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British Columbia Sustainable Winegrowing Program

SUSTAINABLE PRACTICES FOR BC VINEYARDS

SELF-ASSESSMENT AND GUIDEBOOK

Version 1.0 March 2010

Prepared by Insight Environmental Consulting Ltd. for the BC Wine Grape Council Sustainable Practices Committee

BRITISH COLUMBIA SUSTAINABLE WINEGROWING PROGRAM


Sustainable Practices for BC Vineyards
Self-Assessment and Guidebook Version 1.0 March 2010

Prepared by Insight Environmental Consulting Ltd. For Sustainable Practices Committee BC Wine Grape Council PO Box 1218 Peachland, BC V0H 1X0 Tel: 250-767-2534 Fax: 250-767-0094 Email: bcwgc@telus.net Copyright Copyright 2010, BC Wine Grape Council, PO Box 1218, Peachland BC V0H 1X0. All rights reserved. No part of the technical portion of this publication may be added to, deleted, reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means whatsoever, without prior permission from the BC Wine Grape Council. Cover photo: Chris Mason Stearns

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Research, Writing and Editing
Kellie Garcia, Insight Environmental Consulting Ltd. Jos Garcia, Insight Environmental Consulting Ltd.

Contributors and Reviewers


Members of the BCWGC Sustainable Practices Committee:
CHAIR: Gary Strachan, Strachan Consulting Pat Bowen, Pacific Agricultural Research Centre Hans Buchler, Park Hill Vineyard Cynthia Enns, Laughing Stock Vineyards Tilman Hainle, Working Horse Winery Margaret Holm, Okanagan Similkameen Conservation Alliance Gary Kennedy, Granite Creek Estate Wines Joe Lariviere, Environmental Farm Plan George Lerchs, Garnett Valley Vineyards Tom Lowery, Pacific Agricultural Research Centre Sara Norman, Working Horse Winery Graham ORourke, Mission Hill Family Estate Scott Smith, Pacific Agricultural Research Centre Elaine Triggs, Arise Ventures Ltd. Tim Watts, Kettle Valley Winery

Pilot Project Participants:


Sydney Folk, Mission Hill Estate Winery Ron Fournier, Lavendar Ridge Vineyard Manfred Freese, Sun Ridge Vineyard Maya Gauthier, Cottonwood Estates Leo Gebert, St. Hubertus Estate Winery Regan Kapach, Tinhorn Creek Vineyards Ellen Koehler Mauz, Mauz Vineyard Sage Larivee, Three Sisters Vineyard Pierre Levesque, Strutt Creek Vineyard Andrew Moon, Tinhorn Creek Vineyards Sandra Oldfield, Tinhorn Creek Vineyards Graham ORourke, Mission Hill Estate Winery Karnail Sidhu, Kalala Estates Bob Tennant, Tennant Vineyard Lisa Wambold, Mission Hill Estate Winery Jim Wright, Ashby Point Vineyard

External Reviewers:
Ian Cameron, University of Victoria Pat George, Wine Island Growers Association Roy Hyndman, Natural Resources Canada Jan Kirkby, Environment Canada Marcel Mercier, Garry Oaks Winery Gerry Neilsen, Pacific Agricultural Research Centre Emma Point, Dalhousie University Paula Rodriguez de la Vega, The Land Conservancy Mike Sarell, Ophiuchus Consulting Alyson Skinner, The Land Conservancy Ted van der Gulik, BC Ministry of Agriculture and Lands

Funding

Orchards and Vineyards Transition Program of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada

Notice of Errors Page VI, Table III, row 2: or vineyard should be added after winery Page VII, last paragraph: wineries should read vineyards Page 3-1, first paragraph under 3.1: winemaking should read grape growing Page 5-1, second paragraph: winery should read vineyard Page 5-14, first paragraph: winery should read vineyard Page 7-8, first paragraph and 4th bullet: winemaking should read grape growing Page 7-9, second paragraph: wineries should read vineyards Page 7-12, first and third bullet under D and first bullet under E: winery should read vineyard Page 7-14, first paragraph: wineries should read vineyards

INTRODUCTION AND INSTRUCTIONS


WHAT THE PROGRAM IS ..................................................................................................... I WHAT THE PROGRAM IS NOT............................................................................................ III HOW THE PROGRAM WAS DEVELOPED ............................................................................. III MISSION STATEMENT....................................................................................................... IV BENEFITS ...................................................................................................................... IV RELATIONSHIP WITH OTHER DOCUMENTS ........................................................................ IV HOW TO USE THE SELF-ASSESSMENT AND GUIDEBOOK.................................................... VI Sustainable practices, in the context of this program, refers to grape growing and winemaking practices that are sensitive to the environment, economically feasible and socially equitable (see Chapter 1 for a more detailed definition of sustainability). Growing grapes and making wine requires inputs of water, energy, materials, land and labour and the way these inputs are handled can impact the environment, the pocket book, and employees and neighbours. Table I outlines potential impacts associated with the wine industry. The sustainable practices outlined in the BC SWP will help growers and winemakers reduce water and energy use, minimize chemical use, build healthy soil, protect air and water quality, reduce wastewater and solid waste production, maintain biodiversity, and enhance relationships with employees, neighbours and the broader community.

What the Program Is


Welcome to the first edition of the Sustainable Practices for BC Vineyards self-assessment and guidebook. This assessment and guidebook is part of a broader initiative, the British Columbia Sustainable Winegrowing Program (BC SWP), will include the following components: Sustainable Practices for BC Vineyards: Self-Assessment and Guidebook; Sustainable Practices for BC Wineries: Self-Assessment and Guidebook; Sustainable Practices for BC Winery Hospitality Services: SelfAssessment and Guidebook; Online educational tools and resources such as fact sheets, links to helpful resources; Workshops and education events; and Province-wide reports, as well as customized reports, comparing the individual participant selfassessment response to regional and provincial data.

INTRODUCTION AND INSTRUCTIONS | Page I

Table I: Potential environmental and social issues associated with the wine industry. ISSUE Water VITICULTURE Ecological flows Irrigation dams Groundwater Wastage Salinity Surface runoff Turbidity Wetlands Leakage/spillage of chemicals Chemical storage Containers Chemical waste Odours Treated posts Wastewater WINEMAKING Cleaning and sanitation Salinity Surface runoff Turbidity BOD Wastage Parking lot runoff Chemical storage Cleaning agents Chemical waste Filter material Pomace and lees Stormwater management Wastewater Biodiversity Composting Groundwater Soil salinity Native vegetation removal PACKAGING & DISTRIBUTION Bottle washing Cleaning agents Salinity Surface runoff Turbidity Wastage

Waste

Land-use

Biodiversity Erosion Native vegetation removal Nutrient management Pest management Soil salinity/sodicity Soil compaction Soil contaminants Energy & Carbon sequestration Emissions Climate change Energy use Emissions from waste Nutrient management Soil carbon Transport Community Aesthetics Chemical spray drift/runoff Conflicting land uses Dust Light Noise Odours Labour Adapted from Jones, nd, p. 7

Adhesives Glass palettes Paper/cardboard/wood Plastics Pallets Printing inks Slip sheets Wastewater Biodiversity Groundwater Soil salinity

Carbon dioxide Emissions from waste Energy use Fermentation Transport Aesthetics Conflicting land uses Dust Light Noise Odours Labour

Emissions from waste Energy use Transport

Aesthetics Conflicting land uses Noise Odours Labour

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The Sustainable Practices for BC Vineyards self-assessment and guidebook are divided into seven chapters: Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Building Your Sustainability Foundation Ecosystem Management Viticultural Management Soil and Nutrition Management Water Management Pest Management Employees, Neighbours and Community

what works at one location may not work somewhere else. It tries to provide information about several practices that could be considered sustainable based on their application.

