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Finite Element Analysis

Beam Bending

Determine the maximum displacement, the bending moments, shear forces and maximum stresses for the beam shown above given that the beam dimensions are 20mm wide by 5mm deep and the material has a Youngs modulus of elasticity of 210GN/m2.

Pre-processing Preprocessor Element Type Add/Edit/Delete Add Structural - Beam - 2D elastic 3 [OK] [CLOSE] Real Constants Add/Edit/Delete - Add Type 1 Beam3 Area, Izz, Height Enter the area, second moment of area and height in the appropriate boxes. [OK] [CLOSE] Material Material Models Structural Linear - Elastic Isotropic EX Enter Youngs Modulus of Elasticity in the appropriate box. [OK] Material Exit (from menu at top of Define Material Model Behaviour window) Modelling Create Nodes In Active CS

Enter Node: 1 and the X, Y coordinates 0, 0 [Apply] Enter Node: 5 and the X, Y coordinates 0.3, 0 [OK] Modelling Create Nodes Fill between Nds Pick nodes 1 and 5 [OK] The following window should appear:

[OK]

Modeling Create Elements Auto Numbered Thru Nodes Select nodes 1 and 2 then press RETURN repeat process to create 4 elements

Loads Define loads - Apply- Structural -Displacement On Nodes Select Node 1 and restrain in ALL DOF Loads Define loads - Apply- Structural -Displacement On Nodes Select Node 5 and restrain in UY

Loads Define loads - Apply Structural - Forces/Moments On Nodes Select Node 3 and apply a load of -3000N in the FY direction as below.

Solution

Solution Solve Current LS (Load step) OK

Post-processing General Postproc Plot results Deformed shape Def + undef edge

To review results such as the shear forces, bending moments or stresses the following procedure must be used. The element definition in the element manual must be referenced,

Help Ansys Element Reference Element Library Beam 3

Table 3.1 lists the variable names and their definitions, e.g.

MFOR(X,Y) Member forces in element coordinate system X and Y direction MOMZ Member moment in element coordinate system Z direction

Note all the components required for output. Then refer to Table 3.2. The headings in this table are NAME, which refers to the variable names given in Table 3.1. ITEM this refers to the Sequence Number option used later in plotting the variable. E is an element variable which has a constant value along the length of the element. I and J are for variables that vary along the length of the element, I being the value at the first node and J the value at the second node of the element.

To plot the bending moment diagram for the problem, the variable MOMZ is noted from Table 3.1. Referring to Table 3.2, MOMZ has a by sequence number item SMISC with a value 6 ant node I and a value 12 at node J. This information can now be used to plot the bending moment diagram. In General Postproc,

Element Table Define Table Add

In the Lab

User Label for Item box enter MI (M moment at node I) Results data item select By Sequence Number (Last item on the

In the Item, Comp

list). In the box on the right the Item variable should appear. Select, SMISC and this should appear in the box below, then type 6 to the right of SMISC,

SMISC,6

The dialogue box should now appear as below.

[APPLY]

Repeat the procedure to retrieve the data for the value of the moment at node J, In the Lab User Label for Item box enter MJ (M moment at node J) In the Item, Comp Results data item select By Sequence Number (Last item on the list). In the box on the right the Item variable should appear. Select, SMISC and this should appear in the box below, then type 12 to the right of SMISC,

SMISC,12 OK

To review the results:

Plot results Contour plot Line Elem Res

Repeat this procedure to find the stresses and the shear forces.

Enter MI in the LabI box and MJ in the LabJ box, as above, and enter [OK].

Review Answer the following questions:

1. Does the plot of the displaced shape reflect the actual displaced shape of the structure? If not why not?

2. Do the finite element results give the maximum displacement of the beam? If not why not?

3. Could such a problem be solved by hand?

4. Are the shear force and bending moment diagrams correct? Justify your answer.