention.
An exigent problem.
Exigency (n.)

Exonerate (v.) [a k ]
=pronounce not guilty of criminal
charges.
He was charged with fraud, but the
trial exonerated him.
Exoneration (n.)

Extant (adj.) [eo ]
=still in existence.
We have some extant parish records
from the sixteenth century.

Felicitate (v.) [an ]
=express congratulations.
Felicitation (n.)
Felicitous (adj.) [, ]
He summed up J ack's achievements in
one or two felicitous phrases.

14
Felicitously (adv.)
Felicity (n.) [ p, /
]
As a songwriter, he combined great
linguistic felicity with an ear for a
tune.
Felicities (pl.) [ ]
Her article contained one or two verbal
felicities which will stay in my mind
for years.

Fetid (adj.) []
=offensively malodorous.
Fetid air/breath.

Fetter (v.) [ ]
=shackle, restrict the freedom of.
He felt fettered by a nine-to-five office
existence.
Fetter (n.)

Foible (n.) [k = a
]
=a behavioral attribute that is
distinctive and peculiar to an
individual.
You have to get used to other people's
quirks and foibles.
We all have our little foibles.

Folly (n.) [ +, , ]
=a stupid mistake.
Buying such an expensive car on your
small salary was pure folly.

Foolhardy (adj.) [, a]
=foolishly brave, taking unnecessary
risks.
Sailing the Atlantic in such a tiny boat
wasn't so much brave as foolhardy.
He was foolhardy to try to drive his car
through a snowstorm.
Foolhardiness (n.)

Forthright (adj.) [^]
=(too) honest or direct in behavior.
His forthright manner can be mistaken
for rudeness.

Frivolous (adj.) [, , , t]
=not serious in content or attitude or
behavior.
Frivolously (adv.)
Frivolity (n.) []

Furtive (adj.) [, ]
=secret and sly or sordid.
A furtive glance/behavior.
I saw him cast a furtive glance at the
woman at the table to his right.
Furtively (adv.) []
Furtiveness (n.) [ ]

Futile (adj.) [, , an (k)]
=pointless.
A futile attempt.
It's quite futile trying to reason with
him - he just won't listen.
Futility (n.)

Garrulous (adj.) []
=full of trivial conversation.
The crowd grew garrulous before the
speaker arrived.
Garrulously (adv.)
Garrulousness (n.)

Genial (adj.) [, ]
=friendly and pleasant.
When the couple gives a party, they
are always genial hosts.
Florida has a genial climate.
Genially (adv.)
Geniality (n.)

Germane (adj.) [p, m k]
=relevant and appropriate, pertinent.
Her remarks could not have been more
germane to the discussion.

Glutton (n.) []
=a person who is devoted to eating
and drinking to excess.
Gluttonous (adj.)
She said that industrialized countries
should reduce their gluttonous (=
greater than is needed) consumption of
oil.
Gluttonously (adv.)
Gluttony (n.)
They treat Christmas as just another
excuse for gluttony.

Grandiloquent (adj.) [v ]
=using long/difficult words in order to
impress.

15
Her speech was full of grandiloquent
language, but it contained no new
ideas.
Grandiloquence (n.)

Grandiose (adj.) [p, v]
=larger and containing more detail
than necessary.
Grandiose plans/schemes/ideas for
making money.

Gregarious (adj.) [~]
=seeking and enjoying the company of
others.
Emma's a gregarious, outgoing sort of
person.
Gregariously (adv.)
Gregariousness (n.)

Guile (n.) []
=clever but sometimes dishonest
behavior that is used to deceive
someone.
The President will need to use all her
political guile to stay in power.
Guileless (adj.)
She regarded him with wide, guileless
blue eyes.
Guileful (adj.)

Hackneyed (adj.) [a p, a h]
=over familiar through overuse.
The plot of the film is just a hackneyed
boy-meets-girl scenario.

Harbor (v.) [n , ,
(n)]
=hold a thought or feeling of.
I have always harbored a penchant for
teaching.
Harbor a criminal.
Harbor thoughts of revenge.
Harbor (n.) [n]
Harborage (n.) [n]

Hedonism (n.) [ pi ei ]
=the pursuit of pleasure as a matter of
ethical principle.
Hedonism is a way of life for many
people.
Hedonist (n.)
Hedonistic (adj.)
Heresy (n.) [ p <+ ]
=a belief that rejects the orthodox
tenets of a religion.
Heretic (adj.)
=a person who is guilty of heresy.
Heretical (adj.)
Her belief that a split would be good
for the party was regarded as heretical.

Hiatus (n.) [, =, ]
=an interruption in the intensity or
amount of something.
The company expects to resume
production of the vehicle again after a
two-month hiatus.

Hidebound (adj.) [ , k]
=stubbornly conservative and narrow-
minded.

Humility (n.)
=the quality of not being proud
because you are aware of your bad
qualities.
They might be very rich, but it
wouldn't hurt them to show a little
humility.

Hurl (v.) [ k ]
=(1) throw forcefully (2) utter with
force; utter vehemently.
In a fit of temper he hurled the book
across the room.
I wasn't going to stand there while he
hurled abuse at me!

Iconoclast (n.)
=characterized by attack on
established beliefs or institutions.
Rogers, an iconoclast in architecture, is
sometimes described as putting the
insides of buildings on the outside.
Iconoclastic (adj.)
His plays were fairly iconoclastic in
their day.
Iconoclasm (n.)

Idyll (n.) [l=]
Idyllic (adj.)


16
Ignominious (adj.) [a, ]
An ignominious defeat/failure/retreat.
Ignominiously (adv.)
Ignominy (n.) [a, ]
=a state of dishonor.
The Workers' Coalition experienced
the ignominy of total defeat in the last
election.

Imitate (v.) [a ]
=produce a copy of.
Some birds imitate human speech.
Wood painted to imitate marble.
Imitator (n.)
Imitation (n.)
Imitation leather/jewellery.
Imitative (adj.)
Imitative words: ding-dong.
Inimitable(adj.) [a]
Inimitably (adv.)

Imminent (adj.) [r]
=close in time; about to occur.
The wedding date is imminent, so we
must send invitations.
Imminently (adv.)
Imminence (n.)

Peccable (adj.)
=liable to sin.
Impeccable (adj.)
=without fault, flawless.
The fashion designer was admired for
her impeccable clothes.

Impending (adj.) [r]
The impending storm; His impending
arrival.
So relentless has the speculation
become that Portugal's impending Euro
2008 campaign is turning into
something of a sideshow, with
reporters constantly asking about the
young winger's decision.

Plausible (adj.) [ k,
a (k)]
=apparently reasonable and valid.
A plausible excuse/explanation.
A plausible rogue.
Plausibly (adv.)
Plausibility (n.)
Implausible (adj.)
=difficult to believe.
The whole plot of the film is
ridiculously implausible.
Implausibly (adv.)
Implausibility (n.)

Providence (n.) [, -, ]
Providence fund.
Provident (adj.) []
Providently (adv.)
Providential (adj.)
Providentially (adv.)
Improvident (adj.) [a]
Improvidently (adv.)
Impudent (adj.) [ , j]
=marked by casual disrespect.
The child was impudent to her mother
when she stuck out her tongue.
Impudence (n.)

Inane (adj.) [, ]
=devoid of intelligence.
An inane remark.
Inanely (adv.)
Inanity (n.) [a]

Clement (adj.) [k, d]
=(1) inclined to show mercy (2) (of
weather or climate) physically mild.
It's very clement for the time of year.
Clemency (n.)
Inclement (adj.) [, <k, , o
]
=(1) (of weather of climate) physically
severe (2) showing no clemency or
mercy (person).
Inclemency (n.)

Congruent (adj.) [, ]
=corresponding in character or kind.
Martin and I have the same philosophy
on life; we share congruent beliefs.
Congruence (n.)
Incongruous (adj.) []
Incongruously (adv.)
Incongruity (n.)

Inculcate (v.) [h /p (/)]
=teach and impress by frequent
repetitions or admonitions.

17
Inculcate in young people the sense of
duty.

Incumbent (n.) []
=the official who holds an office.
Incumbency (n.) []
Incumbent (adj.) [a ]
She felt it incumbent upon/on her to
raise the subject at their meeting.

Dispense (v.) [ , o p ,
, i ]
=(1) distribute/supply to a number of
people (2) prepare and supply
(medicine) according to a prescription
(3) to get rid of something or someone
or stop using them because you do not
need them.
There is a vending machine on the
platform that dispenses snacks.
They've had to dispense with a lot of
luxuries since Mike lost his job.
Dispensation (n.) [, ,
s/[/ a]
The dispensation of
justice/food/charity.
Death is a dispensation of providence.
Muslims are granted dispensation from
fasting during illness.
Dispenser (n.)
Dispensary (n.)
Dispensable (adj.) [ , o ]
It seemed the soldiers were regarded as
dispensable - their deaths just didn't
matter.
Indispensable (adj.) [a ]
=vitally necessary, unavoidable.
Indispensability (n.)

Indolent (adj.) [a]
=disinclined to work or exertion.
A labor is by nature indolent to work.
Indolence (n.)

Indulge (v.) [pn ]
=give free rein to.
My aunt indulges the children
dreadfully.
Indulgence (n.)
Indulgent (adj.)
He had been a strict father but was
indulgent towards his grandchildren.
Indulgently (adv.)

Evitable (adj.)
=capable of being avoided.
Inevitable (adj.) [a]
The accident was the inevitable
consequence/result/outcome of
carelessness.
Inevitably (adv.)
Their arguments inevitably end in
tears.
Inevitability (n.)

Inexorable (adj.) [ap, , ]
=relentless, unyielding, implacable.
Inexorable demands/pressure.
Inexorably (adv.)

Infer (v.) [a , + ]
We can infer from what he said that he
is innocent.
Inference (n.) [a]
BOD is a measurement by inference.
The inference is not supported by facts.
Inferential (adj.) [a+]

Infest (v.) [: u (id, ),
u ]
=invade in great numbers, as of pests.
Warehouses infested with rats.
Cloths infested with vermin/lice.
Infestation (n.)

Ingenious (adj.) [u{, k]
=very clever and skilful.
An ingenious
mind/idea/method/solution.
Ingeniously (adv.)
The umbrella was ingeniously devised
to fold up into your pocket.
Ingenuity (n.)
Drug smugglers constantly use their
ingenuity to find new ways of getting
drugs into a country.

Ingenuous (adj.) [a, t]
=honest, sincere and trusting,
sometimes in a way that seems foolish.
It has to be said it was rather
ingenuous of him to ask a complete
stranger to look after his luggage.
Ingenuously (adv.)

18
Ingenuousness (n.)
Disingenuous (adj.) [, {, a]

Inimical (adj.) [, p{, k]
=not friendly.
Actions inimical to friendly relations.

Innocuous (adj.) []
=not injurious to physical or mental
health, harmless.
The teacher's innocuous words don't
make me angry, but they also don't
teach me much.

Inquisitive (adj.) []
=showing curiosity.
Inquisitively (adv.)
The mouse looked around the room
inquisitively.
Inquisitiveness (n.)

Salubrious (adj.) [s]
Salubrious area.
Insalubrious (adj.) [as]
=detrimental to health.
Insalubrity (n.)

Insidious (adj.) [ a, {=]
=(of something unpleasant or
dangerous) gradually and secretly
causing harm.
An insidious enemy/disease.
High-blood pressure is an insidious
condition which has few symptoms.
Insidiously (adv.)
Insidiousness (n.)

Insolent (adj.) [u+]
=marked by casual disrespect.
An insolent child/young man.
Insolently (adv.)
Insolence (n.) [p ]

Insuperable (adj.) [a=, d]
=impossible to overcome.
Insuperable barriers.

Mingle (v.) [n o/, ]
=get involved or mixed-up with.
The excitement of starting a new job is
always mingled with a certain
apprehension.
Intermingle (v.)
=to become mixed together.
Fact is intermingled with fiction
throughout the book.

Intermittent (adj.) []
Intermittent fever.
Intermittently (adv.) [ ]
We've discussed this problem
intermittently, but so far we've failed
to come up with a solution.

Internecine (adj.) [uk ni t,
a ]
=internecine war or fighting happens
between members of the same group,
religion or country.
Internecine war/warfare.

Intimidate (v.) [p ]
=make timid or fearful.
Intimidate a witness.
Intimidation (n.)

Intone (v.) [ ]
=utter monotonously and repetitively
and rhythmically.
"Let us pray, " the priest intoned to his
congregation.

Invective (n.) [d, , ]
=criticism that is very forceful, unkind
and often rude.
Speeches filled with invective.
A stream of invective from some
sectors of the press continues to assail
the government.

Vigor (n.) [ k]
Vigorous (adj.) [, s]
Vigorously (adv.)
Invigorate (v.) [k/ ]
An invigorating climate. [
]
An invigorating speech. [u
k ]

Irascible (adj.) []
=quickly aroused to anger.
She's becoming more and more
irascible as she grows older.
Irascibility (n.) [= + ]

19
Itinerant (adj.) []
=traveling from place to place to
work.
An itinerant
journalist/laborer/preacher.
Itinerant (n.)

Jargon (n.)
=a characteristic language of a
particular group.
Each occupation has its own jargon
which outsiders have difficulty
following.

Jettison (v.) [ n =
, / ]
We jettisoned the unworkable project.
The crew of the air balloon jettisoned
the sand bags to help the balloon rise
over the hill.

Jovial (adj.) []
=full of or showing high-spirited
merriment.
He seemed a very jovial chap.
J ovially (adv.)
J oviality (n.)

Juxtapose (v.) [ ]
=place side by side.
The exhibition juxtaposes Picasso's
early drawings with some of his later
works.
J uxtaposition (n.)
The juxtaposition of two very different
cultures.

Labyrinth (n.) []
=(1) complex system of paths or
tunnels (2) something which is very
confusing.
Finally, through a labyrinth of
corridors she found his office.
He was no stranger to the labyrinth of
love.
Labyrinthine (adj.) [ ]
It takes a fair amount of concentration
to follow the film's labyrinthine plot.

Laconic (adj.) [a p]
=brief and to the point; effectively cut
short.
Laconically (adv.)
Laconism (n.)
Lament (v.) [ ]
=to express sadness and regret about.
My grandmother, as usual, lamented
the decline in moral standards in
today's society.
Lamentation (n.)
For all the lamentations that schools do
not teach the game, it is still played in
some areas.

Languish (v.) [s o]
=lose animation or strength.
The girl languished for her lover.
He is now languishing in jail.
Languid (adj.) [a, s]
Languid stretches filled with the
imagined piano music that inspires
Szpilman to live.
Languidly (adv.)
=in a languid and lethargic manner.
Languor (n.) [ a, a]
=an unusual lack of energy.
The languor of the summer noon.

Laud (v.) [p ]
=praise, glorify, or honor.
The teacher lauded the student for her
excellent work.
Laudable (adj.)
Laudably (adj.)
Laudatory (adj.) [p ]

Lionize (v.) [u kr n ]
=assign great social importance to.
Lionization (n.)

Lithe (adj.) []
=gracefully slender; moving and
bending with ease.
Dancers are lithe.
Lithesome (adj.)
Lithely (adv.)

Longevity (n.) [, ]
=living for a long time.
To what do you attribute your
longevity?

Lucid (adj.) [^, ]
=transparently clear.
She gave a clear and lucid account of
her plans for the company's future.

20
Lucidly (adv.)
Lucidity (n.)

Malevolent (adj.) [n]
=causing or wanting to cause harm or
evil.
The central character is a malevolent
witch out for revenge.
Malevolence (n.)

Mar (v.) [k , ]
=to spoil something, making it less
perfect or less enjoyable.
Sadly, the text is marred by careless
errors.
It was a really nice day, marred only
by a little argument in the car on the
way home.

Maxim (v.) [, p]
=a saying that widely accepted on its
own merits.
"Birds of a feather flock together" is a
maxim that similar people like to be
with each other.

Mayhem (n.) []
=violent and needless disturbance.
He drank too much alcohol and
committed mayhem in nearly
destroying the furniture in the bar.

Meager (adj.) [, ap, a+, ]
=deficient in amount or quality or
extent, barely adequate.
His meager income does not suffice his
large family.
A meager meat, A meager attendance.
Meagerly (adv.)
Meagerness (n.)

Meander (v.) [e o ,
u+ ]
=wander aimlessly.
Meanderings [ ]
Meanderingly (adv.)

Mendacious (adj.) []
=intentionally untrue.
Some of these statements are
misleading and some downright
mendacious.
Mendacity (n.)
Politicians are often accused of
mendacity.

Metaphor (n.) [r]
=a figure of speech that suggests
similarity between one thing and
another.
"All that glitters is not gold" is a
metaphor for saying that things are not
always what they appear to be.
Metaphorical (adj.)
Her second novel is written in a very
metaphorical style.
Metaphorically (adv.)

Meticulous (adj.) [ )]
=very careful and with great attention
to every detail.
Many hours of meticulous preparation
have gone into writing the book.
Meticulously (adv.)
The entire project was meticulously
planned.
Meticulousness (n.)

Miff (n.)
=a state of irritation or annoyance.
Miffed (adj.)
=annoyed.
He was miffed that his girlfriend did
not show up for a date.

Mimic (v.) [a ]
=imitate (a person, a manner, etc.),
esp. for satirical effect.
She was mimicking the various people
in our office.
Mimicry (n.)
=the act of mimicking.

Miniscule/Minuscule (adj.) [k k ,
ak].]
=very small.
To find someone you actually love,
who'll love you- the chances are
always minuscule.

Misdemeanor (n.) [ a]
=a crime less serious than a felony.
Parking violations are misdemeanors.

21
Misnomer (n.) [ ap]
=an incorrect or unsuitable name.
It's something of a misnomer to refer
to these inexperienced boys as soldiers.

Mollify (v.) [p/ ]
=make less rigid or softer.
Mollify sbs anger.
Mollification (n.)

Nomad (n.) []
=a member of a people who have no
permanent home but move about
according to the seasons.
A tribe of Somalian desert nomads.
Nomadic (adj.)
A nomadic life/existence.

Noxious (adj.) [poisonous or harmful, very
unpleasant, k, a]
noxious gases / chemicals / fumes
a noxious problem
Noxiously (adv.) [ar]
Noxiousness (n.) [a]

Nullify (v.) [ ]
=declare invalid.
The state death penalty law was
nullified in 1977.

Obdurate (adj.) [eg, a, a]
=stubbornly persistent in wrongdoing.
The President remains obdurate on the
question of tax cuts.
Obdurately (adv.)
Obduracy (n.)

Obliterate (v.) [h ]
=to remove all sign of something.
The missile strike was devastating - the
target was totally obliterated.
All of a sudden the view was
obliterated by the fog.
Perhaps she gets drunk to obliterate
painful memories.

Oblivion (n.) []
=the state of being disregarded or
forgotten.
She can remember nothing; her
memory has gone into oblivion.
Oblivious (adj.)
Obsolete (adj.) [ap, ]
=no longer in use.
Gas lamps became obsolete when
electric lighting was invented.
Obsolescent (adj.)
Much of our existing military hardware
is obsolescent.
Obsolescence (n.)
Mobile phone technology is
developing so quickly that many
customers are concerned about
obsolescence.

Opprobrious (adj.) [ , ,
a]
=expressing offensive reproach.
Opprobriously (adv.)
Opprobrium (n.) [, , n,
]
International opprobrium has been
heaped on the country following its
attack on its neighbors.

Ostensible (adj.) [ ]
=appearing or claiming to be one
thing when it is really something else.
Their ostensible goal was to clean up
government corruption, but their real
aim was to unseat the government.
Ostensibly (adv.)
Ostentation (n.)
Her luxurious lifestyle and personal
ostentation were both hated and
envied.
The ostentation of the newly rich.
Ostentatious (adj.) [,
n e]
=intended to attract notice and impress
others.
They criticized the ostentatious
lifestyle of their leaders.
Ostentatiously (adv.)

Pains (n.) [, n]
He worked very hard but got very little
for all his pains.
Painstaking (adj.) [), n,
]
=characterized by extreme care and
great effort.

22
Pallid (adj.) [, ]
=lacking in vitality or interest or
effectiveness.
Pallidly (adv.)
Pallidness (n.)
Pallor (n.) [ , ]

Paltry (v.) [, ]
=very small and of little or no value.
The company offered J eremy a paltry
sum which he refused.