How the Program Was Developed


BC grape growers and winemakers have been aware of sustainable practices for some time and many have already adopted practices they learned from other sources (e.g., California, Lodi, and New Zealand sustainable practices programs). The British Columbia Wine Grape Council (BCWGC) identified through its members that a made-in-BC sustainable practices program was desired by the wine grape industry. The BCWGC Sustainable Practices Committee initiated the development process by commissioning Insight Environmental Consulting to review existing sustainable practices programs from around the world. The BC SWP was then developed using a number of compatible programs as a guide and with extensive research conducted by Insight and considerable input from committee members and external reviewers. Contributors consistently expressed the desire to develop a program with substance that provides a concrete set of practices for grape growers and winemakers to adopt at their discretion. Program participation is voluntary to start, with the eventual objective to introduce a certification and audit system for formal recognition of adherence to the program.

What the Program Is Not


It is important to note that the BC SWP is not intended to be a comprehensive manual with directions on how to operate a vineyard or winery. An understanding of the fundamentals of viticulture and/or enology is necessary before participating in this program. The BC SWP assumes that all regulatory requirements are already being met by the grower or vintner. It does not provide information on the regulatory requirements of operating a vineyard or winery. The program is meant to take growers and vintners beyond what is required by law. The BC SWP is also not intended to bring a grower or vintner up to an organic standard. In some aspects, organic growing will be more restrictive than what is presented in the BC SWP, but in other cases the BC SWP will address aspects that are not dealt with in organic standards. See the Certified Organic Associations of BC website for more information about becoming certified organic (www.certifiedorganic.bc.ca/). The BC SWP is not a prescriptive one size fits all program. It acknowledges that each vineyard and winery is unique and

INTRODUCTION AND INSTRUCTIONS | Page III

Mission Statement
The British Columbia Sustainable Winegrowing Program will identify, encourage and promote environmental, social and economical viticulture and enology practices that lead to a viable, competitive and continually improving wine industry in British Columbia. The BC SWP will also establish high and verifiable standards for sustainability and communicate industry achievements to the public.

date with the latest practices, research and technology available.


Table II: Benefits of the BC Sustainable Winegrowing Program. Category Environmental Benefits Protect natural resources (soil, air, plants, water) Reduce inputs (water, energy, fertilizers, etc.) Contribute to biodiversity Minimize the use of harmful chemicals Increase quality while cutting operating costs Communicate achievements to consumers Contribute to a competitive and continually improving wine industry Better relationships with employees and neighbours Community involvement Enhance economic and social well being of employees Provide access to a sustainable product Resource and support network for growers and winemakers

Economic

Benefits
The BC SWP will bring many benefits to the industry (see Table II). It will enhance awareness and increase the adoption rate of sustainable practices in vineyards and wineries throughout the province and provide a benchmark to demonstrate ongoing improvement. The practices contained in the program will help users to increase quality while cutting operating costs. The program will provide a means to compare current practices within and between regions, to identify areas that need improvement, and to quantify those improvements. The BC SWP will provide a formal means of recognizing industry achievements and communicating those achievements to a growing market of consumers whose buying habits are increasingly influenced by the sustainability of a product. The BC SWP will also provide a support network to grape growers and winemakers. It will provide templates and other tools to help assess the relative sustainability of their operations, to simplify record-keeping, and to help develop a customized Action Plan. Online access to fact sheets and other useful resources and workshops help keep growers and winemakers up-toSocial

Relationship with Other Documents


The Sustainable Viticulture Program for BC is strongly intertwined with the Environmental Farm Plan (the EFP) and the Best Practices Guide for Grapes for British Columbia Growers (the Best Practices Guide). This program is designed to supplement, and not duplicate, information contained in the EFP and the Best Practices Guide. Please ensure that you have these resources available to refer to as you work through the program.

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Best Practices Guide for Grapes for British Columbia Growers


The Best Practices Guide was developed by the Ministry of Agriculture and Lands and the BC Wine Grape Council with input from researchers with Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Summerland. It focuses on Integrated Fruit Production practices that are environmentally conscious and lead to high quality grapes. The Best Practices Guide provides in-depth material on all aspects of viticulture. The Best Practices Guide provides invaluable vineyard management information to growers, while the Sustainable Practices Program provides a way of assessing vineyards against a set of criteria, largely developed from (but not exclusively) from the Best Practices Guide. References to the Best Practices Guide are made throughout the guidebook using this format. A 2006 and a 2010 edition reference are given where applicable.

Canada British Columbia Environmental Farm Plan


The BC EFP program is run in partnership with Agriculture and Agri-food Canada, the BC Ministry of Agriculture and Lands and the BC Agriculture Research and Development Corporation. It was introduced in 2003 to complement and enhance current environmental stewardship practices of producers. References to the EFP Reference Guide are made throughout the guidebook using this format. Completion of the Environmental Farm Plan certification is highly recommended before participating in the Sustainable Winegrowing Program. An EFP consultant can help growers ensure their operation is in compliance with mandatory legislation, identify potential environmental issues, provide direction on how to best mitigate the issues. See pages 9-10 to 9-13 of the Best Practice Guide for a description of the Environmental Farm Plan program.

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How to Use the SelfAssessment and Guidebook


The self-assessment is the key component of Sustainable Practices for BC Vineyards. The self-assessment questions reinforce awareness of the environmental, economic and social issues that affect vineyards and wineries. The scoring system provides a snapshot of areas of excellence and areas that need improvement. The self-assessment is cross-referenced to the guidebook for ease of use. The guidebook is a resource. It provides an introduction to the topics of the selfassessment, and for those who require more information it is cross referenced to the Environmental Farm Plan and the Best Practices Guide. The guidebook also lists resources related to each main topic for those who are interested in further detail. The guidebook is organized so that the reader can consult a self contained section on any given topic as needed. Some self-assessment questions may be clear without the assistance of the guidebook, due to your pre-existing knowledge, but for others you may need to rely heavily on the guidebook resources. Participation in the program is voluntary and a self-assessment approach will be used for the next few years. After widespread adoption is achieved, third party assessment and certification will be sought to reinforce the credibility of the program and ensure it is setting high and verifiable standards for sustainability. The following is suggested as the best method to complete the program (adapted, in part, from Dlott et. al., 2006):

