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Benefit management (Ward, 2012, 2nd edition) 1. What are the main reasons for the failure of IT projects?

Organizations do not consistently undertake benefit reviews at the end of projects and transfer lessons learned to future projects. The research has found that this is the key differentiator between organizations that are more successful in delivering benefits from IS/IT projects and organizations that are less successful. Organizations not only have to align and synchronize their IS/IT projects with evolving business strategies, but also meet the expectations of ever - more sophisticated customers and, in the public sector, citizens. While these challenges largely result from the rapidly evolving use of technology and the complex problems associated with the scale and scope of deployment, there are a number of benefit management issues that are critical to successful investment.

2. What are the reasons for dissatisfaction with current approaches to benefits delivery?

The survey found that many organizations fail to include internal costs associated with achieving business changes and with new ways of working once the system is operational. Without an understanding of the full costs involved in an IS/IT project, it is impossible to be clear on the overall financial value of undertaking the project. 3. Compare benefits management with traditional IS projects approaches.

Why is post-implementation benefits review important? Few organizations carry out post - implementation reviews, seriously limiting their ability to learn collectively from the experience gained from projects. This review should not concentrate on the use of technology or on the project management. Instead, the benefits review should explore which of the planned benefits have been realized, whether there were any unexpected benefits arising and which planned benefits are still expected or is not likely to be ever realized.

DSS 3.1 What could be the biggest advantages of a mathematical model that support s a major investment decision? The main advantages of mathematical models for investment decisions: Mathematical models allow rational decisions because of their nature, mathematical results are always rational. When the market operates rationally, the rational mathematical models generally do not interfere. Mathematical models operate systematically, therefore, the decision taken systematically. Mathematical models simulate taking a decision, the simulation can be carried out repeatedly, the parameters can be changed. The mathematical model can be improved and corrected. Capable of anticipating the future on certain factors. However, it is necessary to emphasize that the mathematical models are not reality but a picture of possible events, the final decision is taken. Models only help us to make choices.

3.2 Your company is considering opening a branch in China. List several typical activities in each phase of the decision (intelligence, design. choice, and implementation).

INTELLIGENCE: selection of information on the country classification of information processing / processing of the acquired data, presentation of information, data PLANNING: exposing alternative ideas in setting strategies for opening a branch, and to provide for the possible results / outcomes of each option CHOICE: choose the best possible alternative in formulating the strategy for the new branch Assessed: monitoring the implementation and execution of strategy Knowlege management

4.1 Explain why it is important to capture and manage knowledge.


Today, the business world is rapidly changing . Measures must be pre anticipation . The faster it is to be adjusted , and because of this it is important that the cycle of generation of the knowledge faster . Adequate quantity and content knowledge are necessary but not sufficient condition for the successful operation of the organization ; condition is effective implementation of knowledge in accordance with the strategic guidelines of the organization. Putting knowledge is paramount to the successful operation of the organization , but it is also one of the most important areas and the most important task of management , a group of people function within an organization that takes care management organizations to effectively and efficiently achieve the objectives set . Poor poor management brings efficiency and effectiveness , often also poor management and

control relationships between people within the organization and with external factors and inadequate management . Knowledge that comes from elsewhere , it is useful not necessarily bring competitive advantages , but it can be activated hushed skills or get into new synergies . Economic development requires learning society , as it is learning at the level of the company's key . Unwillingness or inability to learn are usually the most important inhibitory element in the development of economies and societies. Knowledge is important to control the growth of the company's development towards realizing our vision . The companies have set frameworks within which define the necessary skills to help develop their abilities , skills, and abilities. Knowledge brings benefits to individuals and groups in the internal and external environment . Knowledge management is important for the organization . In all areas of the organization and the organizational processes in managing , organizing , interpersonal relationships among employees , productivity , improvement and promotion of performance in consumer satisfaction , knowledge must be acquired , shared , evaluated and used. Knowledge of benefits for the individual and for the company in a better , more comprehensive pools of this decision , better communication , and only providing all relevant information , increase productivity , appropriate mode of management, the appropriate way of setting the organization's strategy , setting targets and their realization , strategic and long-term oriented policy organization , timely implementation of operations and organization, better organization , better motivation and stimulation of employees , lowering the barriers to work , continuous improvement processes , encouraging creativity , creativity .