Panache (n.) [i, ]
=distinctive and stylish elegance.
There is always an air of panache
about everything she says.

Parch (v.) [ ]
=cause to wither from exposure to
heat.
Parchment (n.)
=skin of a sheep or goat prepared for
writing on.

Pariah (n.) [ /a^ ]
=a person who is rejected (from
society or home).
He was treated like a pariah and cast
out from his community.

Parochial (adj.) [+, ]
=narrowly restricted in outlook or
scope.
A parochial outlook.
Parochially (adv.)
Parochialism (n.) []

Paucity (n.) [ s, a]
=an insufficient quantity or number.
There is a paucity of information on
the ingredients of many cosmetics.

Peccadillo (n.) [ k = n d ,
=]
=a minor fault.
One of her peccadilloes is that she
sometimes spends money too easily.

Pellucid (adj.) [s, ]
=transparently clear, easily
understandable, lucid.
Pellucidly (adv.)

Penurious (adj.)
=(1) hating to spend or give money (2)
very poor.
He penurious old man refused to lend
his children any money.
The sight of penurious children in the
street made us very sad.
Penuriously (adv.)
Penuriousness (n.)
Penury (n.)
=a state of extreme poverty or
destitution.

Perennial (adj.) [, , ]
=lasting an indefinitely long time.
Perennially (adv.)

Perfidy (n.) []
=betrayal of a trust.
Perfidious (adj.)
Perfidiously (adv.)
Perfidiousness (n.)

Perfunctory (adj.) [a) a m
]
=not thorough.
Perfunctorily (adv.)
A perfunctory inspection failed to
reveal the house's structural flaws.

Peripatetic (adj.) [r is ]
=traveling from place to place.
Peripatetic (n.) [ a k]
Peripateticism (n.) [
]

Persecute (v.) [ , s , ]
=cause to suffer.
Persecute a man by saying worrying
things.
Persecutor (n.)
Persecution (n.)
Suffer persecution for ones religious
beliefs.
The enormity of persecution in World
War II.

Persona (n.) [(k) p]
=the aspect of a persons character
that is presented to others.

23
He had a shy, retiring side to his
personality that was completely at odds
with his public persona.

Pervade (v.) [p , ]
=spread or diffuse through.
Pervasion (n.)
Pervasive (adj.) []
Planning is pervasive and generic.
Pervasively (adv.)
Pervasiveness (n.)

Petrify (v.) [/a/ k
(/ ), o]
=cause to become stone-like or stiff or
dazed and stunned.
I think you petrified poor J eremy - he
never said a word the whole time you
were here.
Petrifaction (n.)
Petrified (adj.)
I stood petrified as the most enormous
dog I've ever seen came bounding up
to me.

Phlegm (n.) [d<, p n]
Phlegmatic (adj.) [s u]
=calm and unexcitable, not easily
disturbed.
Phlegmatically (adv.)

Pinion (v.) [ u ,
k ]
=restrain or immobilize by binding the
wings or legs.
Pinion (n.)
=birds wing.

Plagiarize (v.) [an , i
]
=to use another person's idea or a part
of their work and pretend that it is your
own.
The book contains numerous
plagiarized passages.
Plagiarism (n.)
Plagiarist (n.)

Polemic (n.) []
=(1) a controversial argument (2) a
person who argues in opposition to
another.
She has published a fierce anti-war
polemic.
Polemical (adj.) [ ]
A polemical essay.
Polemically (adv.)

Ponderous (adj.) []
=slow and laborious because of
weight.
Bureaucracies move in a ponderous
way.
Ponderously (adv.)

Portend (v.) [a ]
=indicate by signs
This portends difficult time ahead.
Portent (n.) [k, ]

Posterity (n.) [, , ut <]
=all future generations.
Every attempt is being made to ensure
that these works of art are preserved
for posterity.

Pragmatic (adj.) [ p+
e]
=concerned with practical matters.
In business, the pragmatic approach to
problems is often more successful than
an idealistic one.
Pragmatically (adv.)
Pragmatism (n.) [p, ,
a, mn]
Pragmatist (n.)

Precipitous (adj.)
=done with very great haste and
without due deliberation, extremely
steep.
Don't be precipitate - think it through
before you make a decision.
There is a precipitous drop off that
cliff.
Precipitously (adv.)

Precocious (adj.) [a]
=(of a child) advanced in intelligence
or development.
She was a precocious child who could
read and write at the age of three.
Precociously (adv.)
Precociousness (n.)

24
Predilection (n.)
A predilection for [ a/k,
]
He has a predilection for drinking
alcohol.

Predispose (v.) [ i a/a{ , u
]
=make susceptible.
To predispose to disease [p ]
Smoking predisposes you to lung
cancer.
His family background predisposes
him to support the Democrats.
I found him predisposed in your favor.
Predisposition (n.) [p]
A predisposition to find fault with.
[vp]

Pre-eminent (n.)
=more important or better than others.
She is the pre-eminent authority in her
subject.
Pre-eminence(n.)
=high status importance owing to
marked superiority.
His pre-eminence in his subject is
internationally recognized.

Prerogative (n.) [ a]
=a right reserved exclusively by a
particular person or group (especially a
hereditary or official right).
Alex makes all the big decisions -
that's his prerogative as company
director.

Prevalent (adj.) [p]
=encountered generally especially at
the present time.
Pine trees are prevalent in this part of
the country.
Prevalence (n.)

Prevaricate (v.) [(m ) ]
=to avoid telling the truth or saying
exactly what you think, misrepresent.
He prevaricated when he spoke in
court.
Prevarication (n.)
Prevaricator (n.)

Procrastinate (v.) [k ]
=postpone or delay needlessly.
I know I've got to deal with the
problem at some point - I'm just
procrastinating.
Procrastination (n.)

Prodigal (adj.) [a, ks]
Prodigal (n.)
Prodigally (adv.)
Prodigality (n.)
The prodigality of the sea.

Prodigy (n.) []
=an unusually talented or intelligent
child.
A prodigy of learning.
Infant prodigy [a p]

Profound (adj.) [, p]
A profound sleep.
Profundity (n.) [, p]
The profundity of knowledge.

Proliferate (v.)
=grow or reproduce rapidly.
Proliferation (n.) [Fs]
Prolific (adj.)
=bearing in abundance especially
offspring.

Propitiate (v.) [= u n ]
=to please and make calm a god or
person who is annoyed with you.
In those days people might sacrifice a
goat or sheep to propitiate an angry
god.
Propitiation (n.) [pt]
Propitiatory (adj.)
With a propitiatory gesture he offered
her his hand.
Propitious (adj.) [a{, pr, ]
Weather that was propitious for their
journey.
With the economy in the worst
recession for thirty years, it was
scarcely the most propitious time to
start up a company.
Propitiously (adv.)


25
Puerile (adj.) [, ]
I find his sense of humor rather
puerile.
Puerility (n.) [ //]

Punctilious (adj.) [
a, ds, ds]
Punctiliously (adv.)
Punctiliousness (n.)

Quotidian (adj.) [( m ) n, p]
=found in the ordinary course of
events, daily.
Television has become part of our
quotidian existence.

Raconteur (n.)
=a person skilled in telling anecdotes.
Our grandfather was an entertaining
Raconteur.

Rancid (adj.) [ d k]
=smelling of fermentation or
staleness.
The butter is rancid and tastes bad.

Ratify (v.) [sk a ]
=approve in writing.
Ratification (n.)

Recalcitrant (adj.) [a, ]
=marked by stubborn resistance to
authority.
Recalcitrance/Recalcitrancy (n.)
[a]

Recede (v.) [/ o, o]
=(1) gradually become weaker/smaller
(2) move back or further away.
The painful memories gradually
receded in her mind.

Reek (n.) [b d]
=a distinctive odor that is offensively
unpleasant.
The reek of stale tobacco smoke.
Reek (v.) [d ]
Reek with [ k p k o]

Refute (v.) [u p ]
=prove to be false or incorrect.
One witness refuted the statement of
another by presenting new evidence.
Refutable (adj.) []
Refutation (n.) []

Regale (v.) [/n , p/ ]
=provide with choice or abundant
food or drink.
Regale oneself with a bottle of
champagne.
Our friend regaled us with stories of
things he had done in Africa.

Reiterate (v.) [ t ]
The club has moved to reiterate its
stance on this matter.
A reiterate command.
Reiteration (n.)

Rejoice (v.) [n /o]
=to feel great joy.
When the war ended, the winners
rejoiced.

Relinquish (v.) [ ]
=to give up; hand over, to surrender.
The thief relinquished his gun to the
police.
He relinquished alcohol and fatty foods
to go on a diet.

Remit (v.) [k , o{ , ; /o,
]
=release from (claims and debts).
His examination fees have been
remitted.
The case will be remitted to an expert
committee.
Remission (n.) [k, , i, o{,
]
Remission for good conducts. [
]
Remission of a fever.
Remittance (n.) [a p p a ]

Renounce (v.) [ ]
=give up.
He renounced drinking alcohol by
telling his friends that he had quit
drinking.

26
Repudiate (v.) [ as , as
]
=refuse to acknowledge or recognize.
I utterly repudiate those remarks.
Repudiation (n.)

Resonant (adj.)
=(of sound) deep, clear and ringing.
Resonant with =filled with.

Resurgent (adj.) [ -mr]
=rising again as to new life and vigor.
Resurgence (n.) [<, ]

Revel (v.) [n ]
Revel in [p n ]
Drunken Revel []
Reveler (n.)

Rhetoric (n.) [a: ]
Rhetorical (adj.) [pertaining to
effective communication, a:,
v]
=asked only to make a statement or to
produce an effect rather than to get an
answer
=intended to influence people, but not
completely honest or sincere (of a
speech or piece of writing)
A rhetorical question =ut
p n kp p:
Rhetorically (adv.)

Rife (adj.) [s, : p, ]
=excessively abundant.
The folk songs are still rife in the
villages.
Corruption is rife in our society; the
integrity of even senior officials is
suspect.
Rife with [ ]

Rodent (n.) [id p]
=relatively small gnawing animals
having a single pair of constantly
growing incisor teeth specialized for
gnawing.
Damaging of plastic pipe in trickle
irrigation by rodents.


Ruffle (v.) [ ]
=stir up (water) so as to form ripples.
Ruffle (n.)
=a strip of pleated material used as a
decoration or a trim.

Sage (n.) [j ]
=a mentor in spiritual and
philosophical topics.
Sage (adj.) [j, pj]
Sagely (adv.)
Sagacious (adj.) [jmr, k]
=acutely insightful and wise.
Sagacity (n.)
=ability to make good judgments.
Presage (n.) [k, ]
Presage (v.)
A heavy rain presages flood.

Salacity (n.) [ad]
=the trait of behaving in an obscene
manner.
Salacious (adj.) [ad]
Salaciously (adv.)
Salaciousness (n.)

Salvage (n.) [u+ mt]
=the act of rescuing a ship or its crew
or its cargo from a shipwreck or a fire.
The ship is good for salvage because it
can be raised from the bottom of the
sea.

Savor (v.) [s u ]
=taste appreciatively.
I savored dinner last night; we had
roast beef and good red wine.
The baseball team savored their win.

Scintillate (v.) [ ]
=emit or reflect light in a flickering
manner.
The party conversation scintillated as
people told jokes and drank
champagne.

Sedentary (adj.) [a u e,
e ()]
=tending to spend much time seated.
Sedentary profession.

27
Sedulous (adj.) [a]
=diligent, marked by care and
persistent effort.
Pay sedulous attention to a young lady.
Sedulously (adv.)

Sequestrate (v.) [p ]
=set apart from others.
At the age of 60, the old man was
sequestrated from his colleague.
Sequestration (n.)
=isolation.

Serendipity (n.) [= o ap
]
=something good that happens by
chance.
It was serendipity that I found a 10-
dollar bill on the street.

Serene (adj.) [s o ]
=completely clear and fine.
After she told him that she loved him,
he became serene with relief and
happiness.

Serpent (n.) [, , u]
=a snake.
Serpentine (adj.)
We followed the serpentine course of
the river.
The film's serpentine (=complicated
and difficult to understand) plot was
difficult to follow.

Simulate (v.) [ ]
(1) enact or perform again (2) make a
pretence of.
Simulated innocence.
There are some insects that simulate
dead leaves.
Simulation (n.)
Dissimulate (v.) [p /a
r a ]
=hide from others, as of feelings.

Solicit (v.) [a ]
=to ask someone for money,
information or help.
It is illegal for public officials to solicit
gifts or money in exchange for favors.
Solicitation (n.)
Solicitous (adj.)
=full of anxiety and concern.
He made a solicitous enquiry after her
health.
Solicitously (adv.)
Solicitude (n.)

Sonorous (adj.) [, ]
=full and loud and deep.
A sonorous voice.
Sonorous voice of Sonu Nigam.
Sonorously (adv.)

Soporific (adj.) [sleep producer, (
)]
=sleep inducing.
Soporific class lectures of Feroze sir!

Specious (adj.) [ /
z ]
=plausible but false.
A specious argument.
Speciously (adv.)
Speciousness (n.)

Sporadic (v.) [kp]
=recurring in scattered and irregular or
unpredictable instances.
Sporadic clashes between Mannas
fans and police.
Sporadic fighting / gunfire / violence.
Sporadic outbreaks of the disease.
Sporadically (adv.)

Stagnant (adj.) [+, ]
=(of water or air) not flowing or
moving, and smelling unpleasant.
We could not drink the water in the
stagnant pond.
A stagnant economy.
Stagnancy (n.)

Steadfast (adj.) [, a]
=marked by firm determination or
resolution.
The group remained steadfast in its
support for the new system, even when
it was criticized in the newspapers.
Steadfastly (adv.)
Steadfastness (n.)

28
Stifle (v.) [<+ , , ]
=smother, suppress, conceal, hide.
We were stifled in the crowded local
bus.
I feel stifled in a smoky room.
Stifler (n.) [, ]

Stoic (n.) [-d k]
=someone who is seemingly
indifferent to emotions.
Stoical (adj.)
Stoicism (n.) [ ]

Stimulate (v.) [ut ]
=to encourage something to grow,
develop or become active.
Good teachers should ask questions
that stimulate students to think.
Stimulating (adj.)
Stimulation (n.)
Stimulant (n.)

Stricture (v.) [ /]
=(1) stern criticism (2) a severe moral
or physical limitation.
The strictures of the United Nations
have failed to have any effect on the
warring factions.
The Taliban's strictures on women's
rights and education.

Stupefy (v.) [s k , ?
]
Stupefied with drink/amazement.
Stupefaction (n.) [a]

Subdue (v.)
=put down by force or intimidation.
Unforgiven-1: New blood joins this
earth and quickly he's subdued.
Subdued voice/light/satisfaction. [,
]

Subjugate (v.)[ ]
=put down by force or intimidation.
She subjugated herself to her mother's
needs.

Sublime (adj.) [v, n,
(a k m )]
=worthy of adoration or reverence.
Sublime scenery/heroism/self-
sacrifice.
A man of sublime
conceit/impudence/indifference.
(Go) from the sublime to the
ridiculous.
Sublimely (adv.) [r]
She was sublimely indifferent to the
astounded looks of the pedestrians.

Subside (v.) [; o, o]
=sink or fall to a lower level.
The police are hoping that the violence
will soon subside.
Eventually the flood waters began to
subside.
Subsidence (n.)
The building had to be demolished
because of subsidence.

Subtle (adj.) [Be difficult to detect, v]
Subtle Subtler - Subtlest
A subtle humor.
A subtle [] argument or design.
A subtle [v] observer or critic.
Subtly (adv.)
Government policy has already shifted
subtly.

Succinct (adj.) [kp, v]
=briefly giving the gist of something.
Succinctly (adv.) [a ]
Succinctness (n.)

Superficial (adj.) [a, -, ]
=only on the surface of something.
The driver only received superficial
injuries/cuts/wounds.
Superficially (adv.)
Superficiality (n.)

Sybarite (n.) [ k]
=a person who loves luxury and
pleasure.

Taciturn (adj.) [a]
=habitually reserved and
uncommunicative.
The old man has a taciturn expression
on his face.


29
Tarnish (v.) [p /o]
=to spoil the reputation of someone or
something.
The scandal tarnished her reputation.
Tarnish (n.) [p]

Teem (v.) [p , a
]
Fish teem in this lake.
Teem with [p ]
Bangladesh is teeming with people.
The rain was teeming down.
He found that many marketed spices
were teeming with bacteria, moulds
and yeasts.

Temerity (n.) []
=fearless daring, boldness.
He had the temerity to tell his boss
what he thought of her.

Thwart (v.) [p , ]
=hinder or prevent.
Be thwarted in ones ambitions.

Tractable (adj.) [ s]
=docile, easily managed.
Tractability (n.)

Tranquil (adj.) [, ]
=free from disturbance.
The tranquil night.
Tranquilly (adv.)
Tranquility (n.) [p]
Tranquilize (v.) [=make calm or still]
Tranquilizer (n.)

Travail (n.) [n p, p ]
Travail (v.)
=work hard.
Painful or laborious effort.

Tremor (n.) [ -m, , ]
=a shaky motion.
There was a slight tremor in her voice.
Tremulous (adj.)
He watched her tremulous hand reach
for the teacup.

Trepidation (n.) [ ]
=fear or anxiety about what is going to
happen, a feeling of alarm or dread.
We view future developments with
some trepidation.
Intrepid (adj.) [a{]
Intrepidly (adv.)
Intrepidity (n.)

Trite (adj.) [, ]
=over familiar through overuse.
His lyrics about love and peace are too
trite for me to take them seriously.
Tritely (adv.)
Triteness (n.)

Trivial (adj.) [, , a]
=having little value or importance.
I don't know why he gets so upset
about something that is utterly trivial.

Truculent (adj.) [+, +]
=defiantly aggressive.
A truculent speech against the new
government.
Truculently (adv.)
Truculence/Truculency (n.)

Trudge (v.) [ar ]
=walk heavily and firmly, shamble.
Trudging through the deep snow.
Trudge (n.) [z =]
=a long difficult walk.

Truncate (v.) [ ]
=make shorter as if by cutting off.
Television coverage of the match was
truncated by a technical fault.

Tumult (n.) [ , , tk]
=a state of commotion and loud
confused noise.
The tumult of battle.

Tyro (n.) [aj k]
=someone new to a field or activity.
I look forward to seeing this young
tyro's next ballet.

Ubiquitous (adj.) [ei = r
u]
=being present everywhere at once.
Leather is very much in fashion this
season, as of course is the ubiquitous
denim.

30
Unanimity (n.) []
=everyone being of one mind.
Unanimous (adj.)
After a lengthy discussion we reached
a unanimous decision on the proposal.

Tenable (adj.) [ k ,
k ( m)]
=able to be defended successfully or
held for a particular period of time.
His terms are hardly tenable.
His theory is no longer tenable in light
of the recent discoveries.
Untenable (adj.)
=describes a theory or argument that
cannot be supported or defended
against criticism.
If three people in four no longer
support the government, isn't this an
untenable situation?

Upheaval (n.) [a]
=(a) great change, especially causing
or involving much difficulty, activity
or trouble.
It would cause a tremendous upheaval
to install a different computer system.

Vacillate (v.) [d ]
=be undecided about something.
Her mood vacillated between hope and
despair.
Vacillation (n.)

Vacuous (adj.) [ +t a , n,
u, ]
A vacuous
remark/laugh/expression/stare.
Vacuously (adv.) [n]

Vagary (n.) [, ]
=a sudden desire.
The vagaries of human emotions.

Veracity (n.) [, , ]
=unwillingness to tell lies.
Veracious (adj.) [ ]
Veraciously (adv.)
Verbose (adj.) [v ]
=using or containing too many words.
Verbosely (adv.)
Verboseness (n.)
Verdant (adj.) [ , aj]
=green with growing things.
Verdancy (n.)
Much of the region's verdant
countryside has been destroyed in the
hurricane.

Vex (v.) [k ]
=to annoy, worry or disturb (esp. by
minor irritations).
It vexes me that my computer is not so
fast.
A vexed question [: sr,
k ]
Vex (v.) [( ) kb ]
Vexed by storms.