1. Familiarize yourself with the selfassessment and guidebook components. Flip through the self-assessment questions and the guidebook to become familiar with the format and scope. Each chapter of the guidebook has numbered sections that correspond to the selfassessment question numbers. For example, information pertaining to question 4.1 in the self-assessment can be found in section 4.1 of the guidebook. The self-assessment has been structured as a series of questions on a range of topics. Answers are typically yes or no, with marks allocated to each answer (although other options are available for some questions). The answers have been weighted, using scoring from -3 to +3. See Table III for the rationale used for scoring.
Table III: Rationale for scoring system used in selfassessment. Score -3 Rationale Unsustainable; has significant negative environmental and/or economic impacts. Any score in this area is a red flag for the need to undertake immediate corrective action. Usually for a no answer, indicating that the suggested practice is not in use at the winery or vineyard. Is likely to have negative environmental or economic consequences if the practice is not implemented. Questions that receive a 0 should be moved to the action plan and addressed. Indicates a sustainable practice that is moderately beneficial for viticulture or winemaking and the environment. Sustainable practices in this category are usually the low hanging fruit that can be implemented relatively easily. Indicates a sustainable practice that is highly beneficial for viticulture or winemaking and the environment. Sustainable practices in this category usually require moderate effort to implement. Indicates leadership in environmental practice and excellence in environmental performance in this area. Sustainable practices in this category either require greater effort to implement and/or are considered to have a dramatic impact on the sustainability of operations.

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2. Decide what to assess Every participant must start by working through Chapter 1 Setting Your Sustainability Foundation. This chapter will help you to understand what sustainability means and how it relates to viticulture. It will guide you through the creation of a sustainability vision for your operation that will provide the foundation for your program. Once you have drafted each component of your sustainability vision requested in Chapter 1, decide which section you would like to focus on next. The chapters do not have to be completed in the order they appear in the guidebook. If you manage multiple vineyards, a separate self-assessment must be completed for each one. 3. Do your self-assessment The self-assessment is included in the next section of this binder. You may also complete your self-assessment digitally using our Excel template. Read each question carefully and decide if it is applicable to your operation. If it is, circle the score for the scenario that best describes your practice(s) for that particular section. Make sure to refer to the guidebook as you are moving through your self-assessment. It is important to be honest in your answers. The self-assessment is a snapshot of where you are at a given point in time and the results will help you to focus your energy and money on improving. The self-assessment is not a test that you pass or fail it is a process. Your individual selfassessment results will be confidential (i.e., your name will not be associated with your results if they are published). After completing the self-assessment, add up your score using the score card

included in the next section of this binder (or the digital template), and calculate your percentage. 4. Transfer your scores to the score card This step only applies to those completing the hard copy version of the selfassessment. If you are using the digital version (Excel file), your scores will be automatically calculated for you and transferred to the score card. 5. Submit your self-assessment results and provide feedback Viticulturists are encouraged to share their self-assessment results on a confidential basis to help the committee identify areas that need further resources such as educational workshops, resources, etc. The BCWGC Sustainable Practices Committee would like to receive participant feedback (comments, suggestions or corrections) to help improve future versions of these documents. 6. Develop your action plan Completing the self-assessment will help you identify areas that can be improved. Using the self-assessment, develop an action plan (template included in next section or digital template available) by clearly identifying areas to improve in your operation, and by setting out clear goals to make concrete improvements in your operation. Viticulturists are encouraged to develop a five year action plan that outlines how and when they plan to implement sustainable practices in their vineyards. Participants should address those areas of the selfassessment where a low score was obtained, and then move to questions where the score could be improved.

INTRODUCTION AND INSTRUCTIONS | Page VII

The content and commitments made in your action plan should take into consideration the financial and operational realities of the vineyard. 7. Begin implementing practices sustainable

8. Develop a monitoring program A monitoring program is essential to determine if your sustainable practices are making a difference or if they need to be modified. Aim to do your monitoring every year and keep the results on file. To be consistent and to have comparable results, do your monitoring at the same time each year. The steps involved in monitoring the success of the sustainable practices you implement are: Identifying measures of success relative to goals this can include recording general observations related to your goals, such as an increase in bird numbers, or savings in crop inputs. Developing a photo record note and photograph key changes. Making drawings add the changes you have made to your maps so you can maintain an overview of the activities you have undertaken.

Implementing sustainable practices will involve the following steps: Getting agency approvals get any permits required and seek the advice of a professional for more complex projects. Securing funding outside funding sources may be able to provide additional resources you need, identify and apply to any programs that may help defray the costs of materials, labour, or consultative services needed to implement the sustainable practices you selected. Determining timing set an implementation schedule and work according to that schedule. Assessing technical references refer to references identified in this Guidebook and search for specific topics on the Internet. Seeking professional advice ask your Viticulture organization to provide contact information for respected professionals and contact government agency resources in your area. Securing equipment, materials and other resources ensure you have the right equipment and materials on hand when you need them. Maintaining sustainable practices ensure any maintenance required to successfully achieve the sustainable practice is undertaken in a timely manner. Documenting the Project document the existing conditions on your property before implementing the sustainable practice.

The market focus on quality often extends to the environmental standards of the grape growing and winemaking process. At the same time, businesses worldwide are facing increasing pressure from customers, lenders, regulators and business peers to provide hard evidence of sound environmental performance.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
SELF-ASSESSMENT TABS:

SELF-ASSESSMENT SCORE CARD ACTION PLAN


GUIDEBOOK TABS:

CHAPTER 1 SETTING YOUR SUSTAINABILITY FOUNDATION


INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................. 1-1 DEFINING YOUR RESOURCE BASE .................................................................................. 1-2 1.1. 1.2. 1.3. 1.4. Land Base Mapping and Description .............................................................. 1-2 Human Resources .............................................................................................. 1-5 Operational Resources ....................................................................................... 1-5 Mission Statement .............................................................................................. 1-5

CREATING A SUSTAINABILITY MISSION STATEMENT ........................................................ 1-5

CHAPTER 2 ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT


INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................. 2-1 ENVIRONMENTAL FEATURES .......................................................................................... 2-2 2.1. 2.2. 2.3. 2.4. 2.5. 2.6. 2.7. 2.8. 2.9. Identifying the Biogeoclimatic Zone.................................................................... 2-2 Identifying Habitat Features ............................................................................... 2-4 Identifying Wildlife (including Species at Risk) ................................................... 2-7 Choosing Your Site .............................................................................................. 2-8 Minimizing Land Clearing.................................................................................... 2-8 Encouraging Diversity ......................................................................................... 2-9 Retaining and Restoring Habitat ........................................................................ 2-9 Protecting Wetlands and Aquatic Habitat ......................................................... 2-10 Connecting Your Land with Neighbouring Landscapes .................................... 2-11

ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PRACTICES .................................................................. 2-8

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2.10. 2.11. 2.12. 2.13. 2.14.

