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Food Assistance for Assets (FFA) Manual

MODULE D
MODULE D: THE IMPLEMENTATION OF FFA
THE PRACTICAL SIDE OF DOING FFA

This module provides some of the practical aspects of doing FFA in the main agro-climatic zones especially in outlining the technical considerations and standards of the interventions. The nuts and bolts elements of doing FFA have to be considered, including defining work norms and ration/transfer composition. The interventions budget has to be planned, and non-food items and other complementarities need to be identified. A main element linked to Module D is Annex D-1 which includes quick technical references on main FFA interventions.

ODXP PREVENTION & RECOVERY WORLD FOOD PROGRAMME


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FFA Manual Module D: Implementing FFA

AN INTRODUCTION TO THE FFA MANUAL:


Overall WFP uses approximately 12 to 15 percent of its yearly resources for assets restoration, rehabilitation or creation under emergency, recovery and enabling development operations. Most countries receiving food assistance increasingly promote policies and strategies requiring various forms of conditional transfers (productive safety nets, special operations to improve access to food, disaster risk reduction, and resilience building). It is therefore important for WFP staff (and its partners) to meet these challenges and emerging demands. The purpose of this manual is to strengthen WFP staff understanding of the contexts that require FFA, their selection and programmatic coherence to WFP global and local commitments, as well as main design aspects. The manual is divided into five modules and includes a number of Annexes: Module A provides the overall rationale and framework for FFA within the WFP toolbox of assistance Module B provides the analytical lens in which to determine if FFA is appropriate within specific contexts Module C helps define the specific FFA projects to be undertaken within these specific contexts, depending on various factors Module D provides the practical elements of implementing FFA Module E provides the key elements that informs M&E for FFA Caveats . A limitation of this FFA manual is that it can not be fully comprehensive the nature of FFA can be so diverse that it would be impossible to capture all possible approaches and interventions. Therefore, this guidance focuses largely on the response options and assets that are commonly related to WFP operations. . A second limitation relates to the range of response options and FFA interventions related to pastoral and urban settings. These are simply insufficient as documented experience regarding FFA from these areas has been limited. However, there has been increased attention in several CO to both pastoral and urban livelihoods in recent years that will bring further lessons and best practices. Furthermore, the current FFA guidance is largely built upon documented evidence from a few countries where FFA have demonstrated significant impact and have been documented both in terms of the processes that lead to positive results to technical standards and work norms. It became clear to the authors that there are several other countries with important experience (past or recent) that could not be taken into consideration or only marginally in the drafting of these guidelines because of insufficient information. Another limitation is the level of insufficient research information regarding FFA under different programme contexts and the often anecdotal assumptions that tend to underplay the role and impacts of FFA (positive and negative). . A final limitation is the lack of guidance on Food for Training (FFT) which is largely absent in these guidelines as cutting across all programme design components (school, feeding, HIVAIDS, nutrition, etc). In relation to FFA, these guidelines include FFT only in relation to the range of assets that would impact on disaster risk reduction and resilience building.

Contents

D1. OVERVIEW D2. ESTABLISHING TECHNICAL STANDARDS FOR FFA INTERVENTIONS 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 TECHNICAL DESIGN MODULE 1: ARID/SEMI ARID LANDS Introduction Recognizing key biophysical and climatic features The relevance of water harvesting The technical strategies for FFA in dry lands Pastoral and Agro-pastoral areas: role and type of FFA Type of interventions Technical aspects related to FFA in pastoral areas:

VIII VIII 1 1 1 2 5 19 19 22 30

1.5.1 1.5.2

Useful references for pastoral areas 2 TECHNICAL DESIGN MODULE 2: TROPICAL, SUB-TROPICAL, AND WET & MOIST HIGHLANDS 31 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Introduction Recognizing key biophysical and climatic features FFA in tropical and sub-tropical areas: main focus Sequence and integration of various FFA in tropical and sub-tropical areas FFA design and technical strategies in tropical and sub-tropical areas Steep and/or mountainous terrains: Gently sloping terrains with flood plains 47

31 31 33 33 34 35 43

2.5.1 2.5.2 3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5

TECHNICAL DESIGN MODULE 3: FFA IN FLOOD PRONE LANDS Introduction Countries or areas within countries highly or constantly affected by floods Areas in countries recurrently flooded on a seasonal basis Critical intervention within these contexts but do not include FFA FFA main focus in flood prone areas Flooding in tropical and subtropical areas Flooding in dry zones and valley flooding in mountainous areas

47 47 47 48 49 50 50 52 iii

3.5.1 3.5.2 3.6

FFA design and technical strategies in flood prone areas

FFA Manual Module D: Implementing FFA

3.7 4 4.1 4.2

Other contexts TECHNICAL DESIGN MODULE 4: COMMUNITY AND MARKET INFRASTRUCTURE Introduction Main FFA Feeder Roads Footpaths and Tracks Social and market infrastructure (excluding feeder roads) 58

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58 58 59 61 63 63 63 64 65 65 65 67 67 67 68 68 69 70 70 70 71 72 73

4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3

Useful References Useful References Useful References 5 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 OTHERS FFA INTERVENTIONS (COMPLEMENTARY MEASURES) Gully control measures Cereal banks Construction of fuel efficient stoves Fish Farming and aquaculture Removal of silt, mud and debris The removal of silt from water reservoirs such as ponds Clearing canals and drainage lines after shocks The removal of debris following an earthquake

Useful references: Useful References Useful References Useful References 5.5.1 5.5.2 5.5.3 5.6 5.7 6 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5

Stone collection and stone shaping FFA for skills enhancement (Food/Cash-for-Training) FFA ACTIVITIES THAT BENEFIT WOMEN (AND OTHER VULNERABLE HOUSEHOLDS) 75 Homestead level productivity intensification activities WFP assisted nurseries (Green Factories) Income Generating Activities Other FFA activities that benefit women Timing of FFA intervention

75 75 76 76 77 77 78 iv

Useful references Useful references

6.6 6.7 6.8

FLAs and womens rights to the productive assets they create Cross cutting aspects Examples of innovative ideas linking gender and FFA Celebratory Birth Trees Take-Home Solar Light Ration Fuel Efficient Stoves and a Take Home Green Ration Eco-tourism

78 78 78 79 79 79 80 80 80 81 81 83 83 84 85 86 87 87 88 91 91 94 94 95 99 105 105 106 108 108 109 v

Useful references 6.8.1 6.8.2 6.8.3 6.8.4

Useful references 7 7.1 7.2 WORK NORMS Developing work norms Useful references Useful references The relevance of gender issues in work norms development

7.1.1 7.2.1 8 8.1

FOOD RATIONS TRANSFERS COMPOSITION Food rations Major factors in defining FFW rations: Food incentives for service providers

8.1.1 8.1.2 8.2 9 9.1 9.2

Cash and vouchers: transfers value and cost efficiency BUDGET PLANNING Budget plan for FFA interventions and/or proposals Non Food Items Tools, construction materials and equipment Items for technical surveys, planning, and M&E

9.2.1 9.2.2

10 COMPLEMENTARITY 11 CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT FOR FFA 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 General considerations Capacity Development for FFA: skills sets and main elements Awareness creation on FFA at CO and partners level Training on FFA planning, design and implementation Experience sharing on FFA: lessons from the field

FFA Manual Module D: Implementing FFA

11.6 11.7 11.8

Capacity development for institutional building Linking successful projects to national research and academia Learning from past unyielding efforts

110 113 113

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FFA Manual Module D: Implementing FFA

MODULE D: THE IMPLEMENTATION OF FFA THE PRACTICAL SIDE OF DOING FFA


FFA Manual Module D (2011): version 1. This module was published and made electronically available in July 2011. Where relevant, this module supersedes previous guidance on FFA interventions. Please inform ODXPs Prevention and Recovery team if you identify outdated information that causes confusion with the information presented here. Any updates to Module D will be outlined below (and include page numbers) to allow FFA practitioners with an older version to identify where changes have occurred: No changes as yet.

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FFA Manual Module D: Implementing FFA

D1. OVERVIEW
Learning from experience: A number of context specific FFA interventions are provided below. They emanate from field experience and documented evidence of FFA interventions from a variety of Country Offices. Many of these interventions have been designed and developed together with and often by government ministries and departments that closely work with WFP staff in FFA programmes. Others are based on the technical work from sister UN agencies such as FAO and ILO, technical cooperation agencies like GIZ formerly GTZ (German Technical Cooperation) and NGOs. Finally, several FFA are also inspired by a number of households creative solutions and modifications to original designs of specific interventions. Many degraded landscapes can be rehabilitated: These FFA interventions illustrate the possibility to tap on the often enormous potential that fragile, shock prone and environmentally degraded livelihood systems still harbour in spite of their current situation of food insecurity. FFA can defeat hunger at the source. By all means the menu of possible FFA interventions is neither exhaustive nor prescriptive for any given broad context. Each FFA should be reviewed and eventually modified to suit local conditions.

FROM PLANNING TO DOING


The description of a range of context specific FFA has the following main purposes: (i) Familiarize WFP staff at all levels with a number of aspects related to FFA selection, design, implementation and integration requirements: It also provides WFP field staff with a better understanding on how complex specific contexts are which in turn requires the selection of capable partners for planning and implementation of FFA. (ii) Provide WFP Cooperating and Implementing Partners (IP) with information on FFA experience and best practices: This is often necessary for partners that do not have consolidated experience in FFA but have the capacity to develop approaches and build these capacities over time. (iii) Build complementary partnerships: this section helps understanding how important are the complementary measures that other partners (e.g. FAO, GIZ, NGOs, Governments) can offer to make those FFA more sustainable and effective. (iv) Share experience and knowledge: the document, including Annexes and links, has a wealth of information ready to share for testing and/or wider dissemination. It will be enriched with additional information and best practices as FFA experience builds up.

D2. ESTABLISHING TECHNICAL STANDARDS FOR FFA INTERVENTIONS


The sections are developed to provide a: (i) Broad description of FFA based on key agro-ecological context and how these influences the choice and design of measures; (ii) A description of possible FFA interventions and how they complement other interventions from partners, government, communities and households; (iii) A description of work norm elements, technical references, planning aspects and crosscutting issues such as gender.

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A number of the FFA described under the agrarian and pastoral contexts also apply in peri-urban contexts. Main contexts: For practical purposes FFA interventions potentially suitable in agrarian and pastoral contexts are described based on two main ecosystems and two sub-systems as follows1: I. Semi-arid and arid zones (Sahel, parts of temperate and continental areas, etc) II. Tropical and sub-tropical zones III. Flood prone environments (as a specific subset of the first two) IV. Cross-cutting assets such as rural roads and social assets building Note: FFA interventions are broadly described for agrarian, pastoral and, where applicable, references to urban settings are made. The range of FFA possible in urban contexts, however, is limited to labour-based interventions following rapid onset disasters (e.g. clearing of debris, canals, etc, as well as to specific skills enhancement through Food-for-Training) that may be possible to consider. Regarding the description of FFA strategies and activities for pastoral areas, they are included in the arid and semi-arid zones section as pastoral livelihood systems are largely confined in dry areas. There are exceptions (cold continental areas and some high mountain ranges) which require very context specific approaches which are beyond these guidelines to explore. Other detail guidelines are provided as links in the different sections and field staff is strongly encouraged to use some of these extensively as integrated within a comprehensive planning and implementation approach. Furthermore, Annex D-1 includes a number of technical information as 1-pagers or INFOTECHS for a range of assets which are commonly implemented in WFP operations. These are practical handouts for implementing partners and extension workers to use during design and implementation stages.

The following figure summarizes the main building blocks of FFA programming and the technical areas that relate to the broad ecosystems mentioned above.

Since it is impossible to capture all possible range of FFA and their technical variations for the many different country agro-ecological contexts, this guidance provides only major building blocks regarding the main agro-ecological or ecosystems systems where FFA can be relevant, largely from existing practice and experience. The classifications used (arid, semi-arid, subtropical, etc) are broad and approximate for practical reasons. Further documentation and reading need to be context specific and researched locally at Country Office level, through partners and field work. However, the guidance provided in this manual offers concrete examples of FFA activities, visuals, designs, implementation sequences and references that field staff may find useful and of practical use.

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FFA Manual Module D: Implementing FFA

Summary of Module D: Technical Design Basic Requirements (with links and examples)
MODULE A
STRATEGIC ANALYSIS

MODULE B

CONTEXT ANALYSIS

MODULE C

RESPONSE OPTIONS AND PARTICIPATORY PLANNING

MODULE D
In which context are you? Click the box (es) MODULE E MONITORING AND EVALUATION OF FFA DESIGNING AND IMPLEMENTING FFA

Design Tools
FFA that benefit Women Work Norms Food Rations & Transfers Budget Planning
Arid and semiarid Tropical and subtropical Flood prone areas Community Infrastructure Others (Complementary FFA)

Technical Module 1

Technical Module 2

Technical Module 3

Technical Module 4

Technical Module 5

Complementary interventions Capacity development Annex D-1 Info-techs

FFA Manual Module D: Implementing FFA

TECHNICAL DESIGN MODULE 1: ARID/SEMI ARID LANDS

1.1 Introduction
This module describes the key biophysical features that influence the choice of specific FFA interventions and their design in arid and semi-arid lands. These elements are closely linked to the main livelihoods predominantly found in these areas, i.e. settled agriculture, agro-pastoral and pastoral and described in Module B. The relevance of water harvesting is therefore at the centre of many of the possible FFA interventions. For several of the key measures suggested in the following sections, a number of more detail technical descriptions can be found in Annex D-1 of this guideline.

1.2 Recognizing key biophysical and climatic features


Rainfall: In terms of rainfall, arid lands receive around 200-400mm/year and semi-arid between 400-600mm/year. This latter range is nowadays modified upwards in many countries, i.e.700 mm instead of 600mm. In some countries (India) the upper limit reaches 750mm. In Ethiopia this limit is even higher around 900mm, largely to acknowledge the effect of slopes on effective rainfall (often only 2/3 or half of the total rainfall is useful for cropping as the rest is lost as runoff due to slopes and shallow soils). In arid and semi-arid areas the rainy season is short in terms of duration, erratic in terms of distribution, is characterized by intensive showers, and is subject to high annual rainfall variations (see Module B). Droughts or erratic rainfall over time, amount and space (distribution) are common in semi-arid and arid areas and the highest perceived reason for crop failure and food insecurity amongst settled agriculturalists and pastoralists. Cropping seasons and effect of temperature and wind: In terms of cropping seasons FAO describe arid dry lands with less than 75 days crop growing season and areas with climates and semi-arid dry lands which have from 75 to 119 days growing season. This range may vary in some countries depending on altitude of cropping and local classifications. Temperatures are high during several months of the year, with typical diurnal variations ranging from 10 to 45 C. In many situations, the fluctuations restrict the growth of plant species. High temperatures at the soil surface results in rapid loss of soil moisture due to high levels of evaporation and evapo-transpiration. Dry lands are also often windy, also because of limited or lack of vegetation. Hot dry winds have three effects: reduce the effectiveness of rainfall by evaporation from soil surface increase evapo-transpiration from the leaf area of crops, increasing the risks of moisture stress surface of stored waters (ponds, dams etc.) suffer from high evaporation loss (important when water dams or storage systems are developed)

FFA Manual Module D: Implementing FFA

Biophysical conditions: These areas are usually characterized by soils with low content of organic matter, soils with high proportion of fine sands and loams, the tendency of soils to crust, low infiltration rates and high susceptibility to water and wind erosion. Local practices such as burning and grazing of most crop residues reduce the recycling of organic matter. The biological life of the soil decreases, with termites replacing earthworms in hotter climates. Tunnelling and turning over by termites is less efficient than with earthworms. Soils vary widely and are less homogeneous than under moister climates. The rooting system is shallower and less widespread. Surface runoff is therefore much greater, especially after late fires which destroy the vegetative cover before the early rains. The soil coverage is reduced to a period of 4 to 6 months, leaving the soil exposed to high temperatures (mineralization of the organic matter). The soil tends to become compacted and offers spatial discontinuities: crust layers at the topsoil surface and a hard pan under the ploughed layer. Limited soil moisture storage capacity further diminishes the biological activities of the soil and drop of the exchange capacity for nutrients with crops. Highlights from this section: Recognizing climatic and biophysical features help design measures able to overcome or adapt to specific constraints. For example by encouraging plantations of trees supported by runoff systems that increase moisture at the plant/tree level, harvesting and storing runoff water better for crops, link up with complementary support measures with partners (e.g. drought resistant species), etc.

1.3 The relevance of water harvesting


Within the context of semi-arid and arid lands what has to be retained is the primary importance of conserving and managing water and soils. It is increasingly clear throughout the degraded and semi-arid areas and other similar contexts that the management of runoff and biomass at plot and sub-watershed levels offer great returns in terms of grain (or fodder/pastures) production and better resilience against lower rainfall rather than blue prints that advocate for extensive use of agricultural inputs (which may be required but as one element of a broader approach) or the construction of large water reservoirs for irrigation - interesting reading: http://www.john-libbey-eurotext.fr/fr/print/e-docs/00/03/82/D3/article.phtml). In moisture deficit areas, water is a scarce and uncertain commodity. These areas are often those where most farmers are poor, food insecure, exposed to droughts and cannot cope with the risk factors. In this regard, households interest in improved technology is ensured only when there is a substantial increase and maintenance of productivity. This explains why technologies applied in isolation in semi-arid and arid areas often failed or have been rejected by farmers/land users. In moisture deficit areas, improved land use, particularly of cultivated lands (including the productivity of homesteads) is possible only if integrated efforts are undertaken, for which water harvesting and soil conservation techniques are integral part of the overall improved land rehabilitation effort. It means that the sustainability of activities undertaken for the cultivated land and homesteads, let alone their establishment and expansion, is possible only if other areas (e.g. communal lands, steep slopes, gullies) are also protected and improved, particularly for biomass production, tree growth and water development.

For example: Multipurpose tree species planted around farm boundaries, reclaimed gullies, open fields and homesteads can grow using specific water harvesting methods which often require runoff diverted from other areas. Specific income generation activities such as bee-keeping depend on the availability of both trees and different flowering periods, and water harvested using a variety of methods. Live fencing of farm boundaries close or far from homesteads would be possible only if nurseries can be established, which in turn depend from availability of water thus the need for larger watershed rehabilitation which contributes to recharge springs, etc. Vegetable gardening also linked to water supply, especially if ponds can be established or springs developed, or rivers flow less intermittently by the means of integrated land rehabilitation efforts. Marketing of produce is linked to infrastructure such as properly sustained feeder roads, which requires integrated efforts for their stability and withstand heavy rainfall showers, etc.

These examples relate to opportunities for FFA to contribute to an overall resilience building effort that has management of rainfall and runoff at the centre of the strategy for land and community infrastructure rehabilitation. This does not mean that FFA will be used for all activities but for those that are typically enabling and/or require a major group or collective effort for their implementation. In principle, the following sequence should be considered: First manage rainfall, and then Manage runoff. The presence of a good surface cover, which reduces soil splash, and the maximization of infiltration, which reduces the volume and, hence, the velocity of surface runoff, are the main elements for erosion control. Only when runoff is unavoidable and consistent that additional conservation measures will be needed. In dry zones, this sequence is not always possible because of the absence of sufficient vegetation cover and biomass particularly in already degraded and food insecure areas. The sequence may even be reversed to a certain extent. For instance, the water harvesting effect of most physical structures can stimulate biomass production which can then be used for improving surface cover, soil structure and organic matter content, hence, reduce splashing effect of raindrops.

FFA Manual Module D: Implementing FFA

The main FFA interventions dry lands agrarian systems should focus on, includes: i. Increase water availability and maximize moisture storage capacity for food, forage and tree crops, thus reducing the risks of drought occurrence. Conserve soil, increase soil infiltration capacity and improve soil fertility Preserve and augment biomass (fodder, food and tree crops related) Collect and store additional water for livestock and domestic uses Develop irrigation schemes by collecting and storing runoff water and optimizing use of collected water and divert safely excess runoff Enable farmers to adopt effective lean season strategies Stabilize stream banks and smoothen/regulate seasonal flooding Increase vegetative cover (trees, shrubs, grasses) in marginal and gully lands Protect irrigation schemes and major infrastructure (roads, villages, etc)

ii. iii. iv. v.

vi. vii. viii. ix.

IMPORTANT NOTE: The above strategies also largely apply to agro-pastoral areas, where a combination of farming activities coexists with a number of households sending livestock to grazing areas during specific periods of the year. More and more often, a number of pastoralist groups turn to cultivation of crops during specific periods of the year, largely close to rivers where irrigation opportunities exist. Highlights from this section: all possible means should be envisaged to combine, from the very beginning of implementation, different biological and physical measures able to harness water. FFA should complement and supplement other partners and community efforts to significantly reduce soil erosion, optimize use of available rainfall and runoff, increase production levels and/or improve market infrastructure. A number of runon-runoff systems described below and in technical guidelines (Annex D-1), FAO Guidelines, specific line Ministries guidance, NGOs manuals, etc) that increase fodder production, for example, can also reduce the need for long transhumance and search of pastures. On the other hand, a number of techniques and approaches suggested below for the pastoralists can also benefit agro-pastoralists and indirectly the farming communities living at the fringe of areas used by pastoralists. For example, to avoid encroachment of animals into cultivated areas and possible disputes over water use, etc.

1.4

The technical strategies for FFA in dry lands

This section includes general features but also specific references to both agrarian and pastoral contexts for those elements that are distinct In semi-arid and arid areas, TWO MAIN STRATEGIES for soil and water conservation & management for productive uses are envisaged. Strategy 1 Where: In areas where precipitation is insufficient to meet crops water requirements (erratic rains frequent, drought risks high, low rainfall, etc.) or in case crops having higher water requirements What: FFA interventions to increase water availability, increase soil profile moisture storage capacity, selection of drought tolerant crops, and safe disposal of excess runoff (if any) Aim: Water harvesting and related fertility management strategies aim to manage water flows to enable the growth of trees, fodder and food crops in most diverse and climate constrained conditions

Figure 1: Water cycle (source IFAD) Therefore the correct management of runoff is often the precondition to restore productivity and enable the use of other inputs to improve agricultural productivity and improve the overall natural resources base. Most of the measures described in this strategy use the "RAINFALL MULTIPLIER" effect, meaning measures designed to include a run-off area (micro-catchment) serving or supplying additional water to a run-on area (cultivated area). FAO for example has developed guidelines on WATER HARVESTING MEASURES - i.e. THE COLLECTION OF RUNOFF WATER FOR PRODUCTIVE PURPOSES.

FFA Manual Module D: Implementing FFA

These measures, however, can also be found in soil and water conservation manuals, the main distinction being on main focus (water and/or soil). For the purpose of these guidelines, of main relevance are the different interventions that can be applied to rehabilitate degraded and food insecure areas by harnessing soil, water, and vegetation.

Figure 2: FAO description of main water harvesting as rainfall multiplier systems Water harvesting measures also include water reservoirs of different types (cisterns, ponds, dams, etc.) that collect water from external micro or macro-catchments for irrigation or domestic and livestock uses. Rainfall multiplier systems are those measures which are using internal or external catchments to supply additional water to crops, grazing systems, and trees; or in storage systems for future use. At the same time, these systems help controlling soil erosion.