Vice (n.) []
=a specific form of evildoing.
Greed, pride, envy, dishonesty and lust
are considered to be vices.
Vicious (adj.)
=having the nature of vice.
The police said that this was one of the
most vicious attacks they'd ever seen.
Viciously (adv.)
Viciousness (n.)

Vindicate (v.)
=to prove that what someone said or
did was right or true, after other people
thought it was wrong.
The decision to include Morris in the
team was completely vindicated when
he scored three goals.
Vindication (n.)
The army's victory is being seen as (a)
vindication of their tactics.

Voluble (adj.) [sn]
=marked by a ready flow of speech.
Many see Parker as the obvious leader,
whose voluble style works well on TV.
Volubly (adv.)

31




Abridge (v.) [kp ]
=condense, shorten.
The publishers proceeded to abridge
the novel 'War and Peace'.
The new law might abridge our
freedom of expression.
Abridged (adj.)
I've only read the abridged version of
her novel.
Abridgement (n.)

Abrogate (v.) [k ]
=abolish, revoke formally.
The king intended to abrogate the
decree issued by his predecessor.
Abrogation (n.)

Abscond (v.) [t ]
=depart secretly and hide.
She absconded from boarding school
with her boyfriend.
Absconder (n.) []

Admonish (v.) [ ]
=warn, reprove.
Her teacher admonished her to work
harder for her exams.
Admonition (v.)
Admonitory (adj.)
An admonitory letter.

Adulterate (v.) [ ]
=make impure.
It is a crime to adulterate foods without
informing the buyer.
Adulteration (n.)
Adulterant (n.) []

Aegis (n.) [ak, ]
=shield, defense.
The project was set up under the aegis
of the university.

Aesthetic (adj.) [n]
=artistic.
How can you feel this painting, as you
have no aesthetic sense.
Aesthetically (adv.)
I like objects to be both functional and
aesthetically pleasing.




Aesthetics (n.)
=the formal study of art, especially in
relation to the idea of beauty.

Altruism (n.) [b]
=the quality of unselfish concern for
the welfare of others.
Altruistic (adj.)
I doubt whether her motives for
donating the money are altruistic -
she's probably looking for publicity.

Amoral (adj.) [a]
=without moral standards or
principles.
He has an amoral view of life in which
anything he wants to do is all right.
Amorality (n.)

Anathema (n.) [ap ]
=solemn curse.
The thought of changing to another
religion is anathema to many people.
Anathematize (v.) [a ]

Anguish (n.) [< s]
=acute pain, extreme suffering.
The visitor wept to see the anguish of
the victims and their families.
Anguished (adj.)

Annex (v.) [a , ]
=attach, take possession of.
Britain annexed this small island west
of Scotland in 1955.

Apocalyptic (adj.) [p]
=prophetic of devastation or ultimate
doom.
The crowd jeered at the street
preacher's apocalyptic prediction of
doom.

Apocryphal (adj.) [n, p:k]
=spurious, not authentic.
Landing on the moon is most likely
apocryphal now.

Word List of Rizvi
Part-2

32
Arbor (n.) [{]
=a sheltered place in a garden formed
by trees and bushes which are grown to
partly enclose it.
The rose arbor was beautiful when the
roses were in bloom.
Arboreal (adj.)
=of or relating to or formed by trees.
Arboriculture (n.)
=the cultivation of tree for the
production of timber.

Artless (adj.) [, ]
=without guile, open and honest.
I have not seen artless man like him
ever.
Artlessly (adv.)
Artlessness (n.)

Assail (v.) [ ]
=assault.
He was assailed with insults and abuse
as he left the court.

Assent (v.) [m , a ]
=agree, accept.
If I have to assent to your request, I
must think about it for few days.
Assent (n.)
=agreement with a statement or
proposal to do something.
He gave his assent eagerly.

Astound (v.) [ a s? ]
=to surprise or shock someone very
much.
The news astounded me.

Atone (v.) [,p , pt ]
=make amends for, pay for.
The country's leader has expressed a
wish to atone for his actions in the
past.
Atonement (n.)
He said that young hooligans should
do community service as atonement for
their crimes.

Auspicious (adj.) [, a{, k]
=favoring success.
It was an auspicious moment to set
sail.
Auspiciously (adv.)

Banish (v.) [ ]
=expel from a community or group.
He was banished to an uninhabited
island for a year.
Banishment (n.)

Bastion (n.) [<]
=stronghold.
The attackers may not find the leader
who is into the bastion.
Befriend (v.) [u ]
=become friends with.
He was befriended by an old lady.

Beleaguer (v.) [a ]
=besiege or attack, harass.
The Army beleaguered the Prime
Minister's residence.

Bellicose (adj.) [p, ]
=warlike, pugnacious.
You seem an atavism to your Norman
ancestors who were bellicose.

Bemuse (v.)
=cause to be confused emotionally.
Bemused (adj.) [+ o]
=confused, lost in thought.
Faisal watched the show in discovery
channel with a bemused look on his
face.

Benevolent (adj.) [, ]
=generous, charitable.
He was a benevolent old man, he
wouldn't hurt a fly.
Benevolence (n.)
Benevolently (adv.)
She smiled benevolently at me.

Benign (adj.) [, h]
=kindly, favorable.
His benign smile attracted the poor
villagers.
A benign tumor [ e]
Benignly (adv.)

Beseech (v.) [ , p ]
=beg, plead with.
The old man beseeched his life to the
leader of the robbers.
Beseeching (adj.)
Beseechingly (adv.)

33
Besmirch (v.) [ , ]
=soil, defile.
The scandalous remarks in the
newspaper besmirch the reputation of
the University.

Bestir (v.) [ ]
=to become active after a period of
rest.
To bestir oneself.
I'd better bestir myself - there's work to
be done.

Blithe (adj.) [, pl]
=carefree and unconcerned.
He made some blithe remarks about
the coming hurricane.
Blithely (adv.)
She blithely agreed to the contract
without realizing what its
consequences would be.

Blizzard (n.) [ o p ]
=a severe snow storm with strong
winds.
We once got stuck in a blizzard for six
hours.

Brazen (adj.) [u+, n]
=unrestrained by convention or
propriety.
There were instances of brazen
cheating in the exams.
His brazen voice [ o] was
disliked by others.

Broach (v.) [ < ]
=bring up a topic for discussion.
He at last broached the topic of his
marriage.

Brusque (adj.) [r, a]
=blunt, abrupt.
He was shocked by her brusque reply.
Brusquely (adv.)
Brusqueness (n.)

Buoy (v.) [ ]
=to prevent someone or something
from sinking.
The very salty water buoyed her (up)
as she swam.
She was buoyed (up) by the warm
reception her audience gave her.
Buoyant (adj.) [:, pl]
=able to float, cheerful and optimistic.
Take buoyant tyres if you go to Coxs'
Bazar.
After reading the letter he was in a
buoyant mood.
Buoyancy (n.)
He was a man of remarkable buoyancy
[an ability to stay happy despite
having difficulties].

Burgeon (v.) [F o, l o]
=to develop or grow quickly.
Love burgeoned between them.
Burgeoning (adj.)

Callous (adj.) [u]
=hardened, unfeeling.
Due to working in the hospital for
many years, he became callous to the
suffering of the inmates.
Callously (adj.)
Callousness (n.)

Calumny (n.) [a, ]
=malicious [d ]
misrepresentation, slander.
You are not my foe, why you are
heaping calumny upon me!

Cantankerous (adj.) [, p]
=ill-humored, irritable.
He's getting a bit cantankerous in his
old age.

Captious (adj.) [v, ]
=fault-finding.
Captiously (adv.)

Catharsis (n.) [k, ]
=the release of pent-up emotions.
Cathartic (adj.)
A cathartic experience.

Centrifuge (n.) [ d s]
=machine that separates substances by
whirling them.
At the dairy, we employ a centrifuge to
separate cream from milk.
Centrifugal (adj.)

34
Chafe (v.) [ ]
=(1) warm by rubbing (2) cause
annoyance in; disturb, especially by
minor irritations.
He chafed his hand before the fire.
The slow traffic chafed her as she
hurried to work.

Chronicle (n.) [= ]
=a written record of historical events.
Chronicle (v.)
The book chronicles the writer's
coming to terms with his illness.

Churl (n.) [ ]
Churlish (adj.)
=boorish, rude.
His churlish behavior annoys
everyone.
Churlishly (adv.)

Cimmerian (adj.)
=intensely dark and gloomy as with
perpetual darkness.

Cleanse (v.) [ ]
=to make something completely clean.
Cleanse the cut/wound thoroughly
before you bandage it.
Cleanser (n.) []
Cleansing (adj.)
A cleansing cream/lotion.

Cloy (v.) [m, , n p d
a< ]
=supply or feed to surfeit.
Cloyed with sweets.
Cloying (adj.)
=distasteful, excessively sweet or
sentimental.
Disliking the cloying sweetness of
standard wedding cakes, Mr. Rafique
chose a home made carrot cake.

Coffer (n.) [ )
]
=a large strong box in which money or
valuable objects are kept.
The treasure was locked away in
coffers.
The government's coffers are empty
and it must raise taxes.

Cognomen (n.)
=a familiar name for a person (often a
shortened version of a person's
given name).

Comrade (n.) [a /, s ]
=a person who is frequently in the
company of another.
Many of his comrades were killed in
the battle.
Comradely (adj.)
Comradeship (n.)

Conjecture (n.) [a]
=a hypothesis that has been formed by
speculating.
Conjecture (v.)
=to believe especially on uncertain or
tentative grounds.

Contuse (v.) [k ]
=injure the underlying soft tissue or
bone of.
Contusion (n.) [ a]

Conundrum (n.) [ p:, ]
=a difficult problem.
Arranging childcare over the school
holidays can be quite a conundrum for
working parents.

Corpse (n.) [ , ]
=the dead body of a human being.
The murder victim's corpse lay in the
street.
Corporeal (adj.) [ =, ]
=having material or physical form or
substance
Corporeally (adv.)
Incorporeal (adj.)
=not having a physical body but a
spiritual form.
In the film, the house was visited by a
strange incorporeal being.

Corroborate (v.) [ k, (
]
=to provide evidence or information
that supports a statement, theory, etc.
Recent research seems to corroborate
his theory.
Corroboration (n.)

35
Without corroboration from forensic
tests, it will be difficult to prove that
the suspect is guilty.
Corroborating (adj.)
Corroborating evidence/reports.

Covenant (v.) [k= m ]
=Enter into a formal agreement.
5% of our profits are covenanted to
charity.
Covenant (n.)
=a signed written agreement between
two or more parties (nations) to
perform some action.
The contract contained a restrictive
covenant against building on the land.

Covert (adj.)
=secret or hidden.
The government was accused of covert
military operations against the regime.
Covert (n.)
Covertly (adv.)

Craven (adj.) [<]
=cowardly, lacking even the
rudiments of courage.
A craven act of terrorism.
Cravenly (adv.)

Creed (n.) [ a ]
=any system of principles or beliefs.
The church published its creed about
belief in God.

Curt (adj.) [s, T ]
=marked by rude or peremptory
shortness.
A curt reply, A curt way of talking.
Curtly (adv.)
Steve answered curtly and turned his
back on me.
Curtness (n.)
Claire's curtness made him wonder
what he'd done wrong.

Curtsy (n.) [ n+ p ]
=bending the knees; a gesture of
respect made by women.
Curtsy (v.)
She curtseyed to the Queen.


Cynosure (n.) [ k k/]
=sth that strongly attracts attention
and admiration.

Deadpan (adj.) [, ]
=deliberately impassive in manner.
A deadpan expression/voice.
Deadpan (adv.)
=without betraying any feeling.

Decamp (v.) [p , ]
=leave a camp, run away, leave
suddenly.
The hikers decamped before dawn.
He decamped from the hotel with
someone else's luggage.

Deceit (n.) [p, ]
=the quality of being fraudulent.
Deceive (v.) [p ]
The company deceived customers by
selling old computers as new ones.
Deceiver (n.) [p]
=someone who deceives people.

Defer (v.) [/ , v ]
=to agree with sbs decision cause u
have respect towards them.
To defer to ones elders/to sbs
opinions.
A deferred telegram.
Deferment (n.)
I have a deferment from military
service while I am a student.
Deference (n.)
Deferential (adj.)
Deferentially (adv.)

Deluge (v.) [: ]
=fill or cover completely, usually with
water.
The city was deluged when the river
burst its banks.
Deluge (n.) [:]
This little stream can become a deluge
when it rains heavily.

Demagogue (n.) [k ]
=a political leader who seeks support
by appealing to popular passions and
prejudices.
Hitler was a demagogue.

36
Demagogic (adj.)
Demagogically (adv.)

Deport (v.) [ ]
=expel from a country.
Thousands of illegal immigrants are
caught and deported every year.
Deportation (n.)
There were mass deportations in the
1930s, when thousands of people were
forced to leave the country.
Deportee (n.)

Deprave (v.) [ ]
=corrupt morally or by intemperance
or sensuality.
Depraved (adj.)
Depravity (n.)
=the state of being morally bad.
After he lost his job, he fell slowly into
a life of drugs and depravity.

Deride (v.) [u ]
=ridicule.
They derided my suggestion as
utopian.
Derision (n.)
Derisive (adj.)

Desiccate (v.) [ ]
=lose water or moisture
Desiccated fruit.
Desiccant (n.) []

Desolate (v.) [n/n ]
=cause extensive destruction or ruin
utterly.
Desolate (adj.)
The house stood in a bleak and
desolate landscape.
Desolately (adv.)
=providing no shelter or sustenance.
Desolation (n.)
A scene of desolation.

Diaphanous (adj.) [s, ]
=(of cloth) so light and fine that you
can almost see through it.
Diaphaneity (n.)
Diaphanously (adv.)
Diaphanousness (n.)

Disabuse (v.) [ k ]
=free somebody (from an erroneous
belief).
Proper education can disabuse a man
of communal prejudices.
He thinks that he can say whatever he
wants, but I will disabuse him of that
idea.

Dispatch (v.) [ u+ o p ,
() F , ]
=send off promptly, kill quickly.
The injured horse was suffering, so we
dispatched it with a shot to the head.
He performs his duties with dispatch
by quickly doing what his boss asks.
Dispatch (n.)
The dispatch of the letter was delayed.

Disquiet (v.) [udg ]
=to make uneasy or anxious.
We were disquieted by the news of his
illness.
Disquiet (n.)
=anxiety.
The news of his illness caused much
Disquiet in the office.
Disquietude (n.)
=feelings of anxiety that make you
tense and irritable.

Dissertation (n.) [ ]
=a long formal treatment of a subject,
esp. one written for a higher university
degree.
Ann did her dissertation on Baudelaire.
After years of writing her doctoral
dissertation, it was accepted and she
received her Ph.D.

Distend (v.) [ ]
=extend/ expand abnormally, swell
out, bloat.
In the refugee centers we saw many
children whose stomachs were
distended because of lack of food.
Distension (n.)

Drab (adj.) [, e]
=dull, causing dejection.
I feel so drab in this grey uniform.
Drabness (n.)

37
It's the unrelieved drabness of big
industrial cities that depresses me.

Drone (v.) [e / /k ]
=talk in a monotonous voice.
He was droning on (and on) about his
operation.
Drone (n.)

Edify (v.) [ ur ]
=to improve someone's mind.
Edification (n.)
I tend to watch the television for
pleasure rather than edification.
Edifying (adj.)

Efface (v.) [ , h ]
=remove completely from recognition
or memory.
The whole country had tried to efface
the memory of the old dictatorship.
Effacement (n.)

Effervesce (v.) [ , n u
o]
=become bubbly or frothy or foaming.
Effervescence (n.) [,
ut]
=the process of bubbling as gas
escapes.
Effervescent (adj.) [ul]
Meg Ryan has an effervescent
personality.

Ejaculate (v.) [ e k ]
=utter impulsively.
You've got my umbrella!- he
ejaculated.

Ellipsis (n.) [ n p -]
=when words are left out of a sentence
but the sentence can still be
understood.
An example of ellipsis is "What
percentage was left?" "Twenty" (=20
per cent).
Elliptical (adj.)
His message was written in a
deliberately elliptical style.
Elliptically (adv.)


Embellish (v.) [n , a , ]
=(1) add details to (2) make more
beautiful.
Numerous sponsors are coming
forward to embellish the program
thereby getting a chance to be
highlighted in the society.
Embellishment (n.)

Embezzle (v.) [t ]
=to secretly take money that is in your
care or that belongs to an organization
or business you work for.
She embezzled thousands of dollars
from the charity.
Embezzlement (n.) [a -t]
They were arrested for embezzlement
of company funds.
Embezzler (n.)

Emblem (n.) [p]
=a visible symbol representing an
abstract idea.
A rose is the national emblem of
England.
Emblematic (adj.)
A sword is emblematic of power
gained by violence.
Emblematically (adv.)

Emigrate (v.) [ o]
=to leave a country permanently and
go to live in another one.
Millions of Germans emigrated from
Europe to America in the nineteenth
century.
Emigration (n.)
Immigrant (n.) []
=a person who emigrates.

Emollient (adj./n.) [[ e]
=having a softening or soothing effect
especially to the skin.
An emollient cream.

Emote (v.)
=to express emotion in a theatrical or
exaggerated way.
The grandmother emoted when she
talked about the wonderful time of her
youth.
Emotive (adj.)

38
Enervate (v.) [ o ]
=weaken mentally or morally.
Enervating (adj.)
I find this heat very enervating.

Enjoin (v.) [ p ]
=give instructions to or direct
somebody to do something with
authority, to stop/prevent.
The court enjoined the prosecution
from convicting an innocent man.

Ennui (n.) [ o
z]
=the feeling of being bored by
something tedious.
The whole country seems to be
affected by the ennui of winter.

Ensconce (v.) [ p
(/ )]
=fix firmly.
He ensconced himself in the chair.

Entreat (v.) [a ]
=ask for or request earnestly.
Entreatingly (adv.) []

Epistemology (n.)
=the philosophical theory of
knowledge.

Erudite (adj.) []
=having or showing profound
knowledge.
He's the author of an erudite book on
Scottish history.
Eruditely (adv.)
Erudition (n.) []
A work of great erudition.

Ether (n.) [- p ]
=light and delicate, especially in an
unnatural way.
Ethereal (adj.)
Ethereally (adv.)

Exact (v.) [ o , ,
< o]
=to demand and obtain something,
sometimes using force, threats or
persuasion, or to make something
necessary.
The blackmailers exacted a total of
$100 000 from their victims.
Heart surgery exacts tremendous skill
and concentration.
Exacting (adj.) [a mr, ,
]
=demanding a lot of effort, care or
attention.
An exacting training schedule.

Excerpt (n.) [ r a]
=a passage selected from a larger
work.
An excerpt from her new thriller will
appear in this weekend's magazine.
Excerpt (v.)
=take out of a literary work in order to
cite or copy.
This passage of text has been
excerpted from her latest novel.

Exhilarate (v.) [ul ]
=fill with sublime emotion.
Exhilarating (adj.)
The cold autumn air exhilarates me.
Exhilaration (n.)

Hortative (adj.) [u, p]
Hortatory (adj.)
=giving strong encouragement.
Exhort (v.) [ u ud+
, a ]
The governor exhorted the prisoners
not to riot.
Exhortation (n.)
The book is essentially an exhortation
to religious tolerance.

Extempore (adj./adv.) [ p ]
=with little or no preparation or
forethought.
At the audition, the actors were asked
to perform extempore.
Extemporary (adj.)
Extemporarily (adv.)
Extemporaneous (adj.)
An extemporaneous speech.
Extemporaneously (adv.)

39
Extol (v.) [u p ]
=praise, glorify or honor.
She is forever extolling the virtues of
her children.

Extricate (v.) [k ]
=release from entanglement of
difficulty.
I tried to extricate myself from the
situation but it was impossible.
Extrication (n.)

Fathom (v.) [ o, ]
=come to understand, measure the
depth of (a body of water) with a
sounding line.
Unfathomed (adj.)
Unfathomable (adj.) [dj, d ]

Feckless (adj.) [, ak, []
=not fit to assume responsibility.
He was portrayed as a feckless drunk.
Fecklessly (adv.)
Fecklessness (n.)

Fidget (v.) [ a a ]
=move restlessly.
Children can't sit still for long without
fidgeting.
Fidget (n.)

Foment (v.) [ , u+ ]
=try to stir up public opinion.
The song was banned on the grounds
that it might foment racial tension.