Controlling Invasive Species ............................................................................. 2-12 Managing Crop Damage Caused By Wildlife .................................................... 2-12 Preventing Pollution .......................................................................................... 2-12 Communicating Practices to Employees & Contractors ................................... 2-13 Working with Environmental Organizations ...................................................... 2-13

RECOMMENDED RESOURCES ...................................................................................... 2-15

CHAPTER 3 VITICULTURAL MANAGEMENT


INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................. 3-1 PRELIMINARY CONSIDERATIONS .................................................................................... 3-1 3.1. 3.2. 3.3. 3.4. 3.5. 3.6. 3.7. 3.8. 3.9. 3.10. 3.11. 3.12. 3.13. 3.14. 3.15. 3.16. Business Planning and Market Research........................................................... 3-1 Site Selection ...................................................................................................... 3-3 Site Preparation .................................................................................................. 3-5 Soil Management ................................................................................................ 3-7 Water Quality and Irrigation ................................................................................ 3-8 Variety, Rootstock, Scion, and Clone Selection .................................................. 3-9 Plant Certification ............................................................................................. 3-10 Vineyard Layout ................................................................................................ 3-11 Trellis and Vigour .............................................................................................. 3-12 Planting ............................................................................................................. 3-13 Maintaining Young Vines .................................................................................. 3-13 Crop Estimation ................................................................................................ 3-13 Canopy Assessment and Management ............................................................ 3-13 Fruit Exposure ................................................................................................... 3-14 Frost Protection................................................................................................. 3-14 Decommissioning a Vineyard ........................................................................... 3-15

VINEYARD ESTABLISHMENT ........................................................................................... 3-9

VINEYARD MAINTENANCE ............................................................................................ 3-13

VINEYARD REMOVAL .................................................................................................... 3-15 RECOMMENDED RESOURCES ...................................................................................... 3-15

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CHAPTER 4 SOIL AND NUTRITION MANAGEMENT


INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................. 4-1 SOIL AND NUTRIENT CHARACTERISTICS.......................................................................... 4-1 4.1. 4.2. 4.3. 4.4. 4.5. 4.6. 4.7. 4.8. 4.9. 4.10. 4.11. 4.12. 4.13. 4.14. 4.15. 4.16. 4.17. 4.18. Important Properties of Vineyard Soils ............................................................... 4-1 Nutrients Necessary for Grapevine Growth ........................................................ 4-5 Nutrient Management Plan ................................................................................ 4-7 Field Parameters ................................................................................................. 4-9 Identifying Areas of Concern ............................................................................. 4-10 Petiole Sampling and Analysis .......................................................................... 4-11 Soil Sampling and Analysis ............................................................................... 4-11 Water Sampling and Analysis ........................................................................... 4-12 Cover Crops ....................................................................................................... 4-14 Fertilizers .......................................................................................................... 4-15 Rates and Timing of Nutrient Application ......................................................... 4-19 Methods of Nutrient Application ....................................................................... 4-20 Review and Update of Nutrient Management Plan .......................................... 4-21 Soil Erosion Due to Water, Wind, or Equipment ............................................... 4-22 Soil Erosion from Roads, Ditches, and Culverts ............................................... 4-23 Tillage of the Vineyard Floor ............................................................................. 4-23 Soil Compaction ................................................................................................ 4-23 Soil Water Storage and Movement ................................................................... 4-24

NUTRITION MANAGEMENT ............................................................................................. 4-7

SOIL MANAGEMENT ..................................................................................................... 4-22

RECOMMENDED RESOURCES ...................................................................................... 4-24

CHAPTER 5 WATER MANAGEMENT


INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................. 5-1 IDENTIFYING LOCAL CONDITIONS ................................................................................... 5-1 5.1. 5.2. 5.3. The Water Cycle .................................................................................................. 5-2 Your Watershed .................................................................................................. 5-2 Water Quality Testing and Analysis ..................................................................... 5-3
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WATER QUALITY ............................................................................................................. 5-3

5.4. 5.5. 5.6. 5.7. 5.8. 5.9. 5.10. 5.11. 5.12. 5.13. 5.14. 5.15 5.16

Backflow Prevention ........................................................................................... 5-5 Types of Irrigation Systems ................................................................................. 5-5 Irrigation System Design and Operation ............................................................. 5-6 Flow Meters......................................................................................................... 5-6 Delineating Irrigation Management Zones ......................................................... 5-7 Distribution Uniformity and Application Efficiency.............................................. 5-7 Pump Efficiency .................................................................................................. 5-8 Routine System Maintenance............................................................................. 5-8 Soil Moisture-Based Approaches ...................................................................... 5-10 Plant-Based Approaches ................................................................................... 5-11 Deficit Irrigation and Dry Farming Methods...................................................... 5-13 Stormwater Runoff ............................................................................................ 5-14 Drainage............................................................................................................ 5-15

WATER USE EFFICIENCY ................................................................................................. 5-5

IRRIGATION SCHEDULING .............................................................................................. 5-9

SURFACE WATER MOVEMENT ...................................................................................... 5-14

RECOMMENDED RESOURCES ...................................................................................... 5-15

CHAPTER 6 PEST MANAGEMENT


INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................. 6-1 INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT .................................................................................. 6-1 6.1. 6.2. 6.3. 6.4. 6.5. 6.6. 6.7. 6.8. 6.9. Avoid Pest Problems ........................................................................................... 6-1 Identify and Understand the Pest ....................................................................... 6-2 Monitor Populations and Damage ...................................................................... 6-3 Establish Action Thresholds ................................................................................ 6-4 Choose Appropriate Control Methods................................................................. 6-4 Review and Assess Effectiveness ....................................................................... 6-6 Integrated Weed Management ........................................................................... 6-7 Birds .................................................................................................................... 6-9 Rodents ............................................................................................................. 6-10

WEED MANAGEMENT ..................................................................................................... 6-7 WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT................................................................................................ 6-8

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6.10. 6.11. 6.12. 6.13. 6.14. 6.15. 6.16. 6.17. 6.18.

Snakes .............................................................................................................. 6-10 Deer and Elk ..................................................................................................... 6-11 Bears ................................................................................................................. 6-11 Reducing Environmental and Health Risks ...................................................... 6-12 Pesticide Transport ........................................................................................... 6-12 Pesticide Storage .............................................................................................. 6-12 Mixing and Loading Pesticides ......................................................................... 6-12 Pesticide Application ......................................................................................... 6-12 Pesticide and Pesticide Container Disposal .................................................... 6-13

PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT ............................................................................................ 6-11

RECOMMENDED RESOURCES ...................................................................................... 6-13

CHAPTER 7 EMPLOYEES, NEIGHBOURS AND COMMUNITY


INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................. 7-1 HUMAN RESOURCES ...................................................................................................... 7-1 7.1. 7.2. 7.3. 7.4. 7.5. 7.6. 7.7. 7.8. 7.9. 7.10. 7.11. 7.12. Staffing and Recruiting ....................................................................................... 7-1 Employee Orientation ......................................................................................... 7-3 Employee Handbook ........................................................................................... 7-5 Internal Communications ................................................................................... 7-6 Employee Relations ............................................................................................ 7-6 Education and Training ....................................................................................... 7-7 Health and Safety ............................................................................................... 7-8 Succession Planning ......................................................................................... 7-10 Documentation and Record Keeping ............................................................... 7-10 Identifying Potential Concerns .......................................................................... 7-14 Outreach and Communication .......................................................................... 7-15 Responding to Complaints ................................................................................ 7-16

