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ZIGBEE TECHNOLOGY

Introduction
When we hold the TV remote and wish to use it we have to necessarily point our control at the device. This one-way, line-of-sight, short-range communication uses infrared (IR) sensors to ena le communication and control and it is possi le to operate the TV remotely only with its control unit. !dd other home theatre modules, an air- conditioner and remotely ena led fans and lights to our room, and we ecome a "uggler who has to handle not only these remotes, ut also more num ers that will accompany other home appliances we are li#ely to use. $ome remotes do serve to control more than one device after %memori&ing' access codes, ut this interopera ility is restricted to ()$, that too only for a set of related e*uipment, li#e the different units of a home entertainment system +ow picture a home with entertainment units, security systems including fire alarm, smo#e detector and urglar alarm, air-conditioners and #itchen appliances all within whispering distance from each other and imagine a single unit that tal#s with all the devices, no longer depending on line-of-sight, and traffic no longer eing one-way. This means that the devices and the control unit would all need a common standard to ena le intelligi le communication. ,I-.// is such a standard for em edded application software and has een ratified in late 0112 under I/// 310.45.2 Wireless +etwor#ing $tandards. ,I-.// is an esta lished set of specifications for wireless personal area networ#ing (W6!+), i.e., digital radio connections etween computers and related devices. This #ind of networ# eliminates use of physical data uses li#e 7$. and /thernet ca les. The devices could include telephones, hand-held digital assistants, sensors and controls located within a few meters of each other. ,I-.// is one of the glo al standards of communication protocol formulated y the relevant tas# force under the I/// 310.45 wor#ing group. The fourth in the series, W6!+ (ow Rate8,I-.// is the newest and provides specifications for devices that have low data rates, consume very low power and are thus characteri&ed y long attery life.

)ther standards li#e .lue tooth and Ir9! address high data rate applications such as voice, video and (!+ communications. The ,I-.// !lliance has een set up as :an association of companies wor#ing together to ena le relia le, cost-effective, low-power, wirelessly networ#ed, monitoring and control products ased on an open glo al standard;. )nce a manufacturer enrolls in this !lliance for a fee, he can have access to the standard and implement it in his products in the form of ,I-.// chipsets that would e uilt into the end devices. 6hilips, <otorola, Intel, =6 are all mem ers of the !lliance. The goal is :to provide the consumer with ultimate fle>i ility, mo ility, and ease of use y uilding wireless intelligence and capa ilities into every day devices. ,I-.// technology will e em edded in a wide range of products and applications across consumer, commercial, industrial and government mar#ets worldwide. ?or the first time, companies will have a standards- ased wireless platform optimi&ed for the uni*ue needs of remote monitoring and control applications, including simplicity, relia ility, low-cost and lowpower;. The target networ#s encompass a wide range of devices with low data rates in the Industrial, $cientific and <edical (I$<) radio ands, with uilding-automation controls li#e intruder8fire alarms, thermostats and remote (wireless) switches, video8audio remote controls li#ely to e the most popular applications. $o far sensor and control devices have een mar#eted as proprietary items for want of a standard. With acceptance and implementation of ,I-.// , interopera ility will e ena led in multi-purpose, self-organi&ing mesh networ#s. ,ig.ee is a wireless technology developed as an open glo al standard to address the uni*ue needs of low-cost, low-power, wireless sensor networ#s. ,ig ee is the set of specs uilt around the I/// 310.45.2 wireless protocol. !s ,ig ee is the upcoming technology in wireless field, we had tried to demonstrate its way of functionality and various aspects li#e #inds, advantages and disadvantages using a small application of controlling the any #ind of electronic devices and machines. The ,ig ee technology is roadly adopted for ul# and fast data transmission over a dedicated channel.

Architecture
Though WPAN implies a reach of only a few meters, 30 feet in the case of ZIGB connection to a networ! of higher le"el an# ultimately an uplin! to the We$% The ZIGB &tan#ar# has e"ol"e# stan#ar#i'e# sets of solutions, calle# (layers)% These layers "ery attracti"e* low cost, easy implementation, relia$le #ata facilitate the features that ma!e ZIGB , the networ! will ha"e se"eral layers, so #esigne# as to ena$le interpersonal communication within the networ!,

transfer, short+range operations, ,ery low power consumption an# a#e-uate security features%

Network and Application Support layer


The networ# layer permits growth of networ# sans high power transmitters. This layer can handle huge num ers of nodes. This level in the ,I-.// architecture includes the ,I-.// 9evice ) "ect (,9)), user-defined application profile(s) and the !pplication $upport (!6$) su -layer. The !6$ su -layer's responsi ilities include maintenance of ta les that ena le matching etween two devices and communication among them, and also discovery, the aspect that identifies other devices that operate in the operating space of any device. The responsi ility of determining the nature of the device (@oordinator 8 ??9 or R?9) in the networ#, commencing and replying to inding re*uests and ensuring a secure relationship etween devices rests with the ,9) (,I-.// 9efine ) "ect). The user-defined application refers to the end device that conforms to the ,I-.// $tandard.