Forensic (adj.)
=related to scientific methods of
solving crimes.
Forensic examination revealed a large
quantity of poison in the dead man's
stomach.

Forge (v.) [ ]
=make a copy of with the intent to
deceive.
A forged passport/ signature.
Forger (n.) []
=someone who makes copies illegally.
Forgery (n.)
He increased his income by forgery.


Forgo (v.) [ ]
=to do without, to abstain from.
I shall have to forgo the pleasure of
seeing you this week.

Fraud (n.) [ p, p]
=intentional deception resulting in
injury to another person.
Fraudster (n.)
=someone who obtains money by
deceiving people.
New measures are needed to prevent
fraudsters opening bank accounts with
stolen checks.
Fraudulent (adj.)
=dishonest and illegal.
The company made fraudulent
statements in its television
commercials for its shampoo.
Fraudulently (adv.)

Frenzy (n.) [ut]
=state of violent mental agitation.
In a frenzy of rage she hit him.
Frenzied (adj.)
As the evening wore on the dancing
got more and more frenzied.

Fret (v.) [ ]
=worry unnecessarily or excessively.
Don't fret - I'm sure he's OK.
Fret (n.)
=agitation resulting from active worry.
Fretful (adj.)
By midnight the children were tired
and fretful.
Fretfully (adv.)

Frugal (adj.) [, ]
=avoiding waste.
A frugal meal of bread and soup.
Frugally (adv.)
We had very little money left, so we
ate frugally in cheap cafs and bars.
Frugality (n.)

Gauche (adj.) [ /ap]
=lacking social polish.
She had grown from a gauche teenager
to a self-assured young woman.
Gaucherie(n.) [ ///]
=the quality of being rustic or gauche.

40
Gesture (n.) [i, i]
=motion of hands or body to
emphasize or help to express a thought
or feeling.
She made a rude gesture at the other
driver.
Gesture (v.) [a ]
=show, express or direct through
movement.
He made no answer but walked on,
gesturing for me to follow.
Gesticulate (v.) [a ]
=show, express or direct through
movement.
There was a man outside the window
gesticulating wildly.
Gesticulation (n.)

Goad (v.) [ ]
=give heart or courage to.
Will the pressure applied by
environmentalists be enough to goad
the industrialized nations into using
less fossil fuel?
Goad (n.)
The thought of exams next week is a
great goad to the students to work
hard.

Gorge (v.) [ o]
=overeat or eat immodestly.
Gorge (n.) [ ]
The sight made my gorge rise.
Gorge (n.) [ ]
Engorge (v.)
=overeat or eat immodestly.
Disgorge (v.) [u, ]

Grimace (v.) [ ]
=to make an expression of pain, strong
dislike, etc. in which the face twists in
an ugly way.
He tried to stand and grimaced with
pain.
Grimace (n.)
Helen made a grimace of disgust when
she saw the raw meat.

Gull (v.) [ , p ]
=make a fool or dupe of.
He gulled me out of my money.
Gullible (adj.) [ p]
Gullibility (n.)

Haughty (adj.) [u+, a]
=unfriendly and seeming to consider
yourself better than other people.
She has a rather haughty manner.
Haughtily (adv.)
Haughtiness (n.)

Heckle (v.) [ k
{p: ]
=challenge aggressively.
A few angry locals started heckling
(the speaker).
Heckler (n.)
The heckler was ejected from the hall
by a couple of police officers.
Heckling (n.)

Heliocentric (adj.)
=having the sun as the center.

Hermit (n.) [s]
Hermitage (n.) [n]
Hermetic (adj.) [d ]
=completely sealed, completely
airtight.
A hermetic poem.
Hermetically (adv.)
Hermetically sealed.

Heuristic (adj.)
=(of a method of teaching) allowing
students to learn by discovering things
themselves and learning from their
own experiences rather than by telling
them things.
Heuristics is called the discovery
approach in education.

Hideous (adj.) [a {]
=extremely ugly or bad.
She wears the most hideous color
combinations you could ever imagine.
Hideously (adv.)

Histrionic (adj.) [, , ]
=characteristic of acting or a stage
performance; often affected.
Histrionic ability [a ]
She put on a histrionic display of grief
at her ex-husband's funeral.
Histrionics (n.) [, ]

41
Homage (n.) [n+, a, s]
=deep respect and often praise shown
for a person or god.
On this occasion we pay homage to
him for his achievements.

Icicle (n.)
=ice resembling a pendent spear,
formed by the freezing of dripping
water.
Icicles hung from the roof.

Immaculate (adj.) [ ]
=(1) extremely clean and tidy (2)
containing no mistakes.
An immaculate uniform / room.
The property is in immaculate
condition.
An immaculate performance.
His sense of timing was immaculate.
Immaculately (adv.)
Immaculately dressed.

Impasse (n.) [a]
=a situation in which no progress can
be made or no advancement is
possible.
The dispute had reached an impasse, as
neither side would compromise.

Impede (v.) [s ]
=be a hindrance or obstacle to.
Impediment (n.) [ p
(, )]
=anything that makes progress
difficult.

Impetuous (adj.) [a-]
=(1) tending to act on a sudden idea or
wish, without considering the results of
your actions (2) marked by violent
force.
The Prime Minister may now be
regretting her impetuous promise to
reduce unemployment by half.
Impetuously (adv.)
Impetuousness (n.)
Impetuosity (n.)

Implore (v.) [ p ]
=to beg.
She implored her parents not to send
her away to school.
Imploring (adj.)
He had an imploring look in his eyes.

Impromptu (adj. /adv.) [pr]
=an extemporaneous speech or
remark.
An impromptu party/performance.

Cant (n.) [, ]
=insincere talk about religion or
morals.
Incantation (n.) [s, d]
=a ritual recitation of words or sounds
believed to have a magical effect.
Around the fire, tribal elders chanted
incantations.

Inchoate (v.)
=imperfectly formed.
She had a child's inchoate awareness of
language.
Inchoative (adj.)

Incinerate (v.) [ ]
=cause to undergo combustion.
The spacecraft and its crew were
incinerated by the billion-degree
temperatures generated by the fireball.
Incinerator (n.)
A hospital incinerator.
Incineration (n.)

Corrigible (adj.) []
=capable of being corrected or set
right.
Incorrigible (adj.)
=impervious to correction by
punishment.
An incorrigible liar/rogue.
Incorrigibly (adv.)
Incur (v.) [ ]
=bring upon oneself.
Incur debt; Incur hatred [ = o]
The play has incurred the wrath/anger
of both audiences and critics.

Indigent (adj.) []
=very poor.
Some indigent people beg for money
and food.
Indigence (n.)

42
Ingratiate (v.) [a o]
=gain favor with somebody by
deliberate efforts.
With an ingratiating smile [
].
Ingratiatingly (adv.) [a+].

Innervate (v.)
=supply nerves to (some organ or
body part), stimulate to action.
Innervate a muscle or a nerve.

Insouciance (n.) [p]
=the cheerful feeling you have when
nothing is troubling you.
Insouciant (n.) [u, p]

Interdict (v.) [+/p+ ]
=command against.
Interdict (n.) [j]
Interdiction (n.) []

Trepidation (n.) [ ]
=fear or anxiety about what is going to
happen, a feeling of alarm or dread.
We view future developments with
some trepidation.
Intrepid (adj.) [a{]
Intrepidly (adv.)
Intrepidity (n.)
Intricate (adj.) [, {]
=having many complexly arranged
elements.
An intricate plot.
Intricately (adv.)
Intricacy (n.)

Inundate (v.) [: ]
=fill or cover completely, usually with
water.
Be inundated with congratulations.
Inundation (n.) [:/n]

Inveigh (v.) [ , ]
=to criticize severely.
Inveigh against sb/sth.
There were politicians who inveighed
against immigrants to get votes.

Inveigle (v.) [ o, p
]
=lead astray.
Inveigle sb into (doing) sth.
The young girl was inveigled by her
associates.

Jeopardize (v.) [s ]
=pose a threat to.
J eopardy (n.) [, , k]
=dangerous position or situation.
His social position is in jeopardy.

Jibe (v.)
=be compatible, similar or consistent;
coincide in their characteristics.
J ibe (n.)
=an aggressive remark directed at a
person like a missile and intended to
have a telling effect.

Jingo (n.) [+ p]
=an extreme bellicose nationalist.
J ingoism (n.)
J ingoist (n.)
J ingoistic (adj.)

Jurisprudence (n.) [ i j o ]
=the study of law and the principles
on which law is based.
The great problem for jurisprudence to
allow freedom while enforcing order.

Luster (n.) [, p, ]
=the brightness that a shiny surface
has.
Lustrous (adj.)
=very shiny.
Lustrously (adv.)
Lackluster (adj.)
=(1) lacking brilliance or vitality (2)
lacking luster.
Britain's number-one tennis player
gave a disappointingly lackluster
performance.

Lamentable (adj.)
=deserving severe criticism; very bad.
The lamentable state of the economy.
Lamentably (adv.)
The government says the report, have
carried out lamentably few of their
promises.

43
Lampoon (v.) [u b ]
=ridicule with satire.
Lampoon (n.)
The magazine Aalpin was famed for
its merciless political lampoons.

Lassitude (n.) [ar]
=a feeling of lack of interest or
energy.
Shareholders are blaming the
company's problems on the lassitude of
the managing director.

Lax (adj.) [, ]
=lacking care, attention or control; not
severe or strong enough.
He took a gun through baggage control
to highlight the lax security.
Laxity (n.)
Laxly (adv.)

Leeway (v.)
=freedom to act within particular
limits.
Local councils will be given some
leeway as to how they implement the
legislation.

Limerick (n.) [ ]
=a humorous poem with five lines.
He writes and recites limericks for fun.

Liquidate (v.) [ , ,
]
=get rid of (someone who may be a
threat) by killing.
The storekeeper liquidated her
inventory by offering it for sale at a big
discount.
The owner liquidated his business and
retired.

Lissome (v.) [, ]
=moving and bending with ease.
Lissomness (n.)

Lop (v.) [ , ]
=cut off from a whole.
I'll need to lop off the lower branches
of the tree.


Loquacity (n.) [-s]
=the quality of being wordy and
talkative.
Loquacious (adj.) []
Loquaciously (adv.)
Loquaciousness (n.)

Lumberjack (n.)
=a person who fells trees.

Lynch (v.) [ ]
=kill without legal sanction.
Cowboys lynched the cattle thief after
they caught him.

Macerate (v.) [ ]
=become soft or disintegrate as a
result of excessive soaking.
Mix together all the ingredients and
leave them to macerate in the fridge
overnight.

Content (adj.) [ p]
=satisfy in a limited way.
I am content with my present salary.
Malcontent (adj.) [az]
Discontent (n.) [a]

Malignant (adj.) [a, k, t]
=dangerous to health.
The process by which malignant
cancer cells multiply isn't fully
understood.
Malignantly (adv.)
Malignancy (n.)

Malinger (v.) [ e u+ a
]
=avoid responsibilities and duties,
e.g., by pretending to be ill.
And is he really ill or just malingering?
Malingerer (n.)
I'm sure she thinks I'm a malingerer.

Maudlin (adj.) [a r <
e]
=insincerely emotional.
Romantic novels can be maudlin if the
hero dies.


44
Maverick (n.) [o , e ]
=unbranded range animal.
Maverick (adj.)
=independent in behavior or thought.

Mead (n.)
=made of fermented honey and water.

Megalomania (n.) [ a k
]
=a psychological state characterized
by delusions of grandeur.
The dictator suffers from megalomania
in planning to construct large palaces
with armies that he does not have.
Megalomaniac (n.)

Mercenary (adj.) [ a o an
n e]
=profit oriented.
He had some mercenary scheme to
marry a wealthy widow.
Mercenary (n.) [ /]

Mercurial (adj.) [p, , ]
=liable to sudden unpredictable
change.
She was entertaining but unpredictable,
with mercurial mood swings.

Militant (adj.) [+]
=active, determined and often willing
to use force.
The group has taken a militant position
on the abortion issue and is refusing to
compromise.
Militant (n.)
Militantly (adv.)
Militancy (n.)

Mince (v.) [ , ]
=(1) make less severe or harsh (2) to
walk in an artificial way, with small
delicate steps (3) cut into small pieces.
He minced across the room in a pair of
tight pink trousers.
Mince (n.) [ ]

Missive (n.) [(, g<? ) =]
=a written message addressed to a
person or organization.
She sent a ten-page missive to the
council, detailing her objections.
Mnemonic (adj.) [ u+
]
=of or relating to or involved the
practice of aiding the memory.
The musical notes on the lines go
EGBDF - use the mnemonic 'every
good boy deserves fun'.
Mnemonic (adj.)

Muffle (v.) [u k n ,
]
=conceal or hide.
Muffle ones throat.
Muffled voice [ ]
Muffle the oars [, ] of a boat
[ i (, i)
o]
Muffler []

Mundane (adj.) [, , ]
=found in the ordinary course of
events.
Mundane occupations/speeches.
Mundanely (adv.)

Munificent (adj.) [extremely generous, ]
=very generous.
A munificent patron / gift / gesture.
He enjoys being munificent on a
princely scale.
Munificence (n.)

Nave (adj.) []
=inexperienced.
She was very naive to believe that he'd
stay with her.
Navely (adv.)
Navet (n.)
Narcotic (n./adj.) []
=of or relating to or designating
narcotics.
He faces three years in jail for selling
narcotics.
A narcotic effect.

Nebula (n.) []
=a cloud of gas/dust in outer space.
Nebular (adj.)
Nebulous (adj.) [, a^, ]
Nebulous concepts.

45
Nefarious (adj.) [a]
=extremely wicked.
One of his nefarious crimes was the
bombing of a busy train station.

Nonchalant (adj.) [p ]
=marked by blithe unconcern.
He was quite nonchalant about losing
his job.
Nonchalance (n.)

Nondescript (n.)
=a person is not easily classified and
not very interesting.
The meteorological bureau is in a
nondescript building on the outskirts of
town.

Numismatics (n.) [ o = ]
=the collection and study of money
(and coins in particular).
Numismatist (n.)

Oasis (v.) [ p ]
=a fertile tract in a desert.
Her office was an oasis of peace and
sanity amid the surrounding chaos.

Obfuscate (v.) [r , /+ ]
=make obscure or unclear.
She was criticized for using arguments
that obfuscated the main issue.
Obfuscation (n.)

Odium (n.) [p d]
=hate and strong disapproval.
Odious (adj.) []
An odious crime.
Odiously (adv.)
Ontology (n.)
=the metaphysical study of the nature
of being and existence.

Opaque (adj.) []
=not transmitting or reflecting light or
radiant energy.
His writing style can be opaque in
places.
Opaquely (adv.)
Opacity (n.)



Opiate (n.) [ n h ]
=a narcotic drug that contains opium
or an opium derivative.

Opprobrious (adj.) [ , ,
a]
=expressing offensive reproach.
Opprobriously (adv.)
Opprobrium (n.) [, , n,
]
International opprobrium has been
heaped on the country following its
attack on its neighbors.

Ostensible (adj.) [ ]
=appearing or claiming to be one
thing when it is really something else.
Their ostensible goal was to clean up
government corruption, but their real
aim was to unseat the government.
Ostensibly (adv.)
Ostentation (n.)
Her luxurious lifestyle and personal
ostentation were both hated and
envied.
The ostentation of the newly rich.
Ostentatious (adj.) [,
n e]
=intended to attract notice and impress
others.
They criticized the ostentatious
lifestyle of their leaders.
Ostentatiously (adv.)
Unostentatious (adj.)

Palate (n.) [, <]
=the upper surface of the mouth that
separates the oral and nasal cavities.
He has a good palate for Chinese food.
Palatable (adj.) [<]
Palatal (adj., n.) [ d ^
u ()]
Unpalatable (adj.) [s, ap,
a<]

Palliate (v.) [p , g<[ ]
=lessen or to try to lessen the
seriousness or extent of.



46
Palpable (adj.) [^ ]
Neither side had ever faced a
competitive penalty shootout before
and the tension was palpable.
A palpable error.
Palpably (adv.)
Palpate (v.)
=medically examine by touch.

Parable (n.) [ r -]
=a short moral story (often with
animal characters).
He tells parables that are meant to
make you think.

Paragon (n.)
=an ideal instance; a perfect
embodiment of a concept.
She is so good that she is a paragon of
virtue.

Parry (v.) [, , (p:) e o]
=avoid or try to avoid fulfilling,
answering, or performing (duties,
questions, or issues).
Predictably the president parried
enquiries about the arms scandal.

Parsimony (n.) [ ]
=extreme stinginess.
Parsimonious (adj.)
I think that politicians are often rather
parsimonious with the (=do not tell
the complete) truth.
Parsimoniously (adv.)

Pasture (n.) []
=a field covered with grass or herbage
and suitable for grazing by livestock.
Pasture (v.) [ , k=
o]
Pasturage (n.) [, a]

Patron (v.) []
=someone who supports or champions
something.
The Princess Royal is a well-known
patron of several charities.

Patter (v.)
=rain gently, continuous and
sometimes amusing speech or talk.
Patter (n.) [ ]
I find the patter of rain on the roof
soothing.
He should succeed - he dresses well
and his sales patter is slick and
convincing.

Pebble (n.) [, ]
=a small smooth rounded rock.
This part of the coast has pebble
beaches.

Pedant (v.)
=a person who pays more attention to
formal rules and book learning than
they merit.
Pedantic (adj.)
Pedantically (adv.)
Pedantry (n.)

Pejorative (adj.) [n]
=expressing disapproval.
Make sure students realize that 'fat' is
an unflattering or pejorative word.

Peninsula (n.) [ ud]
=a large mass of land projecting into a
body of water.
The Korean/Arabian/Florida Peninsula.

Pernicious (adj.) [k]
Pernicious action.
Pernicious lies can ruin a person's
reputation.
Perniciously (adv.)
Perniciousness (n.)

Perplex (v.) [ ]
=be a mystery or bewildering to, make
more complicated.
Perplex sb with various enquiries.
Perplexity (n.)
I stood unmoved in perplexity.

Perspicacious (adj.) [ n F
kmr]
=acutely insightful and wise.
His perspicacious grandfather had
bought the land as an investment,
guessing that there might be gold
underground.
Perspicaciously (adv.)

47
Perspicacity (n.)
A woman of exceptional perspicacity.

Perspicuous (adj.) [p, ^ p]
=(of language) transparently clear,
easily understandable.
In order that writing is interesting and
instructive; it must be plain,
perspicuous and easy.
Perspicuously (adv.)
Perspicuousness (n.)
Perspicuity (n.)

Philately (n.) [ ]
=the collection and study of postage
stamps.
Philatelic (adj.)
Philatelist (n.)

Piety (n.) [ ]
=righteousness by virtue of being
pious.
Pious (adj.)
Impiety (n.) [a, ak, an+]
=unrighteousness by virtue of lacking
respect for a god.
The church accused him of impiety
and had all his writings burned.
Impious (adj.)
Impiously (adv.)

Placebo (v.)
=an innocuous or inert medication;
given as a pacifier or to the control
group in experiments on the efficacy of
a drug.
She was only given a placebo, but she
claimed she got better - that's the
placebo effect.

Plummet (v.) [F o ]
=drop sharply.
House prices have plummeted in recent
months.

Podium (n.) []
=a platform raised above the
surrounding level to give prominence
to the person on it.
Tears ran down her face as she stood
on the winner's podium.

Poise (n.) [, ]
=a state of being balanced in a stable
equilibrium.
Her confidence and poise show that
she is a top model.
Poise (v.)
=cause to be balanced or suspended.

Prattle (v.) [ ]
=speak (about unimportant matters)
rapidly and incessantly.
Stop your prattling and go to sleep!
Prattle (n.)

Precipitate (v.) [( a ) ,
]
=fall headlong.
Precipitate (adj.)
=done with very great haste and
without due deliberation.
Don't be precipitate - think it through
before you make a decision.

Preempt (v.) [a o]
=acquire for oneself before others can
do so.
The minister held a press conference in
order to pre-empt criticism in the
newspapers.
Pre-emption (n.)
Pre-emptive (adj.)