Rainfall multiplier systems are important in: (1) Semi-arid areas To introduce cash crops with high water requirements To plant trees on marginal areas, steep slopes and shallow soils To collect and store water for domestic and livestock uses

Main types of measures to be selected for FFA in semi-arid may include: Stone faced soil bunds using small run-on/runoff systems (for high value crops) Semi-permeable stone bunds or stone lines along the contours Vegetative strips combined with physical structures or stone lines (require control grazing) Trenches, eyebrow basins, half-moons, herring bones, improved pits Gully control using soil sedimentation and overflow dams (in series) Infiltration pits and ponds at break of slope to increase percolation and replenishment of water tables Integrated dry land forestry and agro-forestry systems Nursery establishment and seed multiplication of drought tolerant shrubs, grasses and legumes, fruit trees, cash crops, etc Development of irrigation schemes, water use optimization (low cost efficient systems), tie-ridging, and drip irrigation Homestead development with water harvesting systems such as microponds, underground cisterns, spring development and overflow storage tanks, etc Farm dams and water ponds for domestic and livestock uses (fenced, with windbreaks to reduce evaporation) with design able to evacuate excess runoff Ford crossing and feeder roads constructed with standards adapted to potentially unstable soils, improved drainage and reinforcements at depression points Watershed protection and area closure (+ enrichments using different conservation techniques) above key community infrastructure and feeder roads (including check dams on small gullies) (2) Arid areas To convert marginal or abandoned lands into cultivated land for food crops To convert marginal or abandoned lands into cultivated land for fodder crops or improved pastures To establish wind breaks To protect irrigation schemes To collect water for domestic and livestock uses

Main type of measures to be selected in arid areas may include: Most of the measures included in (1) above relevant. However, considering the erratic pattern of rainfall in these areas and the increased likelihood of high powered rainstorms occurring in arid zones, there is a need to calibrate the design of the different structures in a way that they will accommodate these peaks (up to 200 mm/hour intensity) that includes space between structures, spillway design, etc. For most measures such as trenches, eyebrows, circular or trapezoidal bunds, etc. the ratio between catchment area and the receiving area should be higher (more in the catchment area). These techniques enables trees, fodder, staple or cash crops to grow only in one part of the total land available but to grow in areas where nothing (or very little) previously grew.

FFA Manual Module D: Implementing FFA

Examples of Strategy 1 1) Use of micro-catchments (runoff areas) and water collection structures (run-on areas) construction in arid zones for tree planting

Runoff areas

Plate 1: Semi-circular basins for reforestation in Niger (Keita Project FAO/ITA with WFP support for FFW activities) 2) Steep slopes treated with stone bunds and continuous trenches and use of micro-catchments to direct runoff into micro-ponds Plate 2: Micro-ponds collecting runoff water originated from stabilized slopes and micro-catchments. Please note the entire slope is treated with stone terraces and trenches (Ethiopia, MOA-WFP, PSNP)

Collection drain

Direction of water flow from small grassed microcatchments

3) Traditional water harvesting systems in the Sahel Plate 3: Traditional systems used in the Sahel such as the Tassa or Za pits exploits micro-catchments to direct runoff into the pits to maximize moisture content and the use of animal dung. Termites recycle organic matter and crop residues after millet is harvested, improving infiltration and fertility (Photo source FAO)

4) Trenches and stone faced bunds in dry and bare sub-watersheds

Plate 4: Trenches constructed on hillsides and contour stone bunds on lower slopes below detail of trench with water (Niger Keita Project, FAO-ITAWFP)

FFA Manual Module D: Implementing FFA

5) Slowing down runoff in river beds to refill water tables and allow irrigation using shallow wells

Plate 5: A gabion and soil (laterite) percolation dam constructed across large river beds. Infiltration zone for shallow wells and cultivation during dry season Their function is to slow down runoff water and increase underground recharge for dry season cultivation by digging shallow wells downstream (Niger Keita, FAO-ITA-WFP) Direction of water flow

6) Rock catchments

Plate 6: Rock catchment water scheme - a cemented dam collecting water in depression points (WFPWV, Turkana, Kenya). A water collection system with pipes and taps is established downstream.

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7) Integrated approaches using water harvesting trenches

Plate 7: Above - Trenches on steep slopes collect runoff and protect the newly constructed feeder road as well as downstream orchards and crop fields (Ethiopia, S. Wollo zone, MOA-WFP, MERET) Below Detail of a portion of the area before and after treatment (1 year)

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FFA Manual Module D: Implementing FFA

8) Stone faced and trenched bunds with semi-circular basins for tree planting Plate 8: Semi-circular structures and stone faced bunds using micro-catchments in semi-arid area with degraded and shallow soils (Kambata zone, Ethiopia, MOA-WFP, MERET) Note the water collected in the micro-catchments

Plate 9: The same semi-arid area, approximately 9 years later The area is fully managed by the community for grass collection and temporary grazing

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A note on tree planting and on other plant species [this note applies to all Technical Modules 1-2-3] WFP helps planting millions of trees every year supporting many Governments, technical departments and partners to promote forestry and agro-forestry in food insecure and degraded areas. Whilst a number of water harvesting and soil conservation measures explain in this and other technical design modules will help the growth of trees in difficult environments, the choice of tree and other shrubs species need to be undertaken with great care and concern for possible negative effects on the environment and to other crops in general. This is especially true for alien species introduced without sufficient research and testing in new agroecological systems. Some tree species have, for example, become invasive and disruptive of cultivated crops in South Africa. Species such as the Prosopis sp introduced in the 80s in some African countries has also invaded ranges, cultivated lands and rural towns creating problems to local economies (e.g. parts of Kenya, Somalia, etc). Therefore any FFA support to forestry and agro-forestry efforts need to recognize these potential problems, especially when some trees and other species are sometimes advocated for merits that have not yet proven true. For example, a number of concerns exist around the introduction of Jatropha Curcas as a drought resistant plant for bio fuel production and erosion control in several countries evidence reveals that jatropha not only has detrimental impacts on people and the environment, but that it also isnt economically viable (http://www.foeeurope.org/download/jatropha_FoEIreport_Jan2011.pdf). The same may be true with other species considered excellent for nutrition, for conservation or animal feed which may be performing well in one country or region and very poorly in others. Sometimes food habits are huge barriers that need to be considered (for example young twigs, leaves and buds of Azadiracta sp or Neem are eaten boiled in Myanmar and but not in Africa; Moringa sp is used as cabbage in Southern Ethiopia but rarely elsewhere in the country, etc). Years ago Vetiver sp was pushed relentlessly as a miraculous stabilizer grass and a most cost effective replacement of physical conservation structures by several organizations. These assumptions proved to be simplistic and detrimental both for the good place that Vetiver grass need to occupy as one (of many) plants useful for stabilization and to the other structural measures that are essential in many contexts where slopes and soils demand for well designed physical structures as enablers to retain moisture and support plant growth. Overall, testing and experimentation for innovative approaches should be encouraged and FFA may support these efforts (including through training) however with caution, and relying on competent partners for advice and technical support when required (e.g. FAO, GIZ, etc). It must be noted that there are already a wealth of existing species, most of them indigenous or introduced long time ago, that are available and that should be reproduced in nurseries and planted. In this regard, the degraded lands offer a wide range of opportunities for more integrated efforts, at plant and area level.

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FFA Manual Module D: Implementing FFA

Useful references 1. http://www.fao.org/forestry/en/ - FAO main portal on forestry activities a main source of information and links regarding forestry 2. http://www.fao.org/docrep/013/i1757e/i1757e.pdf - the 2010 the FAO Global Forest Resources Assessment states that globally, around 13 million hectares (ha) of forests were converted to other uses (including agriculture) or were lost through natural causes each year between 2000 and 2010. 3. Forestry and Agroforestry Development Interventions Betru Nedessa, WFP - Haiti, 2010 4. Homestead Development Initiative and the Rehabilitation of Degraded Ecosystems in Haiti (Technical Note for Training of Trainers - ToTs) Betru Nedessa, WFP Haiti, 2010

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Strategy 2 Where: Where rainfall is sufficient to meet crop water requirements most years but is erratic in distribution over time and space What: FFA should support interventions focusing on maximum water retention, increase soil profile moisture storage capacity and eventually evacuation or storage of excess water for subsequent use (if any) Aim: Water harvesting and related fertility management strategies aim to manage water flows to enable the growth of trees, fodder and food crops This second strategy applies to most of the cultivated lands in semi-arid areas. Although climatic risks may be high, farmers would not accept to leave part of their fields as a runoff area. The strategy would then focus on measures able to capture rainfall and make the best use of it. That is, to: increase and improve the storage capacity of the soil and infiltration (physical barriers, gully control, biological stabilization, moisture and fertility management measures, dry land agro-forestry, infiltration ponds and pits, etc) introduce crop varieties that withstand gaps between rains (e.g. WFP providing seasonal conditional transfers for Zai pits construction where new crop varieties by FAO or other partners are introduced and planted), prevent or reduce soil and water losses by runoff (water harvesting schemes, soil and stone bunds and terraces, low-cost irrigation schemes, diversion schemes and storage of runoff water, etc) reduce evaporation and plants loss of moisture (e.g. by mulching of crop residues, shading of microponds, specific intercropping, etc).

The main type of measures for FFA to be selected may include: Same measures listed for Strategy 1 with the opportunity to increase fertility management measures Run-on/Runoff systems possible for most land uses except for cultivated lands where most or all land is cultivated (no need for much extra rainfall)

Useful Technical references A number of Guidelines and Technical Notes are available through the following links below. Some of these guidelines are semi-arid and arid zones specific (3 and partially 2) while others (1 and partially 2) also apply to tropical/sub-tropical degraded environments: 1. Community Based Participatory Watershed Development Guidelines Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Ethiopia Part 1 and Part 2; 2005 (Refer to Infotechs for technical specifications pages 64-167) 2. Rainwater Harvesting and Management Technologies for arid and semi-arid lands of Kenya Ministry of Arid Lands and WFP, 2009

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FFA Manual Module D: Implementing FFA

3. http://www.cilss.bf/IMG/pdf/etudesahelrapportNE.pdf - These guidelines present an interesting outlook of different interventions and projects undertaken in the Sahel, including aspects of efficiency, costs and perceived impact/benefits. 4. Tree nurseries establishment for multipurpose tree planting: this handbook from Kenya developed for extension workers and farmers helps in guiding staff through the major steps required for the establishment of a nursery. Major principles apply to all contexts and need to take into consideration species selection, farmers preferences, market issues and seasonal requirements. http://worldagroforestrycenter.net/sea/Publications/files/manual/MN0045-10.PDF 5. Managing the Water Buffer for Development and Climate Change Adaptation Groundwater Recharge: Retention, Reuse and Rainwater Storage http://www.rainfoundation.org/fileadmin/PublicSite/Manuals/finalversion_3R_book_0408.pdf

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Examples of Strategy 2 1) Bench terraces and stabilization (semi-arid areas) Plate 10: Stone faced bunds upgraded to bench terraces for maximum rainfall retention, and tree planting and bund stabilization with grasses in a semi-arid area (Southern Wollo, Ethiopia, MOA-WFP, MERET)

2) Bench terraces and tie-ridges (arid area)

Plate 11: Tie-ridging used to harness water within terraces and maximize distribution (Dire Dawa, Ethiopia, MOA-WFP, MERET)

3) Water pond and soil conservation + drought resistant crops Plate 12: Cultivated land treated with soil bunds and water pond for domestic uses constructed to collect excess runoff from stabilized gullies the area is also planted with drought resistant varieties of Sorghum (Oromia, Ethiopia, MOAWFP, and MERET)

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FFA Manual Module D: Implementing FFA

4) Contour bunds on steep slopes Plate 13: Soil bunds precisely constructed along contour lines (water collected above the bunds can be noted this creates a percolation effect that moisturizes the entire area, particularly the first few meters above the terrace (Hararghe,

Ethiopia, MOA-WFP, MERET)

5) Micro-pond used for small-scale supplementary irrigation Plate 14: Micro-ponds constructed around homesteads (lined with plastic geo-membranes) collect runoff water from micro-catchments (from road sides, grassed or rocky areas) that can be used for horticulture after the rainy season or to supplement additional water to vegetable and cash crops during and after the main rainy season

(Eastern Tigray, Ethiopia, MOA-WFP, MERET)

Annex D-1 provides a rapid description of a number of key technologies that field staff may find important within the context of semi-arid and arid contexts. However, a more detail description and technical specifications of these and other measures are also available and included in various guidance notes and links provided in this PGM.

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1.5 Pastoral and Agro-pastoral areas: role and type of FFA


1.5.1 Type of interventions
The seasonal livelihood programming exercise (Module B) and specific planning tools such as the Drought Management Cycle (DCM) are extremely important for pastoral areas as it provides an overall platform o practically identify: I. II. III. The overall set of possible programme response options during good, bad or typical years (not only FFA but an entire range of interventions many of which also highlighted in the DCM above); What is realistically possible using FFA considering local and partners capacity; The opportunities for joint planning and integrated efforts.

Table 1 below captures the key information sources and main response mechanisms suitable for pastoral areas, largely emanating from the collection of best practices and experience in the Horn of Africa and various parts of the Sahel. They are described in general but offer an important range of response options which can include FFA interventions. Table 1: Broad description of potential interventions and role of FFA in pastoral and agro-pastoral areas Description of main intervention Possible FFA Remarks areas A) Pre-drought (or normal/good years)
1 Consultative and planning meetings with clan representatives and run seasonal programming exercises a. Support regular training and workshops (e.g. cash for training) . To be undertaken with clan, gvt and NGO representatives . Utilization of seasonal programming results as platforms for major district planning and partnered efforts . To be undertaken with clans, gvt and NGO representatives at regular intervals . Institutionalize regular meetings between different clans and Government representatives . Requires qualified technical partners (e.g. FAO, specialized NGOs and Gvt departments)

Organization of inter-clan meetings or workshops to prevent possible conflict, plans for utilization of specific ranges, access to water points, etc

a. Support conflict resolutions workshops (e.g. cash for training) for clan leaders and community members

Provide skills training in Early Warning, livestock diseases detection and certification, water harvesting techniques and mapping of pastoral assets, etc Organize mapping of rangelands and other key assets (rivers, water points, drought reserves, wet patches, areas of inappropriate agricultural and bush encroachment, degraded lands, etc.) in each district Develop clan and sub-clan based community action plans for natural resources management and rangeland

a. FFA for skills and on-the-job training at different levels

a. FFA for training and undertaking of main mapping exercises and reconnaissance surveys

. Requires support from specialized departments and/or NGO staff

a. FFA for training at community level b. FFA for planning work

. Partners efforts required to establish viable animal health systems

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FFA Manual Module D: Implementing FFA

Description of main intervention areas


improvement, including protection and enhancement of water points, livestock health improvement, etc Prepare contingency plans and establish contingency funds for drought preparedness Develop technical guidelines for pastoral regions, dissemination and training of pastoral leaders and selected community members, including women groups Drought Feeding open drought reserves and establish supplementary feed fund to support drought feeding (concentrates/ bi-products)

Possible FFA

Remarks
. Gvt improves livestock marketing policies and directives

None

Limited except for training in specific technical efforts

. Contingency plans should include range of FFA that can be activated during shocks . Ensure skills training supports women groups remaining behind in settlements while men move with livestock

B) Alarm and drought phases


9 a. Some labour based cut & carry and drying/storage of hay b. Molasses/grass mix preparation c. Transport of animal feed . Requires pre-arrangements with riverine communities to provide grass . Alternatively requires that several areas are put to rest and open to grazing only during shocks . May require significant support for transport of grasses and bi-products . Requires adequate planning and production of vaccine + support measures to ensure outreach . Vaccinations need to take place before animals are distressed (early stages of alarm phase) . Major arrangements for quality control and for organizing traders off-take required

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Emergency Animal Health build capacity to scale up animal health system to respond to additional demands during drought

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Commercial destocking and slaughter destocking support livestock marketing system to absorb increased off-take

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Livestock redistribution and restocking

13

Labour based efforts around settlements and towns

a. Limited/none except training and deployment of pastoral households with the task of large scale vaccination campaigns (use of cash or vouchers for providing such service) a. Limited/none except for specific training on improved drying meat and preservation methods b. Support to the construction of abattoirs a. Limited to specific FFA interventions related to improve animal feed through moisture conservation measures a. De-siltation of water points, eradication or control of invaders, b. Other labour-based safety nets (context specific)

. Build upon customary livestock redistribution systems

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Collection of dyes and gums

a. FFA to kick start collection

. Activities based on community plans and contingency plans . Requires that safety net programmes are in place and funded . Requires concomitant food assistance support to people unable to work . Need partnership to identify market outlets and traders . Quality control required . Specific opportunities linked to trade and provision of services requires technical support . Requires identification of suitable sites, provision of materials and adequate training

C) Post drought/shock recovery phases


15 Labour based safety nets integrated with skills training efforts (especially targeted to support drop outs) Establishment of nurseries for fodder multiplication and dry land agroforestry, including fruit trees a. FFA to build community or HH assets b. Skills training a. FFA for nursery work, transport of seedlings b. Construction of runoff-runon

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Description of main intervention areas

Possible FFA
systems for planting dry land species a. FFA for de-silting or constructing main canals, and flood control construction measures b. Diversion systems (spat irrigation, weirs construction etc) a. FFA for water harvesting systems b. Agro-forestry c. Skills training a. FFA for various labour intensive SSDams, sand dams, etc b. Runoff/runon systems in degraded areas for increased grass growth a. Limited role for FFA

Remarks
. Can become important sources of income generation . Technical support for design and water use essential . Major partnership for cropping methods and marketing (e.g. FAO, etc) required . Focus around permanent settlements . Integrate these activities into productive safety net programmes . Technical training required including major arrangements on use of such lands (community planning)

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Rehabilitation of irrigation schemes

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Major investment targeted to women and poorest households around homestead areas Reclamation of gully networks and marginal lands for water collection and fodder/food crops production

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Development of trade and market centres for livestock and other pastoral land products

. High priority as complementary effort from partners

Note: This table is only indicative as several of the above listed interventions can also occur in other phases or partially overlap. For most of these interventions a main aspect to consider is the need for robust partnerships between Government stakeholders, communities and partners (NGOs, WFP, other UN agencies, private sector, etc) on the ground.

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FFA Manual Module D: Implementing FFA

1.5.2 Technical aspects related to FFA in pastoral areas:


Technical principles for most of the FFA measures are similar to those for agrarian but adapted to arid land contexts and pastoral livelihood systems requirements. The following table 2 is an attempt to capture a range of possible interventions that would require FFA. The table includes a brief description of the intervention, its main purpose, and the complementary interventions required to maximize the FFA activities. This example shows how degraded lands have been developed:

Plate 14: Development of degraded and crusted rangelands in arid areas, using water runon/runoff systems (Niger FAO/WFP/ITA).

Small stone bunds placed along the contours on a 1:8-10 ratio between runoff areas and the receiving (run-on) area protected by the stone bund.

Table 2 on the following page provides additional technical information regarding some of the FFA interventions considered earlier (a number of which also applicable in agrarian and agro-pastoralist settings). New techniques will require significant testing before scaling up.

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FFA Manual Module D: Implementing FFA

Table 2: Technical information regarding some of the FFA interventions in arid and semi-arid areas
1. Water Harvesting for Productive uses (conservation based) Type of interventions Target Main advantages groups
. Runoff farming using conduits and micro and macro catchments (trapezoidal and circular bunds, soil and/or stonefaced structures with run-off plots, large half-moons, etc) Individual HH and/or groups (5-20 av.) . Can be implemented in arid areas (with rainfall as low as 250300 mm) and support cropping of food, fodder and tree crops . Reduced risks and availability of fodder/residues for animal feed . New income and opportunities for poorest HHs and women . Resilience building and possibility to apply for carbon credits . Rehabilitation of large gullies for crops, horticulture and forestry . Replenishment of water tables . Multipurpose uses . Does not require construction materials . Resilience building and environmental protection . Reclaims degraded ranges and environments using different measures based on slopes and soils . New income and opportunities for poorest HHs . Replenish water tables (especially trench systems) . Creation of dyes and gums/resins sanctuaries . Can empower large women groups . Possibility to apply for carbon credits

Limitations
. Need initial technical support . Need control grazing arrangements (not possible in some pastoral areas) . Not possible in highly transhumant systems unless solid arrangements made (no control) . Requires thorough supervision and trained staff at initial stages of the technology

Complementarities
. Improved cropping methods and drought resistant varieties . Hay making and cut &carry . Tree and cash crops planting along structures . Can be integrated with large scale catchment protection/reclamation

Capacity building requirements


. High at initial stages . Technical support from sectors technicians (water experts, agriculture, forestry, livestock) . Training in runoff farming required . Training and supervision required

Environmental risks
Medium-low (design and construction problems may generate cascade breakages)

. Soil & Sedimentation and overflow dams across large gully networks

. Individual HHs and groups

. A variety of cash crops or fodder crops can grow . Can create new jobs as trained HHs can be hired to construct such structures for better off HHs . Environmental protection . Nursery development or supply of planting material required . Adequate tools (e.g. crow bars, pick axes, etc) for difficult terrains . Can be complemented by infiltration pits and shallow wells along depression points / breaks of slope . Conditioning of planting pits required in very depleted soils

High-medium (can break if not properly designed and constructed)

. Runoff-runon systems for sylvi-pasture sites development (narrow stone lines or semi-permeable structures along ranges with minimum disturbance, stone faced bunds with 1:510 runoff ratio in extreme dry areas, combinations trenches-stone lines, etc)

Groups and community (with individual benefits output)

. Same as above

. Training of staff in rainfall x systems for arid land forestry . Provision of adequate tools . Establishment of nurseries or supply of seedlings . Training in seedling handling and site management

Low

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FFA Manual Module D: Implementing FFA


1. Water Harvesting for Productive uses (conservation based) Type of interventions Target Main advantages groups
. Low cost micro-ponds (90120 cubic meters) Individual HHs and/or small groups (max 5) . Can be implemented within or adjacent to homestead . Enable to prolong growing season of specific crops . Access to water for small livestock kept near homes . Can support most destitute HH and women HH . Resilience building

Limitations
. Water usually sufficient for small plots and as supplementary irrigation . Cost per HH relatively high

Complementarities
. Small scale irrigation and cash crops production (non or less perishable crops) . Low-cost drip irrigation . Micro-enterprise development . Livestock fattening . Apiculture and bee-forage . Shading with mats required to reduce evaporation and malaria breeding . Fencing to avoid accidents . Benefits from integrated approach (e.g. above measures) + . same as above . Stones required for lining (cement lining expensive) . Agro-forestry sites development . Large scale fodder production and preservation enterprises development . Windbreaks . Low cost drip irrigation . Large scale apiculture . Cooperatives formation . etc

Capacity building requirements


. High (technical support from water experts key) . Cement or plastic lining required (including skilled masons for cement) . Training on microponds construction key

Environmental risks
Low (small structures) except health related issues (unsafe drinking and possible malaria breeding)

. Stone lined extraction wells (water 5-10 m depth)

Individual HHs and/or small groups (max 5)

. Near homesteads or in specific reclaimed areas under catchment protection . Small scale irrigation (continuous) . Major asset for women HH and poorest HH . Exploit potential sites along rivers . Can provide significant food security to ex-pastoralists . Can create food supply zones and provide fodder to pastoralists at times of drought . Resilience building and environmental protection

.Suitable in locations with close water table . May trigger conflict if not accessible to other HHs at times of water scarcity . Technically complex and demanding . Many potential areas are at high risk of floods . Some soils not suitable (prone to salinization)

. Training

Low (same as above)

. Irrigation schemes (creation of new schemes or rehabilitation of damaged ones)

Groups and community (with individual benefits output)

. Need significant technical support (water and irrigation experts) . Market analysis key . Training of communities and group formation (water users associations) required . Tenure aspects key

High without thorough technical appraisal and proper risk mitigation measures in place (e.g. flooding for sites located near major flooding prone areas/rivers)

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2: Nursery development and arid land forestry development Type of interventions Target Main advantages groups
. Linked to the activities listed above ideal for women HHs . Based on the establishment of individual and small group nurseries for multi-purpose tree, shrubs and cash crops species production . Potential to develop riverine areas Individual HHs and/or small groups of HHs Highly suitable for women HH . Increased IGA opportunities . Resilience building and environmental protection . Support from forestry dept.

