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April 08, 2003 Contributed by:squatty Views: 1805
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How-to The Open Systems Interconnect (OSI) model is something every good geek should know. I came across this nifty OSI reference
during my recent review of the CISSP Telecommunications and Network Security domain.
Geeklog News »
Product Reviews
Just Fun I added a few notes and put together a quick visio to form the below cheat sheet....
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Config Tool
Geek Docs » OSI segments networking tasks, processes, and services into different layers. Each layer has its own responsibilities when it
Plugin Manual comes to how two computers communicate over a network. Each layer has certain functionalities and the services and
Geek Demo protocols that work within that layer to fulfill them.
Geek Directory
Each protocol at a specific OSI layer communicates with a protocol that operates at the same OSI layer on another computer. This happens
Login through encapsulation. A message is constructed at the application layer and then passed down through the protocol’s stack. Each layer
Username: adds its own information to the message; thus, the message grows in size as it goes down the protocol stack. The message is then sent to the
destination computer and the encapsulation is reversed by taking the message apart through the same steps as the source computer that
encapsulated it.
This is how computers communicate logically. Each layer adds its own information to the packet and then each layer at the destination
computer only takes information that pertains to it.
Don't have an account yet? Sign Security: Confidentiality, Includes the protocols that
up as a New User authentication, data integrity, support the application.
Responsible for all
Google Helper Technology: gateways application-to-application
It appears you arrived here from Layer 7 Application
a Google search. Protocols: FTP, SMB, TELNET, User information maintained
TFTP, SMTP, HTTP, NNTP, CDP, at this layer is user data.
You can also search Squatty. GOPHER, SNMP, NDS, AFP, SAP,
com's archives with your query. NCP, SET

Search Now!

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Chatterblock Security: confidentiality, Receives information from

Total public Chats: 455 authentication, encryption the application layer
Sign in for private Messages protocols
No chat records on file Technology: gateway and puts it into a format
that all computers following
Protocols: ASCII, EBCDIC, OSI can

Enter Message Responsible for the

formatting of the data so
Layer 6 Presentation
Send/Refresh that it is suitable
Chatterlog for presentation.
Responsible for character
conversion (ASCII/EBCDIC),
Top Downloads
Compression, and Virtual
Order By:
Terminal Emulation. User
Blocks Hacks Plugins Themes
information maintained at
this layer is called
Title D/Ls
Security: None Responsible for the setup of
Weather - Entire World the connection, maintaining
Database for Geeklog Technology: gateways of the connection, and the
connection tear-down.
Google Search 2665
Protocols: Remote Procedure
Industrial Grey 2248 Calls (RPC) and SQL, RADIUS, Simplex – communication
DNS, ASP takes place in one direction
Geeklog 1.3.7s2 - Gallery
1.3.4 Integration Half-duplex – comm. takes
Site Calendar Block 2154 Layer 5 Session place in both directions, only
1system can send info at a
FileMgmt Plugin Ver 1.2 - time.
Final Release
Weather Plugin 2.0 2097 Full-duplex – comm. takes
place in both directions,
Who's Online w/ IP plot 2009 both systems send
Theme Changer 1899 information at the same
Gallery Random Photo
Block v1.2 Security: Confidentiality, Responsible for the
authentication, integrity guaranteed delivery of
information. It is
More Downloads Technology: gateways also responsible for error
Layer 4 Transport
detection, correction, and
Protocols: TCP, UDP, SSL, SSH- flow control. Information at
2, SPX, NetBios, ATP this layer is called
Security: confidentiality, Responsible for the routing
authentication, data integrity of data from one node to
another through the
Technology: virtual circuits network including the path
Layer 3 Network (ATM), routers selection.
Logical addresses are used
Protocols: IP, IPX, ICMP, OSPF, at this layer. Information
IGRP, EIGRP, RIP, BOOTP, DHCP, maintained at this layer is
ISIS, ZIP, DDP, X.25 called packets.

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Security: confidentiality Responsible for translating

data into LAN or WAN
Technology: bridges, switch binary format for proper line
transmission. Formats the
Protocols: L2F, PPTP, L2TP, PPP, data frame…puts the
SLIP, ARP, RARP, SLARP, IARP, correct info into the header.
Frame Relay, Annex A, Annex D, Responsible for the physical
HDLC, BPDU, LAPD, ISL, MAC, addressing of the network
Layer 2 Data Link Ethernet, Token Ring, FDDI via MAC addresses. There
are two sublevels to the
layer. MAC and LLC. The
Data-Link layer has error
detection, frame ordering,
and flow control.
maintained at this layer is
called frames.
Security: confidentiality Responsible for the physical
transmission of the binary
Technology: ISDN, Hubs, digits through the physical
Repeaters, Cables medium. This layer includes
things such
Protocols: 10BaseT, 100BaseT, as the physical cables,
Layer 1 Physical 1000BaseT, 10Base2, 10Base5, interfaces, and data rate
OC-3, OC-12, DS1, DS3, E1, E3, specifications. Information
ATM, BRI, PRI, X.23 maintained at this layer is
called bits (the 1s and 0s).

Bits are converted into

voltage for transmission.

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