Pretend (v.) [ , a ]
To pretend to learning [ ]
He pretended to the throne. [()
]
I can try to pretend, I can try to forget.
But it's driving me mad, going out of
my head.
Pretence/Pretense (n.) [t]
Pretension (n.)
United's championship pretensions
took a dent when they were beaten 5-1
by Liverpool.
Pretentious (adj.)
A pretentious art critic.
Pretentiously (adv.)
Pretentiousness (n.)



48
Pretext (n.) [a]
=a pretended reason for doing
something that is used to hide the real
reason.
The border dispute was used as a
pretext for military intervention.

Profligate (adj.) [j d, a]
=unrestrained by convention or
morality.
She is well-known for her profligate
spending habits.
Profligate (n.) [m]
Profligacy (n.)
The profligacy of the West shocked
him.

Promenade (v.)
=march in a procession, take a
leisurely walk.
We strolled along on the promenade
eating ice-creams.
Promenade (n.)

Prophetic (adj.) []
=foretelling events as if by
supernatural intervention.
Much of Orwell's writing now seems
grimly prophetic.
Prophetically (adv.)
Prophecy (n.)
Prophesy (v.)
Few could have prophesied this war.
Prophet (n.)

Prosaic (adj.) []
=lacking interest, imagination and
variety; boring.
Cleaning the house and washing dishes
are prosaic but necessary chores.

Prostrate (adj.)
=stretched out and lying at full length
along the ground.
Prostrate (v.)
=get into a prostrate position, as in
submission.
Trees prostrated by the storm.
The runner was prostrate after racing
in the heat.
The miserable old man prostrated
himself at the altar.
Prostrated with grief. [ ]
Many boys were prostrated by the heat.
Prostration (n.) [ ar]

Prude (n.)
=a person excessively concerned
about propriety and decorum.
Prudery (n.)
=excessive or affected modesty.
Prudish (adj.)
=exaggeratedly proper.
Prudishly (adv.)

Puissant (adj.) [p]
=powerful.
Puissance (n.)

Purge (v.) [ ]
=to rid of whatever is impure or
undesirable; cleanse; purify.
Purge (n.) [the act or process of
purging]
Purgation (n.)
Purgative (adj.)
Purgatory (adj.)
Purgatorial (adv.)

Qualm (n.) [ ass]
=uneasiness about the fitness of an
action.
She had no qualms about lying to the
police.

Quell (v.) [ ]
=suppress or crush completely.
The police quelled the riot.

Quiescent (adj.) [, , ]
=quiet, not active.
Quiescently (adv.)
Quiescence (n.)
Water in lakes exists under relatively
quiescent condition.

Quixotic (adj.) []
=not sensible about practical matters;
unrealistic.
This is a vast, exciting and some say
quixotic project.
Quixotically (adv.)


49
Rake (v.) [ /o, i , ]
=to search a place carefully for sth.
The floor of the theatre raked towards
the audience.
Rake (n.) [d=/m k]
=a dissolute man in fashionable
society.
Rake (v.) [ /o, i ,
]
Rakish (adj.) [d=, ]
=stylish, sporty.
He has a rakish air about him.
Rakishly (adv.)
Rakishness (n.)

Rampant (adj.) [, a]
=unrestrained and violent.
Rampant inflation means that our wage
increases soon become worth nothing.

Rapacious (adj.) [, an p
]
=excessively greedy and grasping.
Rapaciously (adv.)
Rapacity (n.)
Rapaciousness (n.)

Rapt (adj.) [g]
=wholly absorbed as in thought.
The children watched with rapt
attention.
Rapture (n.) [g, ut n]
Rapturous (adj.)
Rapturously (adv.)
Enrapture (v.) [n ]

Rebuff (v.) [r p ]
=reject outright and bluntly.
She rebuffed all suggestions that she
should resign.
Rebuff (n.)
Her desperate request for help was met
with a rebuff.

Recidivism (n.) [+ ap]
=habitual relapse into crime.
Recidivist (n.)
=a criminal who continues to commit
crimes even after they have been
punished.


Rectitude (n.) [, ]
=righteousness, uprightness as a
consequence of being honorable and
honest.
Her moral rectitude is much respected
by her friends.

Relish (v.) [u ]
=get enjoyment from.
I don't relish telling her that her son
has been arrested.
Relish (n.) [u, <]
I have no relish for that kind of
activity.

Repent (v.) [ap o]
=feel remorse for; feel sorry for; be
contrite about.
He repented (of his sins) just hours
before he died.
Repentance (n.) [a]
This was an extremely violent crime,
for which the boy showed no
repentance.
Repentant (adj.) [ap]
=feeling sorry for something that you
have done.
Repentantly (adv.)

Reproach (v.) [n ]
=express criticism towards.
His mother reproached him for not
eating all his dinner.
Reproach (n.) [, ]
Your reproaches are useless - what's
done is done.
Reproachful (adj.)
Reproachfully (adv.)

Requite (v.) [p , p ]
=make repayment for or return
something.
Requital (n.) [, p, k]
Unrequited (adj.) [p]
=not returned in kind.
Unrequited love/service.

Resent (v.) [az o]
=feel bitter or indignant about.
She bitterly resented her father's new
wife.
Resentful (adj.)

50
Resentfully (adv.)
Resentfulness (n.)
Resentment (n.)
There was a feeling of resentment in
the office after everyone's pay was
lowered.

Resolute (adj.) []
=firm in purpose or belief.
Resolutely (adv.)
Resoluteness (n.)
Resolution (n.)
He showed great resolution in facing
the robbers.

Reticent (adj.) [s, g<?]
=temperamentally disinclined to talk.
He is very reticent about his past.
Reticently (adv.)
Reticence (n.)
His reticence about his past made them
very suspicious.

Revere (v.) [ n+ ]
=to greatly respect and admire
someone or something.
Nelson Mandela is revered for his
brave fight against apartheid.
Reverence (n.)
She shows great reverence for her
professors.
Reverence (v.) [n+ p ]
Reverent (adj.)
A reverent silence fell over the crowd.
Reverently (adv.)
He laid the wreath reverently in front
of the memorial.
Reverential (adj.)
He opened the ancient book with
reverential care.
Reverentially (adv.)

Rifle (v.) [ u+ r r ]
=search through someone's belongings
in an unauthorized way.
The safe had been rifled and the
diamonds were gone.

Rotund (adj.) [dd, ]
=(1) excessively fat (2) full and rich.
A fat man can also be called rotund.

Rouse (v.) [ ]
=become active.
He rouses himself out of bed every
morning at 6:30 A.M.
He roused a feeling of patriotism in
me.

Sacrilege (n.) []
=blasphemous behavior.
Muslims consider it sacrilege to wear
shoes inside a mosque.
Sacrilegious (adj.)
Sacrilegious practices/acts.
Sacrilegiously (adv.)

Sardonic (adj.) [Ft]
=disdainfully or ironically humorous.
A sardonic smile/look/comment.
Sardonically (adv.)

Satiate (v.) [ p , a< /]
=fill to satisfaction.
Be satiated with food/pleasure.
He drank greedily until his thirst was
satiated.
Satiable (adj.)
Satiety (n.)
Indulge in pleasure to the point of
satiety.
Insatiable (adj.) [-a p]
Politicians who are insatiable of
powers.
Insatiably (adv.)
Insatiety (n.) [-ap]

Scalpel (n.) [ ]
=a thin straight surgical knife used in
dissection and surgery.

Scavenge (v.) [ ]
=feed on carrion or refuse.
The flood has left villagers and
animals desperately scavenging for
food.
We managed to scavenge a lot of
furniture from the local rubbish dump.
Scavenger (n.)

Scoff (v.) [u/F ]
=laugh at with contempt and derision.
The critics scoffed at his paintings.
Scoff (n.)

51
Scoffer (n.)
I was able to prove the scoffers wrong.

Scowl (v.) [= + ]
=frown with displeasure.
The boy scowled at her and reluctantly
followed her back into school.
Scowl (n.)

Scuttle (v.) [ ]
=to move about or proceed hurriedly.
The children scuttled off as soon as the
headmaster appeared.

Secede (v.) [/r o]
=withdraw from an organization or
communion.
There is likely to be civil war if the
region tries to secede from the south.
Secession (n.)
Secessionist (n.)

Seclude (v.) [r ]
=keep away from others.
We drove to a secluded spot in the
country and had a lovely picnic.
Seclusion (n.)
When his mother died, the artist went
into total seclusion.

Sedate (adj.) [pr]
=slow, calm and relaxed.
Sedately (adv.)
Sedateness (n.)

Sentinel (n.)
=sentry, a person employed to keep
watch for some anticipated event.

Sequester (v.) [/r ]
=keep away from others.
The judge sequestered himself in his
office to think about the law.
He sequestered the jury in the jury
room and sent food in.

Sieve (v.) [ ]
=check and sort carefully.
We poured ocean water into the sieve,
and shells and sand remained.
Sieve (n.)
=a forgetful mind, a bad memory.
Did I miss your birthday? I have a
mind like a sieve!

Slouch (v.) [ a /]
=walk slovenly.
Stop slouching and sit up straight,
please!
Slouch (n.)
=a lazy person.
She's no slouch; she finished college in
three years.

Smirk (v.) [t p ]
=smile affectedly or derisively.
He could not find his glasses, and his
wife smirked at him; they were on top
of his head.

Solace (n.) [p]
=comfort in disappointment or misery.
Find solace in music.
Solace (v.)
The deserted hero solaced him with
whisky.

Spasm (n.) [ ^, ]
=a painful and involuntary
muscular contraction.
A spasm of joy.
Spasmodic(adj.)
=happening suddenly for short periods
of time.
Spasmodically (adv.)

Spurious (adj.) []
=plausible but false.
The movie star told spurious lies about
his ex-wife.
I think this is a spurious painting, not a
valuable work of Leonardo da Vinci,
as the museum says.
Spuriously (adv.)
Spuriousness (n.)

Squander (v.) [ ]
=spend extravagantly.
We must not squander our forests and
rivers by not managing them properly.
Squanderer (n.)
Squandermania (n.)

52
Squelch (v.) [ ,
]
=suppress or crush completely.
The school boys squelched through the
muddy road.

Staid (adj.) [ o k, ?]
=characterized by dignity and
propriety.
In an attempt to change its staid image,
the newspaper has created a new
section aimed at younger readers.
Staidly (adv.)
Staidness (n.)

Stalwart (adj.) [, , pj]
Stalwart of the party [
e]
Stalwartly (adv.)
Stalwartness (n.)

Stark (adj.) [, () ]
=(1) devoid of any qualifications or
disguise or adornment (2) complete or
extreme.
Stark madness/naked.
It was a stark room with its white
walls, and a bed and chair as the only
furniture.
Starkly (adv.)
Her later sensual works contrast starkly
with the harsh earlier paintings.

Stomp (v.) [ / ]
=walk heavily.
He stomped on a snake.

Stupor (n.)
=a state of senselessness, a complete
lack of mental power.
The drunken man fell to the floor in a
stupor.

Stutter (v.) []
=speak haltingly.
Stutterer (n.)
Stutteringly (adv.)

Subpoena (n.) [ o n
:{]
=a legal paper requiring him or her to
appear in court.
J udges subpoenaed many people for
jury duty last month.

Sullen (adj.) [, r]
=gloomy, surly.
When the group voted against his plan,
he became sullen.
A sullen [g ] sky.
Sullenly (adv.) [ =, a=]
Sullenness (n.) [a=]

Sully (v.) [ ]
=attack the good name and reputation
of someone.
Croatia fans sullied the tournament by
raising a racist banner.
Sully sbs reputation.

Supple (adj.) [, ]
=moving and bending with ease.
I'm not supple enough to be able to
touch the floor with my hands while
I'm standing up.
Suppleness (n.)

Surreal (v.) [s]
=resembling a dream.
Driving through the total darkness was
a slightly surreal experience.
Surrealism (n.)
Surrealist (n.)
Surrealistic (adj.)

Swatch (n.)
=a small piece of cloth used as an
example of the color and type of the
cloth.
Swindle (v.) [p ]
=deprive of by deceit.
They swindled local businesses out of
thousands of pounds.
This color TV is a swindle (n.)
Swindle (n.)
Swindler (n.)

Sycophant (n.) []
=a person who tries to please someone
in order to gain a personal advantage.
The Prime Minister is surrounded by
sycophants.
Sycophantic (adj.)
Sycophancy (n.)

53
Sylvan (adj.) []
=relating to or characteristic of
wooded regions.

Talon (n.) [ ]
=a sharp hooked claw especially on a
bird of prey.

Tawdry (adj.) []
=looking bright and attractive but in
fact cheap and of low quality.
Tawdrily (adv.)
Tawdriness (n.)

Tempest (n.) [p /ut]
=a violent commotion or disturbance.
Tempestuous (adj.)
He was in a tempestuous mood.

Tenacious (adj.) [n]
Tenaciously (adv.)
Tenaciousness (n.)
Tenacity (n.)

Thespian (adj.)
=of or relating to drama.
Thespian (n.)
=a theatrical performer.

Totter (v.) [ ]
=walk unsteadily.
Tottery (adj.)

Tranquil (adj.) [, ]
=free from disturbance.
The tranquil night.
Tranquilly (adv.)
Tranquility (n.) [p]
Tranquilize (v.) [=make calm or still]
Tranquilizer (n.)

Transfix (v.) [+ ]
=pierce with a sharp stake or point.
A body lay in the corner, transfixed by
a spear.

Travesty (n.) []
=a composition that imitates
somebody's style in a humorous way.
Langdale described the court ruling as
a travesty of justice.
Travesty (v.) [ ]

Treatise (n.) [ ]
=a formal exposition.
A six-volume treatise on trademark
law.

Truculent (adj.) [+, +]
=defiantly aggressive.
A truculent speech against the new
government.
Truculently (adv.)
Truculence/Truculency (n.)

Turpitude (n.) [d=]
=a corrupt or depraved or degenerate
act or practice.
The various turpitudes of modern
society.

Usurp (v.) [ ]
=take illegally or by force.
Usurp the throne.
Usurper (n.)

Utensil (n.) [ -]
=an implement for practical use
(especially in a household).
In the drawer was a selection of
kitchen utensils - spoons, spatulas,
knives and whisks.

Vacillate (v.) [d , d o]
=be undecided about something.
Her mood vacillated between hope and
despair.
Vacillation (n.)

Vanquish (v.) [ ]
=come out better in a competition,
race, or conflict.
Napoleon was vanquished at the battle
of Waterloo in 1815.

Vicarious (adj.) []
=experienced at secondhand.
I got vicarious pleasure from hearing
about their trip.
Vicariously (adv.)

Vigil (n.) [ p n = ]
=a period of sleeplessness.
Vigilance (n.) [, ]
Vigilant (adj.) [, :]

54
Vigilantly (adv.)
Vigilante (n.) [ - ]

Virile (adj.) [<p]
=characterized by energy and vigor.
Virility (n.)

Virulent (adj.) [k]
=extremely poisonous or injurious.
Virulently (adv.)
Virulence (n.)

Vitiate (v.) [d// ]
=make less good/effective.
He said that American military power
should never again be vitiated by
political concerns.

Vivacity (n.) [p]
=characterized by high spirits and
animation.
Vivacious (adj.) [p]
A vivacious girl.
Vivaciously/Vivace (adv.)

Waive (v.) [ (/a)]
=to not demand something you have a
right.
The bank manager waived the charge,
as we were old and valued customers.
Waiver (n.)
We had to sign a waiver, giving up any
rights to the land in the future.

Wanton (adj.) [[j, ]
=extreme and showing complete lack
of care.
A wanton breeze [ o]
In a wanton mood [ ]
But it is wanton killing off that I am
speaking of to-night.
Wanton (n.)
=lewd or lascivious woman.

Waylay (v.) [= n o ]
=wait in hiding to attack.
A man on his way to deposit $120 000
in a bank was waylaid by two men
who punched him and snatched his bag
yesterday.


Zest (n.) [u]
=vigorous and enthusiastic enjoyment.
He approached every task with a
boundless zest.

55



Abeyance (n.) []
=suspended action.
The party was held in abeyance until
his arrival.

Abnegate (v.) [k ]
=abolish, revoke formally.
Abnegation (n.) [t ]
=self-sacrifice, renunciation.
We will never forget those martyrs of
language movement for their
abnegation.

Accolade (n.) []
=award of merit.
In Hollywood, an 'Oscar' is the highest
accolade.

Accountable (adj.) []
=someone who is accountable is
completely responsible for what they
do and must be able to give a
satisfactory reason for it.
She is accountable only to the
managing director.
Accountability (n.)

Accouter (v.) [j ]
=equip.
The traveler was accoutered with
various goods.
Accouterments (n.)

Agglomerate (v.) [ o]
=form into one cluster.
Agglomeration (n.) []
=collection, heap.
An agglomeration of various ethnic
and religious groupings.

Ambulatory (adj.)
=able to walk about.
An ambulatory corridor/ patient.

Anecdote (n.) [s kp ]
=short account of an amusing event.
He told one or two amusing anecdotes
about his years as a policeman.
Anecdotal (adj.)
Anecdotal evidence.




Anomaly (n.) [as = ]
=irregularity.
A bird that cannot fly is an anomaly.
Anomalous (adj.)
Anomalously (adv.)

Antagonize (v.) [=r , ]
I didnt want to antagonize him.
Antagonist (n.) [pk, pd+]
Antagonistic (adj.) [=r]
Antagonistically (adv.)
Antagonism(n.) [= ]

Antediluvian (adj.) [: v,
, ap]
=antiquated, extremely ancient.
She has some hopelessly antediluvian
ideas about the role of women.

Apprehend (v.) [ , ,
]
=perceive, dread, arrest.
The police will apprehend the culprit
and convict him before long.
Apprehension (n.)

Arcane (adj.) [, ]
=requiring secret or mysterious
knowledge.
This argument may seem arcane to
those not closely involved in the world
of finance.

Assay (v.) [ i + k , p)
]
=analyze (chemical substances).
Make an assay of an ore.
Assay (n.) []

Atrocity (n.) []
=the quality of being shockingly cruel
and inhumane.
They're on trial for committing
atrocities against the civilian
population.
Atrocious (adj.)
Murder is an atrocious crime.


Word List of Rizvi
Part-3

56
Attrition (n.) [kk +]
=a wearing down to weaken or
destroy, erosion by friction.
Terrorist groups and the government
have been engaged in a costly war of
attrition since 1968.

Audacity (n.) [^]
=aggressive boldness or unmitigated
effrontery.
It took a lot of audacity to stand up and
criticize the chairman.
Audacious (adj.)
He described the plan as ambitious and
audacious.
Audaciously (adv.)
Audaciousness (n.)

Avarice (n.) [, ~, {]
=insatiable desire for wealth.
Her business empire brought her
wealth beyond the dreams of avarice.
Avaricious (adj.) [ (a/k
v)]
Avariciously (adv.)

Avouch (v.)
=admit openly and bluntly; make no
bones about.

Axiom (n.) [s+]
=a saying that widely accepted on its
own merits.
All geometrical axioms are affixed at
the end of this book.
Axiomatic (adj.)
It is an axiomatic fact that
governments rise and fall on the state
of the economy.
Axiomatically (adv.)

Bamboozle (v.) [ , ]
=to trick or deceive someone, often by
confusing them.
She was bamboozled into telling them
her credit card number.

Bard (n.) [, ]
=a lyric poet.
The ancient bard Homar sang of [sing
of sth =ps ] the fall of
Troy.

Becloud (v.)
=make less visible or unclear.

Bland (adj.) [, , , ]
=lacking taste or flavor or tang.
Pop music these days is so bland.
Blandly (adv.)
Blandness (n.)

Boor (n.) [/a , , ]
=a crude uncouth ill-bred person
lacking culture or refinement.
Boorish (adj.)
Boorishly (adv.)
Boorishness (n.)

Bucolic (adj.) [, ]
=rustic, pastoral.
There is a bucolic sight behind the
airport.

Burlesque (v.) [p ]
=make a parody of.
Burlesque (n.) [ a]
=a type of writing or acting that tries
to make something serious seem
ridiculous.

Camaraderie (n.) [ /
/]
=a feeling of friendliness towards
people with whom you work or share
an experience.
When you've been climbing alone for
hours, there's a tremendous sense of
camaraderie when you meet another
climber.

Capacious (adj.) [, kmr]
=large in capacity.
A capacious memory.
Capaciousness (n.)

Carnal (adj.) []
=of or relating to the body or flesh.
Carnal desire [k]
Carnally (adv.)