Limitations
. Availability of planting materials major obstacle for expansion

Complementarities
. Nursery tools and nursery management training . Fruit trees and other species seeds and planting materials handling (grafting, seeds scarification, soaking, pruning, etc) . Apiculture and small animal fattening from nursery residues . Compost making . Seed sorting and collection techniques . Green fencing . Seed preservation . Seed markets . Tree planting using runoff systems (see above 1 and 2 sections) . Cut & carry systems and fodder production/reserves . Complement area closure or groups pasture areas under control grazing systems

Capacity building requirements


. Training in nursery management, seeds and planting materials handling . Provision of tools . Training in other complementary activities

Environmental risks
None

. Seed and planting materials collection of specific plants for dry lands forestry, aerial pasture, stabilization, etc

Individual HHs and/or small groups of HHs Highly suitable for women HH Same as above

. Preservation of indigenous species . Environmental conservation

NA

. Training

Low (care in handling thorny or toxic plants)

. Area enclosure limited periods until growth is ensured

. Dry and green fencing of individual portions of sylvi-pasture sites for groups & individual investment efforts using local species (euphorbia, sisal, etc)

Same as above

. Environmental protection . Pasture availability . Possibility to apply for carbon credits . Improved tenure and investment

. Forms of control grazing required . Community level agreements needed first . Same as above

. Training on fodder preservation and pasture enrichment

Low (fire)

. Handling of vegetative materials . Community planning

Low

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FFA Manual Module D: Implementing FFA

3: Control and exploitation of invaders Type of interventions Target groups


. Conservation based approach for controlling Prosopis juliflora . Pods collection and processing for animal feed (in mixes) . Pruning and selective charcoal making using prosopis Individual HHs and/or small groups of HHs

Main advantages
. Income generation . Control vs eradication of species

Limitations
. Difficult to harness without proper tools

Complementarities
. Improvement of pastures . Availability of animal feed . Possible commercialization

Capacity building requirements


. Training and provision of tools (hooks and machetes)

Environmental risks
medium (total removal may cause considerable soil erosion if large areas are cleared without protection measures)

4: Homestead Development Type of interventions


. Dry land forestry (including fruit trees, dyes and gums trees and cash crops) using runoff systems around homesteads . Fodder belts (backyard plantations) . Multipurpose trenches for growth of fruit trees, fodder and valuable species . Zai and/or Tassa moisture and soil conservation systems . Multi-layered agro-forestry . Strip cropping in tie ridges for home gardens . Medicinal plants (Neem, Arthemisia, etc) . Fuel saving stoves enterprises

Target groups
Individual HHs and/or small groups of HHs Highly suitable for women HH

Main advantages
. Direct impact at HH level . Reduced hardships . Income generation and saving . Direct control and easier management of rehabilitated areas . Can be demonstrated to many households . Empowers women . Can be done as a form of solidarity effort targeted to destitute able to manage assets (as opposed to establish assets)

Limitations
. Need integrated approach not always possible in arid areas . Inter and intra household dynamics need to be addressed . Initial stages require considerable follow-up

Complementarities
. Complemented by water harvesting (e.g. micro-ponds, shallow wells, roof-water harvesting, drip irrigation, etc) . Compost making key . Training in food storage and preservation . Apiculture . Establishment of small selling points

Capacity building requirements


. Training required as basic packages . In each community group formation and small group creation required (3-5 groups of 4-5 women or vulnerable HH each) . Training in basic saving, book keeping and micro-enterprise development (groups of women)

Environmenta l risks
Low

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5: Productive skills enhancement Type of interventions


. Training of community members in Community Conversation (CC) for HIV/AIDS mainstreaming & anti-stigma and sensitization

Target groups
. Small groups of HHs with minimum literacy Highly suitable for women Individual HHs and/or small groups of HHs

Main advantages
. Sustainability . Livelihoods diversification

Limitations
. Require specialized trainers . Cultural barriers in specific pastoral setting a possible major obstacle NA

Complementarities
. With social advancement skills, gender training, participatory planning approaches, etc

Capacity building requirements


. Specialized staff and training

Environmenta l risks
NA

. Training in Water Harvesting & Conservation skills in dry lands

Same as above

. Linked to all above activities

. Same as above

. Training pastoralists in principles and modalities of range management, design, layout and construction of runoff/run-on systems . Rangeland mapping and community action planning with customary pastoral institutions

Groups of HHs

Same as above

. Requires specialized IP

. Linked to all above activities

. Same as above

Medium-High (poor training may result in low quality standards for WH & SC activities resulting in damages) Medium (same as above)

. Groups of households . Community

. Improved planning . Assist in conflict resolution and resting of degraded pastures . Income generation activities . Resilience building

. Same as above

. Supports conflict resolution

. Same as above

None

. Training of women HH in gum arabic collection . Support replanting ac. Senegal and other gum producing trees

. Women HH

. Same as above

. IGAs and arid land forestry

None

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FFA Manual Module D: Implementing FFA


6: Overhauling of community assets for productive uses Type of interventions Target Main advantages groups
. De-siltation & deepening of existing pans . Application of clay blankets for seepage control . Construction of embankments protecting wells (water deflection) . Construction of silt traps before water ponds . Fencing of pan area . Small vegetable production area adjacent pans . Apiculture around pans . Fish production in deeper water pans . Women groups and vulnerable HH groups . Covert a communal assets into a multipurpose and groups managed assets . Resilience building . Environmental protection of water points . Limited contamination . IGAs

Limitations
. Water pans far from settlements not suitable . Community agreements required

Complementarities
. Support from machinery . Integrated water points management . In case of aquaculture need for fish nursery and fingerlings, provision of nets and materials, preservation techniques and follow-up

Capacity building requirements


. Community awareness . Setting of bylaws

Environmental risks
Low

7: Low tech/low risk measures (support to other assets) (*) Type of interventions Target Main advantages groups
. Stone collection for feeder road repairs or other structures . Women groups and vulnerable HH groups . Vulnerable groups . Same as above . Supplementary measures

Limitations
. Limited impact at HH level

Complementarities
. Complementary to several activities (roads, WH, etc)

Capacity building requirements


. NA

Environmental risks
NA

. Stone shaping and/or brick making . Manure collection for Farm Yard Manure (FYM) applications and/or compost making

. IGA . Complementary to zai pits . Can become an entrepreneurship, i.e. compost makers as service providers . Support forestry and IGAs at homestead level -

. Specific tools required . Cultural barriers

. Same as above . Organic farming in marginal areas . Reclamation of crusted soils using zai, tassa, etc . Homestead dev. . Same as above

. NA . NA

NA NA

. Manuring of planting pits (forestry in degraded areas) . Others (list by 1Q of 2008)

. Same as above -

. Same as above

. NA

NA

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The following are some visuals of the FFA activities described above:

Plate 15: Semi-circular bund constructed in Chumvi Yare, Isiolo district of Kenya (2010).

Plate 16: Rock catchment water harvesting scheme (GoK/WFP/WVI, Kenya)

Plate 17: Manyatta (homesteads) agro-forestry intensification plan. This figure includes trenches and eyebrows for fruit and other multipurpose trees, compost pits, zero grazing for dairy purposes and backyard fodder production.

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FFA Manual Module D: Implementing FFA

Useful references for pastoral areas


1. The Horn of Africa Food Security Initiative (2007) Country Reports on Multi-Stakeholders Consultations (Ethiopia, Djibouti, Uganda, Kenya, Somalia, and Eritrea; Summary Report English version; Summary Report French version. A number of these reports include relevant measures for pastoral (but also agrarian) livelihood systems. Field staff are strongly encouraged to read excerpts from these reports as they include semi-detail explanations on specific initiatives for pastoral and agro-pastoral settings. 2-A. Rainwater Water Harvesting and Management Technologies for arid and semi-arid lands in Kenya (Ministry of Arid Lands/WFP - Kenya, 2010) These guidelines include a number of technical design aspects related to specific water harvesting measures for dry zones. They are mostly suitable for agro-pastoral areas or around permanent pastoral settlements. 2-B. Rainwater Harvesting and Management Project Planning format in arid and semi arid lands of Kenya (Ministry of Arid Lands/WFP - Kenya, 2010). This planning manual completes the guideline above and provides the tools necessary to complete a landscape based community plan. 3. Pastoralist Livelihoods Initiative (PLI) Enabling Afar & Borana Livelihood Efforts, (ENABLE) Project (2008) The PLI main objectives were: (1) to improve the resilience of Borana and Afars pastoralist households to predictable emergencies, and (2) to strengthen the local capacity of systems and partnerships among government and local/traditional institutions promoting the resilience of pastoralist livelihoods. The document offers a wide spectrum of possible interventions, many of which require complementary efforts. 4. Managing the Water Buffer for Development and Climate Change Adaptation: Groundwater Recharge, Retention, Reuse and Rainwater storage Guideline - RAIN (2011) http://www.rainfoundation.org/fileadmin/PublicSite/Manuals/finalversion_3R_book_0408.pdf 5. The Pastoral Livelihood Initiative (PLI) - Improving drought response in pastoral areas of Ethiopia Somali and Afar Regions and Borena Zone of Oromiya Region (ODI 2008) (http://www.odi.org.uk/resources/download/1382.pdf) The report summarizes the overall experience of the PLI and how it complements other programmes in pastoral regions of Ethiopia. 6. Recherche sur les strategies d'adaptation des groupes pasteurs de la rgion de Diffa, Niger oriental IIED (2009). http://pubs.iied.org/pdfs/G02725.pdf. Is an excellent report on pastoral strategies, the mapping of transhumance routes, and outlining a set of response options. 7. Annex D-1, Rapid technical reference & toolkit for FFA A number of techniques summarized in Annex D-1 are suitable for dry lands and pastoral/agro-pastoral areas particularly runoff/runon systems for agroforestry and fodder production, water harvesting, etc. 8. Managing Dryland Resources A manual for Eastern and Southern Africa (IIRR 2002) http://www.preventionweb.net/files/7981_DrylandResourcesbk.pdf

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TECHNICAL DESIGN MODULE 2: TROPICAL, SUB-TROPICAL, AND WET & MOIST HIGHLANDS

2.1 Introduction
A number of countries or parts of countries with sub-tropical and generally high rainfall climate may require food assistance through FFA for example countries or regions as follows: 1. Countries with a significant past history of land degradation caused by conflict, high population rates, and with a significant proportion of mountainous or hilly and degraded topography. For example Rwanda, Burundi, Eastern DRC, Nepal, Madagascar, Peru, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ethiopian higher portion of the highlands, Haiti, etc. 2. Some of the countries with the above characteristics with the aggravating factor of being affected by cyclones or hurricanes (e.g. Haiti, Madagascar, etc) 3. Countries or parts of countries with both wet and dry seasons and one or more of the characteristics mentioned in 1-2. With regards to livelihoods, increased population rates and fragmentation of landholdings push farmers to diversify incomes by selling timber, make charcoal and sometimes hunting wildlife. Increasingly smaller farm plots are insufficient to provide all year round produce and income, pushing farmers to encroach steeper slopes or areas unsuitable for cultivation. Landslides are also common in tropical and sub-tropical areas. The deforestation problems that occur along the entire mountain ranges are not only a major risk to local livelihoods but also bear potentially dire consequences to the downstream populations. A major point worth noting is that hunger and the deterioration of food security are less evident in some of these environments, where the association green and high rainfall areas and hunger is not usually made. It is also true that compared to arid and semi-arid zones, in tropical and subtropical areas there is a greater coexistence of people who make a decent or good living and many others who do not therefore concealing these problems. Finally, the loss of precious biodiversity in these contexts is a major collective concern as tropical and subtropical environments are often the major sanctuaries of biodiversity in the world. Many of these areas are also the same areas where WFP is increasingly called upon to tackle food insecurity problems, demonstrating that these systems are at high risk of destruction which could affect entire ecosystems in the longer term.

2.2 Recognizing key biophysical and climatic features


In terms of cropping seasons These areas are where agriculture production is usually higher (with the exception of high altitudes) and can potentially recover much faster than semi-arid lands after a climatic shock. Crop production can be higher,

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with the possibility of greater use of irrigation, double cropping, and improved crop varieties. Aspects to consider will relate to cropping practices such as plough or hoe cultures, the relevance of livestock (e.g. oxen) in cropping, main cropping patterns (single, double or mixed cropping systems), fertility management practices, pests and diseases, etc. In terms of biophysical conditions These areas are usually characterized by higher content of organic matter when well vegetated soils have usually better infiltration capacity, are much deeper and higher moisture holding capacity. However, warm temperatures, high rainfall and type of soils (e.g. red soils rich in iron) can lead to rapid acidification of these soils when vegetation is removed and organic matter is depleted because of exploitative cultivation practices (lack of crop residues management and limited or no manure or compost applications, continuous burning, mono-cropping, etc.) . In mountainous terrains erosion can become extremely serious as soils are deep and similarly can be the ravines and gullies generated from poorly managed landscapes. Gullies can be 10 or more meters deep and dissect fields in all directions, making rehabilitation a difficult and complex (as well as costly) exercise. Take away: The rehabilitation of steep and mountainous degraded tropical environments requires intensive vegetative support, well integrated from the start of projects with tree, shrubs and grass species. These species need to be selected and planted based on the local agro-ecological system and peoples preferences. In such environments physical barriers such as terraces and various soil or stone bunds may not be required as vegetation strips can be more effective and cheaper. However, physical measures (always integrated with biological and vegetative measures) may be also required and of major relevance for the following main reasons: i) Steep terrains (usually above 30% gradient) would usually require a combination of physical and vegetative stabilization as vegetative strips, particularly at initial stages of establishment, are insufficient to slowdown runoff and soil erosion.

ii) Areas with steep terrains and where control grazing is problematic, physical barriers are needed to protect downstream productive fields and/or divert excess runoff. iii) Areas where physical structures are required for the production of specific water-dependent crops such as rice. iv) Areas with steep and degraded slopes (showing high disparity of soils and soil depth, limited fertility, etc) need to be treated with a combination of robust physical structures and trees/shrubs planting, and then protected from livestock interference. v) In any other area where farmers decide that specific gully control measures across valley bottoms or protection dikes are required to reclaim degraded lands and protect cultivated fields, homesteads or villages.

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Problems of hunger and associated ecosystem degradation are deceitful in these areas as non degraded parts of an area continue to produce sufficient crops. In reality these areas, once affected, are difficult to return to a satisfactory level of production if at all, as many red soils tend to become acidic and unproductive. Gullies tend to be very deep and floods capable to destroy centuries of investments in floodplains management.

2.3 FFA in tropical and sub-tropical areas: main focus


Many of the principles identified for the semi-arid and arid areas apply in tropical and sub-tropical environments (e.g. soil conservation, protection of infrastructure, integration, water and fertility management, etc). However, a major focus has to be placed on: I. Protection of existing vegetative cover: Through the sound management of existing vegetation and/or through the reforestation or enrichment plantation with multipurpose trees, shrubs and grasses/legume along conservation structures, homesteads, crop fields, farm boundaries, gullies and degraded hillsides.

II. Management of water resources: For example, through improved drainage, waterlogged areas and valley bottom reclamation, protection and development of irrigation, water diversion for productive uses, water storage and utilization, etc. III. Homestead productivity intensification: Particularly for farmers that are landless or land poor but have the possibility to grow crops around their homes, and/or manage/become land use sharers of rehabilitated or reclaimed areas. IV. Ensure feeder roads are constructed with side drains and scour checks: Additional water drains above road sides (sloping lands), culverts, and adequately covered with gravel or stones as required. The production of biomass and growth of vegetation is higher in tropical environments however, degraded and steep slopes in tropical and subtropical environments, especially those areas hit by cyclones, are difficult to stabilize with trees without support structures. A combination of spot planting using specific structures (e.g. eyebrow basins and trenches) and runoff diversion systems such as cut-off drains placed at mid-slope or at the break of slopes may be considered.

2.4 Sequence and integration of various FFA in tropical and sub-tropical areas
A logical sequence of activities should be based on what problems need to be fixed. In most cases, however, the following need to be retained: (i) The need to manage excess runoff through cut-off drains and improved waterways or dikes in highly degraded areas at high risk of tropical storms and cyclones.

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(ii) The need to manage excess rainfall in waterlogging prone areas through improving drainage, establishment of graded systems, introduction of waterlogging tolerant crops and several other water management measures. (iii) The need to consider reforestation of homesteads and degraded areas often a priority to divert the need to cut down forest areas and encroach steep slopes. The need to have significant planting material available for reforestation and biological measures in general (seeds, cuttings, seedlings, etc), demands that nurseries are established or expand their production of planting material. (iv) Utilize irrigation potential as an integrated approach and not in isolation from the entire area rehabilitation requirements. (v) The need to ensure high standards of design, implementation and regular maintenance of feeder roads. To the extent possible this activity need to be well integrated with other land management works. IMPORTANT NOTE: 1) Since feeder roads are often a preferred WFP supported FFA intervention, it is key that sufficient engineering and planning skills are in place before any rural feeder road is undertaken. In countries or areas where WFP is engaged in significant feeder roads construction measures, sufficient M&E capacity through partners or within WFP need to be ensured. Different guidelines and approaches for road maintenance and management are indicated below. 2) All possible means should be envisaged to combine, from the very beginning of implementation, different biological and physical measures able to complement and supplement each other effectively and thus significantly reduce erosion and increase production levels. Overall, if watershed management is properly planned together with communities, for instance by using participatory planning and robust technical standards, the rehabilitation of these areas and increased production can happen much faster compared to dry lands.

2.5 FFA design and technical strategies in tropical and sub-tropical areas
From a FFA and resilience building perspective the technical strategies need to acknowledge the concomitance of abundant and often excessive rainfall and one or more of the negative factors that affect food security. For example, severe erosion levels and deforested steep slopes, landslide prone areas, increased population pressure and small plots (fragmentation), and episodes of conflicts between communities (e.g. those located downstream affected by floods and those upstream which cause damage due to poor management of slopes and cutting of vegetation/overgrazing). As a result, FFA interventions may contribute to: a. Improve water management and maximize moisture storage capacity for food, forage and tree crops, thus reducing the risks of waterlogging during the rainy season and shortage of water during the lean season (s). b. Control soil erosion using vegetative methods and/or a combination of physical and biological measures

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c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. k. l. m. n. o. p.

Ensure safe evacuation of excess runoff through improved drainage systems Conserve soil, increase soil infiltration capacity and improve soil fertility Preserve and augment biomass production (fodder, food and tree crops related) Collect and store additional water for livestock and domestic uses Develop irrigation schemes in areas where high value crops cultivation or multiple cropping is possible Protect irrigation schemes and optimize use of water, particularly during the dry (lean) season2 Enable farmers to adopt effective lean season strategies Protect forests and vegetation in fragile lands alternatively, improvement of vegetation cover through reforestation and vegetative stabilization measures Support re-vegetate farm boundaries, homestead, road sides, stream banks and for increased production of biomass, and recycling of part of the biomass to improve soil fertility levels Establish nurseries and multiplication of planting materials (for crops, fodder, and trees) Protect of valuable infrastructure such as roads, schools, health facilities and villages or dwellings exposed to landslides, mudflows and flash floods Ensure that feeder roads and related infrastructure are built/rehabilitated to withstand long rainy season and rainstorms Stabilize landslides and protect landslide prone areas with tree planting and stabilization measures Stabilize active gullies and ravines with vegetative and/or biophysical measures

There are two main contexts to consider namely (i) Steep terrains, and (ii) Gently sloping terrains with flood plains. The following main technical strategies, discussed for each one of these two contexts, are not exhaustive bit present some of the main ones possible within these contexts.

2.5.1 Steep and/or mountainous terrains:


Description: Mountainous and steep terrains which are often degraded, in high rainfall areas (tropics and subtropics), with high population densities, severe or moderate deforestation and erosion, and frequent or occasional landslides. FFA activities can include: Plantation of steep slopes using direct planting or structures such as eyebrow basis and reinforced trenches (e.g. on stony and shallow soils) Semi-permeable stone bunds Landslide protection measures on steeper slopes (inter-woven plugs and ravine head cut stabilization, etc) Cutoff drains and waterways combined with gully control measures or storage of collected runoff Grass strips and hedgerows of multipurpose grass and legume shrubs along the contours or on graded bunds and terraces Re-modelling of deep soils (e.g. China loess plateau bench terraces, Rwanda terraces radicales, etc) for bench terracing and cultivation of high value crops (e.g. rice, bananas, etc) Homestead plantations using multi-storey agro-forestry systems, compost making, water cisterns, fuel efficient stoves,

Subtropical environments can have an abundant rainy season followed by a relatively long dry spell or season, particularly in specific mountainous environments
2

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Nursery establishment for high valued fruit and timber/fodder trees growing and cash crops planting material multiplication Feeder roads of lower width (3-4 meters with side drainage) and constructed with sufficient number of culverts and side drainage to the extent possible feeder roads covered with gravel (e.g. laterite materials) and stone slabs (in portions of the road most exposed to potential excess runoff, reinforced stone shoulders on turns, etc) Protection structures above roads prone to landslides (runoff breaks, gully plugs and check dams on small gullies, vegetative belts, grids, etc) Integrated gully control with the possibility to convert gully lands into highly productive units (using Soil Sedimentation and Overflow dams, large gully check dams, re-vegetation, etc) Water reservoirs, silt traps, fish ponds, irrigation schemes development and protection

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Examples: FFA on steep slopes (1) Agro-forestry systems on steep slopes (Burundi) Plate 15: Soil bunds are visible in between small plots of cultivated fields. On upper parts of the hillside scattered trees protect patches of less stable ground (Burundi WFP).

Plate 16: Small heaps of compost visible in lower parts of the fields. (2) Community Forestry with Household Benefits Plate 17: Community forest managed using selective cutting and rotation (Chencha, Ethiopia, MOA/WFP, MERET). Fields and road infrastructure downstream are protected from heavy rains

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(3) Deforested and cultivated steep slopes treated with terraces and vegetative stabilization (Haiti) Plate 18: Photo on the left shows small stepped terracing on steep slopes stabilized with Napier grass (World Bank Project - Haiti) The photo below shows the stabilized terraces with dense plantation of grasses worth noting the presence of scattered trees

Note: The main selection issue is to avoid that more unstable slopes are deforested and then terraced for cultivation. These measures need to be carefully planned and support reforestation or agro-forestry as a transition to reforestation

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(4) Community forest rehabilitation on slopes and terraced fields downstream Plate 19: Mixed plantations and terraces (lower side of the watershed) after 20 years from integrated rehabilitation (Ethiopia, MOA/WFP, MERET)

(5) Effective vegetative fences around homesteads Plate 20: Grevillea robusta trees, bananas, and fodder shrubs planted behind a thick fence of finger euphorbia (Burundi traditional systems) such systems can be replicated by supporting the multiplication of vegetative cuttings for the fence and those for fruit and multipurpose trees on nurseries (Alaba, Ethiopia, traditional fencing)

(6) Access roads in difficult escarpments

Plate 21: Road protection systems side drains and runoff control systems for major tree planting and stabilization build above constructed road in high rainfall areas (high/medium altitude) (MERET, Amhara region of Ethiopia, MOA/WFP, MERET)

Cutoff drains and infiltration pits

trenches

road

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(7) Detail of paved road flooded by heavy rains Plate 22: Left - road temporarily flooded but remaining functional and not damaged (Madagascar, WFP) Right feeder road and paved waterway (dual function) in high rainfall and waterlogged prone areas noticeable the entry point of the graded stone faced bunds (Ethiopia, MOA/WFP, MERET)

(8) Nurseries as income generation for farmers and women

Plate 23: Picture above - project beneficiary trained in grafting of fruit trees and seasonally employed in seedling production (Alaba, Ethiopia, MOA/WFP, MERET). On the right photo see detail of grass strips along the contours along soil bunds. Fruit trees also planted in between grass strips.

