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Equilibrium of Forces and Tor ques

Equilibrium of Forces Example 1: A bowling pin in stable equilibrium (Translational Equilibrium): = 0 = 0 and N = G = Example 2: A mass is hung by two cables from the ceiling as shown. Calculate the force of tension in both cables.

T and T using sine law. Method 1: Solve for 1 2

sin 95 sin 20 sin(180 95 20) = = T T


2 1

T = 2

sin 20 (5 kg)(9.8 N/kg) sin 20 = = 17 N sin 95 sin 95

Method 2: Components T 1 T 1

T = 1

sin 65 (5 kg)(9.8 N/kg) sin 65 = = 45 N sin 95 sin 95

< >

= 0 T = T 1 2

(force going left = force going right)

T 2 T 1

T 2 T 2

cos 25 T cos 70 = T cos 25 T = T 2 (1) 1 2 1 cos 70

< >

= 0

T + T = G 1 2

(force up = force down) (2)

T sin 70 + T sin 25 = 5 1 2

T cos 25 T sin 25 = 5 Substitute (1) into (2): ( 2 ) sin 70 + 2 cos 70 T (cos 25 tan 70 + sin 25) = 5 2

T = 2 T = 1

5 = 17 N, 25 above the horizontal along Cable 2 cos 25 tan 70 + sin 25

T cos 25 cos 25 2 = (17 N) = 45 N, 70 above the horizontal along Cable 1 cos 70 cos 70 Equilibrium of Torques

Torque = Force Lever Arm

(Torque is measured in )

Example 1: Calculate . a) 5N = = (5 N)(0.30 m) = 1.5 Nm (or Note: coming out of the page is + To tell which direction is positive, grab the z axis with your right hand. The direction in which your fingers curl is positive, as shown below. ) 1.5 Nm 30 cm

b)

30 cm = = (5 N) sin 30 (0.30 m) 5N = 0.75 Nm (or ) 0.75 Nm

30

OR = = (5 N) (0.30 m) sin 30 =5N c) 30 cm 5N = 0 Nm since is line with the pivot ( = 0). Example 2: Where does Big Brother sit to balance the seesaw? = 0.75 Nm (or ) 0.75 Nm

For rotational equilibrium, = 0 = 1 1 = 2 2 38 = 0.45 m from the pivot, 84

(19)(2.0) = (84)() =

Example 3: A diver stands on the diving board. Calculate the forces on supports A and B.

Solution = 0 forces up = forces down G1 + G 2 = A + B 65 + 10 = A + B 75 = A + B (1)

= 0

Decide on the position of the pivot P first. (Hint: Placing it on one of the unknown forces eliminates that force) Pivot at A: G1 1 + G 2 2 = B B B = (65)(3.5) + (10)(1.75) = B (1.5)

(65)(3.5) + (10)(1.75) = 1600 N up (compression) (2) 1.5 Substitute (2)into (1): 75 = A + 1600

A = 75 1600 = 870 N = 870 N down (tension) Note: You could also solve this problem by putting the pivot at B instead of at A. Example 4: Arman places his lump of gold on the edge of the table as shown. Does the table flip over?

Table: 10 kg

Solution B =0 so = B B

N A A + G1 1 = G 2 2 N A (1.5) + (65)(0.4) = (10)(0.75) N A = (10)(0.75) (65)(0.4) = 120 N 1.5 the table topples over

Where should Arman place his gold so that the table does not tip over? Solution: At the point of tipping, N A = 0 N. N A A + G1 1 = G 2 2 1 = (0)(1.5) + (65)1 = (10)(0.75)

(10)(0.75) = 0.12 m from the pivot, or 1.37 m from the centre of the table (65)

Example 5: The U-Hill Sign

a) Calculate the force of tension in the cable. b) Calculate and at the pivot, . c) Calculate the resultant force on the pin at pivot . Solution a) The system is at equilibrium, so P = 0 and = P P G B B + G S = T T B B + S = T sin 30 T T = B B + S (0.325)(0.5) + (2.0)(1.0) = (0.5)(0.70) sin 30 T T = 61 N along the cable

b) The forces pulling horizontally and vertically at the pivot are both caused by the beam, so we need to find P and P , respectively. Considering the entire system, = 0 = P = T 3 ) 2 = = 0 T = G B + G P

P = T cos 30 = (61) ( P = 52 N right

P = G B + G T P = (0.325) + (2.0) (61 sin 30) P = 7.5 N down

Note: You could also solve for P using torque, with the pivot at the point where the cable attaches to the beam, 0.70 m from the wall (this eliminates the tension force from our equation). P = 0 so = P P G S = G B B + P P

where represents the distance from this new pivot point. P = G S G B B (2.0)(0.3) (0.325)(0.2) = = 7.5 N down (0.7) P

c) We need to find the resultant force at from P and P : P = P 2 + P 2 = (52)2 + (7.5)2 = 53 N tan = P P = tan1 ( P 7.5 ) = tan1 ( ) = 8.1 below the horizontal P 52