Catholic (adj.) [u, , , ]
=free from provincial prejudices or
attachments.
A man with catholic tastes.
Catholicity (n.)

57
Caustic (adj.) [k]
=burning, sarcastically [dt]
biting.
The critic's caustic remarks angered
the helpless actors who were the
subjects of his sarcasm.

Chaff (v.) [T , , () ]
=be silly or tease one another.

Champion (v.) [ , k ]
=support militantly.
He has always championed for human
rights.

Chivalry (n.)
=courtesy towards women.
Chivalrous (adj.) [n, ]
=polite, kind and behaving with honor
(especially towards women).
Chivalrous behavior involves noble
words and good deeds.

Clandestine (adj.) [gp]
=secret.
After avoiding their chaperon
[a [pp], the lovers had a
clandestine meeting.

Clement (adj.) [k, d]
=(1) inclined to show mercy (2) (of
weather or climate) physically mild.
It's very clement for the time of year.
Clemency (n.)
Inclement (adj.) [, <k, , o
]
=(1) (of weather of climate) physically
severe (2) showing no clemency or
mercy (person).
Inclemency (n.)

Coalesce (v.) [ o]
=mix together different elements.
Our plans for a long trip finally
coalesced when we mapped out exactly
where to go.
Coalescence (n.)

Coddle (v.) [a ) - ]
=treat with excessive indulgence.
He accused his wife of coddling their
son.
Commodious (adj.) [:, ps]
=large and roomy.

Complacence (n.) [tp, p]
=the feeling you have when you are
satisfied with yourself.
Complacency (n.)
Complacent (adj.) [t]
We can't afford to become complacent
about any of our products.
Complacently (adv.)

Complaisance (n.) [a z /i,
n]
=a disposition or tendency to yield to
the will of others.
Complaisant (adj.) [n ]

Confer (v.) [s ]
=have a conference in order to talk
something over.
I should like some time to confer with
my lawyer.

Confiscate (v.) [p ]
=take temporary possession of as a
security, by legal authority.
His passport was confiscated by the
police to prevent him from leaving the
country.
Confiscation (n.)
There were a record number of
confiscations by customs officers last
year.

Conscript (v.) [ u
]
=enroll into service compulsorily.
He was conscripted into the army at
the age of 18.
Conscription (n.)
He's been worried that the government
will introduce conscription ever since
the war began.

Contemplate (v.) [ ]
She was contemplating herself in the
mirror.
She was contemplating a visit to India.
[ ]
I do not contemplate any opposition
from him. [p ]

58
Convene (v.) [ ]
=meet formally.

Convolute (v.)
=curl, wind, or twist together.
Convoluted (adj.) [, { ,
, e dr]
A convoluted argument.

Corsage (n.)
=an arrangement of flowers that is
usually given as a present.

Covet (v.) [p , -
]
=wish, long, or crave for (something,
especially the property of another
person).
Covetous (adj.) [- ]
Covetously (adv.)
Covetousness (n.)

Crepuscular (adj.) [ ]
=relating to twilight.

Crevice (n.) [( ) ]
=a long narrow depression in a
surface.
The harsh light revealed every crevice
and wrinkle in his face.
Sweat poured out of every crevice of
the fat man's body.
Crevasse (n.) [ ]

Cumbrous (adj.)
=difficult to handle or use especially
because of size or weight.

Dapple (v.)
=color with streaks or blotches of
different shades.
Dappled deer [=], A dappled
horse [=].
Dappled shade [= ].

Debacle (n.)
=a sudden and violent collapse, a
sound defeat.
The collapse of the company was
described as the greatest financial
debacle in US history.

Debauch (v.) [///k ]
=corrupt morally or by intemperance
or sensuality.
Debauchery (n.) [a o ]
A life of debauchery.
Debauchee (n.) [/m]
He gave a convincing stage
performance as the unpleasant young
debauchee.

Debilitate (v.) [ ]
=make weak.
A debilitating climate.
His health is debilitated from not
getting enough good food.

Debunk (v.) [k ]
=to show that something is less
important, less good or less true than it
has been made to appear.
The writer's aim was to debunk the
myth that had grown up around the
actress.

Decadent (adj.) [k ]
=marked by excessive self-indulgence
and moral decay.
A decadent society.
Humorous champagne and chocolates
for breakfast - how decadent!
Decadence (n.) [a, ak]

Decant (v.) [ an = e
]
=pour out.
Decanter (n.)

Decapitate (v.) [ ]
=cut the head of.
The guillotine decapitated French King
Louis XVI.

Declivity (n.) []
=a downward slope or bend.

Deference (n.) [n+, an i s]
=courteous regard for anothers wish.
To treat sb with deference.
To show deference to a teacher.
In deference to [n+]
Deferential (adj.) [n+ ]
=respectful, showing deference.

59
The Deferential Spirit By J oan
Didion.

Deflate (v.) [/ ,
, ^ ; ]
=collapse by releasing contained air or
gas.
To deflate a balloon/tyre.
They were totally deflated by losing
the match.
Deflation (n.)

Delectable (adj.) [n, , ]
=extremely pleasant to taste, smell or
look at.
The delectable Miss Haynes.
Delectation (n.) [, ]

Demean (v.) [/ , ]
=reduce in worth or character, usually
verbally.
Demean oneself.

Dement (v.)
=to deprive of reason, to make mad.
Demented (adj.) [, ]
She was nearly demented with worry
when her son didn't come home.
Dementia (n.)
=mental deterioration of organic or
functional origin.

Demur (v.) [t u , p ]
=raise objections, show reluctance.
The lawyer requested a break in the
court case, but the judge demurred.
Without demur [d ]

Demure (adj.) [pr]
=affectedly modest or shy especially
in a playful or provocative way.
A demure old gentleman.
She gave the young man a demure
smile.
Demurely (adv.)
She sat with her hands folded
demurely in her lap.
Demureness (n.)

Denounce (v.) [k a , ]
=speak out against.
His former colleagues have denounced
him as a spy.
We must denounce injustice and
oppression.
Denunciation (n.)

Deprecate (v.) [a ]
=(1) belittle (2) express strong
disapproval of.
The teacher should not deprecate his
student's efforts.
We deprecate this use of company
funds for political purposes.

Derogate (v.) [( [, , a) ]
=belittle.
Derogation (n.)
Derogatory (adj.) [a]
He considered the remarks derogatory
to his reputation.

Desuetude (n.)
=a state of inactivity or disuse.
Fall into desuetude. [a o]
Words that have fallen into desuetude
are not included in this dictionary.

Deter (v.) [< , ]
=try to prevent, show opposition to.
Nothing can deter me from trying
again.
Deterrence (n.) []
Deterrent (n.) []
Do you think that capital punishment is
a deterrent to crimes?

Devious (adj.) [, a, ]
=indirect in departing from the
accepted or proper way; misleading.
We took a devious route to avoid the
busy market place.
Some people use devious means to get
rich quickly.

Diatribe (n.) [b o v , p
n k]
=thunderous verbal attack.
The politician launched into a diatribe
against the government policy.

60
Digress (v.) [ p
o]
=wander from a direct or straight
course.
The lecturer temporarily digressed
from her subject to deal with a related
theory.
Digression (n.)

Dilate (v.) [p o/]
=become wider.
The pupils of the eyes dilate as
darkness increases.
Dilate upon [
/]
Dilation (n.) [s, p]
Dilatory (adj.) [=, dmr]

Diminish (v.) [; , ;pp o]
=decrease in size, extent, or range.
Diminution (n.) [;, ;pp, ;
]
Diminutive (adj.) [ak ]

Disburse (v.) [p a p ]
=pay out.
The local authorities annually disburse
between 50m and 100m on arts
projects.
Disbursement (n.) [ap]

Discursive (adj.) [a]
=digressing.
Discursively (adv.)
Discursiveness (n.)

Inter (v.) [ ]
=place in a grave or tomb.
Disinter (v.) [ ]
=dig up for reburial or for medical
investigation; of dead bodies.
A gravedigger disinterred a body by
court order.

Dismay (v.) [/ ]
=fill with apprehension or alarm;
cause to be unpleasantly surprised.
Dismay (n.)
Dismayed (adj.)
I was dismayed to discover that he
lied.


Disport (v.) [ , n ]
=(1) occupy in an agreeable,
entertaining or pleasant fashion (2)
play boisterously.
Disport oneself.

Dissemble (v.) [M ,
]
=to hide your real intentions and
feelings or the facts.
He accused the government of
dissembling.
Dissembler (n.)

Disseminate (v.) [ ( p ]
=cause to become widely known.
Dissemination (n.)
Setting up an efficient system for the
dissemination of flood warning.

Dissipate (v.) [ , a ]
=(1) move away from each other (2)
spend frivolously and unwisely.
Dont dissipate your energy in
worthless pursuits.
Dissipated (adj.) [a/k
p p]
He leads a dissipated life.
Dissipation (n.)
A life of dissipation.

Dissolute (adj.) [a , =]
=unrestrained by convention or
morality.
He leads a dissolute life.
Dissolutely (v.)
Dissolution (n.)
=dissolute indulgence in sensual
pleasure.

Dither (v.) [is ]
=be undecided.
Dither (n.)
He is in a dither.

Vest (v.) [(k i) , k
a /ns ]
=Provide with power and authority.
Vestiary (n) [g ]
Vestry (n.) [ g ]
Vestibule (n.) [ (
-- )]

61
Vestment (n.) [
]
Divest (v.) [ , k
, / ]
=take away possessions/investment
from someone.
The priest was divested of his robes.
The ruler was divested of all his
powers.
He could not divest himself of the idea
of marriage.

Doctrine (n.) []
=a belief (or system of beliefs)
accepted as authoritative by some
group or school.
The Monroe Doctrine of 1823 says that
no foreign power may create a colony
on the American continents.
Doctrinaire (adj.)
Doctrinal (adj.)

Droll (adj.) [, ]
=amusing, especially in an unusual
way.
Drollery (n.) [ , ]
A droll remark/expression/person.

Ebullient (adj.) [u]
=joyously unrestrained.
The overall atmosphere suffered: it
was friendly and polite but quite
noticeably not as ebullient as in
Germany two years ago.
Ebullience (n.) [u]

Egalitarian (n.)
=a person who believes in the equality
of all people.
Egalitarian (adj.)
The party's principles are basically
egalitarian.
Egalitarianism (n.)

Egress (n.) [ a, p]
=the action of going out of or leaving
a place.

Embark (v.) [ = ]
Embark (v.) [< , a ]
We embarked at Liverpool for New
York.
Embarkation (n.)
You'll be asked for those documents on
embarkation.

Encompass (v.) [ ]
=to include, especially a variety of
things.
The festival is to encompass
everything from music, theatre and
ballet to literature, cinema and the
visual arts.

Encumber (v.) [ , ,
o, o]
=hold back.
A country encumbered with debts.
A room encumbered with useless
books.
Encumbrance (n.) [, , ]
Cumbersome (adj.) [ , ]

Engender (v.) [ sr o]
=(1) call forth (2) make children
Poverty often engenders disease.

Entrench (v.) [ ]
=fix firmly or securely, infringe.
The owner's son entrenched himself in
a job given him by his father.
Entrenched (adj.)
Entrenchment (n.)
There has been a shift in opinion on
the issue after a decade of
entrenchment.

Equanimity (n.) [- p]
=steadiness of mind under stress.
Three years after the tragedy she has
only just begun to regain her
equanimity.

Estrange (v.) [ , r ,
]
=arouse hostility or indifference in
where there had formerly been love,
affection, or friendliness.
His behavior estranged all his relatives.
Estrangement (n.)



62
Eulogy (n.) [up]
=a formal expression of praise.
The song was a eulogy to the joys of
travelling.
Eulogist (n.)
Eulogistic (adj.)
Eulogize (v.)
Critics everywhere have eulogized her
new novel.

Evict (v.) [i u ]
=expel from one's property or force to
move out by a legal process.
He was evicted from his house.
Eviction (n.)

Evince (v.) [, g i p
, p ]
=give expression to, to make obvious
or show clearly.
Assistant professor Dr. Shariful Islam
evinced with histories and databases
the SIDR effects in Bangladesh.
In all the years I knew her, she never
evinced any desire to do such a thing.

Eviscerate (n.) [ ]
=surgically remove a part of a
structure or an organ.

Viscera (n.) [ ]
=internal organs collectively
(especially those in the
abdominal cavity).
Eviscerate (v.)
=surgically remove a part of a
structure or an organ.

Exacerbate (v.) [ o,
ut ]
=make worse.
~exacerbated by human activities.
This attack will exacerbate the already
tense relations between the two
communities.

Exaggerate (v.) [a ]
=do something to an excessive degree.
I'm not exaggerating - it was the worst
meal I've ever eaten in my life.
Exaggerated (adj.)
Exaggeratedly (adv.)
Exaggeration (n.)
It would be no exaggeration to say that
her work has saved lives.

Excise (v.) [ ]
=remove by cutting.
The official censors have excised the
controversial sections of the report.
Excision (n.) [/ ]
Excise (n.)
=a government tax on some goods.

Execrate (v.) [a ]
=curse or declare to be evil or
anathema or threaten with divine
punishment.
Execration (n.) [am]
Execrable (adj.) [ , n]

Exhume (v.) [ ]
=dig up for reburial or for medical
investigation; of dead bodies.
Exhumation (n.)

Exigent (adj.) [<]
=needing urgent attention.
An exigent problem.
Exigency (n.)

Exorbitant (adj.) [a, =k]
=(of an amount charged) unreasonably
high.
During the chilly shortage, many stores
charged exorbitant prices for it.
Exorbitantly (adv.)
Exorbitance (n.)

Exotic (adj.) [, u]
=strikingly strange or unusual.
Exotic flowers/food/designs.
Exoticism (n.)

Expiate (v.)
=to show regret for bad behavior by
doing something to express that you
are sorry and by accepting punishment.
To expiate a crime/sin
Expiation (n.) [=compensation for a
wrong]

63
Extenuate (v.) [ p a)
g<[ ; ]
=lessen or to try to lessen the
seriousness or extent of.
He was unable to say anything that
might have extenuated his behavior.
Extenuating (adj.)
She was found guilty of theft, but
because of extenuating circumstances
was not sent to prison.
Extenuation (n.)

Extradite (v.) [ i T
a T s ]
=to officially send back sb who has
been accused or found guilty of a
crime to the country where the crime
was committed.
Extradition (n.)
For the reason I chose Panama, there is
no extradition laws.

Facile (adj.) [, b]
A facile victory/remark.
=expressing oneself readily, clearly,
effectively.
Able to dazzle with his facile tongue.
Facilitate (v.)

Fatuous (adj.) [, +]
=complacently or inanely foolish.
A fatuous smile.
Fatuously (adv.)

Feisty (adj.)
=showing courage.
He launched a feisty attack on the
government.

Feral (adj.) [n, e]
=wild and menacing.
Feral dogs/cats.

Ferret (v.) []
=search busily.
I was just ferreting around in my
drawer for my passport.
After a bit of ferreting, I managed to
find his address.



Fervent (adj.) [p, ]
Fervent love/hatred.
Fervently (adv.)
Fervency (n.)
Fervid (adj.) [u+p, ]
Fervidly (adv.)
Fervor (n.) [a ut/kt,
]

Fester (v.) [ , , , m k
]
=ripen and generate pus.
Keep the cut out of dirt, otherwise it
will fester.
The insult festered in his mind.

Fettle (n.) [ut a, ]
=a state of fitness and good health.
"How was J ane?" "Oh, she was in fine
fettle."

Fib (v.) [g , ]
=tell a relatively insignificant lie.
I can tell he's fibbing because he's
smiling!
Fib (n.)
Don't believe him - he's telling fibs
again.
Fibber (n.)

Finesse (v.)
=avoid or try to avoid fulfilling,
answering, or performing (duties,
questions, or issues).
She finessed the interview by playing
down her lack of experience and
talking about her long-standing interest
in the field.
Finesse (n.) [
+]
=great skill or style.
It was a disappointing performance
which lacked finesse.

Fitful (adj.) [ e, ]
=Intermittently stopping and starting,
occurring irregularly.
A few hours fitful sleep, A fitful
breeze.
Fitfully (adv.)

64
Fledgling (n.) [= u e , <
aj k]
Fledged (adj.) [u k]
Fully fledged [aj o pkpp]
A fully fledged doctor.

Flippant (adj.) [, ]
=showing inappropriate levity [].
A flippant answer/remark.
Flippantly (adv.) [ ]
Flippancy (n.) [, ]

Formidable (adj.) []
=extremely impressive in strength or
excellence.
A formidable
adversary/enemy/opponent.
Formidably (adv.)

Fortuitous (adj.) [, ]
=occurring by happy chance.
A fortuitous meeting.
Fortuitously (adv.)

Genial (adj.) [, ]
=friendly and cheerful.
When the couple gives a party, they
are always genial hosts.
Florida has a genial climate.

Genuflect (v.) [ o]
=bend the knees and bow in a servile
manner.
Genuflection/Genuflexion (n.)

Girth (n.) [ ]
=the measure around anything.
The oak was 2 meters in girth.
My girth [ ]
Girth (v.) [to girdle, encircle]

Glut (v.) [a d , ak
o]
=overeat or eat immodestly.
Glut a market with foreign goods.
Glut (n.)
The current glut of graduates means
that many of them will not be able to
find jobs.
Glutton (n.)
=a person who regularly eats and
drinks more than is needed.
Gluttonous (adj.)
She said that industrialized countries
should reduce their gluttonous
consumption of oil.
Gluttonously (adv.)
Gluttony (n.) [a]
They treat Christmas as just another
excuse for gluttony.

Grate (v.) [ g u ]
=reduce to small shreds or pulverize
by rubbing against a rough or sharp
perforated surface.
Grate (n.)

Gratis (adj.) [, ]
=costing nothing.
I'll give it to you, gratis!

Gulp (v.) [ , / ]
=gulp down a glass of water.
Gulp (n.)
He emptied the glass at one gulp.

Hallow (v.) [= , = ]
=render holy by means of religious
rites.
A land hallowed by the memories of
great saints.

Headlong (adv. /adj.) [a, ,
]
=(1) with great speed or without
thinking (2) with the head foremost.
Fall headlong.
Rush headlong into danger.
A headlong decision.
In the headlong rush to buy houses,
many people got into debt.

Headstrong (adj.) [, e]
=habitually disposed to disobedience
and opposition.
She was a headstrong child, always
getting into trouble.

Hearten (v.) [u ]
=give encouragement to.
Anti-government protesters have been
heartened by recent government
promises of free and fair elections.
Heartened (adj.)

65
We all felt heartened by the news.
Heartening (adj.)
It was heartening to see so many
people at the rally.

Hedonism (n.) [ pi ei ]
=the pursuit of pleasure as a matter of
ethical principle.
Hedonist (n.)
Hedonistic (adj.)
Hedonic (adj.)
=devoted to pleasure.
A hedonic thrill.

Hefty (adj.) []
=possessing physical strength and
weight.
A hefty farm worker.

Hegemony (n.) [g T e T
[, p []
=the domination of one state over its
allies.
The three nations competed for
regional hegemony.
Hegemonic (adj.)

Helm (n.) []
=a position of leadership.
Who was at the helm when the
collision occurred?

Heterodox (adj.) [rv, ]
=characterized by departure from
accepted beliefs or standards.
His opinions have always been
distinctly heterodox.
Heterodoxy (n.)

Hoarse (adj.) []
=deep and harsh sounding as if from
shouting or illness or emotion.
Hoarsely (adv.)
Hoarseness (n.)

Hoary (adj.) [p]
=ancient.
He told a few hoary old jokes and
nobody laughed.
Hoariness (n.)


Hoax (n.) []
=deliberate trickery intended to gain
an advantage.
The bomb threat turned out to be a
hoax.
Hoax (v.)
=subject to a playful hoax or joke.
Hoaxer (n.)

Hoist (v.) [ut ]
=raise or haul up with or as if with
mechanical help.
With some difficulty he hoisted her
onto his shoulders.
Hoist (n.)

Holistic (adj.)
=dealing with or treating the whole of
something or someone and not just a
part.
My doctor takes a holistic approach to
disease.
Holistically (adv.)
Holism (n.)

Hone (n.) [ ()]
=make perfect or complete.
Hone (v.) [ ]
The bone had been honed to a point.