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(9) Water harvesting

Plate 24: Water pond (excavated) for domestic use and irrigation of a nursery approx. 7000 m

Plate 25: Micro-ponds (lined up with plastic membrane) for homestead horticulture

Plates 26 & 27: . Micro-ponds (small sized micro-pond for individual users, approx. 60 m (photo on left) . Larger micro-pond for group of households, approx. 500 m (photo on right) (Cemented ponds for horticulture purposes) (MOA/WFP, MERET, Ethiopia)

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(10)

Reclamation of gully lands

Plate 28: The rehabilitation and transformation of a gully land into productive units by building soil sedimentation and overflow dams (SSD) is possible across large gullies and in all agro-ecological conditions (MOA/WFP, MERET, Ethiopia)

Plate 29: Series of SSD dams in Myanmar (FAO) a large gully network can be converted into series of production units for cultivation of rice or other crops (maize crops grow in the first plot recovered above the first structure)

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2.5.2 Gently sloping terrains with flood plains


Description: Gentle sloping terrains mixed with flood plains in high rainfall areas, with tropical conditions, significant forest cover but showing discontinuities, and low access to food during the rainy season i.e. with severe access to food problems caused by lack of social and market infrastructure, lack of planting materials (e.g. post conflict areas). FFA activities can include: Measures listed in 5.2.1 (steep and mountainous terrains) apply under these conditions, except for landslides (which are rare in these contexts), and: Prevent and put a stop to shifting cultivation (slash and burn) Support to training on productivity intensification and low cost fertility enhancement measures (mulching of crop residues, etc) Restoration of overgrown coffee, cocoa or other cash crop plantations Reclamation of swamplands for rice, horticulture or other cash crops cultivation Reforestation of cleared spots and agro-forestry when full reforestation not possible Rehabilitation of irrigation canals and irrigation schemes Water reservoirs, fish ponds and aquaculture Application of feeder road construction standards for tropical environments (high and continuous rainfall) Culverts construction, bridges, etc

Examples: FFA on gentle slopes terrains with flood plains (1) Clearing of overgrown vegetation around coffee and cocoa plantations

(2) Reclamation of swamps and waterlogged valleys

Plate 30: Clearing of overgrown vegetation in old cocoa plantations after conflict in Sierra Leone provides income generation opportunities and rebuild livelihoods in war affected areas a GTZ project promotes organic cocoa production

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(2) Clearing of swampland for rehabilitation Main canal

Plate 31: A good example of swamp land rehabilitation for maize and wheat production in Rwanda (WFP-MINAGRI) main canal and secondary canals built using FFW

(3) The need to work on prevention of fires and work on acceptable alternatives Plate 32: Left photo: widespread use of slash & burn cultivation observed in Madagascar destroys remnants of natural forests. The soil remains exposed to rain showers, particularly after ploughing (severe erosion). Agreements with communities should include the removal of this practice and the protection of remaining forests while investing in reforestation or agro-forestry systems.

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Highlights from this section: the technical strategies in wet and moist areas are extremely diverse depending on rainfall, soils and topography but largely apply to agrarian systems. Some of the most difficult landscapes to rehabilitate in the world are included in these environments (e.g. Nepal, Rwanda, etc). Higher rainfall usually implies greater opportunities to grow trees, increase vegetation cover, and accumulate water for productive uses. Critical in these areas will be to stabilize community and market infrastructure, particularly in unstable terrains, and integrate biological and physical structures immediately.

Useful Technical References


Annex D-1 provides a rapid description of a number of key technologies that field staff may find important within the context of tropical and sub-tropical contexts. However, a more detail description and technical specifications of these and other measures are also available and included in various guidance notes and links provided in this PGM. The guidelines and references below also offer a number of techniques relevant for FFA in tropical and sub-tropical areas: 1. Community Based Participatory Watershed Guidelines Part 1 (Ethiopia, MOARD 2005, pages 81-91, 93-99,101-110, and others till page 165 context specific) these guidelines apply to a wide range of contexts and specific interventions are explained in semi-detail as Infotechs Annex D-1: Rapid technical reference & toolkit for FFA - A number of techniques summarized in Annex D-1 are suitable for sub-tropical/tropical areas particularly soil and water conservation and safe disposal measures, agro-forestry and vegetative stabilization, and water harvesting, etc. Rural Road Maintenance Management - (Cambodia, 1999) a guideline that focuses on practical steps for managing rural roads and ensuring their sustainability. http://www.ruralworks.com/reports/maintenance/MaintenanceManual.pdf Rural Roads Maintenance (ILO, 2007) a manual that puts emphasis on the fact that rehabilitation of rural roads as one of the key elements of improving access and thereby reducing poverty, is justified only if equal attention is paid to the maintenance of these roads and, hence, the sustainability of physical access. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/employment/recon/eiip/download/setp/setp19.pdf Integrated Rural Accessibility Planning in Nepal (ILO, 2005) A manual that details detail planning for rural roads construction and management from community to district level. http://www.ifrtd.org/new/issues/IRAP/Guidelines/Integrated%20Rural%20Accessibility%20Planning%2 0in%20Nepal.pdf Nurseries and related references this site provides a significant number of links related to the establishment and management of tree nurseries and various references to a variety of planting materials and growth requirements. http://www.fao.org/docrep/006/AD228E/AD228E07.htm

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

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7.

Tree nurseries establishment for multipurpose tree planting this handbook from Kenya developed for extension workers and farmers helps in guiding staff through the major steps required for the establishment of a nursery. Major principles apply to all contexts and need to take into consideration species selection, farmers preferences, market issues and seasonal requirements. http://worldagroforestrycenter.net/sea/Publications/files/manual/MN0045-10.PDF

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TECHNICAL DESIGN MODULE 3: FFA in flood prone lands

3.1 Introduction
This section does not relate FFA to a single agro-ecological zone but across all zones which are prone or are recurrently affected by flooding. In this regard, there are a number of technical considerations that concern specific areas that need to be included in programme design and the selection and design of specific activities.

3.2 Countries or areas within countries highly or constantly affected by floods


Most of these areas get flooded as they are geographically located downstream of major river basins which fall largely outside the control of the country or regions to regulate. This becomes particularly dramatic when most of the flooding depends from the concomitance of high powered tropical storms and/or cyclones and the opening of dams upstream. Key factors to consider would include the variations in terms of extent of flooding and the agro-ecological features of the area most affected by the raising water. In Bangladesh for example, flooding occurs in about 20% of the country and may cover over 50-60% of the land every during bad years (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Floods_in_Bangladesh). In Mozambique flooding is also a recurrent phenomenon, depending on heavy rains and cyclones falling over the main river basins (e.g. Limpopo http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2000_Mozambique_flood) and the regulation of water of major dams in Zimbabwe and/or South Africa. In addition to Early Warning and Preparedness work, FFA will need to focus on flood protection measures and protection against tropical storms and cyclones.

3.3 Areas in countries recurrently flooded on a seasonal basis


Seasonally, or intermittently flooded areas, are those that experience these floods for 3 to 4 months a year. These areas can be found in both semi-arid and arid environments as well as tropical/sub-tropical areas. 1. Flooding in dry zones: in these areas, high intensity storms can generate floods over small or wide areas as a result from the expanse of river beds. This phenomenon is critical for cropping on the valleys of many parts of the Sahel (called also epandage in West Africa Sahelian countries) which takes advantage of the moisture accumulated into the soil following the receding water. However, many areas nowadays suffer from violent overflows resulting from destructive flooding which is the reflection of deforestation and depletion of the vegetative cover on major upstream catchments. Following high intensity rains, fast speed runoff drains into river beds that then flood cropped fields with excessive force, damaging crops. In this case FFA will focus largely on the same measures indicated for the dry lands however, positive impact on reduction of destructive flooding requires large scale efforts which

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have rarely been pursued in the last 3 decades with the exception of parts of Niger, Burkina Faso and Ethiopia, India, China and a few other countries as localized efforts. 2. Flooding in tropical and subtropical environments: these are areas where seasonal flooding occurs in lowland areas affected by drainage problems, flood plains and where years of deforestation have increase the level and duration of seasonal flooding. This results in difficult or no access to markets and social services for weeks or months in specific areas and communities. In these areas poorest households reduce food consumption, dietary diversity drops, human diseases and low access to health facilities increases and unplanned seasonal outmigration adds considerable burden to families. Women and children are usually the most affected and malnutrition rates spike during these periods. FFA will need to be linked to watershed rehabilitation and improving access to food during periods of seasonal flooding. 3. Occasional flooding and twinning of droughts-floods: There are also countries or regions with in countries that witness episodes of flooding only every few years but with increased frequency due to a combination of factors, largely to the slow degradation of ecosystems and the consequent increase of runoff from less vegetated or deforested areas. There are also increasingly episodes of floods following prolonged droughts these are of limited duration but extremely destructive as bare large catchment areas can release massive amount of runoff downstream into valleys and cultivated areas. Significant floods, for instance, occur in parts of Northern Kenya, South-Eastern Ethiopia and Northern Uganda after long periods of dryness followed by major rainfall downpours. In this particular case the type of interventions that need to be undertaken in settled agricultural areas will need to be closely linked to those interventions occurring in areas used by pastoralists.

3.4 Critical intervention within these contexts but do not include FFA
1. Early warning and preparedness measures (mapping of areas at risk and with a history of flooding, prepositioning of food stocks, identification of higher grounds or locations where people can gather and wait for help, water and other essential items stock, training and awareness, provision of essential equipment to civil protection authorities, partners or specific communities, etc). 2. Unconditional seasonal safety nets provided to poorest and asset-less households unable to work. 3. Major capacity development of government institutions and partners on Disaster Preparedness and Management ODEP http://epweb.wfp.org/ep2/hp/ and related links.

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3.5 FFA main focus in flood prone areas


FFA in flood prone areas will focus on: 1. Disaster risk reduction efforts both aimed at mitigating the impact of the floods on livelihoods and to limit its damages on key social and access to food infrastructure. 2. Supporting building of cyclone proof shelters and homes. 3. Support to upstream watershed rehabilitation (see previous sections) to prevent runoff formation. 4. Build feeder roads able to withstand periods of flooding or stand above flooding levels. Sequence and integration of possible FFA interventions: The type, number and coverage of interventions required to control widespread flooding is most of the time beyond one single country and often more than one country capacity to plan, find adequate resources, and implement. Countries like Bangladesh have embarked into massive investments in the past that have attempted to control flooding and mitigate the impact of floods with mixed results. Overall, it is undeniable that the amazing work done in past decades (and continuing to date) on dikes construction, the raising of ground levels, and the construction of cyclone proof shelters has had tremendous positive impact on the local population. However, much remains to be done and WFP contribution to support DRR interventions should remain a major priority in places like Bangladesh and areas in other countries affected by similar problems. In terms of sequence and integration there is a need to consider local contexts and determine why and from where water comes from, who is affected and for how long, and what has already been done to tackle this problem, on what scale and effectiveness. In other areas intermittently affected by floods or where flooding is the manifestation and consequence of the gradual deterioration of ecosystems, the range of measures will not be dissimilar from the ones mentioned in Technical Modules 1 and 2.

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Overall and depending from context one or more of the following need to be considered in programming FFA:

3.5.1 Flooding in tropical and subtropical areas


1. Flood protection measures should be linked to flood risk management planning work that need to be developed based on each country specific context of flood risks; 2. In countries where areas are predictably affected by floods due to cyclones, tropical storms and the concomitant topographical conditions that cause flooding (flat terrains, etc) measures such as shelters on higher grounds and more of flood protection measures such as dikes, raised grounds and reinforced sections of river bends to avoid the erosion of river banks and clumping would be possible interventions suitable for FFA. 3. The need to ensure adequate engineering capacity to build flood protection structures as a key precondition either from government or implementing partners (otherwise FFA not advisable). 4. The need to look at possible upstream watersheds treatment whenever it is possible to realistically reduce flooding. Large scale watershed management would depend from the availability of major joint rehabilitation programmes or productive safety nets with strong focus on DRR and adaptation to climate change. WFP can become a major stakeholder in such programmes by contributing to reduce vulnerability, offset seasonal hunger and provide the means for labour-based efforts of scale. This assumes major resources and capacity in place for planning, implementation and M&E. 5. Consider the utilization of regulated flooding to improve irrigation potential (as an integrated approach), and support the stabilization of embankments with vegetative material from nurseries and seed multiplication centres employing most food insecure households (e.g. the ultra-poor in Bangladesh). 6. The need to ensure high standards of design, implementation and regular maintenance of floodresistant feeder roads or feeder roads to be raised above flooding levels.

3.5.2 Flooding in dry zones and valley flooding in mountainous areas


1. Same as point (4) above adapted to these contexts and; 2. The realization that control flooding in dry lands would require a combination of large scale efforts over critical watershed areas to harness runoff using various water harvesting systems (largely activities described in Technical Modules 1 and 2 above and Annex D-1).

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Useful References The following guidelines offer a number of relevant techniques in these contexts 1. ISDR (International Strategy for Disaster Management) guidelines on flood management it includes background information on various aspects of flood management which are useful to position possible FFA interventions as part of a wide set of preparedness, prevention and mitigation efforts. http://www.unisdr.org/eng/library/isdr-publication/flood-guidelines/Guidelines-for-reducing-floodslosses.pdf 2. Community Based Participatory Watershed Guidelines (Ethiopia, MOARD 2005) these guidelines are not specific to flood prone environments but some of the techniques described apply to a wide range of contexts and can be relevant in flood prone areas with occasional seasonal flooding or intermittent flooding such as in parts of the Sahel and Eastern Africa. 3. Rural Road Maintenance Management (Cambodia, 1999): A guideline that focuses on practical steps for managing rural roads and ensuring their sustainability. http://www.ruralworks.com/reports/maintenance/MaintenanceManual.pdf 4. Roads in flooded environments a number of experiences can be taken as reference. For instance flood resistant roads supported by IFAD in Bangladesh, http://www.ifad.org/newsletter/pi/20.htm 5. Best Practice Guidelines for Integrated Flood Risk Management Planning and Impact Evaluation (Cambodia The Mekong River Commission Secretariat, 2009), - these guidelines describe detail steps regarding community planning and impact evaluation in flood risk management. http://www.mrcmekong.org/download/fmmp-reports/3B_BPG_IFRM_P&IE_21Dec09.pdf 6. Mangrove plantations and nurseries this link provides information on how to raise mangrove seedlings and key requirements. http://www.unep-wcmc.org/forest/restoration/pdfs/Mangrove_Nursery_manual_HR.pdf http://www.preventionweb.net/files/13225_ISMEManualoncoastalforestrehabilita.pdf 7. Tree nurseries establishment for multipurpose tree planting this handbook from Kenya developed for extension workers and farmers helps in guiding staff through the major steps required for the establishment of a nursery. Major principles apply to all contexts and need to take into consideration species selection, farmers preferences, market issues and seasonal requirements. http://worldagroforestrycenter.net/sea/Publications/files/manual/MN0045-10.PDF 8. Forestry and Agroforestry Development Interventions, Technical Note for Training of Trainers (ToT) Betru Nedessa WFP Haiti, 2010

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3.6 FFA design and technical strategies in flood prone areas


The following types of interventions are considered (excerpt from Best Practice Guidelines for Integrated Flood Risk Management Planning and Impact Evaluation, Cambodia): 1. Structural measures aiming at the reduction of the flood hazard, i.e.: Creation of storage and/or retention capacity, including small scale retention at field level Reservoirs and river floodplain restoration Improvement discharge capacity by river and/or diversion works Dikes and/or polder schemes 2. Structural measures aiming at the reduction of the flood vulnerability, i.e.: Flood proofing of buildings and infrastructure 3. Non structural measures aiming at the reduction of flood hazards, i.e.: Watershed management Forestation (e.g. mangrove plantations) Unsealing 4. Nonstructural measures aiming at the reduction of the flood vulnerability, i.e.: Land use control Awareness raising Flood forecasting 5. Disaster management measures aiming at the reduction of the damages once flooding is imminent, i.e.: Early warning Emergency planning Temporary defences The following focus on main flood proofing efforts where FFA activities may have a major support role as part of major DRR and adaptation to climate hazards3 plans. Other complementary watershed rehabilitation and management measures are explained in previous modules. 1. Flood resistant feeder roads These can be divided into two types: The first can go underwater without being damaged and the second type stay above peak flooding levels. The latter is common in areas affected by prolonged flooding while the first type would be an appropriate solution for temporarily flooded zones. Raising roads can be very demanding in terms of size of the embankment and excavation needs that take away land from cultivation.

Recurrence of climate shocks is likely to increase in the longer term due to climate change effects. In a number of countries where WFP operates, there is evidence of increased frequency of climate shocks in the last few decades.
3

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2. Raising of homesteads and of livestock paddocks This activity need to be integrated with other flood protection measures such as flood protection embankments or dikes. 3. Coastal line defences such as dikes, polders and tidal flood protection systems To avoid the intrusion of saline water, etc. These measures require major engineering capacity and resources to be in place. Such past efforts did not always bear expected results as communities have not always been involved in these activities, and some of these schemes have hampered the natural flow of beneficial flooding in some areas. 4. Coastal line plantations To control tidal flooding and storm surges (i.e. mangroves). 5. Support to the construction of cyclone proofed houses and shelters This effort will need specialized partners (e.g. UN HABITAT, specific NGOs, and Gvt specialists) and the provision of adequate complementary resources and materials. 6. Stabilization of embankments using multipurpose fodder and tree species Including seasonal stabilization of irrigation embankments and dikes with legume shrubs (e.g. pigeon peas, species suitable for forage production to feed livestock during lean season, etc). This activity need to build upon a wide range of embankment stabilization efforts undertaken in countries like India, Indonesia, Philippines and Bangladesh, to name a few. Bangladesh, for example, in addition to commonly spaced trees planted on embankments could benefit from a large scale legume shrubs seasonal stabilization of small and large structures to increase production of pulses which are currently being supplanted by cereal cultivation. 7. Homestead development Planting fruit trees and/or robust vegetative fencing on the top of flood resistant walling, etc.

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Examples (flood prone areas) (1) Flood resistant feeder road

Plate 33 Flood-resistant roads in Bangladesh (example of IFAD-supported Sunamganj Community-Based Resource Management Project) the road is paved with slabs made of concrete and sealed with cement. The road is about 2 meters top wide allowing the circulation of carts and light vehicles but not of trucks that can damage the road and dike.

(2) Drainage channels and protection of irrigated fields in Bangladesh Plate 34 Main excavation on drainage lines for protection against seasonal flooding of homesteads (below photo left bank) and of rice fields (below photo left bank) These major drainage canals have been built in the past using FFW and regularly maintained to remove silt and raise additional ground in other parts of the area. However, additional stabilization of the middle slope of the embankments may be possible using legume shrubs on as seasonal basis (for example by using pigeon peas and other legumes planted in rows)

(Source WFP, Dhaka)

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(3) Raising homesteads above flooding levels Plate 35 Raised ground with on top the homestead this activity is not done on isolation but integrated within larger flood protection measures, often on top of existing raising grounds and embankments (Bangladesh, WFP, 2010)

(4) Raising feeder roads to ensure access to basic services Plate 36 Work on raising road levels (Bangladesh, WFP, 2010)

(5) Vegetative belts on stabilized embankments around homesteads Plate 37 Vegetative belt using bamboo, fodder shrubs, trees and cash crops (bananas, etc) (Bangladesh, traditional fencing, 2010)

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(6) Embankment plantation (Bangladesh)

Plate 38 Water pond and rice fields fenced with robust embankments and planted with trees these plantations show, however, that ample space remains available between and below the trees for plantation of seasonal shrubs and legume crops.

(7) Tropical storm resistant houses (Madagascar)

Plate 39 Houses are designed to resist the impact of moderate cyclones and built with specific construction criteria and orientation based on wind direction (WFP, 2008)

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Highlights from this section: the technical challenges in flood prone areas relate to both the type and scale of interventions necessary to reduce the risk of destructive floods, and to the possibility of building or strengthening assets able to withstand floods when they occur. These two strategies can occur in parallel although the second (assets able to withstand floods) are often the main priority in areas or countries where flooding problems are massively complex and large scale. Raising grounds, making roads flood proofed and stabilizing embankments are some of the key measures complementary to early warning and rapid response mechanisms required in flood prone areas. However, several activities and approaches (e.g. community based watershed rehabilitation, etc) highlighted in Technical Modules 1 and 2 should be considered as integral part of a flood control efforts.

3.7 Other contexts


Note: In addition to the above there are other specific contexts which are country or sub-region specific that require different approaches although some of the measures listed above would also be relevant in these. For example: I. High altitude mountain ranges with snow caps and melting cycles, and long dry seasons Many of the measures listed in above section would apply with differences in design, specific attention on selection of species, collection of melted water, etc. Deserts and areas affected by extreme dryness This second group is partially dealt in the pastoral section for those areas bordering the lower fringes of the arid zone. However, there are limited FFA efforts possible in areas with rainfall <200mm, except for some dry land forestry and sand dunes fixation. Dense forests This third group would require limited or no FFA except for forest preservation and protection, specific activities such as collection of tree seeds or specific products, maintenance of feeder roads, and special projects linked to reintegration of marginal populations and support to forest management.

II.

III.

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TECHNICAL DESIGN MODULE 4: COMMUNITY AND MARKET INFRASTRUCTURE

4.1 Introduction
The following interventions may be considered as cross cutting all contexts although for feeder roads ample reference has been already made in previous sections. This section will provide additional references to feeder roads construction and maintenance, and other related specific technical aspects. Furthermore, additional FFA interventions are listed (social assets, etc) for possible consideration as WFP food assistance may be required to assist partners in such type of interventions under specific circumstances and joint programmes.

4.2 Main FFA


Three main sets of interventions are considered, namely: Feeder roads Footpaths and tracks Social and market infrastructure (excluding feeder roads)

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4.2.1 Feeder Roads


WFP is largely involved in feeder roads maintenance, repair or construction. Overall, WFP focuses on community based feeder roads, linking communities to main roads and towns. Context specific technical aspects linked to feeder roads construction have been described in the previous sections. This section treats their rationale in broader terms, to underline their key role in promoting access to food and markets, and to complementary rehabilitation efforts such as local purchase, and access to education and health services.

Key aspects to consider: This activity is required to improve access to food, markets and essential social services. The construction of feeder roads is often seen as an ideal employment generation scheme in a number of rural rehabilitation and infrastructure restoration projects around the world. Feeder roads can be used either as: I. An emergency activity: To restore immediate access to food and emergency relief to isolated communities at times of shocks, An early recovery intervention: To rebuilt access to food and restore trade and access to basic services (post conflict, post disaster), An enabling development effort: To free up new market potential areas, complete a major rehabilitation effort providing access to markets for newly developed areas (e.g. irrigation schemes, support to P4P, etc)

II.

III.

WFP support to feeder roads is usually labour intensive (e.g. approximately 70-80 of labour inputs out of total costs) or labour-based (40-50% of labour inputs). However, the levels of vulnerability and the number of needed beneficiaries should not be the reason why feeder roads are selected as an activity. Feeder roads should be selected only when there is a robust justification for their construction or maintenance and when the minimum technical and capacity requirements are ensured. Maintenance schemes are justified only for major restoration of these assets, for instance when feeder roads are impassable following years of neglect caused by conflict or because of sudden shocks such as landslides, excess runoff and floods, etc.

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Design: Feeder roads require specialized design and, to the extent possible, need to get through an environmental screening process before proceeding with their design and construction. Feeder roads should be increasingly designed to have less impact on the land they cross and be of narrower width compared to all weather trunk roads. Before considering feeder roads, alternatives such as mountain tracks and foot or mule paths (see next section) may need to be considered. Therefore, feeder roads may not be always required. There are experiences in Nepal, Pakistan, South Sudan and Afghanistan that need to be tapped into to expand the scope of such type of FFA. Example

Building the rationale for feeder roads: the case of Southern Sudan
Roads are the backbone of development, access to food, markets and inputs, and access to basic education and health services. Unfortunately Southern Sudan has a very small trunk road network. There exist only around 3000km gravel roads out of 5000km identified as key trunk roads. Over 7000km of feeder roads have been identified, but to date very little has been done for these key access roads to link to food production centers. The greater the isolation of communities the higher is the risk of exposure to malnutrition, disease and hunger. Massive flooding problems further contribute to isolate entire counties and parts of several States during the rainy season. A significant increase of investments in the rehabilitation of the feeder road network needs to be perceived as a key food security imperative in Southern Sudan. Access to food through feeder roads rehabilitation and community based maintenance will need to become a major component of any Food Security framework and of any safety net programme. Feeder roads will free up markets, encourage farmers to produce more and access inputs and technical support faster. They will increase the perception of State presence, as well as enable the use of a broader variety of transfers (cash, food & cash and vouchers) to support safety nets as markets and financial services develop. Feeder roads will also be important for pastoralists, particularly at times of shocks as commercial off-take of weak animals or an enhancement of the outreach capacity of veterinary services for vaccination of animals will be essential to prevent the collapse of these livelihoods which often triggers conflict over pastures and other resources. Anecdotal evidence appears to suggest the correlation between the lack of access roads and insecurity as communities are isolated from protection. The vastness and complex nature of the terrain in Southern Sudan, e.g. black cotton soils, flood prone areas, etc, demand that very good technical and organizational capabilities are put in place. The use of technically competent partners could also become an opportunity to support community participation in seasonal employment schemes, particularly in areas with high vulnerability and seasonal food insecurity. To this effect feeder roads, although requiring significant mechanized and material support because of the nature of unstable soils and flooded terrains in Southern Sudan, could also include community participation in various aspects of their repair or construction. This is an opportunity to provide employment opportunities to specific groups such as women, untrained youth or former combatants, and to landless or asset-poor households.