4.2 Compare and contrast tacit knowledge and explicit knowledge.


Polanyju ( Nonaka and Takeuchi in 1995 , 59 ) classifies knowledge on : tacit knowledge ( Summary Tacit knowledge ) is deeply rooted in an individual's actions , experiences , role models , values , emotion , etc. . and it is difficult to formalize and communicate . Tacit knowledge is often due to interactions between groups of people getting the knowledge and skills to become a common practice in companies. It is precisely this knowledge is potentially the most enduring source of decisive achievement of the company and hence its competitive naughtiness ; explicitly or encoded knowledge ( Summary explicit konowledge ) is transferable in formal systematic language. Is encoded in an objective manner ( in the manuals , patent documents , technical instructions, computer programs ) . This knowledge is most easily transferred to other companies . Even if it is protected as intellectual property, patents which allow monopoly profits , the restrictions often only temporary. Live Rant defines the difference as follows: ( Organization , Volume 38 , Discussion , Number 10 , December 2005 )

Explicit knowledge can be expressed in words and figures. You can present quite easy as tangible data , scientific formulas , coding procedures, universal principles . Transferring such knowledge is not against the great presents a special problem. This knowledge , however ( as submitted by Nonaka and Takeuchi , 1995) represents only the tip of the iceberg . Underneath is the so-called tacit knowledge .

4.3 How can employees be motivated to contribute to and use knowledge management systems?
For employers constitute a decision taken by the connection with the awarding , increasing the cost of business enterprise and on the ability to sell a product at a competitive price in the market. The decisions also affect the ability of employers to compete for workers in the labor market . The award , which it provides to other workers, namely can attract or repel new staff already employed shall be retained in employment or lead to their departure from the company ( Traven 1998 , p . 129 ) . Organizations must motivate employees with a salary and not her. If organizations motivate employees to pay, they will want a salary unconditionally . If you will be accustomed to always something to get done , it will be a system in which you will be satisfied both the worker as an employee . The company must first answer the 5 questions in strategic decision to establish a system of salaries and remuneration ( Zupan, 2001 , p . 124-126 ) : What is the role of the system of salaries and remuneration in relation to the management of human resources, how to ensure competitive salaries , what should be the internal structure wages how to evaluate the contribution of employees to the success of the company , how to regulate decision-making, communication and administrative tasks associated with the system of salaries and remuneration .

1 Material reward employees - There are several ways of rewarding called the reward systems . Among the most common forms of physical forms of motivation includes money , wages, bonuses, insurance, company car , travel , education ( Dawis Newstrom , 1989, p 176-187 ). Material motivational factors divided into two groups or categories of financial compensation for work such as direct material and cash income, which equips employees in cash and indirect material income , which contributes to a higher standard individual employees , although they do not receive in the form of money . 2 Non-material reward employees - With the changes in our society comes to a situation where wage is no longer the main motivation for successful work , but it conceal other

intangible factors that promote engagement of workers . Work where the individual can exercise his abilities and sees the possibility of their own development and progress , the worker has the best incentive . Non material forms of motivation can be a compliment , interesting work of an individual , good relations between colleagues , autonomy at work , job content , where an individual can use their own knowledge , good working conditions and good working atmosphere .