NEIGHBOUR AND COMMUNITY RELATIONS ................................................................... 7-14

RECOMMENDED RESOURCES ...................................................................................... 7-16

REFERENCES GLOSSARY
TABLE OF CONTENTS | Page T-5

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 2-1: Wetland near Summerland. ................................................................................ 2-5 Figure 2-2: Vineyard surrounded by forest in Tappen. .......................................................... 2-6 Figure 2-3: Garry Oak ecosystem. .......................................................................................... 2-6 Figure 2-4: Vineyard next to natural grasslands and gullies in Naramata. ........................... 2-6 Figure 2-5: Antelope brush ecosystem in Osoyoos. ............................................................... 2-7 Figure 2-6: Vineyard adjacent to rugged terrain. ................................................................... 2-7 Figure 2-7: Snake identification workshop being held at a vineyard. ................................... 2-8 Figure 2-8: Screech owl in a nesting box. .............................................................................. 2-9 Figure 2-9: Snake fence erected at Tinhorn Creek Vineyards, Oliver, BC. ............................ 2-9 Figure 2-10: Antelope brush habitat restoration at Tinhorn Creek Vineyards, conducted in partnership with The Land Conservancy - South Okanagan Stewardship program. ........................................................................................................ 2-10 Figure 2-11: A gulley that will be preserved during development of a vineyard.................. 2-11 Figure 2-12: Bighorn sheep. ................................................................................................ 2-12 Figure 3-1: Site preparation activities prior to planting a vineyard. ..................................... 3-5 Figure 3-2: A newly planted vineyard with bamboo stakes and milk cartons to protect the plants. ............................................................................................................ 3-13 Figure 3-3: Good canopy density - exposed fruit and filtered shade. .................................. 3-14 Figure 3-4: Vineyard hit with an early fall frost; light frost symptoms are similar to water stress. ............................................................................................................ 3-14 Figure 3-5: Frost pocket in a vineyard. Note the green leaves on nearby vines, which indicates a low temperature boundary in the lower part of the site. ............ 3-14 Figure 4-1: Typical soil profile in the Naramata Bench area. ................................................ 4-2 Figure 4-2: Typical soil profile in the Black Sage area of Oliver............................................. 4-3 Figure 4-3: Typical soil profile in the Penticton area. ............................................................ 4-3 Figure 4-4: Typical soil profile in the Delta, Lower Fraser Valley, area. ................................. 4-3 Figure 4-5: Well-developed soil, showing the typical sequence of horizons.......................... 4-3 Figure 4-6: Soil textural classes (outlined in bold lines) are defined by percentage of sand, silt, and clay (fine lines parallel to arrows). ..................................................... 4-5 Figure 4-7: Simplified nitrogen cycle in soil. .......................................................................... 4-5 Figure 4-5: Petiole removed from a grapevine leaf blade. .................................................. 4-11 Figure 4-6: The use of cover crops in a vineyard. ................................................................ 4-15 Figure 4-7: Machine used to turn compost at a vineyard in the Okanagan. ....................... 4-18 Figure 5-1: Drawing of the water cycle................................................................................... 5-2 Figure 5-2: Drawing of a typical watershed. .......................................................................... 5-3 Figure 5-3: Drip irrigation of young vines in Oliver. ................................................................ 5-6 Figure 5-4: Inverted sprinkler system in a vineyard............................................................... 5-6 Figure 5-5: Steps in delineating irrigation management zones............................................. 5-7 Figure 5-6: Weather station in a vineyard that is used to calculate degree days and evapotranspiration. ....................................................................................... 5-12
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Figure 6-1: Sticky tape being used to control pests in a vineyard. ........................................ 6-6 Figure 6-2: Hawk kite to scare birds, which is generally more acceptable to neighbours than a propane cannon, but perhaps not as effective. ........................................... 6-9 Figure 6-3: Deer in a vineyard. ............................................................................................. 6-11 Figure 7-1: Picking Syrah at Tinhorn Creek Vineyards. .......................................................... 7-8

LIST OF TABLES
Table 3-1: Techniques that can be used to improve compacted soil layers. ........................ 3-6 Table 4-1: Important physical properties of vineyard soils. ................................................... 4-4 Table 4-2: Nutrients essential to grapevine growth and common effects of imbalances. .... 4-6 Table 4-3: A description of important soil parameters and guidelines for interpreting lab results ............................................................................................................ 4-13 Table 4-4: Factors to consider when choosing a cover crop. .............................................. 4-14 Table 4-5: Nutrient content of several animal manures, in pounds of nutrients per ton.... 4-16 Table 4-6: Compost and manure pros and cons (characteristics may vary per product, especially from mixed sources). .................................................................... 4-18 Table 5.1: Test parameters for irrigation water for wine grapes. .......................................... 5-5 Table 5-2: Impacts of irrigation extremes .............................................................................. 5-8 Table 6-1: Pesticides (listed by chemical group and active ingredient) whose use is discouraged under the BC Sustainable Winegrowing Program. ..................... 6-5

LIST OF TEMPLATES AND FACT BOXES


Vineyard Base Map - Example ............................................................................................... 1-3 Vineyard Base Map - Template .............................................................................................. 1-4 Fact Box: Garry Oaks and Associated Ecosystems ................................................................ 2-6 Fact Box: Antelope-Brush Grasslands .................................................................................... 2-7 Fact Box: Tinhorn Creek Vineyards Snake Habitat ................................................................ 2-9 Fact Box: Ecosystem Initiatives at Summerhill Pyramid Winery, Kelowna .......................... 2-10 Fact Box: Maintaining Wildlife Travel Corridors at Gods Mountain Estates, Penticton ...... 2-12 Business Plan Outline ............................................................................................................ 3-2 Vineyard Site Suitability Checklist .......................................................................................... 3-4 Nutrient Management Plan Template.................................................................................... 4-8 Fact Box: Irrigation Scheduling Calculator ........................................................................... 5-10 IPM Records Checklist ........................................................................................................... 6-6 Fact Box: Audible Bird Scare Devices Interior and South Coast BC ................................... 6-9 Employee Orientation Checklist ............................................................................................. 7-4 Steps in the Succession Planning Process .......................................................................... 7-11 Components of a Written Succession Plan .......................................................................... 7-12

TABLE OF CONTENTS | Page T-7

INSTRUCTIONS FOR COMPLETING THE SELF-ASSESSMENT AND SCORE CARD How to Use the Self-Assessment
Familiarize yourself with the self-assessment and guidebook components by scanning through both documents 2. Decide what to assess 3. Do your self-assessment 4. Transfer your scores to the score card 5. Submit your score card and provide feedback to the BC Wine Grape Council 6. Develop your action plan based on your score card (focus on your lowest scores first) 7. Begin implementing sustainable practices 8. Develop a monitoring program For more information, see pages VI to VIII of the guidebook. 1.