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As many feeder roads tend to cross areas with communities (small or large) located along the way or nearby their villages, e.g. within a 5-10 km radius from the feeder road, specific arrangements could be made to complement this activity with community mobilization and self-employment efforts for the management of sections of the feeder roads. Private sector or the Government may decide to allocate funds to specific communities engaged and equipped to maintain feeder roads on an ongoing basis, thus avoid expensive maintenance at every few years. Providing employment opportunities to communities using specialized partners is also linked to the possibility to use cash or vouchers as a mode of payment and specific complementary support measures may be considered in the form of vouchers for tools or seeds as a start up for specific groups willing to engage in agriculture. NGOs with consolidated expertise in microfinance like BRAC and agencies like FAO could support such complementary programmes, and use the feeder roads as entry points for more integrated food security endeavours. There are also opportunities for feeder roads not directly linked to highly vulnerable areas but to areas where there is untapped agriculture potential currently highly constrained by lack of access to markets. These areas are of high interest to WFP from the perspective of the potential increase of produce that could be purchased and transported in food insecure States or counties. Although major attention should be placed to free up areas highly affected by seasonal hunger due to poor access, a number of feeder roads will need to be constructed in existing productive corridors.

Useful References
The following are links related to technical standards and designs used in various contexts. Suggestion is made for field staff to refer to these experiences when developing proposals for feeder roads or providing partners with the required documentation needed to prepare FLAs. 1. Contractors Handbook for Labour-Based Road Works (ILO):
http://www.ilo.org/public/english/employment/recon/eiip/download/zam_contr_hand.pdf http://www.transport-links.org/transport_links/filearea/publications/1_471_PA1290_1993.pdf http://www.ilo.org/public/french/employment/recon/eiip/publ/reference/general.htm

2. Manual for the supervision of labour based road rehabilitation works (ILO):
http://www.ilo.org/public/english/employment/recon/eiip/download/lbt_road_rehab.pdf http://www.ilo.org/skills/areas/lang--en/WCMS_DOC_SKL_ARE_DBL_EN/index.htm

3. Road Maintenance Manual


http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---asia/---robangkok/documents/publication/wcms_bk_pb_226_en.pdf

4. Emergency road repair Framework for the implementation of Community Labour Based Road Maintenance in Emergency Road Repair Project Southern Sudan WFP 2008

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5. Green roads on steep mountains The experience from a few countries and Nepal in particular illustrates the need for roads that have a low impact on the ecology and that are implemented following a phased approach to allow stabilization and proper layout and construction of drainage measures. The following illustrate the concept of green roads developed by GTZ and local Swiss NGO partner in Nepal and supported by WFP this approach is now been adopted in large parts of remote areas of rural Nepal. A must read report and technical guidance is the GTZ/SDC Green Roads in Nepal - Best Practices Report produced in 1999: http://www.trans-web.ch/mobility/downloads/Green_Roads_in_Nepal.pdf Green Road Approach in Rural Road Construction for the Sustainable Development of Nepal (A. D. Mulmi, Department of Roads, Nepal) http://www.ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/jsd/article/view/2605/3699 Harmonizing Rural Road Development with Mountain Environment: Green Roads in Nepal (H. R. Shrestha, SCAEF - Nepal) http://scaef.org.np/conference/conference/pdf/Session-6/9.%20Hare%20Ram%20%20Green%20Road%20-%20Theme.pdf

6. Rural roads and WFP - examples from the field Presentation on WFP experience on rural roads at IFAD workshop on Rural Roads, Transportation and Travel (RTT), and the relevance of watershed management; 2008.

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4.2.2 Footpaths and Tracks


Important activities under several contexts where space is constrained by crowded housing or specific conditions of the terrain such as steep slopes. A narrower footpath or track may be preferred to wider roads to improve access between communities. The guidelines below include a number of design, layout and implementation aspects for the construction and management of footpaths and tracks, with practical and interesting examples applicable under different contexts.

Useful References
Footpaths and Tracks - A Field Manual for their Construction and Improvement (2002, I.T. TRANSPORT Ltd.) http://www.ittransport.co.uk/documents/Footpath%20manual.pdf

4.2.3 Social and market infrastructure (excluding feeder roads)


WFP has also supported the repair, rehabilitation and construction of various social assets such as school classrooms, and others such as the construction of grain stores, improvement of market places, etc. Most commonly found activities supported through FFA under this category are the following: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Repair and/or Construction of classrooms Repair and/or Construction of gender friendly sanitation devices in schools Bricks making Thatching and roofing Construction of protection shelters Construction of grain stores

The design and construction of these assets, particularly classroom and sanitation devices need to adhere to safe technical standards provided through the Government protocols available or developed in each country by qualified and delegated (by Government) partners. Alternatively, internationally agreed standards need to be considered by WFP and the implementing partner with regards to the construction of classrooms and sanitation devices. The role of WFP in this type of FFA is largely confined to complement other partners support and inputs and to promote self-help efforts. The provision of food or cash incentives for a proportion of the labour provided by beneficiaries to build these assets need to be seen as one component only of what partners provide. FFA should not become the substitute for funds that should have been provided by the Government or other partners for these projects. Therefore, support to activities such as repair or construction of schools should be well justified, often as post conflict or after a major shock occurrence, and as an exceptional measure. The design, complexity and costs of these structures can vary enormously depending on each of the country contexts, construction protocols, rules and standards, and of the materials used. To the extent possible, very low or no use of building materials that deplete local natural resources should be used to support the

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establishment of these assets, e.g. avoid the felling of valuable trees for construction purposes, ensure construction does not occur in unsuitable places such as on slide prone hillsides, flood prone areas, near gullies, etc.

Useful References
There are no specific references as the technical standards are country and location specific adherence to high quality standards is, however, a requirement, particularly for safety reasons, and should be ensured in all FLA.

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Others FFA interventions (complementary measures)

5.1 Gully control measures


Gully control measures have been described in a few contexts above but can be also defined as complementary to many other assets building or their repair. Gullies are the ultimate result of severe erosion, dissect landscapes cutting through productive cultivated or grazing land, and carry a lot of sediments downstream. Therefore small or large gullies represent a major threat to assets such as water ponds, farm dams, terracing, irrigation schemes development, and feeder roads. Gully control is therefore essential to stabilize eroded catchments and to prevent the destruction of those many community and household assets. Main interventions include: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Loose stone check dams Brushwood checks (vegetative measures) Soil Sedimentation and overflow dams Gully reshaping and re-vegetation (often integrated with one of the above) Gabion checks

These measures are integrated with other watershed development works and their design needs to be related to the estimates the size of the catchment and expected runoff, gradient of the gully bed, type of soils, width of the gully, rainfall patterns, and the potential use of the reclaimed gully area. To this effect, gullies can become important assets for landless or land poor farmers that can use these areas for tree, fodder and food crops production. Some of these interventions are described in the technical info-techs of Annex D-1

Useful references:
http://www.fao.org/docrep/006/ad082e/AD082e03.htm Community based Participatory Watershed Development Guideline Part 1

Plate 40: Gabion checks and gully reshaping (in steps) planted with grasses (Adwa, Tigray, Ethiopia MOA/WFP/GTZ, 2008)

Plate 41: A soil sedimentation & overflow dams across a large gully 65 filled up with soil and planted with forage shrubs

FFA Manual Module D: Implementing FFA

Plate 42 Stone stepped & soil filled SSD planted with Plate 43 SSD under construction in V-shaped gullies grasses and with stone paved spillway (left side) (N. Wollo, Ethiopia, 2006)

Plate 44 Head of gully with stepped stone riser and checkdams + grasses (Ethiopia, MOA/WFP, 1995)

Plate 45 the same gully 5 years later stabilized with grasses

SSD with water after rains

Plate 46 Upstream side of SSD in large gullies (Myanmar, FAO, 1999)

SSD with sunflower crops 66 after water receded

5.2 Cereal banks


This activity is not commonly considered as a FFA intervention. However, it may be linked to a different range of FFA (e.g. integrated land rehabilitation, homestead development and irrigation, etc), and become complementary to specific measures that include saving of part of the food or cash transfers generated from labour-based FFA interventions. Cereal banks can provide additional opportunities for income generation while offsetting seasonal hunger. There are a variety of positive and negative experiences regarding cereal banks establishment and management. Some studies suggest that the experience in the Sahel has been predominantly negative main problems being misappropriation, disruption of local trade and tradershouseholds traditional relationships, limited or no trading experience, poor storage facilities, etc. It is an activity that needs to be tested carefully first and evaluated before any incremental scaling up. It also requires competent partners, a careful market and seasonal analysis, robust training of participants and regular follow up. A few examples regarding cereal banks are provided in the Useful References section below, based on experience in West Africa and elsewhere.

Useful References 1. Kenya: some practical start up guidance offer useful entry points:
http://practicalaction.org/practicalanswers/product_info.php?products_id=50

2. Niger: Study on the evaluation of cereal banks and Annexes that support the creation of cereal banks:
http://www.afriqueverte.org/r2_public/media/fck/File/Documentation/Outils_information/ETUDE%20s ur%20%20BC%20nig%20Rapport%20principal.pdf

3. CILSS A technical note on the performance of cereal banks in the Sahel and some of the issues that
need to be considered for their establishment and proper management: http://www.cilss.bf/fondsitalie/download/down/NT_banques_cereales.pdf

4. Cambodia: WFP Rice Bank Guidelines

5.3 Construction of fuel efficient stoves


FFA may include support to the construction of fuel efficient stoves in various contexts, as an income generation activity and to reduce firewood and charcoal consumption. For example, FFA can support initial phases of the work required to build the stoves and offset food consumption requirements until fuel efficient stoves are sold and generate income. This activity can also be promoted as a livelihood support measure, with major focus on reducing pressure on scarce natural resources. This intervention is particularly effective if implemented at significant scale, integrated with reforestation measures and linked to offsetting carbon emissions and the possible generation of carbon revenues at community level. To this effect, the WFP pilot programme (OMJ-Kampala platform) experience has provides examples of opportunities that may be pursued by WFP or partners in

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terms of linking specific WFP supported activities to the carbon market. The pilot effort however, has also highlighted the difficulty of preparing carbon compliant proposals and the need for WFP to have a stronger role in terms of facilitation and advocacy rather than direct involvement in project proposal.

Useful References
http://www.pyroenergen.com/articles08/eco-rocket-stove.htm http://www.usaid.gov/our_work/humanitarian_assistance/disaster_assistance/sectors/files/uganda_fin al_summary.pdf http://www.saee.ethz.ch/events/cleancooking/Marlis_Kees_31st_IAEE_Istanbul.pdf http://www.bioenergylists.org/stovesdoc/GTZ/Rocket_Stoves_ProBEC_North_am.pdf http://www.hedon.info/docs/EthiopiaScalingUpApproach.pdf Evaluation of fuel efficient stoves introduced in Darfur (USAID Sudan): http://www.fuelnetwork.org/index.php?option=com_docman&task=doc_download&gid=237&Itemid=5 7 Carbon Credit Feasibility Study Opportunities for WFP to Access Carbon Finance (OMJ - Ecosecurities 2009) Volume 1 and Volume 2

5.4 Fish Farming and aquaculture


A number of Country Offices recurrently engage in aquaculture activities often as complementary activities to what FAO or other implementing partners support in specific countries and food insecure districts. This activity is particularly suitable to provide income generation to specific groups, such as women and marginalized food insecure households. Typical FFA includes the construction of fish ponds or water ponds for multipurpose uses. There are a number of technical specifications regarding ponds construction that are included in previous sections and in Annex D-1. Technical considerations: this activity requires solid technical support from the implementing organization and sufficient training and follow-up provided to the fish farming activity. These include: Creating an income generation and management group (preferably composed by women and most food insecure households) Design of fish pond (s) able to retain water during entire fish production cycle (hence to calibrate other uses against the primary purpose of guaranteeing sufficient water for the fish) Ensuring the prevention of pollution and contamination of the water pond Training of IGA groups in fish farming, harvesting, preservation and marketing

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Undertake an environmental assessment on possible negative effects of fish ponds on natural resources, and of stagnating water (for water born or generated diseases) as well as the possible safeguards required. On more specific hazards, ensure that fish farming does not occur at the expense of natural forests. Although an unlikely area where WFP FFA interventions will be needed, aquaculture in coastal areas has destroyed mangrove forests and their role as natural barriers against shocks4 such as Tsunamis in parts of the Philippines and other countries in South East Asia.

Plate 47 Example of fish farming in Nepal targeting marginalized groups of the Dalit communities the ponds have become an important source of income and food

Useful References
FAO -ADCP/REP/89/43 - Aquaculture Systems and Practices: A Selected Review http://www.fao.org/docrep/T8598E/t8598e00.htm FAO - Inland fish farming alternatives for Ghana: technical and economic aspects http://www.fao.org/docrep/field/003/AC109E/AC109E00.htm USAID - Environmental Guidelines for Small-Scale Activities in Africa (EGSSAA) 2009 http://www.encapafrica.org/EGSSAA/fisheries.pdf WFP, Sharing what works information note a best practice in Northern Uganda, 2007

In this regard WFP may contribute to the reforestation of mangrove depleted coastal areas in districts where food insecurity and recurrent shocks is a common problem.

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5.5 Removal of silt, mud and debris


There are three most common FFA activities, which include:

5.5.1 The removal of silt from water reservoirs such as ponds


Community water ponds and small earth dams may be filled up with silt on a regular basis, following heavy rain showers or as a natural process when most of the runoff water is generated from eroded catchments or cultivated land. The latter is something to avoid when ponds are constructed. Nevertheless, there are situations where ponds constructed several years ago or recently silted because of errors in design of the pond or lack of treatment of the catchment need to have their sediments removed to restore or improve their function. In case of sedimentation because of lack of catchment protection, specific treatment of the catchment area need to be undertaken before or concomitantly to the de-siltation of the pond. All water ponds need to have silt-traps constructed and regularly de-silted. NOTE: De-siltation of ponds and of small dams need to become a routine activity done on a self-help basis, and de-siltation only an exceptional even, not a regular maintenance activity that requires payment as this is a clear sign of lack of sustainability and ownership by users. Best practices exist, such as the removal of one wheelbarrow fill of soil (or of two stretchers or baskets/other containers) for each container filled with water. Around the pond area a few shovels or hoes are left for each beneficiary to dig out deposited silt near the collection point moving downwards following the receding water.

5.5.2 Clearing canals and drainage lines after shocks


Typically, this relates to the removal of clogged canals/drainage of sediments and mud after mudflows. This removal of drying or dry mud and boulders from urban and rural settings may occur in hurricane or tropical cyclones and storms prone areas where high powered rainfall events can cause havoc and generate landslides and mudflows. For example in Haiti, the town of Gonaives was engulfed by millions of tons of mud for several months. As a result major joint CFW and FFW activities took place to free roads, schools, health centres, drainage lines and other key infrastructure from mud and debris.

Plate 48: Main damage and clogging of the primary irrigation canal (Artibonite, 2008 - Haiti)

Irrigation fields destroyed and in need of major rehabilitation

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Technical requirements are simple and related to the amount of hours worked (6-8 hours/day), volume of soil/mud to be removed (usually 1.5-3.5 m of soil/materials removed per person/per day - from inexperienced/partially experience workers), and availability of the right tools, as well as other factors related to local contexts (climate, organization, topography, etc). Basic equipment may need to include protection equipment in case of contaminated or polluted environments, for example providing workers with items such as plastic boots, working gloves and masks. Plate 49: A farmer cultivating small plots of farmland cleared from stones and boulders after major landslides (Haiti, Chauffard, 2009)

In rural settings it is important to ensure that the clearing of main irrigation, cultivated fields and other productive infrastructure is undertaken following basic but sound technical standards such as the accumulation and compaction of soil sufficiently far away from the main canal, shaped to retain stability and avoid the return of removed materials into the canals following subsequent rains. For example:

25-50 cm

NO

YES

5.5.3 The removal of debris following an earthquake


This activity, in spite the fact that local needs can be significant, is often not recommended as a FFA intervention following a major earthquake or not until basic security requirements are in place and when there is no danger that damaged buildings may collapse adjacent to FFA working sites. However, there may be exceptions and situations where lack of machinery and difficult access to specific areas demands labour based efforts to be organized and there are partners in a position to meet minimum security and safety standards. Plate 50: Farmers clearing rubble chocked canals after the earthquake in 2005 http://www.usaid.gov/stories/pakistan/ cs_pk_irrigation.pdf

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5.6 Stone collection and stone shaping


These two activities relate to specific needs that some interventions may require as in need of specific reinforcements. For examples road side consolidation works, construction of culverts, stones for irrigation canals, and repairs of damaged buildings. I. Stone collection:

This activity is often undertaken as a relay activity and need to be carefully handled. Injuries during transport from falling stones may occur and hurt workers and transport of heavy weights should not persist for long hours. As this activity requires a number of phases such as extraction, lifting, transport, dropping into collection site and piling, work groups need to be organized to ensure that different people rotate around tasks that require less effort with others that are more difficult. In each site, attention to the safety of workers is to be provided and discussed prior to the start of the work. WFP should also provide to Implementing Partners the guidelines on how to ensure basic safety measures at the work site. The following leaflet Nr 6 of the PGM provides recommendations that implementing partners need to follow and that can be reflected in the FLAs. http://docustore.wfp.org/stellent/groups/public/documents/other/wfp042701.pdf

II. Stone shaping/cutting This activity requires much more attention to safety aspects than stone collection as injuries such as crushing fingers or stone splinters ricocheting into workers eyes are potentially frequent hazards. Clean water and first aid kits need to be provided at the working site. Protection gloves and items such as masks and cheap plastic goggles should be also provided by implementing partners to workers engaged in this activity. T here are a number of recommendations included in the following ILO guidelines that may be considered in different contexts. This is a FFA activity that is often critical in mountainous terrains and that requires semiskilled stone cutters for works such as culverts, bridges, reinforcements on shoulders, etc. http://www.ilo.org/legacy/english/protection/safework/cis/products/hdo/htm/stone_cutter.htm

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5.7 FFA for skills enhancement (Food/Cash-for-Training)


FFT can be linked to a number of activities that can complement WFP and partners efforts in assets creation and programming. The range of FFT activities treated in this manual focuses largely on three type of FFT efforts.

1. Skills enhancement in emergency preparedness at community level for example:


Training of communities in basic Early Warning, mapping of safe zones, etc Training on Disaster Risk Reduction

2. Skills enhancement linked to resilience building and related FFA interventions for example:
Training on participatory watershed or area based planning for community members/planning teams Training on specific design, layout and construction of FFA (soil and water conservation, feeder roads, water harvesting schemes, gully control, forestry, etc) Training & awareness creation on conflict resolution, area management planning, etc Awareness sessions on environmental safeguards and impacts Experience sharing and inter-community study tours

3. Skills enhancement linked to complementary efforts from partners and for income generation
activities linked to the sustainable use of assets create particularly focused on women and women and marginalized groups for example: Support training sessions on Income Generation Activities (IGAs) linked to the management and development of natural resources, basic literacy and skills training (mostly women groups) Training on establishment/management of cereal banks, small grain reserves, etc Training on forest management, fuel efficient stoves construction and use, etc Training of farmers using the Farmer Field Schools (e.g. partnership with FAO and/or MOA) Technical considerations: Targeting: FFT is often a suitable option to reach marginalized groups or gender affected by food insecurity. For example women and youth in culturally complex contexts or in post conflict situations In this regard FFT need to reach most affected households in the form of packages with other partners inputs. As FFT may not cover long periods of time, it may be considered as an additional activity to other labour based FFA or to the provision of unconditional transfers. For example, there are contexts where labour based efforts can not be undertaken because of heavy monsoon periods but where there are partners able to deliver specific training indoors to most food insecure households. Need for competent partners for training: Food or cash for training (FFT) can be provided to support partners such as FAO, GIZ, local institutions and NGOs to undertake training on skills such as conservation agriculture, integrated pest management, agroforestry, improved storage and prevention of post harvest losses, management of saving and credit schemes and basic bookkeeping, among others.

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Work norms: the work norm is normally related to a working day under FFA and equivalent to the standard payment provided as a daily wage (food ration or cash). Other context specific modalities may be considered (e.g. half a day payment and half a day self-help, etc). It needs to be clear that FFT using food or cash is meant to support the most food insecure. Complementarity: FFT is successful when it is attached to a partner programme that ensures the effective use of acquired skills and provides the complementary inputs necessary to translate these skills into practical action. For example, training of a women group on the use of reforested areas and water ponds for beekeeping and related activities may require FFT but will not be effective unless inputs such as beehives and processing materials are provided. Note: Elements of FFT are also included in specific Nutrition, HIVAIDS and, to a lesser extent School Feeding and educational activities in specific contexts (e.g. skills training and literacy for women in Afghanistan, etc). These are developed following specific requirements at the country office and partnerships. However, programme design guidance on FFT and documentation on best practices regarding FFT is limited. Additional guidance on FFT is therefore planned to be developed in the foreseeable future, and will be based on and highlight CO experiences and examples. This body of work is expected to be completed in the next version of the current guidance.

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FFA activities that benefit women (and other vulnerable households)

The following FFA interventions can benefit women and men alike and cut across all agro-ecological zones. However, these FFA are thought to benefit women more as it often involves major investments made at their homestead, to optimize space and capacities, and promote income generating activities (IGAs).

6.1 Homestead level productivity intensification activities


Techniques aimed at increased productivity of small spaces around homesteads and cultivated plots. This reduces the hardships faced by women and girls and is closely linked to the establishment of nurseries which supplies planting materials. Activities can include compost making, planting of vegetative fencing, stabilization of terraces with fruit trees and useful grasses (see Plate 50), construction of simple water collectors from foot path, roof water harvesting and shallow well construction. Details on the implementation of these activities are outlined in the previous section 1. Plate 51: Soil bunds stabilized with Elephant grass and bananas

6.2 WFP assisted nurseries (Green Factories)


Seedling production and supply orientation for private or community use and land rehabilitation. For women, the nursery environment is ideal for many reasons: it is safe and usually close to a main road or crossway and the type of works in nurseries, usually less labour-intensive than physical structures construction, is preferred by women (i.e. pot filling and seedling care, transplanting, compost making, seed collection, etc.). Composing most of the nursery work force (above 70%), women are organized in groups of 5-10 people (usually each nursery has 20-30 workers) of which may also include one or more men as required. Nursery workers: i. raise seedlings and planting material for the purposes indicated above;

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ii. iii.

raise seedlings for themselves (to sell, or for plantation, etc.) and; use the extra unused land for income generation, by growing vegetables, cash crops, fruits or other species of interest (see next section on IGA).

Training on crop management and agro-forestry practices that can be used in homesteads, is an additional benefit derived from participation in WFP-assisted nurseries. Nurseries can also be used by WFP and partners such as FAO and other NGOs to run practical training sessions on skills training and IGAs. Regarding FAO, of interest would be to establish a Farmers Field School (FFC) or Farmer Training Centre (FTC) not far from the main nursery as to provide additional training services to women groups but also to approach overall community and farmers attending agricultural training to environmental aspects, agroforestry, tree planting and the role of women in agriculture and overall rural development. Additionally, womens groups could be made shareholders of the seedlings they grow (5-10% or more), enabling them to sell a percentage of the seedlings produced. As shareholders, they have an incentive to improve the level of care and attention provided to raising seedlings and planting material.

Useful references
Homestead Development initiative and the Rehabilitation of Ecosystems in Haiti (Technical Note for Training of Trainers - ToT) - section on Nursery Management - Betru Nedessa, WFP, 2011 Technical Note on Nurseries as Green Factories (WFP Ethiopia, 2005)

6.3 Income Generating Activities


1. Small nursery development - involves the growing of fruit, vegetables and multi-purpose trees (in
previously established nurseries or independently) to generate income, start agro-processing microenterprises and invest in homestead-based agro-forestry systems. Nurseries are privileged areas. They are close to sufficient water, they are protected, and the land they occupy is usually productive, benefiting from years of composting and biomass growth. These nurseries generally have ample unused space and as such, can be developed by womens groups as an income generating activity. Each group is provided a piece of unused land within the nursery to plants crops intended for use to earn income (vegetables, fruits, cash crops like chillies, pigeon peas, coffee, plants for dyes and medicinal purposes, etc). The women are provided with technical assistance and planting materials to work on their own plots outside the time dedicated to regular nursery works (for which they are receiving their FFA allocation). Additional IGA activities like beekeeping and rearing livestock using part of the biomass available in the nursery should be encouraged. A small dairy activity could also be promoted. All of these activities are possible as most nurseries are guarded. If not, the IGA groups can hire a guard paid from the revenue of the nursery activities. Selling points within the nursery could be established and open to the public during specific hours or market days as an outlet for selling the items produced, including sales of quality seeds from trees and fodder species, medicinal plants, leaves, gums and dyes, and seedlings.