Hortatory/Hortative (adj.) [u, p]
=giving strong encouragement.
Exhort (v.) [ u ud+
, a ]
Exhortation (n.)
Make sure that my exhortations hold
for Civil/Environmental as well.

Hospitable (adj.) [a]
=disposed to treat guests and strangers
with cordiality and generosity.
The villagers were very hospitable
to/towards anyone who passed
through.
Hospitably (adv.)
Hospitality (n.) []

Husbandry (n.) [ , ]
=(1) frugal management (2) farming.
Animal husbandry, Good/Bad
husbandry.

66
Idiosyncrasy (n.) [s ]
=a behavioral attribute that is
distinctive and peculiar to an
individual.
One of the idiosyncrasies of this
printer is that you can't stop it once it
has started to print.
Idiosyncratic (adj.)
The film, 3 hours long, is directed in
his usual idiosyncratic style.

Ignominious (adj.) [a, ]
=(used of conduct or character)
deserving or bringing disgrace or
shame.
An ignominious defeat/failure/retreat.
Ignominiously (adv.)
Ignominy (n.) [a, ]
=a state of dishonor.
The Workers' Coalition experienced
the ignominy of total defeat in the last
election.

Implement (n.) [, az]
=a piece of equipment or tool used to
effect an end.
Implement (v.) [ ]

Impresario (n.) [p]
=a person who organizes theatrical or
musical productions.
London's leading theatrical impresario.

Inception (n.) [?, <]
=an event that is a beginning.
Since its inception in 1968, the
company has been at the forefront of
computer development.

Incise (v.) [/r ]
Incision (n.) [, ]
Incisive(adj.) [v]
Incisive criticism.
Incisively (adv.)
Incisor (n.) []

Decorous (adj.) [, , ]
=characterized by propriety and
dignity and good taste in manners and
conduct.
Decorously (adv.)
Decorum(adj.) [, , ]
Even the best-mannered students have
trouble behaving with decorum on the
last day of school.
Indecorous (adj.) [a, {<]
=lacking propriety and good taste in
manners and conduct, behaving badly
or rudely.
Indecorously (adv.)
Indecorum (n.) [a, a]

Indisposed (adj.) [a, ]
=slightly unwell, unwilling.
Look, I am not indisposed to help you.

Inebriate (v.) [ ]
=make/become drunk.
Inebriate (n., adj.)
An institution for inebriates.
Inebriety (n.)
Inebriation (n.) []

Ineffable (adj.) [a, a ]
=cannot be expressed in speech.
Ineffable joy/beauty.
Ineffably (adv.)

Ineluctable (adj.) [e e, a]
=impossible to avoid or evade,
irresistible.
An ineluctable destiny.

Inept (adj.) [a, a, a]
=not elegant or graceful in expression,
generally incompetent and ineffectual.
Inept remarks.
Ineptly (adv.)
Ineptitude (n.) [a , a k]

Inerrant (adj.)
=not liable to error.
The Church was theoretically inerrant
and omnicompetent.

Inordinate (adj.) [a, a]
=beyond normal limits.
Inordinate passions/demands.
Inordinately (adv.)

Insentient (adj.) [a, ]
=devoid of feeling and consciousness
and animation.
Insentient stone.

67
Insinuate (v.)[ p / ]
=give to understand.
I insinuated that I did not like his wife.
Insinuate oneself into a persons favor
[ a o]
Insinuate that [k ]
Insinuation (n.)

Invade (v.) [ ]
=to intrude upon, infringe, encroach
on, violate.
Concentrations of troops near the
border look set to invade within the
next few days.
Invader (n.)
Invasion (n.)
They were planning to mount an
invasion of the north of the country.
Invasive (adj.)
An invasive disease.

Involuntary (adj.) [u+ ,
ap]
=not subject to the control of the will.
Involuntarily (adv.)

Jar (v.) [ , ]
The sound jars on my ears/nerves.
He was badly jarred by the news.
J ar with [ o, ]
Your views on the situation jars with
mine.

Jaundice (n.)
=a sharp and bitter manner.
J aundice (v.)
=distort adversely.
J aundiced (adj.)
He has a jaundiced view toward
popular music.

Jaunty (adj.) [t o tp]
=cheerful and pleased with life,
lighthearted.
Wear ones hat at a jaunty angle.
[t t ]
J auntily (adv.)
J auntiness (n.)

Jejune (adj.) [, ap, , a]
=lacking interest or significance.
J ejunely (adv.)
J ejuneness (n.)
Jest (v.) [/T/ ]
One should not jest about serious
matters.
J est (n.)
In jest [ ]
J esting [T]
He made some jesting remarks about
the project.
J ester (n.) [ ]

Jocose (adj.) []
J ocosely (adv.)
J ocosity (n.)

Jubilee (n.) []
Silver J ubilee [ ]
Golden J ubilee [ ]
Diamond J ubilee [ ]

Kernel (n.) [ +, ]
=the choicest or most essential or
most vital part of some idea or
experience, a bit.
=there is not a kernel of truth in what
she says.

Latitude (n.) [ , i s]
=scope for freedom of e.g. action or
thought; freedom from restriction.
An autocratic Govt. does not allow
much latitude in political beliefs.

Limpid (adj.) [, s]
Writes in a limpid style.
Limpidly (adv.)
Limpidity (n.)

Lionize (v.) [u kr n ]
=assign great social importance to.
Lionization (n.)

Listless (adj.) []
=lacking zest or vivacity.
Listlessly (adv.) [<]
Listlessness (n.) [a]

Loiter (v.) [is ]
=stand around without any obvious
purpose.
A gang of youths were loitering
outside the cinema.
Loiterer (n.) [ ]

68
Lukewarm (adj.) [{ ,
]
=feeling or showing little interest or
enthusiasm.
Lukewarm friendship.
Lukewarmly (adv.)
Lukewarmness (n.)

Lurch (n.)
=an act or instance of swaying
abruptly.
The truck gave a sudden lurch as it was
hit by a strong gust of wind.
Lurch (v.) [e ]
The train lurched forward and some of
the people standing fell over.
Leave sb in the lurch [
]

Lurid (adj.) [, , ]
A lurid sky.
Luridly (adv.)
Luridness (n.)

Lusty (adj.) [s]
=healthy; energetic; full of strength
and power.
Lustily (adv.)
The baby cried lustily the moment he
was born.
Lustiness (n.)

Malice (n.) [an k i]
=feeling a need to see others suffer.
There certainly wasn't any malice in
her comments.
Malicious (adj.)
Maliciously (adv.)

Meddle (v.) [a ]
=intrude in other people's affairs or
business; interfere unwantedly.
People shouldn't meddle with things
they don't understand.
Meddler (n.)
Meddlesome (adj.)

Melancholy (n.) [, ]
Melancholic (adj.) []
=characterized by or causing or
expressing sadness.
Melancholy (adj.)
Melancholy autumn days.
Melancholia (n.)
=the condition of feeling unhappy or
sad for no obvious reason.

Mellifluous (adj.) [, ]
=having a pleasant and flowing sound.
A deep mellifluous voice.

Mendacity (n.) []
=the tendency to be untruthful.
Politicians are often accused of
mendacity.
Mendacious (adj.)
Some of these statements are
misleading and some downright
mendacious.

Mere (adj.) []
She is a mere child.
The merest [the smallest or slightest]
Merely (adv.) []
That was merely a joke.
Mere (n.) [ {]
Meretricious (adj.) [ z
]
=like or relating to a prostitute.
A meretricious style.
He claims that a lot of journalism is
meretricious and superficial.
Meretriciously (adv.)
Meretriciousness (n.)
=seeming attractive but really false or
of little value.

Mesmerize (v.) [m ]
=to have someone's attention
completely so that they cannot think of
anything else.
I was completely mesmerized by the
performance.
Mesmerizing (adj.)
He had the most mesmerizing blue
eyes.
Mesmeric (adj.)
=music with a repetitive, slightly
mesmeric quality.

Mettle (n.) [, ]
=the courage to carry on.
She takes the hardest courses that she
can to test her mettle as a good student.
Be on ones mettle [+p o]

69
Put sb on his mettle [ n
u u+ ]
Mettlesome (adj.) [s, +p]

Minion (n.) [, ]
=a servile or fawning dependant.
The minions of the law. [ , k]

Mire (n.) [ , ]
Mire (v.) [ , o,
/ ]
=entrap.
Miry (adj.) [k]
Miry road.

Mirth (n.) [-;, ]
=great merriment.
Mirthful (adj.)
Mirthfully (adv.)
Mirthless (adj.) [n]
A mirthless laugh.

Miscible (v.) [n]
=capable of mixing.
Miscibility (n.)

Misfeasance (n.) [ a a p]
=doing a proper act in a wrongful or
injurious manner.

Mislay (v.) [a ,
, ]
=place (something) where one cannot
find it again.
Could I borrow a pen? I seem to have
mislaid mine.

Mode (adj.)
=to be fashionable at a particular time.
Miniskirts were very much the mode in
the 60s.
Modish (adj.) [m, ds]
=in the current fashion or style.
Modishly (adv.)

Moiety (n.) [di e]
=one of two equal parts.

Molest (v.) [uk , ]
=annoy continually or chronically, to
abuse sexually.
He molested children and was sent to
jail for 30 years.
Molestation (n.) []
Molester (n.)

Aural (adj.) [n+-m ]
An aural surgeon.
Monaural (adj.) [e v]
=relating to or having or hearing with
only one ear.
Monaural deafness.

Morganatic (adj.)
=of marriages) of a marriage between
one of royal or noble birth and one of
lower rank; valid but with the
understanding that the rank of the
inferior remains unchanged and
offspring do not succeed to titles or
property of the superior.

Moribund (adj.) [ ]
=being on the point of death.
How can the Trade Department be
revived from its present moribund
state?

Morose (adj.) [, ]
=showing a brooding ill humor.
A morose and unsociable manner.
Morosely (adv.)
Moroseness (n.)

Mortify (v.) [j a ]
=(1) humiliate, lower in esteem (2)
decay.
Mortified by ones rudeness.
A mortifying defeat.
Mortify the flesh. [ ]
Mortification (n.) [, j]

Multifaceted (adj.)
=having many aspects.
A multifaceted undertaking.

Narcissism (n.) [ e a,
t]
=an exceptional interest in and
admiration for yourself.
Narcissistic (adj.)
Narcissist (n.)

70
Nascent (adj.) [ e, ]
=coming into existence.
Nascent oxygen.

Neologism (n.) [ p]
=a newly invented word or phrase.

Noisome (adj.) [, ( m )]
=offensively malodorous.
The rotting meat caused a noisome
health hazard.

Nostrum (n.) [ (), o
]
=a remedy for all ills or diseases, a
patent medicine whose efficacy is
questionable.
Society's nostrums for social problems
are often ineffective.

Nugatory (adj.) [, a, ]
=of no real value, worthless, futile.
A nugatory amount.
Nugacity (n.)
=triviality, futility.

Obloquy (n.) [, n]
=state of disgrace resulting from
public abuse.
On this account he has already suffered
much obloquy, and has much to
encounter.

Obstreperous (adj.) [u ]
=boisterously and noisily aggressive.
Obstreperous children.
Obstreperously (adv.)
Obstreperousness (n.)

Obviate (v.) [k o, = o]
=prevent from happening
=(1) remove/prevent (a
need/difficulty) (2) make unnecessary
Obviate difficulties.

Occult (n.) [gp, , +]
=supernatural forces and events and
beings collectively.
She claims to have occult powers,
given to her by some mysterious spirit.


Olfactory (adj.) [=]
=related to the sense of smell.
The olfactory nerves.
People with a limited olfactory sense
also often have a poor sense of taste.

Oppress (v.) [an/ ]
=to govern people in an unfair and
cruel way and prevent them from
having opportunities and freedom.
For years now, the people have been
oppressed by a ruthless dictator.
Oppressed (adj.)
Oppression (n.)
Every human being has the right to
freedom from oppression.
Oppressive (adj.)
Oppressively (adv.)
Oppressiveness (n.)
Oppressor (n.)
Sisters, we must rise up and defeat our
oppressors.

Overbear (v.) [a/ ]
=overcome.
Overbearing (adj.) [[ ]
Overbearingly (adv.)

Overture (n.) [ ps]
=an approach made to someone in
order to offer something.
Neither side in the conflict seems
willing to make peace overtures.

Paean (n.) [n , -]
=a formal expression of praise.
The song is a paean to solitude and
independence.

Palisade (v.) [k
k ]
=surround with a wall in order to
fortify.

Panacea (n.) [ ]
=hypothetical remedy for all ills or
diseases.
Technology is not a panacea for all our
problems.
Aspirin is considered a panacea for
aches and pains.

71
Pander (v.) [ u (
a-a<), ( ~
n)]
=to do or provide exactly what a
person or group wants, cater.
It's not good the way she panders to his
every whim.
Pander (n.)
=someone who procures customers for
whores.

Pantomime (n.) [ a]
=a performance using gestures and
body movements without words.
It's an evening of music, drama and
pantomime.

Penitence (n.) [ a n a/pt]
Penitent (adj.) [ a n ap]
Penitential (adj.) [a/pt =]
Penitentially (adv.)
Penitentiary (n.) []

Perfidious (adj.) [, d]
=deceitful and disloyal.
A perfidious lover.
Perfidiously (adv.)
Perfidiousness (n.)

Peril (n.) [ ]
=a state of danger involving risk.
His life is in peril now.
Peril (v.) [ ]
=pose a threat to.
Perilous (adj.) [j]
The country roads are quite perilous.
Perilously (adv.)

Periphrasis (n.) [ /]
=a style that involves indirect ways of
expressing things.
Example: I believe e I do
believe.

Perpetrate (v.) [ a ]
=perform an act, usually with a
negative connotation.
The Pak army perpetrated great
atrocities.
Perpetrator (n.)
Perpetration. (n.)

Perpetuate (v.) [ ]
Perpetuation (n.)
Perpetuity (n.) [[]
Perpetual (adj.) [a]
Perpetually (adv.)

Persnickety/ Pernickety (adj.)
=giving too much attention to small
unimportant details in a way that
annoys other people.
As a writer, he is extremely pernickety
about using words correctly.

Perturb (v.) [ut , ]
=disturb in mind or make uneasy or
cause to be worried or alarmed.
Sorry to perturb you.
Perturbation (n.)

Picaresque (n.) [ o d = a
]
=involving clever rogues or
adventurers especially as in a type of
fiction.

Picayune (adj.)
=small and of little importance.
Giving a police officer a free meal may
be against the law, but it seems to be a
picayune infraction.

Piecemeal (adj./adv.) [ ,
a]
=done in a gradual and inconsistent
way.
Work done piecemeal, Read a novel
piecemeal.

Pied (adj.) [r k, ==]
=having 2 or more different colors.
Piebald (adj.)
=having sections or patches colored
differently and usually brightly.

Pilfer (v.) [ (n )]
=steal (things of little value)
Pilfered from the bookracks.
The children pilfered apples from the
fruit stand.
Pilferer (n.)
Pilferage (n.)

72
Pinion (v.) [ u ,
k ]
=restrain or immobilize by binding the
wings or legs.
Pinion (n.)
=birds wing.

Pique (v.) [o a tm ,
( )]
=cause to feel resentment or
indignation.
Pique oneself on sth. [ a ]
She piqued herself on being very
charming.
Pique (n.) [ , a, ]
He left the meeting in a fit of pique.

Pirouette (n.)
=a rapid spin of the body (especially
on the toes as in ballet).
Pirouette (v.)

Pith (n.) [, , , , ]
=the choicest or most essential or
most vital part of some idea or
experience.
The pith of his argument/speech.
Pithy (adj.) [s, ]
Pithily (adv.) []

Placate (v.) [/s ]
=to stop someone from feeling angry.
Outraged minority groups will not be
placated by promises of future
improvements.
Placatory (adj.)
The tone of the letter was placatory.

Platitude (n.) [:r s+ uk]
=a trite or obvious remark, an
unoriginal saying.
Politicians speak platitudes about
lowering taxes.

Plausible (adj.) [ k,
a (k)]
=apparently reasonable and valid.
A plausible excuse/explanation.
A plausible rogue.
Plausibly (adv.)
Plausibility (n.)
Implausible (adj.)
=difficult to believe.
The whole plot of the film is
ridiculously implausible.
Implausibly (adv.)
Implausibility (n.)

Plenitude (n.) [p ]
=a full supply.
In the plenitude of ones powers.
Plenteous (adj.) [p ]
Plenteously (adv.)
Plentiful (adj.)
Plentifully (adv.)
Plenty (n. /adv.)

Plethora (n.) [ap , ]
=extreme excess.
There's a plethora of books about the
royal family.

Pneumatic (adj.)
=of or relating to or using air (or a
similar gas).
Pneumatic drill, pneumatic tire.

Precinct (n.) [ , k e]
=a district of a city or town marked
out for administrative purposes.
Pedestrian precinct, Shopping precinct.

Predilection (n.)
A predilection for [ a/k,
]
He has a predilection for drinking
alcohol.

Preponderant (adj.) [p]
=having superior power and influence.
Preponderantly (adv.)
Preponderance (n.) [p]

Prepossess (v.) [ /a ]
=make a positive impression (on
someone) beforehand.
He was prepossessed by young ladys
charms.
Prepossessing (adj.) [t]
A girl of prepossessing appearance.
Prepossession (n.) [p i a{
a]

73
Prescient (adj.) []
=perceiving the significance of events
before they occur.
Presciently (adv.)
Prescience (n.) [ j]

Preternatural (adj.) [as, a]
=surpassing the ordinary or normal.
Preternaturally (adv.)

Proactive (adj.)
=taking action by causing change and
not only reacting to change when it
happens.
Companies are going to have to be
more proactive about environmental
management.
A proactive approach/role.

Proclivity (n.) [p]
=a natural inclination.
The sexual proclivities of celebrities.

Prodigal (adj.) [a, ks]
Prodigal (n.)
Prodigally (adv.)
Prodigality (n.)
The prodigality of the sea.

Progenitor (n.) [ <, ]
=an ancestor in the direct line.
Marx was the progenitor of
communism.

Proletariat (adj.) [-]
=a social class comprising those who
do manual labor or work for wages.
Proletarian (n.) []

Prolix (adj.) [as z/k]
=tediously prolonged or tending to
speak or write at great length.
The author's prolix style has done
nothing to encourage sales of the book.
Prolixity (n.)

Promiscuous (adj.) [e, ]
=casual and unrestrained in sexual
behavior.
Promiscuous sexual intercourse.
Promiscuously (adv.)

Promulgate (v.) [p , ]
=state or announce.

Propinquity (n.) [, () ]
=the property of being close together.

Propitiate (v.) [= u n ]
=to please and make calm a god or
person who is annoyed with you.
In those days people might sacrifice a
goat or sheep to propitiate an angry
god.
Propitiation (n.) [pt]
Propitiatory (adj.)
With a propitiatory gesture he offered
her his hand.
Propitious (adj.) [a{, pr, ]
Weather that was propitious for their
journey.
With the economy in the worst
recession for thirty years, it was
scarcely the most propitious time to
start up a company.
Propitiously (adv.)

Propel (v.) [m ]
=cause to move forward with force.
A rocket propelled through space.
Propeller (n.)
Propulsion (n.)
=a force that pushes something
forward.
A propulsion system.

Proscribe (v.) [+ , ]
=(1) officially forbid, command
against (2) criticize/condemn
Sugar is proscribed for most diabetics.
Proscribed (adj.)[+]

Protract (v.) [/v ]
=lengthen in time.
A protracted visit/argument.
Protraction (n.) [=]

Providence (n.) [, -, ]
Providence fund.
Provident (adj.) []
Providently (adv.)
Providential (adj.)
Providentially (adv.)

74
Puerile (adj.) [, ]
I find his sense of humor rather
puerile.
Puerility (n.) [ //]

Pugnacious (adj.) [+, ip, ]
=wanting to start an argument or fight.
I found him pugnacious and arrogant.
Pugnaciously (adv.)
Pugnacity (n.)

Pulchritude (n.) [ n ]
=physical beauty (especially of a
woman).

Pummel (v.) [u ]
=strike with the fist.
The boxer had pummeled his opponent
into submission by the end of the
fourth round.