Description of Scoring System

The self assessment has been structured as a series of questions on a range of topics. Answers are typically yes or no, with marks allocated to each answer (although other options are available for some questions). Some questions allow an "NA" (not applicable) option. You must provide a reason for the NA in the comments column. Those questions that do not allow an NA option are indicated by shading in the NA column. The answers have been weighted, using scoring from -3 to 3. The rationale for the scoring is as follows: -3 Unsustainable; has significant negative environmental and/or economic impacts. Any score in this area is a red flag for the need to undertake immediate corrective action. 0 Usually for a no answer, indicating that the suggested practice is not in use at the vineyard. Negative environmental or economic consequences are likely if the practice is not implemented. Questions that receive a 0 should be moved to the action plan and addressed. 1 Indicates a sustainable practice that is moderately beneficial for viticulture and the environment. Sustainable practices in this category are usually the low hanging fruit that can be implemented relatively easily. Indicates a sustainable practice that is highly beneficial for viticulture and the environment. Sustainable practices in this category usually require moderate effort to implement. Indicates leadership in environmental practice and excellence in environmental performance in this area. Sustainable practices in this category require greater effort to implement and/or are considered to have a high impact on the sustainability of the vineyard.

How to Determine Your Score


Enter your scores in the "Your Score" column beside each sub-section (e.g., 1.1.1, 1.1.2, etc.) on the selfassessment. If a question is not applicable, and the NA option is available, enter the highest score you could have achieved on the question in the "Your NA Score" column. Add up the scores and put the totals in the TOTAL row (e.g,, 1.1 TOTAL). Transfer your TOTAL section scores and NAs to the score card. Your chapter percentage is calculated by dividing your TOTAL score by the TOTAL possible score minus your TOTAL not applicable scores (e.g., if your total score is 50 and you have a total "NA" score of 20 and the total score for the section was 90, your percentage would be 50/(90-20) = 71%).

SUSTAINABLE PRACTICES FOR BC VINEYARDS

SELF-ASSESSMENT | INSTRUCTIONS

CHAPTER 1 SETTING YOUR SUSTAINABILITY FOUNDATION


Question NA -3 Answer / Score 0 1 2 3 Reason for NA and/or Other Comments
Your Score Your NA Score

DefiningYourResourceBase
1.1 LandBaseMappingandDescription
1.1.1 A map and description of the vineyard has been prepared. No In progress/ Partial map Yes

1.1 TOTAL

1.2 HumanResources
1.2.1 A list of the people involved in operations and/or management of the vineyard has been prepared. No In progress/ Partial list Yes

1.2 TOTAL

1.3 OperationalResources
1.3.1 A list of all the operational resources that influence operation of the vineyard has been prepared (see page 1-5 of the guidebook). No In progress/ Partial list Yes

1.3 TOTAL

1.4 CreatingaSustainabilityMissionStatement
1.4.1 A mission statement that includes the purpose of the vineyard, how this purpose is being fulfilled, and core values is prepared. 1.4.2 The mission statement has been adopted as part of our companys policies. No In progress Yes

No

In progress

Yes

If yes, provide description:

1.4.3 The people who are part of the operations and/or management of the vineyard (i.e., those identified in Section 1.2 of the guidebook) are made aware of the mission statement.

No

In progress

Yes

1.4 TOTAL

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SELFASSESSMENT|CHAP1SUSTAINABILITYFOUNDATION

CHAPTER 2 ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT


Question NA -3 Answer / Score 0 1 2 3 Reason for NA and/or Other Comments
Your Score Your NA Score

EnvironmentalFeatures
2.1 IdentifyingtheBiogeoclimaticZone
2.1.1 The biogeoclimatic zone the property is located in is identified. 2.1.2 A brochure that describes the ecosystems, climate, wildlife, endangered species and special features of the zone has been reviewed (see guidebook pages 2-2 to 2-3.) No No Yes Yes

2.1 TOTAL

2.2 IdentifyingHabitatFeatures
2.2.1 The habitat features of the property are inventoried and mapped, considering the categories listed in the guidebook starting on page 2-4. No Yes

2.2 TOTAL

2.3 IdentifyingWildlife(includingSpeciesatRisk)
2.3.1 The presence (or absence) of threatened, endangered or sensitive species potentially located on the property or the surrounding area is determined. 2.3.2 If threatened, endangered or sensitive species are potentially present on the property or the surrounding area, they are included in the inventory and mapping. No Yes

NA

No

Yes

NA - if species at risk not present

2.3 TOTAL

EnvironmentalManagementPractices
2.4 ChoosingYourSite
2.4.1 The vineyard is or will be established on previously developed land. No Yes, but some natural habitat was converted Yes, no natural habitat was converted 2.4 TOTAL

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SELFASSESSMENT|CHAP2ECOSYSTEM

Question

NA

-3

Answer / Score 0 1 No

2 Yes

Reason for NA and/or Other Comments

Your Score

Your NA Score

2.5 MinimizingLandClearing
2.5.1 The footprint of disturbance during vineyard establishment or replanting is minimized.

2.5.2 Native ground cover and plants are retained in gullies, property margins, rocky slopes and other areas unsuitable for cultivation. 2.5.3 Major construction activities are timed so as to minimize impacts on wildlife (where possible, see page 2-8 of the guidebook). 2.5.4 New roads and work areas are located away from natural habitat areas. 2.5.5 To protect natural habitat around the property, excess soil and shrub material is not pushed to gullies or down slopes. 2.5.6 Previous growth is disposed of in an environmentally friendly manner (e.g., chipping, where possible, or burning in accordance with regulations). 2.5.7 Cutting into hillsides and destabilizing upper slopes is avoided.

No

Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes 2.5 TOTAL

2.6 EncouragingDiversity
2.6.1 Artificial cover for snakes (e.g., 2' by 2' plywood squares, rock piles) away from frequented work places is provided and clearly identified. Or, if such areas naturally exist, they are not interfered with. 2.6.2 Field crews are trained to avoid accidental killing of snakes during vineyard acitivites (e.g., driving, moving, tilling) NA No Yes NA - if you do not have snakes on your property

NA

No

Yes

NA - if you do not have snakes on your property

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SELFASSESSMENT|CHAP2ECOSYSTEM

Question 2.6.3 No agricultural activities are conducted within 50 m of snake hibernacula (dens).

NA NA

-3

Answer / Score 0 1 No

2 Yes

Reason for NA and/or Other Comments NA - if you do not have snake hibernacula on your property

Your Score

Your NA Score

2.6.4 Nesting boxes and perches for animals that prey on vineyard pests (e.g, bats, songbirds and birds of prey) are placed in and/or around the property.

No

Yes

If yes, list what, how many, and for what birds:

2.6.5 Mulches and cover crops or native plants are used to permanently cover soil to improve soil biodiversity and protect from erosion. 2.6.6 Mechanical cultivation is minimized in order to avoid soil compaction and maintain aeration and drainage.