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This activity requires an inception period of about 6 months to ensure participant training, provision of essential nursery kits, start up grants and the establishment of a partnership between the nursery and the household based productivity intensification efforts that will need to be established.

2. Compost making most often linked to homestead productivity intensification activities but can also be
a viable entrepreneurship. When compost makers organize as service providers to other farmers, from preparing the compost pits to distribution in the fields of the better off farmers, particularly those involved in irrigation but also along terraces where moisture content is higher and better yields can be obtained. Growing a future for girls In a small village in India, a minimum of ten trees are planted to celebrate the birth of a girl. The payment of a dowry by the brides family is tradition, and can be a heavy burden on poor families. As a result, dowry deaths and female foeticide is a common occurrence in the region. The multi-generational tradition of birth trees has ensured that this not the case for the girls of this small village. The tree are seen as fixed deposits as each year the fruit is sold and a portion of the funds raised are placed in a savings account opened in their daughters names Amarnath Tewary for BBC News

Useful references
Homestead Development Initiative and the Rehabilitation of Degraded Ecosystems in Haiti (Technical Note for Training of Trainers - ToTs) Betru Nedessa, WFP, 2011

6.4 Other FFA activities that benefit women


1. Feeder roads The creation of feeder roads can increase access to valuable services such as healthcare and schools for women and children. 2. Woodlots the planting of community woodlots can reduce the time women and girls spend collecting firewood, often in unsafe conditions and at the expense of girls education. 3. Solidarity efforts or social contracts - 5-10% of food or cash wages earned by FFA participants are pooled in a food fund to assist these vulnerable households in meeting their food gap. 4. Homestead assets for vulnerable households - 10-20% of the total assets constructed in a given community, are invested in the land or homesteads of the most vulnerable households. These should be productive assets that that the household can manage with little effort but would not have been possible for them to construct themselves. This rebuilds social cohesion while reducing food insecurity.

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6.5 Timing of FFA intervention


The timing of the FFA intervention is important because it can create barriers to participation for women. Avoid labour intensive programmes targeting women during the busiest period when they are involved in the fields or during the dry season when women spend more time collecting water. The seasonal livelihood analysis can assist in identifying these times. For example, March to May is the busiest time for Haitian women because the men have left to seek out work elsewhere and they are left to search out paid labour while cultivating their own crops.

6.6 FLAs and womens rights to the productive assets they create
The engagement of women in FFA activities demands that local authorities and implementing partners ensure, to the extent possible, that women manage to acquire land use rights over the productive assets they create. This can be done through agreements with customary chiefs and together with district ward level council representatives. The inclusion of a clause in the FLAs regarding gender and the role of women that requests detailed description of steps and arrangements to be made by partners on the rights of women over land use rights and tenureship can assist with this.

6.7 Cross cutting aspects


Synergies: Gender dynamics is a cross-cutting issue, with implications in all the programme categories (EMOP, PRRO and CP) and all programmatic responses (School Feeding, Nutrition, FFA, etc). Synergies between various WFP activities should be sought to maximize the impacts of women and girl friendly programming. For example, in communities with school feeding and FFA activities, the rehabilitation or creation of school rooms and separated latrines, can facilitate access to education for girls. Policies & strategies: Gender issues in relation to FFA need to be highlighted and addressed in major national policy documents as they can providing an anchor for which programmatic planning can be tied to. For example, in Sierra Leone the National Policy Framework for the Social Protection Policy addresses the needs of the poorest and most vulnerable populations, women and children in particular. The policy recognizes the reduction of hardships and access to productive opportunities, such as provision of land, as key priorities. The above information is in line with the 2009 WFP Gender Policy.

Useful references
WFP Gender Policy (2009) http://docustore.wfp.org/stellent/groups/public/documents/eb/wfp194044.pdf Women and Land - The Rural Development Institute http://www.landesa.org/women-and-land/ Gender and Livelihoods in Emergencies - The IASC Handbook http://www.humanitarianreform.org/humanitarianreform/Portals/1/cluster%20approach%20page/ clusters%20pages/Gender/Gender%20Toolkit/E_GH_09_Livelihoods.pdf Technical Note of Nurseries as Green Factories MOA/WFP, Ethiopia Women and Food Security series (2010) - The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) http://www.fao.org/SD/FSdirect/FBdirect/FSP001.htm

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6.8 Examples of innovative ideas linking gender and FFA


The following are some ideas to link gender with FFA and other programme intervention:

6.8.1 Celebratory Birth Trees


Concept: In celebration of the birth of a girl, her family will receive fruit trees to plant on the homestead. (Drawn from the earlier example of the recent BBC article which described a village in India where the birth of a girl is celebrated by her family with the planting of a minimum of ten fruit trees). The rationale is that by the time the girl has matured and reached marriageable age, the fruit trees will also have matured providing fruit that can be sold and used for her dowry. In a region where foeticide and dowry death is the highest in the country, the village is an oasis for the young girls who are born there. Gender inequality is one the leading causes of food insecurity in the world. Girls are undervalued and as such experience abuse, neglect and inequitable treatment as a result of gender discrimination. Benefits promotes gender equality and attributes value to girls provides a productive asset to the family to assist with food security can be linked to carbon credit programs Implementation: in partnership with WFP assisted nurseries, families in the community where nurseries are located, will receive a start up kit that includes 10 fruit tree seedlings for the birth of every girl. Families will be encouraged to plant the trees in their homestead as an investment in their future.

6.8.2 Take-Home Solar Light Ration


Concept: A low cost, solar powered light will be provided to girls/children upon completion of their first year of school Many households in rural communities do not have access to electricity nor could afford it if it was available. This hampers childrens abilities to do homework after sunset, negatively impacting their success in school. Benefits Serves as an additional incentive for the completion of school Provides a light source for children to complete homework assignments at home improving their success in school Households have a light source which will allow for productive work to continue after sunset Implementation: In partnership with WFP assisted schools, children will receive low cost, solar powered lights contingent on the completion of their first year of school. This can be done alongside take home ration distribution if that distribution modality is in place or independently, as a graduation present for all vulnerable school children (one per family) upon their graduation from the first grade. A similar project in Ghana has been implemented and can be used for reference.

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6.8.3 Fuel Efficient Stoves and a Take Home Green Ration


Concept: Fuel Efficient Stoves as an Income Generating Activity (IGA) for Women and a Take Home Green Ration Supplement for Girls. Training and materials will be provided to women for the building of fuel efficient stoves as an IGA, linked to School Feeding as an additional incentive for school attendance. Women can spend hours a day collecting firewood and cooking because of an inefficient stove. Often, to assist with this time consuming task, young girls are withdrawn from school. This is time that could be better spent on productive work in the homestead or in the case of young girls, in school getting an education. Additionally, women have fewer opportunities available to them to generate income and are more vulnerable to food insecurity due to lack of access and control over productive assets. Benefits Increased earning potential for women which in turn promotes better food security Linked to school feeding program having the additional benefit of promoting school attendance Food is cooked in half the time, using half the amount of fuel required in traditional stoves freeing up valuable time for women to dedicate to other productive work Can be linked to carbon credit programs Implementing: Womens groups can be provided with the materials, training and start up funds needed to build and sell fuel-efficient stoves. A condition of the grant will be that a percentage of the stoves made will be given to local schools to be used as an attendance incentive for girls.

6.8.4 Eco-tourism
This is an activity that can be promoted where FFA have generated significant changes in terms of land rehabilitation. FFA may be eventually also used for awareness creation and skills enhancement training for women and other vulnerable groups to support managing restored natural resources and related landscapes with tourism potential. There are, for example, a number of income generation activities linked to eco-tourism that are possible in sites with breathtaking landscapes that have benefited from a FFA investment. This activity is largely for NGOs or private sector partners to support and will rarely require FFA as an investment but complementary resources and training. Women can benefit the most from these activities as there are a number of complementary efforts such as production of handicrafts, foods and specific products that can be promoted as part of this activity.

Useful references
Guidelines on MERETourism and improved packaging within the context of promoting Income Generation Activities (IGAs) 2005 (WFP/MOA, Ethiopia)

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D3. THE NUTS AND BOLTS OF FFA


The nuts and bolts of the FFA guidance relate to some of the most common tools that are required to ensure that the different type of FFA interventions meet quality standards. It often relates to the information that field staff requires the most for FFA implementation. For example work norms, wage rates, the type of non food items requires such as tools, budget planning, technical references necessary for training, and capacity development aspects.

WORK NORMS

Work norms are integral part of planning, implementation and M&E of FFA activities they range from simple to complex depending from the type of FFA.

7.1 Developing work norms


Work norms are required to: 1. Establish the qualitative standards required to complete a given unit of work 2. Provides the basis for the provision of food, cash or vouchers rations to targeted beneficiaries in exchange of a given unit of work achieved The old PGM guideline indicates that work norms are: 1. A useful tool to plan the project; 2. An effective way to organize work on site; 3. Help to monitor progress of work; and 4. Help to raise participants productivity In practical terms, work norms are constituted by two main elements: 1. The technical standards required to achieve a specific activity designed to suit a given context (for example the shape, gradient, height and width of an irrigation canal, earthen or cemented, etc); 2. The work norm elements or steps required to complete the intended activity (in the example of the irrigation canal above, the steps include layout of the canal, construction and verification of gradient, the removal and compaction of embankment, provision of gates, and the possible sealing, paving and cementing of the pond, etc). FFA interventions have two main types of work norms: 1. Inclusive: the work norm is established by adding the main work requirements of the different steps or stages that are required to complete a given activity.

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However, one specific activity (for example a stone bund) may have significantly different work requirements based on the different type of soils and climate where they are planned to be implemented. To come up with an average work norm that fits different contexts, an exercise of testing the construction of any given activity need to be undertaken for example in 5-6 locations. When results are analyzed, normally the two extremes (highest and lowest norm) are removed and the rest is averaged to come up with the standard work norm for the selected activity. In this case, work norms are developed for each activity based on average but also, when available, experience in various locations. Work norms should not be considered easy and to the extent possible include a level of self-help or voluntary contribution to reinforce ownership and solidarity. Note: The risk of work norms defined as easy or generous is to be avoided. Work norm considered easy by beneficiaries tend to create dependency, lack of dedication to the activity, low efficiency, and waste of resources (as too much is being provided for a given unit of work). 2. Integrated: this is a combination of different norms for specific activities that constitute the activity. These norms are required when main interventions are made of several specific tasks or specific activities (e.g. road construction and earth dam construction) that demand sub-set of specific norms for different activities that make up the activity. Integrated norms need to be careful not to become a combination of dozen or more different activities, too complicated to measure and control. There is a need to ensure that while all aspects of design are fulfilled, there is flexibility in the way field work is organized and assigned workers operate in shifts, sharing lighter and heavier duties.

Examples
Inclusive: Activities such as stone bunds, micro-basins, trenches, tree planting, volume of canal and earth dam construction, etc, should possibly have one work norm. Integrated: Activities such as road construction need different norms to include different activities such as: i) stone collection, ii) excavation and filling, iii) compaction, iv) stone masonry work and v) others as required. For practical reasons the less complicated are the work norms the easier will be the monitoring aspects. What is ultimately key is in developing sound work norms, is that they contain high quality technical standards.

Work norms and the need for transparency: The setting of work norms need to be communicated and explained to FFA participants to ensure greater transparency and understanding of what is expected in terms of achieving acceptable quality standards, the supervision requirements necessary from work leaders/foremen and implementing partners staff. In this

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regard, signboards or pamphlets can be prepared and illustrate the different work norms and related wage rates, number of hours to work and starting and closing dates of projects. An ILO guideline for Projects in Bangladesh makes the following recommendations: It is recommended that information on conditions of employment be prepared as a one page conditions of employment circular published by the implementing agencies applicable to all work sites and including the specific information relating to the approved food and cash package applicable to the particular site. Each worker could then take home his project information and obtain assistance in having the information explained. Further clarification of working conditions could also be provided by mass meetings of labourers called by the implementing agency prior to the beginning of work on any scheme. Labourers entitlement and work obligations can be clearly set out and questions asked and answered. For additional details link to: http://www.ilo.org/public/english/employment/recon/eiip/download/bangladesh_norms.pdf In other contexts, work norms and technical standards can be provided in the form of guidelines or embedded in info-techs developed for participants and extension workers. The latter have, however, the responsibility to explain to FFA participants each work norm and related technical standards as well as aspects of division of labour, entitlements, verification procedures and gender considerations. To this effect, a general community meeting or assembly should then be used to discuss work norms and related implementation arrangements.

7.1.1 Useful references


http://pgm.wfp.org/index.php/Project_activities:Food_for_work_and_assets:Leaflet_2 http://docustore.wfp.org/stellent/groups/public/documents/other/wfp042701.pdf Report on the establishment of Work Norms (Ethiopia, WFP/MOARD, 2002) Community based Participatory Watershed Development Guidelines (MOARD, 2005) WFP-FAO-EU Technical report on work norms for FFW and FFT Guatemala 2010

7.2 The relevance of gender issues in work norms development


There is ample reference in WFP, ILO, IFAD and other organizations guidelines in terms of work norms that can be taken as a reference. In relation to work norms, key aspects to consider relate to: 1. Working hours (you may agree for less hours to be worked by women than for men) and hours of the day preferred by women to work while accommodating key domestic tasks often 2-3 hours in the morning and 1-2 hours in the late afternoon 2. Type of works preferred by women (e.g. nursery activities, collection and sorting of seeds, etc) 3. Safety for women to walk in and out of the project site (to avoid danger for abduction and theft for example) specific arrangements to be made with elders and other members of the work force to ensure basic safety is ensured at all times. All FFA schemes define work norms which should include control mechanisms that ensure women carry out tasks designed for women and that men carry out tasks designed for men. Work norms should also ensure

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that men and women are remunerated equally for their contribution and that a safe working environment and conditions are ensured for all workers. Other important considerations regarding safety aspects are included in the following link and specifically relate to arrangements that partners need to include in FLA or major agreements. Leaflet 6 Working conditions, health and safety considerations. In addition to the above and indirectly related to work norms are the working conditions at site level more specifically: Systems to set in place for child caring for mothers that do not have sufficient support (tent or shelter attended by volunteers selected amongst those beneficiaries receiving free transfers but willing to provide a social service) Payment in the preferred form of transfers (food, cash, combinations of food and cash, vouchers) Selection of those FFA activities that mostly interest women and that can have women as site managers and maintenance (e.g. water points, orchards, nurseries, woodlots etc).

Complementary services such as child care and sensitivity training for men can also assist in the successful participation of women. Inability to participate in the building of assets due to pregnancy or household demands such as childcare should not be a barrier to access for women or other vulnerable households. Instead an alternate strategy for those not able to participate needs to be determined at the planning stage to ensure their needs are met (unconditional handouts or provision of food/cash in exchange of light services and activities such as child care, food preparation, etc). Lighter forms of FFA should be introduced to engage women unable to participate in heavy duty labour activities. Such FFA activities can include: care of small children for parents involved in other FFA activities, collection of specific seeds for nursery work, sweeping of courtyards for manure/droppings and roughage and weaving of shelters. Additional support for vulnerable, food insecure households can include solidarity efforts or social contracts, and through the building of assets in vulnerable, food insecure households.

7.2.1 Useful references


http://home.wfp.org/manuals/GuidelinesECW/manual.asp?s=DocID2_IDADWYGIDAEWYG http://home.wfp.org/manuals/GuidelinesECW/manual.asp?s=DocID2_IDAFYYGIDAGYYG http://home.wfp.org/manuals/GuidelinesECW/manual.asp?s=DocID2_IDAK5YGIDAL5YG http://home.wfp.org/manuals/GuidelinesECW/manual.asp?s=DocID2_IDAMBZGIDANBZG http://www.ifad.org/english/water/innowat/topic/Topic_10web.pdf

Useful although dated piece on water and gender provides interesting reading on why water development schemes are so important for women in rural areas. http://www.oieau.fr/ciedd/contributions/at2/contribution/2gender.htm

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Food rations Transfers composition

The following largely build upon specific existing PGM sections that relate to food, cash and vouchers aspects. There are 2 main aspects to consider, namely: 1. What transfer modality is appropriate and cost effective; and 2. Its implications regarding FFA. The processes whether to use food, cash and/or vouchers, or a combination of food and cash transfers relate to the set of processes that look into seasonality, markets, choice of communities, capacity, and other factors such as security and gender. The existing cash and vouchers guidance include key steps for planning that should be consulted when deciding on the feasibility and planning of cash or vouchers: http://pgm.wfp.org/index.php/Project_activities:Cash_and_Vouchers:Planning The overall programme formulation and design guidance (ODXP Programme Design Chapeau - 2011) explains how a given transfer modality (e.g. food or cash) is clearly important in relation to seasonal needs and markets, livelihood settings and opportunities. With regards to FFA the choice of transfer is secondary to the fundamental question of what FFA intends to achieve (i.e. the results expected) and more specifically how these assets can impact positively at the individual or community levels. However, a measurement of cost effectiveness, for example through an estimate of the Alpha value, can provide additional justification for the need of cash, food or combinations of cash and food based on seasonal variations and market analysis. There may be additional social benefits to use only food, cash or a combination of both. Vouchers often imply more stable systems and market supply ensured through retailers and a network of accessible shops or market places. The calculation of food rations in the following section largely follows food consumption needs and energy requirements commonly used by WFP (although some specific nutritional aspects and context specific considerations are also important). Decisions to use cash or vouchers instead of food, and specifically for assets building, requires accurate analyses on how much cash is needed to offset consumption needs based on reasonably accurate market considerations, how fungible cash is compared to food in a given context, and the delivery mechanisms that are required to put in place to reach beneficiaries.

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8.1 Food rations


Reference to the calculation of food ration is included in the existing PGM guidance and summarized as follows: http://pgm.wfp.org/index.php/Topics:Rations#Rations_for_food-for-work.2Frecovery

Food-for-work (FFW) rations enable participants from food insecure households to contribute to meeting their households' immediate food needs while engaging in an activity that contributes to their longer-term food security or (in an EMOP or PRRO only) to the restoration of community services. Particularly in a development project, the rations and the activity should make it possible for beneficiary households to gain or preserve long-lasting assets that contribute to their food security. When FFW is organized in the context of an acute food supply crisis as part of an EMOP or PRRO, the ration complements other assistance being provided to households who are unable to obtain sufficient food to meet their needs. In general it replaces part -exceptionally all -- of the food assistance that would otherwise have to be provided in the form of general (free) distribution. In all cases, the ration should be an adequate recompense for the participants but the food basket should be simple -- usually restricted to 1-3 different commodities -- in order to simplify logistics.

The provision of incentives or payment using food is based on work norms that are appropriate to the local circumstances typically, it provides workers with the equivalent of about 80% of a local wage. If cash is available from other sources it may be preferable to pay part in food and part in cash.

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8.1.1

Major factors in defining FFW rations:

The following aspects must be considered when designing any FFW ration (for EMOP, PRRO, or CP/Dev projects):

Economic transfer value to the beneficiaries that is, the local market value of the food commodities supplied. For guidance on calculating transfer values, see PGM: Transfer value and Alpha value. Nutritional and dietary considerations are critical when the beneficiaries are expected to consume the majority of the ration and do not have access to other nutrient-rich foods. This is likely to be the case when there is little or no food available on the local market and the target beneficiaries are not receiving other food items from general distributions or other sources. See PGM: Rations for general food distributions for summary guidance on nutritional and dietary considerations Refer to: Stages of Planning Rations in WFP Food and Nutrition Handbook, Chapter 8 Planning Food Rations (e |f |s ) for more details. Market conditions - care must be taken to avoid creating a situation in which there is an excess of any particular commodity in the locality, to avoid 'flooding the market'. When commodities are in excess, they end up being traded by the beneficiaries at a fraction of their real value. Beneficiaries will suffer and the cost-effectiveness of the transfer becomes very low (i.e. large amounts of resources are effectively wasted). Other aspects such as the risks of spoilage and theft of attractive items before and/or after distribution to the beneficiaries. The relative importance given to nutritional and economic considerations depends on the local situation, the objectives of the activity, and the role identified for food aid. Usually, the value of a labour based FFA ration is slightly lower (80%) than the local daily wage, but designed to take into account both the transfer value and the food requirements of an average household.

8.1.2

Food incentives for service providers

Food may be used as incentives to community service workers in refugee and IDP camps. Before providing food incentives to personnel (e.g. teachers and health workers) in other contexts, it is important to ensure that an exit/phasing-out strategy is in place.

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8.2 Cash and vouchers: transfers value and cost efficiency


The calculation of the alpha value provides a good indication on whether cash transfers are preferable although this indicator is only one of many that enter into the final choice on whether to choose cash, vouchers or food in any given context. In the EB document Vouchers and Cash Transfers as Food Assistance Instruments: Opportunities and Challenges (WFP/EB.2/2008/4-B)5, cost efficiency aspects are summarized as follows: In a context of high food prices and high transport costs, the provision of vouchers and cash transfers may be a way for WFP to mobilize assistance more cost-efficiently when international food prices (combined with transport costs) are higher than national and local prices. On the implementation side, vouchers and cash transfers are often more cost-efficient than food transfer programmes but only when local capacity exists and markets function adequately. The Cash and Vouchers manual6 (page 7- 2009) suggest the following to guide the choice of these transfers: Seven indicators for establishing when context is favourable: 1. Market function: Local markets are functioning and/or recovering Indicator: number of shops/sellers is adequate and/or increasing 2. Food availability: Staple food commodities are mostly available on local markets Indicator: food quantities and types in markets are adequate and/or increasing 3. Physical access: Households have continuing/easy access to markets Indicator: seasonal access by road in wet and dry seasons improved or unchanged 4. Inflation: General inflation trends Indicator: consumer price indices are stable 5. Prices/wages: Prices of staple foods and wages Indicator: stable compared to longterm trends 6. Financial transfer: Reliable systems for financial transfer Indicator: available or increasing number of financial service providers 7. Security: Security situation in general Indicator: stable or improving

5 6

http://docustore.wfp.org/stellent/groups/public/documents/eb/wfp187787.pdf http://docustore.wfp.org/stellent/groups/public/documents/manual_guide_proced/wfp214529.pdf#page mode=bookmark

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These indicators are meant to be simple enough to allow regular monitoring by VAM and programme teams in the country office without assistance from a market expert. Specifically to FFA, the cash or vouchers value is thereafter discussed from a local level perspective, and not from an overall cost effectiveness analysis of the overall costs to WFP to deliver cash or vouchers instead of food. This section then discusses only to the value of the cash transfers from the perspective of the beneficiaries receiving such transfers.

Value: In principle the cash transfer value is calculated considering the following: 1. The need to offset basic standard food consumption requirements - i.e. be sufficient to purchase an amount of food able to fulfil the energy and nutrition requirements of an average household; 2. The value should be slightly lower (80-90%) to the average accepted labour wage to avoid affecting labour markets (this does not include most exploitative labour markets); and 3. Should be able to provide a small balance (after fulfilling the food costs) that can be used as savings (e.g. for an IGA), or dedicated to purchase other livelihood items such as tools or planting materials. The above combinations are often difficult to achieve because labour markets can be distorted and highly volatile, with the tendency to be exploitative (i.e. the demand for labour much lower than the supply on offer) in several contexts or seasons. However, point 1 above should be ensured to provide a food assistance objective to FFA. This is extremely important considering that FFA projects are an integral part of food assistance objectives, whose rationale rests on the fundamental need to meet the food requirements of the most vulnerable communities and households living in fragile and shock affected areas in other words to fill a food gap. Several situations, however, will demand careful planning. The following examples will illustrate a few scenarios that are likely to be found in the field:

Situation 1: Scenario: In district A, cash is identified as a suitable and cost efficient transfer modality. However, although the daily cash wage provided can procure sufficient food from the market, it is significantly lower wage than the prevailing labour wage rates. In this situation, cash for work may be seen as exploitative and not attracting a sufficient number of food insecure people that would be required to achieve the objective of a specific FFA project. On the other hand, some may argue that the project is likely to attract the most vulnerable (able bodied) people who for some reasons can not access such labour market and as such will strongly acting as a self targeting mechanism. Considerations for situation 1: The situation suggests that there is a labour market that can offer better opportunities to vulnerable people that are able to work, and who can chose to earn more cash (and hence buy more food). However, there may be specific marginalized and vulnerable groups that would still want to work for a lower wage - for example, because these households can not access the labour market, or because there are seasonal interruptions in labour availability that coincide with the hunger season, etc. In

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these cases, programme staff should identify which asset/activity would be suitable for implementation during such periods. These assets should not require the involvement of the rest of the community or of another relevant group for their implementation (especially maintenance).