Punctilious (adj.) [
a, ds, ds]
=marked by precise accordance with
details.
He was always punctilious in his
manners.
Punctiliously (adv.)
Punctiliousness (n.)

Purloin (v.) [ ]
=steal.
I was using a pen that I'd purloined
from the office.
Purloiner (n.) [ ]

Purulent (adj.) [ k]
=having undergone infection.
Purulence (n.)

Purvey (v.) [ ]
=supply with provisions.
Benson & Hedges purvey tobacco for
the NAVY.
Purveyance (n.)
Purveyor (n.)

Pusillanimous (adj.) [<, t]
=lacking in courage and manly
strength and resolution.
He's too pusillanimous to stand up to
his opponents.
Pusillanimously (adv.)
Pusillanimity (n.)

Putative (adj.) [ , a]
=generally accepted, commonly put
forth or accepted as true on
inconclusive grounds.
Putatively (adv.)
The putative leader of the terrorist
organization was arrested by police in
Birmingham yesterday.

Putrefy (v.) []
=liable to decay or spoil or become
putrid.
Putrefaction (n.) []
Putrescent (adj.) [ e]
Putrescence (n.) [p=]
Putrescible (adj.) [capable of decaying
or rotting]
Putrid (adj.) [, o d k, a-]
Putridity (n.) [ a]

Quaff (n.)
=a hearty draft.
Quaff (v.)
=to drink something quickly or in
large amounts.

Quail (v.) [ o]
=shrink back in fear.
He quailed at the thought of fighting in
the war.
Quail (n.) [ ]

Quandary (n.) [d]
=a state of not being able to decide
what to do about a situation in which
you are involved.
It is logical quandary as much as
anything.
I was in a quandary about what to do.

Quench (v.) [ , ,
(g), ]
=satisfy (thirst).
Quenchless (adj.) [d, a p, d ]
A quenchless thirst.

Raillery (n.)
=joking or laughing at someone in a
friendly way, light teasing repartee.

75
Raiment (n.) [, ]
=especially fine or decorative
clothing.
Raiment (v.)
=provide with clothes or put clothes
on.

Rake (n.) [d=/m k]
=a dissolute man in fashionable
society.
Rake (v.) [ /o, i ,
]
=examine hastily.
The floor of the theatre raked towards
the audience.
Rakish (adj.) [d=, ]
=stylish, sporty.
He has a rakish air about him.
Rakishly (adv.)
Rakishness (n.)

Ramble (v.) [ ]
My various ramblings...
Ramble (n.) [is ]
Rambler (n.)
Rambling (adj.) [() is (,
s, m ) () ag (k, ,
m )]

Ramify (v.) [ k /o]
=divide into two or more branches.
Ramification (n.) [ k r
a/]
This book will analyze the idea in all
its ramifications.

Rapport (n.) [ m ]
=a feeling of sympathetic
understanding.
We'd worked together for years and
developed a close/good rapport.
She has an excellent rapport with her
staff.

Rasp (v.) [ , uk ,
u , ]
Rasp sbs feelings/nerves.
Rasp out orders/insults.
Rasping on a violin.
Raspingly (adv.) [ ]


Ratify (v.) [sk a ]
=approve in writing.
Many countries have now ratified the
UN convention on the rights of the
child.
Ratification (n.)

Raucous (adj.) [ ]
=unpleasantly loud and harsh.
A raucous voice.
I heard the raucous call of the crows.
Raucous laughter came from the next
room.
Raucously (adv.)

Ravel (v.) [ /]
=unravel.

Raze (v.) [ ]
=tear down so as to make flat with the
ground, destroy completely (a
building/town).
The government razed some old
buildings and built new ones.

Rebut (v.) [ p ]
=prove to be false or incorrect.
Our lawyer saved our case when she
rebutted the other lawyer's speech.

Recant (v.) [/ , a
p ]
=formally reject or disavow a
formerly held belief, usually under
pressure.
The witness later recanted the things
he said in court and said it was all not
true.

Recuperate (v.) [a kk
o/ , <+ ]
=regain or make up for.
Recuperate ones health.
He recuperated quickly after being in
the hospital.
Recuperation (n.)

Redolent (adj.) []
=serving to bring to mind.
Handkerchiefs redolent of rose-leaves.
The album is a heartfelt cry, redolent
of a time before radio and television.

76
Redress (v.) [() , k ]
=make reparations or amends for.
Redress ones errors.
Redress the balance [
p ]
Redress (n.)
Seek legal redress.

Redundant (adj.) [, a,
pk]
=more than is needed, desired, or
required.
A redundant word, A redundant labor.
The teacher told him the ideas in his
essay were redundant, because he
repeated the same idea three times.
Her position at the company was
declared redundant and she was told to
find a new job.
Redundancy (n.)

Reek (n.) [b d]
=a distinctive odor that is offensively
unpleasant.
The reek of stale tobacco smoke.
Reek (v.) [d ]
Reek with [ k p k o]

Reel (v.) [ o, o]
=walk as if unable to control one's
movements.
She hit him so hard that he reeled
backwards.
We were reeling with the news that we
had won all that money.

Refractory (adj.) [a, eg]
=stubborn, difficult to control.
As refractory as a mule [].

Regurgitate (v.) [u ]
=pour or rush back, repeat after
memorization.
Birds regurgitate food to feed their
young.

Rehash (v.) [ r ]
=reuse (old ideas/materials) with no
great change/improvement.
Rehash last terms lectures for the
coming term.

Rejoin (v.) [/ut ]
=(1) join again (2) answer back.
Rejoinder (n.) [pt]
=a quick/witty reply.
A lawyer said the witness was lying,
and the witness answered with an
angry rejoinder, proving to the court
that she was telling the truth.

Reminisce (v.) [ ]
Remind (v.)
Reminder (n.)
Reminiscent (adj.) [ e,
]
=serving to bring to mind.
His voice is reminiscent of his fathers.
Become reminiscent.
Reminiscently (adv.)
Reminiscence (n.) []
There is a reminiscence of her mother
in the way she smiles.

Remit (v.) [k , o{ , ; /o,
]
=release from (claims and debts).
His examination fees have been
remitted.
The case will be remitted to an expert
committee.
Remission (n.) [k, , i, o{,
]
Remission for good conducts. [
]
Remission of a fever.
Remittance (n.) [a p p a ]

Remunerate (v.) [ ]
=pay (someone) for work done.
He is poorly remunerated for all the
work he does.
Remuneration (n.)
Remunerative (adj.) []

Rend (v.) [ , ]
=tear or be torn violently.
With one stroke of his sword, he rent
his enemy's helmet in two.

Renege (v.)
=go back on a promise, undertaking,
or contract.
Renege on [ ]

77
Repent (v.) [ap o]
=turn away from sin or do penitence.
Repentance (n.)
=remorse for your past conduct.
This was an extremely violent crime,
for which the boy showed no
repentance.
Repentant (adj.)
=feeling sorry for something that you
have done.

Repertoire (n.)
=list of works of music, drama, etc.
There are a hundred popular songs in
her repertoire.

Repine (v.) [a , a p o]
=express discontent, fret.
Repine against [ a
]

Replenish (v.) [ n ]
Replenishment (n.)
Replete (adj.) [ , ]
Repletion (n.) [ / a]

Rescind (v.) [i/k ]
=to make a law, agreement, order or
decision no longer have any (legal)
power, revoke.
The Congress rescinded a tax law that
people didn't like.
Rescission (n.)

Resilience (n.) [ a g]
=the physical property of a material
that can return to its original shape or
position after deformation that does not
exceed its elastic limit.
Resilient (adj.)

Resplendent (adj.) [a u, ]
=having great beauty and splendor.
I saw Anna at the other end of the
room, resplendent in a red sequined
cocktail dress.
Resplendently (adv.)
Resplendence (n.)

Retrograde (v.) [ o, o]
=going from better to worse.
Retrograde (adj.) [a ]
He said it would be a retrograde step to
remove single parent benefit.

Robust (adj.) [, p]
=strong and healthy.
A robust economy.
Robustly (adv.)
Some of his colleagues felt he could
have defended himself more robustly.
Robustness (n.)

Ruddy (adj.) [sj, k, ]
=inclined to a healthy reddish color
often associated with outdoor life.
In ruddy health.
A ruddy glow in the sky.

Rudimentary (adj.) [p, ]
=being in the earliest stages of
development.
Her knowledge is still only
rudimentary.

Rustic (adj.) [, , a]
=characteristic of rural life.
They live in a rustic fishing village.
Rusticity (n.)

Salutary (adj.) [, ]
=beneficial to health.
A salutary reminder of the dangers of
mountain climbing.

Sapling (n.) [ , <]
Sappy (adj.) [pk ]

Savior (n.) [=, =]
=a person who rescues you from harm
or danger.
This mayor has created jobs and
helped the poor; she is the city's savior.

Scarce (adj.) [d]
=not easy to find or obtain.
Food and clean water were becoming
scarce.
A scarce book.
Scarcely (adv.) [ , ]
She scarcely knows you. [
i ]
Scarcity (n.)

78
Scruple (n.) [ d]
=an ethical or moral principle that
inhibits action.
Tell lies without scruple. []
Scruple to do sth (v.) [ < d
]
Scrupulous (adj.) [, ]
Scrupulously (adv.)
Scrupulously exact/careful.
Unscrupulous (adj.) []
Unscrupulously (adv.)

Sear (v.)
=make very hot and dry.
The heat from the explosion seared
their hands and faces.
Searing (adj.)
Searingly (adv.)

Senescence (n.)
=the property characteristic of old age.

Sententious (adj.) [kp a
as, v, :]
=concise and full of meaning.
A sententious speaker/speech.

Serene (adj.) [s o ]
=peaceful and calm; troubled by
nothing.
She has a lovely serene face.
Serenely (adv.)
Serenity (n.)
I admired her serenity in the midst of
so much chaos.

Sheepish (adj.) [ap, ap, ]
=embarrassed because you know that
you have done something wrong or
silly.
She gave me a sheepish smile and
apologized.
Sheepishly (adv.)
Sheepishness (n.)

Shrivel (v.) []
=wither, esp. with a loss of moisture.
Shriveled face/leaves.




Shun (v.) [ , ]
=(1) avoid and stay away from
deliberately (2) expel from a
community or group.
Shun temptation.
She has shunned publicity since she
retired from the theatre.
After the trial he was shunned by
friends and family alike.

Sibilant (adj.) [ k, ]
Sibilant (n.)
=a consonant characterized by a
hissing sound (like s or sh).

Simper (v.) [ ]
=to smile in a foolish or silly way.
She gave her teacher a simpering
smile.
Simperingly (adv.)

Slew (v.)
=turn sharply, change direction
abruptly, glut/excess.
The car hit a patch of ice and slewed
around violently.
Slew (n.)
=large quantity or number.

Smolder (v.) [ ]
=(1) have strong suppressed feelings
(2) burn slowly and without a flame.
Smoldering discontent [ a]
The fire was started by a smoldering
cigarette.
The dispute is still smoldering, five
years after the negotiations began.
He gazed at her with smoldering eyes,
wishing she wasn't married.

Smother (v.) [ , ,
]
=deprive of oxygen and prevent from
breathing.
The latest violence has smothered any
remaining hopes for an early peace
agreement.
I think she broke off their engagement
because she felt smothered by him.


79
Sober (adj.) [ts, ]
=completely lacking in playfulness.
Anthony was in a very sober mood - I
scarcely heard him laugh all night.
Sober (v.)
News of the tragedy has sobered us.
Soberly (adv.)
Sobering (adj.)
Sobriety (n.)
We had the priest sitting at our table
which instilled a little sobriety into the
occasion.

Solipsism (n.) [tj]
=(philosophy) the
philosophical theory that the self is all
that you know to exist.
Solipsistic (adj.)

Sophomore (n.) [ d
=/=]
Freshman : <30 Credits
Sophomore: 30 59 Credits
J unior: 60 89 Credits
Senior: >90 Credits

Sordid (adj.) [, , ]
=morally degraded.
A sordid slum.
These men and women are all living in
sordid poverty.
Sordidly (adv.)
Sordidness (n.)
Sordid motives.

Speculate (v.) [a ]
=to believe especially on uncertain or
tentative grounds.
The newspapers have speculated that
they will get married next year.
Speculation (n.)
The Prime Minister's speech
fuelled/prompted speculation that an
election will be held later in the year.

Spoof (v.) [ , ]
=to try to make someone believe in
something that is not true, as a joke.
You have been spoofed. [
]
Spoof (n.)
=an amusing and ridiculous piece of
writing, music, theatre, etc. that copies
the style of an original work.
It was a spoof cowboy film.

Spurn (v.) [ ]
=reject with contempt, push aside.
She spurned my offers of help.

Stagger (v.) [ ]
=(1) walk/move unsteadily as if about
to fall (2) astonish sb (3) spread over a
period of time (4) to arrange in a stack
or pile.
Every night we find him staggering to
his house.
Thats a piece of staggering news.
Staggerer (n.)
Staggeringly (adv.)

Stalemate (v.) [a ]
=subject to a stalemate, in chess.
Stalemate (n.)
=a situation in which no progress can
be made.
Despite long discussions, the workers
and the management remain locked in
stalemate.

Stanza (n.) [s]
=a fixed number of lines of verse
forming a unit of a poem.

Stasis (n.)
=a period/state when there is no
change or development.
She was bored - her life was in stasis.

Stellar (adj.) [k= v, k=]
=being or relating to or resembling or
emanating from stars.
Constellation (n.) [e= a k=,
k /]

Stifle (v.) [<+ , , ]
=smother, suppress, conceal, hide.
We were stifled in the crowded local
bus.
I feel stifled in a smoky room.
Stifler (n.) [, ]

80
Stolid (adj.) [a, at]
=not easily aroused or excited.
Stolidly (adv.)
Stolidness (n.)
Stolidity (n.)

Stride (v.) [v v , di
/]
=walk with long, decisive steps
Stride along the empty footpath.
Stride over a wide drain.
Astride (adv.) [di d ]

Strident (adj.) [ , v]
=unpleasantly loud and harsh.
The old machine gives out strident
notes.
I could hear her angry, strident voice
from next door.
Stridulate (v.) [v ]
Stridulation (n.)
Stridency (n.)

Suave (adj.) [ o ( ?
)]
=smoothly agreeable and courteous
with a degree of sophistication.
Suavely (adv.)
Suavity (n.)

Suffrage (n.) [, ]
=the right to vote in an election.
Universal suffrage.
Suffragette (n.)
=a woman advocate of women's right
to vote.

Supercilious (adj.) [ajn]
=having or showing arrogant
superiority to.
Nose high in the air, looking like a
supercilious camel.
Superciliously (adv.)
Superciliousness (n.)

Supine (adj.) [, a]
=(1) offering no resistance. (2) lying
face upward.
The new director has introduced a
series of changes against little
opposition from the supine staff.
We walked along the beach, past the
rows of supine bodies soaking up the
sun.
Supinely (adv.)

Surfeit (n.) [a/a < ass,
]
=the state of being more than full.
Have a surfeit of [ a</
]
Surfeit (v.)
Surfeit oneself with fruit, Be surfeited
with pleasure.

Swathe (v.) [ ]
=wrap around, bandage.
Swathed in bandages.

Taper (v.) [e = < o]
One end of the cloth tapers.
Taper (n.) [ < ]

Taunt (n.) [F]
=aggravation by deriding or mocking
or criticizing.
Tauntingly (adv.) [Ft]

Tautology (n.) [a t]
=useless repetition.
Tautological (adj.)

Temporal (adj.) []
(1) relating to time (2) not eternal
Temporality (n.) [ ]

Tender (adj.) []
=young and immature.
He was sent off to boarding school at
the tender age of seven.

Tenuous (adj.) [k, <]
=very slight and weak.
We were only able to make a tenuous
connection between the two robberies.
Tenuity (n.)

Terse (adj.) [kp, :]
=brief and to the point.
Are you feeling any better? No was
the terse reply.
Tersely (adv.)
Terseness (n.)

81
Thrive (v.) [+ ]
=grow vigorously.
His business thrived in the years before
the war.
Thriving (adj.)
A thriving economy.

Tirade (n.) [ , =+p o k]
=a violent denunciation [a k].

Transcend (v.) [ o]
=be greater in scope or size than some
standard.
The best films are those which
transcend national or cultural barriers.
Transcendence (n.)
Transcendent (adj.)
Transcendental (adj.)

Unqualified (adj.) [, , a{]
=complete, not limited or restricted.
We achieved a lot but I wouldn't say
that the project has been an unqualified
success.
The proposal has the unqualified
support of the entire committee.

Unrequited (adj.) [p]
=not returned in kind.
Unrequited love/service.

Unstudied (adj.) [sn, s]
=impromptu, improvised.

Upshot (n.) [, ]
=outcome, final result.
The upshot of the discussions is that
there will be no redundancies.

Vain (adj.) [Unproductive of success, ,
]
=characteristic of false pride.
It was a vain mission.
Vain Vainer Vainest
As vain [ +] as a peacock.
Vainglory (n.) []
Vainglorious (adj.) [ t]
Vainly (adv.) [without success,
, +]



Vanity (n.) [a]
=feelings of excessive pride.
His vanity about his appearance is
ridiculous; he is always looking at
himself in the mirror.

Variegated (adj.) [==]
=having a variety of colors.
Variegated leaves.
Variegation (n.)

Venal (adj.) [a n a p]
=capable of being corrupted.
A venal ruler.
Venally (adv.)
Venality (n.)

Venial (adj.) [, k]
=easily excused or forgiven.
A venial error.

Veracity (n.) [, , ]
=unwillingness to tell lies.
Veracious (adj.) [ ]
Veraciously (adv.)

Vernal (adj.) [, ]
=pertaining to spring.

Veteran (n.) [+p]
=an experienced person who has been
through many battles.
The ceremony was attended by many
of the surviving veterans of World War
II.
Veteran (adj.)

Vex (v.) [k ]
=to annoy, worry or disturb (esp. by
minor irritations).
It vexes me that my computer is not so
fast.
A vexed question [: sr,
k ]
Vex (v.) [( ) kb ]
Vexed by storms.

Virtuoso (n.)
=someone who is dazzlingly skilled in
any field.

82
Famous mainly for his wonderful
voice, Cole was also a virtuoso on the
piano.
Virtuosity (n.)

Vivacity (n.) [p]
Vivacious (adj.) [p]
A vivacious girl.
Vivaciously/Vivace (adv.)

Vocation (n.) [, t, ]
Vocational (adj.) []
Vocational guidance.
Avocation (n.) [[
t]

Voluptuary (adj.) [, i+]
=describes a woman who has a soft,
curved, sexually attractive body.
A voluptuous body/mouth/figure.
I sank into the bed's voluptuous
warmth.
Voluptuous (adj.) [i+]
Voluptuous
beauty/music/sensations/thoughts
Voluptuously (adv.)
Voluptuousness (n.)

Voracious (adj.) [k ]
=excessively greedy and grasping.
A voracious appetite, A voracious
reader.
Voraciously (adv.)
Voracity (n.)

Vulpine (adj.) [ v, ]
=resembling or characteristic of a fox.

Wan (adj.) [a, z, ]
=dim or feeble.
A wan smile.
Wanly (adv.)
Wan (v.) [become pale and sickly]

Warmonger (n.) [+ k]
=a person who advocates war or
warlike policies.
The President was called a warmonger
for sending our army to fight in
another country.



Warrant (n.) [n, ]
You had no warrant for what you did.
Warrant (v.)
Nothing can warrant such insolence.

Wisp (n.) [ , g, {]
=bale, a small bundle of straw or hay.
A wisp of hair.
A blue wisp of cigarette smoke curled
in the air.
Wispy (adj.)
=thin, slight, barely discernible.
Wither (v.) [ o]
=lose freshness, vigor, or vitality.
Grass had withered in the fields.
Withered (adj.)
Withered leaves/flowers.

Withhold (v.) [ ]
=hold back.
She withheld her rent until the landlord
agreed to have the repairs done.

Woo (v.) [p k , () ,
]
=(1) make amorous advances towards
(2) seek someone's favor.
Wooer (n.)
He wooed her for months with flowers
and expensive presents.
The party has been trying to woo the
voters with promises of electoral
reform.
The airline has been offering
discounted tickets to woo passengers
away from their competitors.

Xenophobia (n.) [ v a /]
=a fear of foreigners or strangers.
Xenophobic (n.)

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