hy!ical " HY# layer


The I .0/%01%2 P34 physical layer accommo#ates high le"els of integration $y using #irect se-uence to permit simplicity in the analog circuitry an# ena$le cheaper implementations%

$edia Acce!! Control "$AC# layer


The I .0/%01%2 5A6 me#ia access control layer permits use of se"eral topologies without intro#ucing comple7ity an# is meant to wor! with large num$ers of #e"ices%

%i&ure '()* ZIGBEE Stack Architecture

+e,ice Type!
There are three #ifferent ZIGB #e"ice types that operate on these layers in any self+organi'ing a##resses, with option to ena$le shorter a##resses coor#inator in each networ! application networ!% These #e"ices ha"e 82+$it I The ZIGB

to re#uce pac!et si'e, an# wor! in either of two a##ressing mo#es 9 star an# peer+to+peer% coor#inator no#e* There is one, an# only one, ZIGB to act as the router to other networ!s, an# can $e li!ene# to the root of a :networ!; tree% It is #esigne# to store information a$out the networ!% The full function #e"ice <<=* The <<= is an interme#iary router transmitting #ata from other #e"ices% It nee#s lesser memory than the ZIGB coor#inator no#e, an# entails lesser manufacturing costs% It can operate in all topologies an# can act as a coor#inator% The re#uce# function #e"ice ><=* This #e"ice is ?ust capa$le of tal!ing in the networ!@ it cannot relay #ata from other #e"ices% >e-uiring e"en less memory, :no flash, "ery little >A5 an# >A5;, an ><= will thus $e cheaper than an <<=% This #e"ice tal!s only to a networ! coor#inator an# can $e implemente# "ery simply in star topology%

Zi&-eeCharacterictic!
The focus of networ! applications un#er the I .0/%01%2 B ZIGB stan#ar# inclu#e the features of low power consumption, nee#e# for only two ma?or mo#es :T7B>7 or &leep;, high #ensity of no#es per networ!, low costs an# simple implementation% /%2G3' an# .8.BC01 53' #ual P34 mo#es% This represents three license+free $an#s* /%2+ /%2.31 G3', .8.+.D0 53' an# C0/+C/. 53'% The num$er of channels allotte# to each fre-uency $an# is fi7e# at si7teen :num$ere# 00+/8;, one :num$ere# 0; an# ten :num$ere# 0+00; respecti"ely% The higher fre-uency $an# is applica$le worl#wi#e, an# the lower $an# in the areas of North America, urope, Australia an# New Zealan#% Eow power consumption, with $attery life ranging from months to years% 6onsi#ering the num$er of #e"ices with remotes in use at present, it is easy to see that more num$ers of $atteries nee# to $e pro"isione# e"ery so often, entailing regular :as well as timely;, recurring e7pen#iture% In the ZIGB stan#ar#, longer $attery life is achie"a$le $y either of two means* continuous networ! connection an# slow $ut sure $attery #rain, or intermittent connection an# e"en slower $attery #rain% 5a7imum #ata rates allowe# for each of these fre-uency $an#s are fi7e# as /10 !$ps F/%2 G3', 20 !$ps F C01 53', an# /0 !$ps F.8.53'% 3igh throughput an# low latency for low #uty+cycle applications :G0%0H; 6hannel access using 6arrier &ense 5ultiple Access with 6ollision A"oi#ance :6&5A + 6A; A##ressing space of up to 82 $it I 10m typical range <ully relia$le han# sha!e# #ata transfer protocol% =ifferent topologies as illustrate# $elow* star, peer+to+peer, mesh a##ress #e"ices, 81,131 networ!s

%i&ure '(. *ZIGBEE Topolo&ie!

Tra//ic Type!
ZIGB BI .0/%01%2 a##resses three typical traffic types% I .0/%01%2 5A6 can accommo#ate all the types% =ata is perio#ic isThe application #ictates the rate, an# the sensor acti"ates, chec!s for #ata an# #eacti"ates% =ata is intermittent isThe application, or other stimulus, #etermines the rate, as in the case of say smo!e #etectors% The #e"ice nee#s to connect to the networ! only when communication is necessitate#% This type ena$les optimum sa"ing on energy% =ata is repetiti"e, an# the rate is fi7e# a priori% =epen#ing on allotte# time slots, calle# GT& :guarantee# time slot;, #e"ices operate for fi7e# #urations% ZIGB employs either of two mo#es, $eacon or non+$eacon to ena$le the to+an#+fro #ata traffic% Beacon mo#e is use# when the coor#inator runs on $atteries an# thus offers ma7imum power sa"ings, whereas the non+$eacon mo#e fin#s fa"or when the coor#inator is mains powere#% In the $eacon mo#e, a #e"ice watches out for the coor#inator)s $eacon that gets transmitte# at perio#ically, loc!s on an# loo!s for messages a##resse# to it% If message transmission is complete, the coor#inator #ictates a sche#ule for the ne7t $eacon so that the #e"ice (goes to sleep)@ in fact, the coor#inator itself switches to sleep mo#e%