Situation 2: Scenario: In a district B, cash is identified as a suitable and cost efficient transfer modality. However, although the daily wage provided can procure sufficient food from the market, it is higher than the prevailing daily labour wage rate. In this situation, FFA using cash is likely to attract many more people who may compete for the labour opportunities offered. The risk is that most vulnerable groups may be penalized or not able to participate for sufficient periods of time. There is the possibility to disrupt local labour markets that may affect agriculture or other local economic activities. Considerations for situation 2: Depending on how much higher is the cash wage compared to the prevailing labour wage, a voucher transfer may be preferred to cash transfers (this may be considered for wages 30-50% or higher than prevailing labour wages excluding situations of exploitative wages) coupled with a thorough targeting approach. Another possible solution would be to seek an adjustment downwards of the cash transfers to reach the average prevailing labour wage rate whilst recognizing it is insufficient to buy the full food requirements of the household, and shortfalls covered through the provision of complementary food handouts. Overall, this situation requires accurate planning at community and groups level, with precise targeting criteria discussed and decided by the community.

Situation 3: Scenario: In country C, cash rates for FFA (CFW/FFW) projects are pre-determined by the Government and are considerably higher that the prevailing labour wage rate. Considerations for situation 3: A main approach would be to opt for vouchers linked to a given food basket. In case vouchers are not possible and cash for work is the only option, select shorter periods within a month for work (e.g. 12 days), during specific months of the year, and with activity types that do not affect periods of high labour demand in agriculture.

Annex D-2: Excerpts from a World Bank Report (2009) How to Make Public Works Work:

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Budget planning

This section covers an example of budget planning for a typical FFA investment, both in terms of the food (and/or cash) transfers costs and of the Non-Food-Items (NFIs) costs. Very simply, the number of estimated FFA participants and the food/cash transfers period provides a rough indication of total food budget and associated costs although not defined by main FFA interventions. However, as it is very difficult to come up with a standard budget planning approach for each main context and FFA intervention, the main elements to consider in budget planning relate to the following: i. The costs related to wages for implementation: relates to what it takes to complete a given piece of work or asset over a given area or distance, for a given group or community. The work norms should then define the food and/or cash & vouchers resources needed for a specific amount of work or assets to be constructed for a given location, area and purpose. This results in the determination of the food and/or cash & vouchers costs for the selected FFA interventions. ii. The costs associated to staffing: which relate to the Direct Support Costs (DSC) - any FFA programme component need to have a number of programme staff budgeted for technical support and M&E. The number of staff at CO and Sub-Office levels varies with the size of the FFA component and its complexity. However, minimum requirements need to be ensured. iii. The costs related to capacity development: is largely considered under Other Direct Operational Costs (ODOC) and includes budget for training of counterpart staff, training of beneficiaries and team leaders, experience sharing, advocacy, and other costs such as those related to non-wage or Non-Food-Items (NFI) costs.

9.1 Budget plan for FFA interventions and/or proposals


Filed staff are confronted with the need to make budget plans and/or estimates for FFA interventions to submit to management ore potential donors, or simply to support the rationale on what is required to address specific food insecurity problems. Budget planning for FFA is context, objective and intervention specific but will include both food or cash & vouchers costs and non food (or non wage) costs. In case of joint programmes or complementary efforts, these plans may include other non WFP costs that will be met by the partner (s). On the other hand, confirmed or predicted Government and communities contribution should be always included in WFP budget planning. Of relevance is to think budget planning in relation to the outcomes that FFA is supposed to generate. For example on what it takes to achieve resilience at community or area level. This exercise helps in defining a number of requirements, both in terms of assets needed to be established (and how to phase the different interventions), the tools, equipment and materials needed, and the capacity development efforts necessary to support these investments.

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Example: How much is an investment for change in terms of resilience on an average food insecure community? The following is an estimate based on average costs/community based on experience from the Ministry of Agriculture & Rural Development and WFP supported MERET7 project in Ethiopia. Average community sites to be treated include an area of approximately 500-1000 hectares and a population of 1200-1800 people. The level and range of investment/site assumes at least 60-70% of the total area is in need of significant support in terms of establishment of various bio-physical and infrastructure assets.
What can $4.5 million buy? 25 communities will be able to make 12,500 hectares of degraded, drought-prone land, productive, benefiting almost 40,000 people, for decades.

Furthermore, the investment includes minimum requirements for capacity building at counterparts and beneficiaries level, which include critical aspects of participatory planning, empowerment and management activities. These latter aspects are covered by ODOC budget.

Table 3 below offers a breakdown on what are the minimum food and non-food requirements in a FFA supported community able to induce the desired changes. The food tonnage coupled with self-help support indicated below is considered the standard requirement 8 able to induce significant changes in terms of rehabilitation, food security and livelihoods enhancement. The non-wage budget, however, is considered only as a minimum requirement (as related to ODOC only). This should increase based on local conditions and partnerships.
Table 3: Intervention areas and level of investment required in Food/Cash-For-Work per average community A) Food/Cash-for-work requirements by type of intervention Land use/unit Food costs9 (over a 5 years period) (MTs) 1. Upper watershed treatment with trenches and eyebrow 120 ha 171 basins in communal areas (10% self-help) 2. Middle steep slopes cultivated area treatment with 85 ha 56 conservation measures (25% self-help) 3. Lower cultivated land treatment with various conservation 170 ha 90 measures (50% self-help) 4. Vegetative stabilization of conservation structures, fertility 250 km 8 management and agroforestry (80% self-help) 5. Water collections ponds (6-7000 m each) (20% self-help) 2 50

7 8

MERET is a WFP supported participatory rural land rehabilitation programme operational in some 400 communities These costs are only estimates, based on the Ethiopia experience, and may be revised upwards or downwards depending on food prices and the use of cash or a mix of cash and food transfers for FFW/CFW 9 This assumes equivalent food/cash costs however, in most cases cash based transfers will reduce costs of A in several contexts

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A) 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Food/Cash-for-work requirements by type of intervention (over a 5 years period) Spring development (30% self-help) and irrigation Nursery establishment (100,000 seedlings/year) (20% selfhelp) Shallow wells on individual/groups basis (50% self-help) Feeder & rural roads (average 5 km/community 10% selfhelp) Sedimentation & overflow dams and checks in gullies (10% self-help)

Land use/unit 2 1 50 5 km 15,000 m

Food costs9 (MTs) 5 15 7 45 80 527 MTs 263,500 USD 2,500 150 2,000 1,250 3,500 4,000 5,000 15,000 33,400 296,900 59,380

B) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Total (5 years) Total USD (value approx. 500 USD/Ton all costs included) Minimum non-wage requirements (for 5 years) Units Agricultural tools 250 sets (5tools each) Surveying and layout equipment 15 sets Transport means 1 Running costs NA Training of farmers 50 persons On the job training for professionals + educational incentives 2 Construction materials such as cement, gabions, iron mesh NA Revolving fund to support use of improved technologies 300HH (IGA) Total additional non-wage requirement costs for the 5 years period GRAND TOTAL A)+B) for 5 YEARS (USD) GRAND TOTAL/YEAR (USD)

Scaling up: 1. In any selected priority country, a minimum of 25 community-based model watersheds/areas is considered as appropriate to demonstrate a scalable dimension of implementation. For such a scale approximately 7.5 million USD are required for a 5 years period or approx 1.5 million USD/year. An initial 3 years period of major investments is considered as key to establish the main assets required in any average degraded and highly food insecure community which is about 4,500,000 USD. 2. Further scaling up does not necessarily need to wait full 3 years and may be envisaged after 2 or more years based on results.

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9.2 Non Food Items


The term Non-Food-Items (NFI) needs to be understood also as Non-Cash-Items or more in general as a nontransfer/wage-item. Furthermore, these items should not be limited to tools and small equipment but also related to training materials, office equipment, support to planning and surveys, and support to capacity development of local and national level institutions. It is quite common to find a number of projects very well planned and in line with priorities at the local level that have poor performance just because of the late arrival of tools, lack of quality tools, scarcity of the means required to ensure minimum supervision, and the lack of funds for training required for proper planning or implementation. There are three major categories of non-food (or cash) items: I. Items required for implementation such as tools, construction materials and various equipment; II. Items needed for technical surveys, participatory planning and, subsequently, for monitoring and evaluation; III. Items for capacity development (including institutional building).

More specifically: 9.2.1 Tools, construction materials and equipment


Planning the correct set of tools is important. There are examples of poorly performing feeder roads simply because the tools used have been inadequate (e.g. only hoes, shovels and pick axes but no crow bars and sledge hammers), forcing to compromise with the layout of the road such as removal of large stones and the excavation of side drains, consolidation of shoulders around curves and carving steeper tracts at the correct angle. Similar examples abound for other works for instance shallower and poorly performing water ponds or the lack of stone rip-rap and aprons in waterways simply because of the lack of adequate tools to dig hard pans, shape or break stones. In other instances, a minimum of construction materials are required without which it is often not recommended to start a given FFA. These items should be provided either through WFP (ODOC budget) or through partners when WFP resources are not sufficient to cover these costs. For example, mesh wire for gabion making, iron bars and concrete slabs for specific road sections, moulds for bricks or cement rings for shallow wells, logs and culverts for bridges, cement for full concrete surround structures for culverts (i.e. construction of masonry head and wing wall) to cross drainage lines, polythene tubes for seedling production, etc. Regarding equipment these range from manual rollers for compaction, to rented trucks for transport of sand, stones or other construction material, an irrigation pump, etc. The following aspects are critical to plan the needs for tools, materials and equipment: 1. Type of activities implemented (e.g. feeder road, pond, bridge, terraces, other); 2. A sufficiently accurate understanding of the physical contexts (e.g. soil type, rockiness, etc);

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3. Cultural factors (some tools not used in specific contexts and local tools can be more effective therefore the possibility to buy such tools from local markets); 4. An approximate understanding of the availability of local tools (taking advantage of existing tools and abilities); 5. Timing and availability (e.g. how to synchronize start up of the intended project activities with purchase and provision of items).

Table 4 - Example of planning hand tools


A community has decided that the extension of a pond would increase its capacity to cater for water consumption needs of the entire community during the dry season. The major task in improving this asset will be excavation of 300m of medium soil, removal of the soil to a distance of 150m and then spreading it out in the new area away from the pond.
Activity Quantity (m) Worknorm (m/day) Total Number of days No. of persons per day for 10 days Hand tools required

Excavation Loading wheelbarrows Transporting by wheelbarrow

300 300 300

2 6 4.5

150 50 67

15 5 7

15 hoes and shovels 5 shovels Minimum 7 wheelbarrows Optimally 14 3 hoes and 3 rakes

Spreading Sub-total

300

10

30 297

3 30

10% Contingency 30 Total 327 If 15 people are excavating, then 5 people are needed for loading, 7 people for transporting the soil with the wheelbarrows, and 3 people for spreading. 30 people could achieve this activity over a period of 10 days. It is always recommended to allow 10% extra during planning as often it takes a little time to organize the activity and to reach the required productivity levels. This means that any small number of extra days, required to complete the asset, are covered in the planned food allocation. About 300-330 daily rations of food incentives would be required for the physical asset creation. This plan anticipates that the correct type and number of good quality tools and equipment will be available for each operation, and that the haulage route for the wheelbarrows will be at a reasonable gradient and relatively smooth.

9.2.2 Items for technical surveys, planning, and M&E


Items needed for technical surveys, participatory planning and, subsequently, for monitoring and evaluation should also be planned for and budgeted. Basic surveying equipment is often necessary even for simple works. For example, ropes, nylon strings, wooden poles, graduated poles, meter tape, line levels, water levels, A-Frame level, direction compass, topographic maps, clinometers (to measure slope gradients), etc. More sophisticated measuring equipment

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may include optic levels (to measure points of same elevation), stereoscopes (to interpret aerial photos and delineate watershed boundaries), and other equipment that relate to measurements or layout of specific structures. Table 5 provides some common key surveying equipment needed by main intervention areas required for staff: Table 5 SR Type of Intervention Surveying & layout equipment
1 Soil conservation works (contour terraces, graded structures, gully control measures, etc) . Line levels (hooked levels on 5-10m string), . Water levels (alternative to the above) . A-frames (allows to check top level of soil or stone bunds, and layout of small structures along contours) . Graduated poles and pegs to mark contour lines . Measuring tape (50-100m) . Clinometers (for slope measurement from portable instruments to very basic paper clinometers) . Soil texture chart (to classify main soil materials e.g. for use for core of embankment, clay blankets for seepage control, etc ) . Water quality control kit (specific measures only) . Line levels as above . Topomaps, aerial photos, stereoscope, for catchment area delineation, etc. . A-frame (layout of trenches & other structures along complex slopes, etc) . Clinometers . Measuring tapes, etc . Topomaps and aerial photos (as required). . Optic levels (e.g. Abney level), line levels. . T-pegs, rope, . Graduated poles/rods, measuring tape . Clinometer, etc . Aerial photos or satellite images of areas impacted by shocks (for example Haiti after the earthquake) to classify priority areas, access problems and priority efforts, etc) . Pegs, poles, warning cordons, etc, as required

Water harvesting works (ponds, farm dams, reservoirs, spring development)

Forestry interventions (particularly in dry zones)

Feeder roads construction and rehabilitation

Removal of debris

Example of specific requirements: the case of feeder or green roads in Nepal This excerpt derives from the GTZ/SDC Green Roads in Nepal - Best Practices Report (link below) produced in 1999 which is an excellent report inclusive of steps, procedures, designs and sketches that can be taken as a major guidance for road construction in mountainous and fragile landscapes: http://www.transweb.ch/mobility/downloads/Green_Roads_in_Nepal.pdf Green roads are generally constructed by peoples participation, where sophisticated survey and detailed design works are not so essential. In fact, detailed desk design work consumes a lot of time and energy, and usually ends up with voluminous reports that are hardly used during construction. Therefore, Green Roads emphasize only minimal survey and design essential for technical and official purposes. To guide technicians in the field, typical designs for retaining structures as well as water management structures prepared beforehand are used. Most important is that the road follows a smooth longitudinal gradient with an

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average of 7% and a maximum of 12%. The horizontal alignment generally follows the natural contour, but can be gradually improved in major rehabilitation works later on.
After selecting the optimum alignment, the minimum requirement for a technical survey works is the following: Longitudinal alignment setting is done with Abney level or levelling instrument, staff and measuring tapes. Road Centreline Pegs are fixed at intervals of 25m, and the cross slope at each peg point is measured. Bench Marks are established at intervals of 500m, and Reference Points are located at the rates of 4 per km. A more detailed survey by using Theodolite is carried out only at critical sections, such as gullies, hairpin bends (switchbacks) etc. which could include contour mapping. A local plant availability survey is conducted at certain intervals to identify suitable plants, which could be later used for bioengineering purposes. A land-use survey (forest, agricultural land, pasture land, rock cliffs, etc.) and a soil survey (earth, gravel, rock, conglomerate, etc.) are carried out.

Simple and robust survey instruments are to be used for survey and construction supervision works. Some of the most essential instruments are listed here as follows:

Measurement tapes of different lengths (5m, 30m, 50m, 100m, etc.) Ranging Rods Abney Level Magnetic Compass Clinometer Camera Binocular Engineering Level with horizontal compass and circle Cross Staffs Plumb bobs Theodolite for specialised survey works at critical sites such as at switchbacks, landslide prone zones, steep rocky portions, gullies, settlement areas

Pipe water level (5 m transparent pipe) Wooden triangle frames to fix the road surface (camber, slopes, cross section of drainage, etc.)
A typical Design Report would consist of the following: Longitudinal Profile of the road alignment (1:1000 Horizontal and 1:100 Vertical) Horizontal plan of the road on an existing topographical map (1:25000 or 1:50000) Cross Sections at given intervals and typical cross sections of varying mountain slopes Detailed Cross Sections at critical areas including layout plan in contour maps, if necessary, specially at switchbacks Typical type designs of structural works, such as retaining walls and water management structures Estimate of quantity and cost of different work items, preferably for each construction phase, and finally number of skilled and unskilled labour person days required Quantity and cost of construction materials to be procured from outside (cement, gabion wires, etc.) Quantity of tools and equipment to be procured from outside (wheelbarrows, shovels, crowbars, etc.).

The photos on the next page show a set of simple instruments being used for layout, design and measurement of different interventions.

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Delineating maps using direction compass

Watershed delineation with topomaps

Checking of soil texture and properties

Using A-frame for layout and design of trenches

Measuring gully width for major rehabilitation

Using aerial photos and stereoscopes for mapping

Layout of soil bunds using line level & poles Plate 52

Level of the soil bund checked with A-Frames 98

10 Complementarity
As FFA interventions are often planned together with partners, the role of complementary assistance (from NGO and UN partners, government and communities, etc) is also described, including some practical examples. A main outcome of the seasonal livelihood programming exercise (Module B) is the ability to engage and understand various partners comparative advantages from the perspective of their capacity, area coverage and complementarities. Community based planning approaches further provide the platform for greater coherent and complementary efforts. To this effect, FFA should not be seen in isolation but as a value added activity. Opportunities to foster partnerships with UN agencies such as with FAO and IFAD in particular need to be explored, often using pilot sites as areas for convergence of activities. For example, FAO can provide technical training and support to specific activities (e.g. post harvest losses, aquaculture, integrated pest management, etc) and organize agricultural enterprises for outputs markets development. IFAD can support institutional capacity efforts, infrastructure development and major efforts linked to income generation. WFP, FAO and IFAD could also explore greater opportunities for local purchase from smallholder farmers, invest in watershed based development, livestock based initiatives and overall support to households enhanced food security. What it means in concrete terms: i. There is a limit to what FFA can do and can do well; ii. That there is a need to verify whether specific NGO or other partners from Government or at community level have the technical skills to design and implement FFA activities but also those that will reinforce or improve the sustainability of FFA interventions. For example a tree nursery supported through FFA will benefit from skills on how to graft specific fruit trees, etc; iii. Complementarity is often the way to rapid handover to institutions and communities.

In each country there are a number of potential partnerships and complementary support measures that need to be explored more deliberately. The following Table 6 is an example from the Zimbabwe Country Office (2011) which outlines significant potential efforts and their applicability.

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Table 6: Menu of possible10 F-CFA interventions by focus groups, complementary measures MAIN F-CFA (semi-arid areas focus) Focus Group (s) Complementary measures from partners (not for F-CFA) Physical soil and water conservation measures such as: . Level Soil Bund (level contour) . Level Fanya Juu (level contour in deeper and more stable soils - see infotech for main technical specifications) . Small stone or soil/stone faced bunds with runon and run-off areas (rectangular or trapezoidal bunds, etc) . Training in SWC measures Mainly groups of households and individual households based on size and location of cultivated plots 1. Conservation agriculture (CA) practices in between level bunds 2. Within CA promote improved selection of crops (e.g. shift from maize to small grains, etc) 3.Within CA promote compost applications particularly 2-4 meters above bunds where soil is deeper and moisture higher 4. Within CA also promote intercropping of drought resistant deep rooted legumes (e.g. pigeon peas) every 5-8 lines of cereals, possibly along ripped lines 5. Within CA test vertical mulching along the contours in between bunds (e.g. 3-4 lines every 20 meters) using cereal stocks + legume rows 6. Control grazing, fencing, livestock management 7. Others as required

Integration requirements 1. Physical structures need to be integrated with stabilization of embankments with legumes and shrubs (see infotech Annex D-1 for main spec). They can increase the effectiveness of CA, particularly in sloping terrains and soils with low water retention capacity. The whole system requires agreements on control grazing for at least the first year to avoid trampling and damage of contour level structures. 2. For runon-runoff systems are suitable to grow crops in lower rainfall ranges, require accurate layout and testing on the ratio microcatchment/cropping area (usually 3-5:1)

10

This list is not exhaustive and focusing largely on what F-CFA can support within the context of semi-arid lands. The range of complementary measures is also simplified around main intervention areas (such as CA) within which numerous packages and designs are developed by partners (FAO, GTZ, AAA, etc) and possible to modify based on local contexts.