4.4 Explain how the Internet and its related technologies (Web browsers. intraners, and so on) enable knowledge management.
Although knowledge management must focus on supporting the dissemination of knowledge between individuals, this can not be done in isolation. Instead, projects management skills recognize the importance of having an effective platform for the distribution of this knowledge. An example of this is the corporate intranet, which can be understood as a basis for knowledge management initiatives. On this basis, we can use a range of useful technologies that directly support the objectives of knowledge management, including: collaborative environments, weblogs and wikis. 7 IT security Why should information control and security be of prime concern to management? IT security risk is business risk. IT Security is an integral part of the company's business goals and not a separate function . Information security is an important element of business with a legal obligation . There is a legal basis regarding IT security , as in business transactions and confidential documents daily produced , used and stored in electronic format and therefore must be protected . Data security is a growing priority for management. Damage caused by hackers , spam , identity theft , terrorism is high. For effective IT security requires the support of top management . IT security is based on people, processes and technology. At the strategic level company data is irreplaceable. BI , ERP, CRM based on integrity , availability and authorized use of IT resources. Risk management involves protecting corporate systems and services , business planning post-disaster recovery and business continuity and protection against profit- oriented hackers against spyware and malware . For violation of privacy and security incidents , fines , and also this also leads to a loss of customers. IT security has a direct impact on the business , because vital information is no longer secret. Heavy fines , forcing companies to invest in moderately safe protection. The presence of internal controls reduces the desire of employees by deception .

Compare the computer security situation with that of insuring a house.

I have not found a concrete answer because the question is very specific ( compare "the" Computer security situation ... Where is unlikely in mind specific " situation " which is stated in the book from the link above (which I have ) ) . Nevertheless, I interpret the following : Just as it is never necessary to protect the house to the stand , including information systems is necessary to insure that it would work. Nevertheless, any time there is a flood that will wash away the house , but the owner will be left with nothing . The same applies to the security of information systems. We never know when ( if ever ) will take place intrusion, but we have in front of him , in any case protected. Thus, house insurance as protection information system are two of expenditure that is not essential , but represent a safety net in the event of an accident / malicious acts and are therefore very highly recommended , especially in the modern business environment , where every bit of information the company needed to protect its best ability. Explain what firewalls protect and what they do not protect. Why?
A firewall is a set of related programs, located at a network gateway server, that protects the

internal system from external attacks, such as hacker intrusion from the Internet. A firewall can not protect the system against "insider attackers", such as when a company's employees knowingly or unknowingly install a virus on your computer or copy data to USB because the risk comes from within, making the firewall does not control. Why the authentication and the authorization of an important e-commerce ? With the proliferation of global networks increases the importance of security on it. Defense strategies used on the Internet can be divided into 3 controls: security, authentication and empowering . When we talk about authentication -organisms , which protects against illegal attempts to access . Many businesses use access control strategy , which requires proof of one's identity with a password , but can also be biometric . The system identifies legitimate user and determine the scope of its permitted activities. Greater protection provides 2factor authentication (including multi-factor authentication ) , which uses a combination of passwords and example . biometric trait. Accreditation is an authorized individual or group that may be on the computer performing a certain activity . Usually it comes to checking identification and permitting the operation of the individual within his powers . In the applications the purposes of consumer e-commerce takes a lot of attention to the relationship between increasing security authentication on the one hand, and discouraging consumers from using nonconviniant web applications on the other side . The user must identify examples of when it comes to phishing ( phishing ) . Describe how IS auditing works and how it is related to traditional accounting and financial auditing.

Explain why risk management should involve the following elements: threats, exposure and vulnerability associated with each threat, risk of each threat occurring, cost of controls, and assessment of their effectiveness. First, identify potential threats (threat) or opportunities (make a list of risks), then for each asset is determined exposure to risk (some assets are more exposed than others, so they usually pay more attention). For each risk, the (estimated) probability that the threat or actual occurrence that an asset is compromised. Followed by an assessment of security costs of each item or costs incurred in preventing or reducing threats. At the end assess the effectiveness of measures or analyze them to determine whether we have been successful (compared to the cost of risk protection). The findings serve us in future projects. An example of risk calculation. threats The probability of potential the damage threat of electricity 6/letno 20.000 605.000 700.000 200 mio Risk 120.000/letno 605.000/letno 70.000/letno 10.000.000/letno

Failure supply

failure of server Fire Eartquake

1/letno 0,1/letno 0,05/letno