No

Yes

No

Yes

2.6 TOTAL

2.7 RetainingandRestoringHabitat
2.7.1 Hedgerows and/or buffer strips are used to protect sensitive land habitats from loss or alteration due to road and building construction, land clearing, soil erosion, compaction, and air contaminants. 2.7.2 Natural habitat areas and native plant ground covers or hedgerows are retained or reestablished where possible. 2.7.3 Natural and semi-natural habitat areas on the property are managed so that species can continue to live there. 2.7.4 Habitat on the vineyard property is being protected under a conservation covenant with a land trust organization. No Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

2.7 TOTAL

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Question 2.8.1 Adequate buffers of vegetation are kept around wetlands and other aquatic habitats to minimise impacts of development activites and fertiliser and pesticide run-off. 2.8.2 Best management guidelines are followed to prevent pesticides, nutrient or sediment runoff from contaminating aquatic or riparian areas on the property. 2.8.3 Wetlands and aquatic habitat on the vineyard has been enhanced, restored, or created. 2.8.4 Riparian areas are kept intact or rehabilitated where possible.

NA NA

-3

Answer / Score 0 1 No Yes, native & nonnative

2 Yes, all native

Reason for NA and/or Other Comments NA - if you do not have aquatic habitat on or near your property

Your Score

Your NA Score

2.8 ProtectingWetlandsandOtherAquaticHabitat

NA

No

Yes

NA - if you do not have aquatic habitat on or near your property

NA

No

Yes

NA - if you do not have aquatic habitat on or near your property NA - if you do not have aquatic habitat on or near your property 2.8 TOTAL If yes, list advisors:

NA

No

Yes

2.9 ConnectingYourLandwithNeighbouringLandscapes
2.9.1 Local wildlife advisors are consulted to ensure that wildlife travel routes are not completely blocked by fencing. 2.9.2 Linkages and corridors, which provide safe passage for wildlife around or through the vineyard, are preserved or restored. 2.9.3 Neighbours are worked with to protect natural vegetation, control invasive weeds and protect adjacent natural habitats. NA No Yes

No

Yes

NA - if advisors indicated you are not blocking a linkage or corridor NA - if you do not have neighbours within 1 km of your vineyard 2.9 TOTAL

NA

No

Yes

2.10 ControllingInvasiveSpecies
2.10.1 Weeds and invasive plants are identified, particularly at the seedling stage. 2.10.2 New invasive species are controlled before they become established. 2.10.3 Native plants are planted in areas where weeds have been removed and/or patches of bare ground where weeds may infest. 2.10.4 Only fully composted material and clean soil amendments and mulches are used to prevent introduction of invasive species. No No No Yes Yes, some Yes, most

No

Yes, some Yes, most areas areas Yes

Yes, all areas

SUSTAINABLEPRACTICESFORBCVINEYARDS|MARCH2010

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SELFASSESSMENT|CHAP2ECOSYSTEM

Question 2.10.5 Equipment is washed before travelling to "clean" parts of the land to prevent the spread of weeds.

NA

-3

Answer / Score 0 1 No

3 Yes

Reason for NA and/or Other Comments

Your Score

Your NA Score

2.10 TOTAL

2.11 ManagingCropDamageCausedbyWildlife
2.11.1 Non-lethal biological and physical methods of discouraging wildlife that destroy crops (i.e., wildlife-proof fencing) are used. No Yes If yes, describe methods:

2.11.2 Other birds are protected from entrapment in starling control devices (traps and netting). 2.11.3 Non-selective trapping for rodents and birds is avoided.

No

Yes

No

Yes 2.11 TOTAL

2.12 PreventingPollution
2.12.1 Prevention is the first option considered when dealing with potentially polluting materials, followed by recycling, treatment, and, as a last resort, disposal in an environmentally safe manner. 2.12.2 Aerial spraying is avoided or used infrequently and Integrated Pest Management practices are used to avoid spray drift from vineyards onto natural areas. 2.12.3 Fertilizer runoff adjacent to natural areas is avoided or minimized. No Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes 2.12 TOTAL

2.13 CommunicatingPracticestoEmployeesandContractors
2.13.1 Environmental management practices are communicated to all employees, including seasonal workers. No Yes

2.13 TOTAL

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SELFASSESSMENT|CHAP2ECOSYSTEM

Question 2.14.1 Relevant conservation organizations are consulted with to find out about species at risk and other plants and wildlife, their habitat, and management practices to support them. 2.14.2 A list of agencies contacted, their contact information, and the resource(s) provided is kept.

NA NA

-3

Answer / Score 0 1 No

3 Yes

Reason for NA and/or Other Comments NA - if no organizations exist in your area

Your Score

Your NA Score

2.14 WorkingWithEnvironmentalOrganizations

NA

No

Yes

NA - if you answered NA to 2.14.1 If yes, attach list. 2.14 TOTAL

SUSTAINABLEPRACTICESFORBCVINEYARDS|MARCH2010

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SELFASSESSMENT|CHAP2ECOSYSTEM

CHAPTER 3 VITICULTURAL MANAGEMENT


Question NA -3 Answer / Score 0 1 2 3 Reason for NA and/or Other Comments
Your Score Your NA Score

PreliminaryConsiderations
3.1 BusinessPlanningandMarketResearch
3.1.1 A business plan is developed for the vineyard that considers the outline provided on page 32 of the guidebook. 3.1.2 Market research was conducted before planting to determine if there is a market for the variety(ies) of grapes to be grown and to identify market advantages. No In progress Yes

No

In progress

Yes

3.1 TOTAL

3.2 SiteSelection
3.2.1 The questions on the vineyard site suitability checklist (page 3-4 of the guidebook) were answered during the site selection process. 3.2.2 The site is on natural habitat but a portion of natural habitat is (or will be) retained. NA No Yes NA - if current owner did not establish vineyard NA - if the site is on previously developed land (see question 3.3.3) If yes, provide description of habitat to be retained:

NA

No habitat will be retained

Yes

3.2.3 The site is on land previously developed for agriculture. 3.2.4 The site is located close to existing roads and infrastructure.

NA

No

Yes

NA - if the site is on undeveloped land (i.e., natural habitat) (see question 3.3.3)

No

Yes 3.2 TOTAL

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SELFASSESSMENT|CHAP3VITICULTURAL

Question

NA NA

-3

Answer / Score 0 1

Reason for NA and/or Other Comments

Your Score

Your NA Score

3.3 SitePreparation
3.3.1 Land levelling was required in the vineyard to reduce or eliminate frost pockets, modify slopes to make machinery operation safer, or to improve overall aspect and air drainage. The entire About 3/4 About 1/2 Little to no NA - if current owner did not site was of the land the land land establish vineyard leveled was was levelling List reason(s) for leveling: leveled leveled was required

3.3.2 When levelling, the topsoil (A horizons, surface 20 to 40 cm) was stockpiled and preserved, the parent material (C horizon) levelled, and then the topsoil replaced over the levelled surface to ensure none of the C horizon was left exposed. 3.3.3 Good soil management practices are followed to re-establish soil structure and biological communities damaged during levelling. 3.3.4 Prior to planting, soil compaction was addressed.