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MAIN F-CFA (semi-arid areas focus) Small scale water harvesting measures such as: . Hand-dug shallow wells . Low cost micro-ponds . Spring Development . Training in home gardens planning (rotation, IPM, species selection, utilization, etc)

Focus Group (s) Mainly small groups of households (2-5) and individual households

Complementary measures from partners (not for F-CFA) 1. Introduce and test low cost drip irrigation systems 2. Low cost water lifting devices 3. Home gardens and CA practices 4. Provision of improved horticulture seeds 5. For springs possible to construct overnight storage cistern/tank to collect overflow for subsequent use

Integration requirements 1. Low cost drip irrigation systems need to be re-introduced with adequate package of training, follow up and adjustments, including integration with home gardening skills, selection of crops, etc. 2. Training on management of the scheme and on small repairs needs to be undertaken. 3. Maintenance responsibilities need to be agreed by beneficiaries, including the possible establishment of a pool fund for such maintenance. These structures are established to improve the recharge of water tables as well as protect downstream fields. They can be established below rocky outcrops and hilly terrains at the break of slope. Infiltration pits or ponds are fed with runoff using a cutoff drain they may be de-silted every few years using community joint self-help efforts (infotech in Annex D-1) 1. These activities may require a number of integration measures such as small-catchment protection, soil erosion control and conservation measures, and fencing to avoid rapid siltation of pond or damage to dams during high powered rainfall showers. 2. Integration with self-help efforts and organization of user groups should be key

Water harvesting support measures such as: . Percolation pits . Percolation Pond

Village groups

1. Most of the measures listed above 2. Others as required

Medium scale water harvesting (WH) measures such as: . Farm Dam Construction . Farm Pond Construction . Diversion Weir Construction . Cut-off Drains . Irrigation schemes rehabilitation and development (canals digging, repairs, etc) . Dams and spillways repairs or rehabilitation . Silt traps construction . De-siltation and deepening of existing ponds

Village level/cluster of villages

1. Provision of construction materials (pipes, cement, mesh wire, etc) and supervision of rehabilitation or construction of WH schemes 2. CA within rehabilitated plots 3. Fencing and protection of schemes 5. Provision of seeds or planting materials for the re-vegetation of

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MAIN F-CFA (semi-arid areas focus) . Establishment of clay blankets to reduce vertical percolation in ponds . River-bed sand dams . Training in irrigation management/user groups Focus Group (s) Complementary measures from partners (not for F-CFA) embankments 6. Training in farmers business enterprises 7. Market development and organization of seed fairs 8. Others as required 1. Mainly CA measures 2. Undertaken in between physical soil conservation measures such as contour bunds 1. Mainly CA measures and water harvesting 2. Small nursery development and provision of planting materials 3. Provision of training on seed collection, storage and preparation for planting (e.g. possible scarification, soaking, etc) 4. Others as required Integration requirements prerequisite for establishing such schemes. 3. Some of the measures indicated such as sand dams need careful selection and may only be suitable in few locations. This activity may require fine tuning to better adapt the specific Zimbabwe semi-arid conditions, particularly effective in drier parts and only with Sorghum. 1. These measures are selected as they may require F-CFA support for the collection of planting materials (for fencing), excavation of double pits (8-12m each) for composting, etc. 2. Compost making entrepreneurship can become a business at village level, with groups of unemployed or poor households undertaking compost preparation at significant scale for others and become service providers for farmers with sufficient land. 3. These measures integrate with a number of previously listed activities 1. Area closure (AC) safeguards specific areas from livestock and peoples interference by reaching agreements with villages or the community. AC can protect settlements, water reservoirs, etc. Areas put under area closure can be fenced and rehabilitated with physical

In situ moisture conservation such as: . Tie Ridge (s) . The Zai and Planting Pit System Selected homestead development measures such as: . Compost making . Stabilization of physical structures and farm boundaries . Vegetative Fencing . Multi-storey gardening . Seed collection . Training on the above measures

Individual and small groups of households Household and small groups of households

Physical and protection measures for agroforestry in dry lands: . Area Closure . Micro-basins (MBs) . Eyebrow Basins (EBs) . Herring bones (HBs)

. Household focus (within homestead) . Group focus (within groups gardens, small catchments)

1. Tree/cash crops planting seed provision 2. Provision of fruit trees, including improved grafted varieties 3. Training on grafting techniques 4. Use of grasses and forage for

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MAIN F-CFA (semi-arid areas focus) . Micro-trenches (MTRs) . Trenches . Improved Pits (IP)

Focus Group (s) . Village or community focus (small catchments, WH schemes protection, SWC in degraded spots)

Complementary measures from partners (not for F-CFA) livestock rearing 5. Improved animal husbandry associated to development of backyards

Integration requirements measures and planting of multi-purpose species. 2. Trenches, eyebrows and other structures allow the growth of tree species using small micro-catchments effective in using small spaces within homesteads (see Annex D-1)

Nursery establishment . Fencing, seedbed preparation, composting, pot filling, transplanting, weeding, watering, etc . Seed collection, preservation and storage . Grass and legume seeds multiplication centres

. Small groups of HH . Village . Community

1. Provision of materials, equipment, reels of polythene tubes, etc. 2. Provision of training on specific planting and nursery management techniques 3. Establishment of selling points for seedlings or cash crops, fruits, etc 4. Livestock integrated packages

Gully control measures such as: . Stone Checkdams . Brushwood Checkdams . Gully Reshaping, Filling and Re-vegetation . Sediment Storage and Overflow Earth Dams (SS Dams) for productive gully control . Training on the above

Groups/village /community

1. Provision of technical expertise and planting materials as required 2. Provision of gabions (only if required) 3. Transport means for construction materials (e.g. stones) 4. Others as required 1. Technical support and provision of enhanced standards adapted to withstand high intensity rains

Access feeder roads: . Earth road on mountainous terrainstable soils . Gravelled road on flat and rolling terrain sandy or weak soils

Community and inter-community

1. The establishment of nurseries is closely linked to water harvesting measures and the enabling effect that these measures have on water availability. 2. Nurseries organized by women can become major production centres, including integration with small livestock fattening, small dairy development, beekeeping, etc. 3. Seed multiplication can also be linked to major animal feed enhancement programmes 1. The rehabilitation of gullies is key to protect fields from soil erosion and improve water harvesting. 2. SSDams are structures placed on large gully networks to retain water and convert gullies into productive fields (Annex D-1) series of SSdams raise water tables and enable shallow wells to be constructed below structures. 1. Feeder road activity is integrated with market development and the outputs from the enhanced production enabled by WH

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MAIN F-CFA (semi-arid areas focus) . Gravelled road on mountainous terrain weak soils . Feeder roads unstable soils . Typical pipe culvert using concrete rings . Standard drift . Bridge construction . Training on design and layout/construction Focus Group (s) Complementary measures from partners (not for F-CFA) 2. Provision of equipment for compaction (low cost) 3. Transport of construction materials (e.g. stones, etc) 4. Training of user groups Integration requirements activities. 2. Feeder roads are in unstable terrains should not be wide (max 4 mtrs) 3. Gully control and attention to side drainage is key 4. Training at community (all villages) and inter-community (e.g. if feeder road crosses two or more wards) levels on how to establish local road repair management groups.

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11 Capacity Development for FFA


11.1 General considerations
This section relates to capacity aspects during implementation of FFA, including the actual planning work at the field level. Two main clusters of capacity development efforts are therefore important for FFA: (1) The first one is about creating general awareness amongst stakeholders on FFA and build consensus on the rationale for FFA and about the role that WFP plays within a given context. (2) The second will focus on building the capacity of cooperating partners, local institutions and of communities on planning, technical design, follow up and monitoring & evaluation aspects . This is very important mainly to understand local biophysical and socio-economic/vulnerability context, initiate and foster participation, design interventions of quality, seek partnerships and establish a solid basis for M&E.

Plate 53 Example of strengthening local capacity of government institutions WFP has a track record of efforts undertaken to support capacity building of local institutions and partners including through a number of practical trainings such as early warning and preparedness, nutrition, and HIV/AIDS. Training on food-for-assets is also common in some countries although not always directly undertaken by WFP. A number of partners such as GTZ, AAA, World Vision and other NGOs as well as local Ministries (Agriculture, Water, Infrastructure, etc) and UN agencies (e.g. ILO, FAO, etc) have developed training materials related to FFA. In most cases, these tools are country specific.

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11.2 Capacity Development for FFA: skills sets and main elements
The following includes a set of references that can be used by CO to strengthen their own as wells partners capacity for FFA for each main task, links to most sections of the FFA PGM are provided. Table 7 can also be considered as an overall checklist for FFA: Table 7 Capacity Task 1 Capacity building elements for FFA Rationale for FFA in relation to the Strategic Plan, Policy (WFP and of Gvt), and Programme Categories
Knowledge and skills a. FFA and Strategic Objectives (SO) b. FFA and Programme Categories (FFA as a programme response in emergencies, recovery and longer term enabling development) c. FFA role in overall disaster prevention, post disaster recovery and longer term food security efforts d. Relevance of food security in Gvt Poverty Reduction Strategies, Productive Safety Nets and Resilience Building programmes (if any) e. Role of FFA in sustainable land management f. Synergies between FFA and other WFP activities a. Consultative processes for coalitions for food security and policy/strategy support b. Consultative processes for productive safety net development c. Role of FFA in resilience building a. FFA in overall programme response and design cycle b. Linkages FFA, Resilience building, DRR and Adaptation (explanatory note) Links/references a: Module A b: Module A b: EB-2010 c: Module B d: Pillar 5 ODXP programme guidance How To e: Annex B-3 f: Module A

Main sub-tasks 1.1 Understand WFP policies, strategic objectives, programme categories and frameworks related to FFA.

1.2 Identify and develop consultative processes to support policy and strategies that include resilience building in vulnerable, food insecure, shock prone and degraded contexts. 1.3 Provide programme support on FFA in relation to resilience building, disaster risk reduction and adaptation to climate change

a-b: Pillar 5 ODXP Programme Guidance c: Module A

a-b: Module A

Capacity Task 2

Analyze local contexts, vulnerability and risks in relation to FFA


Knowledge and skills a. Nexus fragile ecosystems, land degradation and livelihoods b. Watershed logic c. FFA and land degradation a. Typologies of shocks and implications for FFA b. Shock trend analysis and building the case for resilience building c. Broad responses for FFA in relation to type of shocks Knowledge and skills a. Programming FFA (agrarian systems) b. Programming FFA (pastoral and agropastoral) c. Programming FFA in urban and peri-urban settings d. Partnerships development using seasonal livelihood joint programming exercises a. Field level consultative processes b. Seasonal livelihood and response analysis in good, bad and typical years Links/references a: Annex B-3 b: Annex C-3 c: Annex B-2 a-b: Module B c: Module B (Section 1)

Main elements 2.1 Identify main causes of vulnerability and role of FFA to address these causes 2.2 Description of the type and trends of shocks and implications for selection of FFA

Capacity Task 3

Seasonal livelihood programming and relevance for FFA


Links/references a-c: Module B

Main elements 3.1 Use of seasonal livelihood programming to inform context specific FFA interventions and complementary programme support 3.2 Inform strategies to develop context specific emergency response, early recovery and

a-d: Module B

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resilience building programmes that include FFA and joint efforts.

c. Mapping out stakeholders role, comparative advantage and complementarities d. Priority interventions for FFA Knowledge and skills a. Low-tech/low-risk FFA in low capacity contexts b. High tech/higher risk FFA in contexts with adequate or high capacity c. FFA in post disaster situations (slow and rapid onset) d. FFA in early and extended recovery settings e. FFA in longer term enabling development f. FFA in complex emergencies a. Food rations/cash wages b. Alpha value links to cash programming c. Combinations food/cash d. Gender aspects Knowledge and skills a. FFA in arid and semi-arid contexts (agrarian and pastoralists) b. FFA in tropical and subtropical contexts c. FFA in flood prone areas d. FFA for market and social infrastructure e. Other complementary FFA a. Work standards b. Work norm elements c. Info-techs a. Environmental hardships reduction b. Group formation for management of natural resources and assets c. Linkages to income generation activities a. Layout and design material b. Tools and equipment impact on quality Links/references a-f: Module C

Capacity Task 4

Type of FFA in relation to capacity, programme categories and shocks

Main elements 4.1 Identify FFA response options based on local capacity and type of shock

4.2 Relevance of food and/or cash transfers for FFA

a-d: Module D

Capacity Task 5

Context specific FFA interventions


Links/references a-e: Module D

Main elements 5.1 Selecting and designing FFA interventions in different ecological and livelihood settings

5.2 Defining work norms and technical standards 5.3 Incorporating gender aspects and FFA

a-b: Module D c: Module D & Annex D-1 a-c: Module D

5.4 Budgeting Non-Food-Items and the role of complementary assistance 5.5 Use and selection of participatory planning approaches for FFA

a-b: Module D

a. Participatory planning social and biophysical require. b. Participatory planning in low capacity contexts c. Community based participatory watershed planning d. Linkages to district and national level planning e. Planning approaches in pastoral and urban settings 5.6 How to capture and network a. Approaches and templates best practices b. Advocacy and networking tools c. Examples Capacity Task 6 M&E requirements Main elements Knowledge and skills 6.1 Selecting outcome and a. Community and Household Assets Scores output indicators b. Other indicators c. Measuring resilience 6.2 How to measure M&E a. Systems development indicators b. Linkages to overall Strategic Results Framework c. Tools and risks 6.3 Evaluations of FFA a. Key aspects for FFA evaluation components b. Linkages to research c. Land use and degradation change dynamics

a: Module C b: Annex C-2 c-d: Annex C-3 e: Annex C-1 a-b: Module E c: Annex E-2

Links/references a-c: Module E

a-c: Module E

a-c: Module E

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11.3 Awareness creation on FFA at CO and partners level


WFP programme staff at CO and SO level responsible for the design of programmes that include FFA have to ensure that other staff and field monitors involved in FFA are equipped with the required knowledge on FFA. This information can be presented in the form of power point presentations and discussions related to the main components of the PGM for agrarian systems. Three presentations are examples of what can be used by CO to support awareness on the relevance of FFA and it includes: 1. A Generic Presentation on FFA that can be used and changed to suit a particular context (and enriched with specific photos and visuals and required). 2. A detail FFA presentation related to Ethiopia and linked to the context, the scope of the FFA project, its main drives and impacts. 3. A FFA presentation on the Rationale for Programme Design in Haiti and Role of FFA including specific interventions suitable in extremely degraded areas.

11.4 Training on FFA planning, design and implementation


The following modules have been developed in Ethiopia for training counterparts and field staff in participatory watershed development through FFA. These modules are available through the following links and offer a wide spectrum of modules and technical as well as photographic material that can be used for similar training exercises elsewhere. These, of course, need to be adapted and simplified within contexts that demand much simpler set of investments and type of FFA.

Table 8: File names/links to training modules on Participatory Watershed Management Training for the Productive Safety Net Programme in Ethiopia (adopted from the MERET Project)
ToT: Agenda - Contents and Schedule Training Content - guide Topic 1: Public-Community Works and Watershed Management Topic 2: Planning an effective training Topic 3: Participatory Planning Methods and Tools Topic 4: Concept and Principles of Watershed Development Topic 5: Participatory Planning - Step 1 Topic 5: Participatory Planning - Step 2 Topic 6: Getting started at Woreda Level Topic 7: Getting started at Community Level Topic 8.0: Socio-economic Surveys - Procedures to follow Topic 8.1: Getting to know your area - Trend Analysis Topic 14: Contents Topic 14.2.2: Identification and priorities change 2 -part 1 Topic 14.2: Technological options in biological measures Field exercise selection of interventions Topic 14.2.2a: Example 1 Topic 14.2.2b: Example 2 Topic 14.2.2c: Example 3 Topic: 14.2.1: Lecture (Biological Conservation] Topic: 14.1.3 - Flood Control Topic 14. Agroforestry Topic 15: Notes on Water Harvesting (slides) Topic 15: Water Harvesting for Cultivated lands (PPT)

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Exercise 1 Topic 8.2: Village Mapping - Exercise 2 Topic 8.3: Transect walk - Exercise 3 Topic 8.4: Institutional Analysis - Exercise 4 Topic 8.5: Vision of change - Exercise 5 Topic 8.6: Problem Identification - Exercise 6 Topic 8.7: Socio-economic Survey Questionnaires Exercise 7 Topic 8.8: Checklist for bio-physical Assessment Topic 8.9: Socio-economic Survey - Guide for field work

Topic 15.1: Water Harvesting - Part 1 Topic 15.1: Water Harvesting - Part 2 Topic 15.1: Water Harvesting - Part 3 Topic 15.1: Water Harvesting - Part 4 Topic 15.1: Water Harvesting - Part 5 Topic 15.1: Water Harvesting - Part 6 Topic 16: Options for Social Services Topic 17: Ethiopia PSNP PW Training Module Environmental and Social Management Framework (ESMF) 18 Environmental Assessment - format sheet Environmental Assessment - EIA (Environmental Impact Assessment) Environmental Assessment - training fieldwork Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) - PSNP & PW training field work Topic 18: Ethiopia PSNP PW Training Module Environmental and Social Management Framework (ESMF) 19 Topic 19: Getting the options approved - Step 5 Topic 20: Procedures - Step 6 Topic 21: Strategies for implementation Topic 23: RBP M&E - TOT August 2005

Topic 9: Gender ToT (PPT) Topic 10: HIV and PSNP (Report) Topic 10: HIV and PSNP (PPT) Topic 11: Biophysical Assessment Topic 12: Mapping exercise and simple surveying techniques Topic 13.1: Identification and Prioritization - general Topic 13.2: Identification and prioritization of interventions that bring change Topic 14.1.1: Technological options in physical SWC Topic 14.1.2: Gully control

11.5 Experience sharing on FFA: lessons from the field


Farmer to farmer learning and experience sharing can be one of the best ways to expose and/or train farmers in a number of new approaches, innovative techniques and management efforts. A number of experience sharing efforts can be suggested: 1. Farmer groups visits: Visit of 10-50 farmers to visit a district or a region within a given country that has specific successful projects. The visits should allow farmers to interact with others and provision made for host communities to receive and possibly lodge guests for a day or two, depending from the range of activities to visit. Short hit and run visit please travellers but rarely have an impact regarding replication. These visits should be also planned with the condition that each trainee needs to test at least one technique observed once back to his/her their community. An extension worker or specialized field staff from the government or partner should be accompanying the group and develop an action plan for replication together with participants by the end of the visit.

2. Field days at community level: These events celebrate achievements and can have the purpose of providing awards to best performing households, show to neighbouring communities achievements worth sharing and create awareness amongst stakeholders not directly involved in implementation of FFA (administrators, etc) but also to invite specific institutions that may be interested to complement a given set of achievements with

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inputs. For example, series of well developed micro-ponds and shallow wells resulting from stabilized hillsides and water harvesting may induce a partner to support local farmers with treadle pumps or other irrigation equipment, improved seeds and other fertility management techniques enabled by the FFA interventions. 3. Innovative farmers or technicians deployed to assist specific communities: There are very creative individuals that can be provided incentives to stay in specific communities for a few days or week (s) and demonstrate specific interventions on-the-spot and on-the-job. This effort can be very successful in terms of buy-in from community members as guidance is provided through very practical work. This can have a domino effect as new champions can burgeon in other communities and used as para-professionals on a number of interventions elsewhere.

11.6 Capacity development for institutional building


Support to capacity building of national institutions and counterparts in ministries of agriculture, environment or others relevant institutions relevant to FFA occurs largely within a CP environment and, to some extent, PRROs. Most of the capacity efforts mentioned earlier are critical to enhance capacity of national and local institutions. They usually include awareness sessions, joint field visits to project areas, Training of Trainers (TOT) and on-the-job training as indicated above, and the provision of minimum support for supervision and planning & design equipment. There are also other capacity development incentives that whilst bolstering local level support enhance institutional capacity. For example, by enabling access to higher education opportunities to best performing national staff currently staying and working in hardship duty stations. In Ethiopia about 42 Ministry of Agriculture district level officers were given the opportunity to attend 3 months summer courses for the duration of 4 years and obtained their BSc (from diploma level) in a variety of technical fields such as soil conservation, water engineering, and forestry. These field staff not only performed extremely well at field level but managed to deeply engage with communities and develop a major sense of responsibility regarding the FFA project. On the other hand the costs of such an effort from WFP side has been low (about 300-400 USD/field staff/year) a most cost-effective investment.

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A capacity development plan for FFA can be prepared in phases: Phase 1: internal CO and SO teams consultations to review current capacity levels for FFA and identify key gaps prior to further consultation with other stakeholders. Phase 2: consultations regarding capacity for FFA need to occur as part of broader consultations for the programming of food assistance and the identification of major FFA interventions. This will include discussions with government representatives but also NGOs and other UN agencies (UNDP, FAO, WB, etc), and selected donors. Countries that start FFA without past experience will need to ensure that a number of basic capacities will be in place before starting FFA. For example that cooperating partners and government institutions involved have the necessary capacity for planning and implementing the type of FFA able to resolve specific food security problems. Capacity development plans in practice: There are no standard approaches as every country requires its own specific capacity development plan. However, the three key elements always to consider first are: (1) Capacity for planning, (2) Technical capacity for FFA design and implementation, and (3) Capacity for supervision and M&E. The following example is developed based on a real country scenario developed for a CO in ODJ (by ODXP, 2010) and draws upon an overall capacity development strategy for FFA: Table 8

Type of activity

Modality

Outputs
. Identification of major partners suitable for FFA planning & implementation . Identification of gaps by FFA type and areas to cover . List of best practices . Awareness on productive safety nets and environmental aspects enhanced . Gvt. support increased to joint efforts in social protection and resilience building . Synergies in CP strengthened . Quality monitoring aspects internalized

A) Stocktaking what works and experience sharing Local consultants supported by 1 Stocktaking of existing FFA projects (from gvt institutions, UN partners, CO/SO staff to undertake a NGOs, local efforts) by major FFA stocktaking of major FFA intervention and geographical interventions in the country or areas area/coverage, performance, etc of interest including planning, design, layout and construction phases of different FFA Visit to XXXXX country (By mid 2011): Selected CO/SO and Gvt staff travel 2 a. Observation of local level to XXXXXX for 10 days participatory planning for integrated and large scale watershed development b. Familiarization with a number of land rehabilitation and management of runoff water in moisture deficit and degraded lands FFA (XXXX CP activity and Safety Nets) c. Learning from synergies between FFA and School Feeding and with Action-Based Monitoring (ABM) tool used at field level B) Technical Training TOT for 15 days (by end 2011) 2 Training of trainers (TOT) to 30 WFP/IP/Gvt staff on FFA technical interventions (by end of 2011)

. Capacity to implement better quality and integrated FFA increased in selected

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Type of activity 3
Preparation of technical kits for FFA (by mid 2011)

Modality
. Infotechs and work norms prepared for main FFA activities (consultant and through ODXP by mid 2011)

Outputs
communities . Improved capacity of implementing partners to support on-the-job training and field implementation . Higher quality standards achieved in FFA . Operational capacity in FFA strengthened . CO Capacity to inform programme discussion on cash/food splits, targeting aspects, seasonal livelihood analysis, type of response and partnerships improved . Operational and monitoring capacity improved . Best practices documented and shared with partners . Local level partnerships and community & household participation enhanced . Minimum and timely supply of non food items supplied for the duration of the CP . Entry points for joint efforts agreed . Sufficient complementary support provided

C) Programme implementation and M&E 4 Consider the possible recruitment of 2 international UNVs with strong capacity in FFA and safety nets programme design and implementation. (by mid 2011)

. 1 UNV/Sub-office

Consider the possible recruitment of 1 FAMs/Sub-office with technical skills on dry and sub-tropical land management, agroforestry and water st harvesting, or related fields (by 1 quarter 2011)

. CO and RB to discuss with HR asap . Contact CO XXXX with similar experience

D) Tools and non-food costs 6 Discuss with partners a plan to support capacity building and provision of non-food or non-wage costs for resilience building on a predictable basis (by mid 2011)

. Explore the possibility to create a pool fund dedicated to support nonwage costs for tools, equipment and essential items at district level . Alternatively, develop a coordinated plan for complementary assistance - include stocktaking on what each organization could provide to joint efforts, and advocate for complementary support. E) Upgrading skills through educational incentives Set aside 5% of ODOC budget to 7 Enabling dedicated and best performing national staff to access support best performing national distant learning courses or country counterparts located in hardship specific summer courses and skills duty stations to access summer upgrading mechanisms (by end of courses for the duration of X years 2011 onwards)

. Minimum stay of 3-5 years in a most difficult and food insecure location . Upgrading of staff skills in specific technical areas of relevance to FFA

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11.7 Linking successful projects to national research and academia


WFP FFA could benefit from linkages with research institutes and specific Universities that would like to engage in studying and research food security aspects and the relevance of specific FFA projects, approaches and techniques that have a positive effect on reducing hunger and building assets. For example, specific universities in Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Ethiopia, Bangladesh, Haiti, Senegal, Liberia, Rwanda and Pakistan, to name a few, could explore the possibility to second students assigned to research and support specific projects of interest. Students can collect useful information, compute impacts or simply provide technical assistance on specific fields. WFP CO could envisage, together with Universities, to plan specific studies already from planning stages or at any relevant phase of specific FFA projects. These partnerships can be very cost effective and provide both practical experiences to students willing to engage in food security aspects as well as a contribution to documentation of what works (or does not).

11.8 Learning from past unyielding efforts


There are many examples of FFW or CFW interventions that have not been planned, designed and implemented properly and that show poor performance, sometimes even detrimental effects on assets and people. For example wrongly designed and constructed terraces that collapse and create concentration of runoff which in turn damages other fields located downstream. Rather common problems include poorly done feeder roads, from poor layout and design to weak construction. Such roads do not withstand rainfall showers and become impassable after a few weeks or months. Similar concerns apply for forestry and agroforestry with the wrong selection of tree species and poor planting techniques quite common in drier areas. There is ample evidence through evaluation reports and case studies, and literature that many FFW of the past (and current) had some of these problems. This does not always mean that FFW activities were the wrong thing to do in a given context (as that could have been determined by many other factors, including the policy of the government) but that field staff needs always to learn from such failures and avoid that they could be repeated. There are also a number of situations where through the learning of these failures FFA improved and became examples to follow and replicate.

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Examples of poorly performing FFA and main reason for failure:


Soil conservation Plate 54 Poorly designed and constructed stone bunds broken in many sections. The stone bunds are not properly spaced and have reduced dimensions (low height and strength) compared to the standard required for such slope gradients.

Plate 55 In this photo the soil bunds in the upper part of the catchment are poorly constructed and collapsed from water pressure significant erosion rills can be noted in the portion of land with poor conservation works.

Check dams Plate 56 Stone checks constructed without spillway and drop/apron structure. Dash lines indicate the position of the spillway (up) and apron (down). Plate 57 The signs of piping & tunnelling are visible under the wall batter line an indication of absence of foundation.

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Feeder roads
Steep slope without protection Section of feeder road with steep slope Narrow side drains and no outlet

Cut too high and vertical, and road too wide (7 m instead of 4.5m)

Loose road fill risk of slides Plate 58 Poorly designed and constructed feeder road in degraded, steep and slide prone area

Water harvesting
Plate 59 Lack of spillway generated breakages the pond is also without stabilization and soil fill is accumulated too close to the basin

Excessive soil sediments this denotes the absence of a silt trap at the inlet and active upstream erosion (poor catchment protection)

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