Network $odel

The functions of the 6oor#inator, which usually remains in the recepti"e mo#e, encompass networ! set+up, $eacon transmission, no#e management, storage of no#e information an# message routing $etween no#es% The networ! no#e, howe"er, is meant to sa"e energy :an# so (sleeps) for long perio#s; an# its functions inclu#e searching for networ! a"aila$ility, #ata transfer, chec!s for pen#ing #ata an# -ueries for #ata from the coor#inator%

%i&ure '(0* ZIGBEE Network $odel <or the sa!e of simplicity without ?eopar#i'ing ro$ustness, this particular I The four frame structures are Beacon frame for transmission of $eacons =ata frame for all #ata transfers Ac!nowle#gement frame for successful frame receipt confirmations 5A6 comman# frame stan#ar# #efines a -uartet frame structure an# a super+frame structure use# optionally only $y the coor#inator%

These frame structures an# the coor#inator)s super+frame structure play critical roles in security of #ata an# integrity in transmission%

All protocol layers contri$ute hea#ers an# footers to the frame structure, such that the total o"erhea#s for each #ata pac!et range are from 01 octets :for short a##resses; to 30 octets :for 82+$it a##resses;% The coor#inator lays #own the format for the super+frame for sen#ing $eacons after e"ery 01%3. ms orBan# multiples thereof, up to /1/s% This inter"al is #etermine# a priori an# the coor#inator thus ena$les si7teen time slots of i#entical wi#th $etween $eacons so that channel access is contention+less% Within each time slot, access is contention+$ase#% Nonetheless, the coor#inator pro"i#es as many as se"en GT& :guarantee# time slots; for e"ery $eacon inter"al to ensure $etter -uality%

Technolo&y Co1pari!on!
The IWhy ZIGB That &imply Wor!sK% The $an#wi#th of Blue tooth is 0 5$ps, ZIGB an# long $attery life% In terms of protocol stac! si'e, ZIGB 3/ LB is a$out one+thir# of the stac! si'e necessary in other wireless technologies :for limite# capa$ility en# #e"ices, the stac! si'e is as low as 2 LB;% 5ost important in any meaningful comparison are the #i"erse application areas of all the #ifferent wireless technologies% Blue tooth is meant for such target areas as wireless M&B)s, han#sets an# hea#sets, whereas ZIGB $attery operate# pro#ucts% In a gist, it may $e sai# that they are neither complementary stan#ar#s nor competitors, $ut ?ust essential stan#ar#s for #ifferent targete# applications% The earlier Blue tooth targets interfaces $etween P=A an# other #e"ice :mo$ile phone B printer etc; an# cor#less au#io applications% The I .0/%01%29$ase# ZIGB is #esigne# for remote controls an# sensors, which are "ery is meant to cater to the sensors an# remote controls mar!et an# other is one+fourth of this "alue% The strength of Blue ,of course, is low costs tooth lies in its a$ility to allow interopera$ility an# replacement of ca$les,ZIGB J -uestion has always ha# an implie#, $ut ne"er -uite wor#e# follower phrase )Wireless 6ontrol Iwhen there is Blue toothJ% A comparati"e stu#y of the two can $e foun# in ZIGB

many in num$er, $ut nee# only small #ata pac!ets an#, mainly, e7tremely low power consumption for :long; life% Therefore they are naturally #ifferent in their approach to their respecti"e application arenas%

ZIGBEE Application!

The ZIGB

Alliance targets applications Nacross consumer, commercial, in#ustrial an#

go"ernment mar!ets worl#wi#eN% Mnwire# applications are highly sought after in many networ!s that are characteri'e# $y numerous no#es consuming minimum power an# en?oying long $attery li"es% ZIGB AI>B technology is #esigne# to $est suit these applications, for the reason that it ena$les Wireless Inc has tie# up with >a#io crafts A& to #eli"er Nout+of+the+$o7NZIGB rea#y re#uce# costs of #e"elopment, "ery fast mar!et a#option, an# rapi# >AI% solutions, the former supplying the software an# the latter ma!ing the mo#ule platforms% With e"en light controls an# thermostat pro#ucers ?oining the ZIGB $ig A 5 names li!e 3P, Philips, 5otorola an# Intel% WithZIGB #esigne# to ena$le two+way communications, not only will the consumer $e a$le to monitor an# !eep trac! of #omestic utilities usage, $ut also fee# it to a computer system for #ata analysis% A recent analyst report issue# $y West Technology >esearch &olutions estimates that $y the year /00., Nannual shipments forZIGB chipsets into the home automation segment alone will e7cee# 33C million units,N an# will show up in Nlight switches, fire an# smo!e #etectors, thermostats, appliances in the !itchen, "i#eo an# au#io remote controls, lan#scaping, an# security systems%N Alliance, the list is growing healthily an# inclu#es