Example 6: The Ladder Problem

a) How high up the 4.0 m ladder can the painter safely go? P = 0 so = P P G + G P P = N W N W

(G cos ) + (G P cos )P = (N W sin )N W (12 cos 60)(2.0) + (70 cos 60)P = (N W sin 60)(4) 12 + (35)P = N W (23) (1) = 0 so = Since = 0 N W = F = N G

N G = G +P = 12 + 70

N W = (0.20)(82) = 16.4 (2) Substitute (2) into (1): 12 + (35)P = (16.4)(23) P = (16.4)(23) 12 = 1.3 m up the ladder 35

b) Calculate the resultant force acting on the ladder at the pivot, . We can see from the diagram to the left that there are two forces acting at the pivot: F and N G . Given F = 16.4 and N G = 82 P = F 2 + N G 2

P = (16.4)2 + (82)2 = 820 N tan = N G F = tan1 ( N G 82 ) = 79 above the horizontal ) = tan1 ( F 16.4

Example 7: Pushing Things Over Calculate the minimum force which needs to be applied to the top edge of the box to tip it over. Assume the box is of uniform mass. If the ground has a coefficient of friction of 0.50, does the box tip over without slipping? 40 cm

20 cm

We can extend the arrow for applied force and measure the perpendicular distance from the axis of rotation (ie. pivot) to the force arrow (refer to G and A in the free-body diagram to the left). At the point of tipping, = P P so A A = G G A = G G (3.0)(0.10) = = 7.4 N A 0.40

F = N = G = (0.50)(3.0) = 15 N > 7.4 N The value we just calculated above is the limiting or maximum (static) friction force. As long as the applied force is less than this, which it is in this case, the box tips over without slipping Example 8: Determine the angle which the rectangular prism below can be tilted to before it reaches the point of instability. Assume it does not slide.

At the point of instability, the centre of mass is directly above the pivot: tan = 0.5 = 0.5 = tan1 (0.5) = 27 1

Example 9: Determine the tension in the cable.

4.0 m

3.0 m

4 5 3 cos = 5 sin = = P P so G + G B B = T T

5.0 m

tan =

4 3

G sin + G B sin B = T cos T

4 4 3 32 + 10 42 (8) ( ) (5) + (5) ( ) (2.5) = T ( ) (5) T = = = 140 N 5 5 5 3 3 *Here is a shortcut method to solve the problem: As in Example 7, we can simply measure the perpendicular distance from the axis of rotation, or pivot, to the line or arrow along which the force acts (refer to T , B , and in the diagram). This is convenient because we do not need to use trigonometry. = P P T = so G + G B B = T T

G + G B B (8)(4) + (5)(2) = T 3 T = 140 N along the cable Centre of Mass For the triangle, 1 |CMB| = |AB| 3

Centre of Mass of a Complex Shape

3m CM 1m P 1 2 4m P

G1

1m
G 2

G = G1 + G 2

Assume the shape has a uniform thickness of and a uniform density of . If 1 m2 = 1 N, find . P = 1 P + 2P G = G1 1 + G 2 2

9 1 3 1 [(3 1) + (4 1)] = (3 1) ( ) + (4 1) (3 + ) 7 = + 14 = 18 2 2 2 2 1 37 = 18 7 = m 2.64 m 2 14 Applications on Stability 1. How to pack a knap sack: Put heavier stuff near the top. This provides some forward torque to counteract the backward torque caused by the force of gravity pulling down on you and on the backpack. As a result, you do not need to lean as far forward to keep upright or strain your back as much as when the heavier stuff is near the bottom. 2. Getting up from a chair: What must you do to get up more easily? Lean forward so your centre of mass is closer to/over the pivot (ie. your heels). 3. Balances: How are the small masses on the bathroom scale able to balance off the persons weight? The pivot is close to you and far away from the small masses, so the torque is the same even though you weigh more than the masses.

4. Placing a heavy dish in the middle of a large circular dining table: How would you do it? How could you balance off the torque caused by the heavy dish? Stick one leg out behind you, like a ballerina; this causes torque in the opposite direction.

Fun Stuff: How fast must a car be going around a bend before theres a danger of it rolling over? What would be the centripetal force acting on the car? What is the coefficient of friction of the road?

At the point of rolling over, < > N = G = = CM CM and < > F = C = so F F = N N 2 (assume C < F max = N )

2 ) F = ()N

N (9.8)(10)(0.95) = = = 11 m/s F 0.75 C = 2 (1500)(11)2 = = 19 000 N 10 = C 19 000 = = 1.27 N (1500)(9.8)

F max = N = C