NA

No

Yes

NA - if current owner did not establish vineyard or if leveling was not conducted

NA

No

Yes

NA - if no land levelling was conducted

NA

No

Yes, with a Yes, using Yes, using NA - if soil compaction is not an rotovator ripping, a spader issue or power slipharrow plowing, chisel, or other method 3.3 TOTAL Yes NA - if current owner did not establish the vineyard NA - if shallow soils overlay clay or silt soils or where clay or silt soils overlay sand or gravels NA - if current owner did not establish the vineyard NA - if current owner did not establish the vineyard NA - if no amendments required If yes, list amendments:

3.4 SoilManagement
3.4.1 A soil survey was completed by a qualified professional the year before planting and prior to ordering vines. 3.4.2 The soil was disturbed as little as possible during land clearing (except in cases where shallow soils overlay clay or silt soils or where clay or silt soils overlay sands or gravels). 3.4.3 Prior to planting, amendments were added to balance the soil and incorporate material into the soil. NA No

NA

No

Yes

NA

No

Yes

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SELFASSESSMENT|CHAP3VITICULTURAL

Question 3.4.4 Prior to planting, soil biological problems were addressed.

NA NA

-3

Answer / Score 0 1 No

2 Yes

Reason for NA and/or Other Comments NA - if no biological problems were found If yes, list problem(s) and how addressed:

Your Score

Your NA Score

3.4 TOTAL

3.5 WaterQualityandIrrigation
3.5.1 Prior to planting, the water supply was tested for irrigation suitability and nutrient value OR test results were obtained from the water distributor (e.g., municipality, irrigation district). 3.5.2 Prior to planting, any water quality issues were addressed. NA No Yes NA - if current owner did not establish the vineyard

NA

No

Yes

NA - if no water quality problems were found If yes, list issues and how addressed:

3.5.3 Prior to planting, the irrigation system was installed and fully functional.

NA

No

Yes

NA - if current owner did not establish the vineyard 3.5 TOTAL

VineyardEstablishment
3.6 Variety,Rootstock,ScionandCloneSelection
3.6.1 A number of sources, including the winery or wineries you will be supplying, were consulted before selecting varieties to grow. 3.6.2 Soil-borne pests, soil chemical and physical variability, rainfall patterns and irrigation blocks were considered when choosing rootstock and scion. 3.6.3 Clone selection was based on information from local trials where the soil, trellis, irrigation, etc. were as close as possible to the vineyard or on a broad-based province-wide experience and marketability. NA No Yes NA - if current owner did not establish the vineyard NA - if current owner did not establish the vineyard NA - if rootstock, scion and clones not used NA - if current owner did not establish vineyard NA - if clones not used

NA

No

Yes

NA

No

Yes

3.6 TOTAL

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SELFASSESSMENT|CHAP3VITICULTURAL

Question

NA NA

-3

Answer / Score 0 1 No, or less than 25% Yes, between 25% and 50%

2 Yes, between 50% and 75%

Reason for NA and/or Other Comments

Your Score

Your NA Score

3.7 PlantCertification
3.7.1 Certified grapevine materials were used. Yes, NA - if current owner did not greater establish vineyard than 75% NA - if certified grapevine material was not available at time of planting 3.7 TOTAL NA - if current owner did not establish vineyard

3.8 VineyardLayout
3.8.1 Slope direction, aspect, prevailing wind direction, access and safety were considered when laying out row orientation at the vineyard. NA No Yes

3.8 TOTAL

3.9 TrellisandVigour
3.9.1 The trellis system was designed to promote canopy microclimate and sunlight exposure and to minimize disease and pest risks. 3.9.2 The existing trellis system has been modified or retrofitted to improve canopy and sunlight exposure and to minimize disease and pest risks. NA No Yes NA - if current owner did not establish trellis system (see next question) NA - if your trellis system does not require modifications If yes, describe modifications or retrofits:

NA

No

Yes

3.9 TOTAL

3.10 Planting
3.10.1 The practices listed on page 3-13 of the guidebook were reviewed while planting. NA No Yes NA - if current owner did not establish vineyard 3.10 TOTAL

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SELFASSESSMENT|CHAP3VITICULTURAL

Question

NA

-3

Answer / Score 0 1

Reason for NA and/or Other Comments

Your Score

Your NA Score

VineyardMaintenance
3.11 MaintainingYoungVines
3.11.1 Young plants are protected with milk cartons or plastic tubes, kept weed free around the plant base and never suffer water stress. 3.11.2 All shoots except for the single strongest, most upright shoot are removed from the scion of young vines. 3.11.3 Young vines are continuously monitored for pests, disease and nutrient deficiencies. No Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes 3.11 TOTAL

3.12 CropEstimation
3.12.1 Crop estimates are used to make decisions on canopy management, crop reduction and vine balance. 3.12.2 Crop estimates generally do not vary more than 10% from the actual harvest. No Yes

No

Yes 3.12 TOTAL

3.13 CanopyAssessmentandManagement
3.13.1 Canopy is assessed throughout the season using point quadrant method and/or visual assessments (i.e., shading indices and sunfleck analysis). 3.13.2 Bud mortality assessments are used to make pruning decisions. 3.13.3 Type of training system, variety, and vine vigour are all considered when making pruning decisions. 3.13.4 Uniform vegetative growth and fruit development in the vineyard is maintained. No Yes

No No

Yes Yes

No

Yes

If yes, list techniques used to maintain uniformity:

3.13 TOTAL

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SELFASSESSMENT|CHAP3VITICULTURAL

Question

NA NA

-3

Answer / Score 0 1 No

2 Yes

Reason for NA and/or Other Comments NA - if hedging is not required in your vineyard

Your Score

Your NA Score

3.14 FruitExposure
3.14.1 When needed, hedging is used to remove the top portions of the canopy (10-20%) in order to reduce shoot growth and young leaves. 3.14.2 When needed, leaves are removed to expose the vine cluster to filtered dappled light and to improve air circulation around the fruit zone.

NA

No

Yes

NA - if the winery you supply does not allow leaf removal or leaf removal is inappropriate for your variety 3.14 TOTAL NA - if frost protection not required

3.15 FrostProtection
3.15.1 Crop value, expenses, cultural management practices and historical frequency and intensity of frost events are considered when implementing cold protection strategies. NA No Yes

3.15 TOTAL

VineyardRemoval
3.16 VineyardDecommissioning
3.16.1 When decomissioning a vineyard, materials such as drip hose, stakes and wire are reused, or taken to the proper recycling centres. 3.16.2 The above ground proportions of the vines are chipped or sold to a cogeneration company if that option is available. 3.16.3 The roots are removed from the soil. NA No Yes NA - if not decommissioning a vineyard

NA

No

Yes

NA - if not decommissioning a vineyard NA - if not decommissioning a vineyard 3.16 TOTAL

NA

No

Yes, less Yes, more than 75% than 75%

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SELFASSESSMENT|CHAP3VITICULTURAL

CHAPTER 4 SOIL AND NUTRITION MANAGEMENT


Question NA -3 Answer / Score 0 1 2 3 Reason for NA and/or Other Comments
Your Score Your NA Score

SoilandNutrientCharacteristics
4.1 PhysicalandChemicalPropertiesofSoil
4.1.1 The grower has reviewed Section 4.1 of the guidebook and is knowledgeable of the physical and chemical properties of soil. No Yes

4.1 TOTAL

4.2 NutrientsNecessaryforGrapevineGrowth
4.2.1 The grower has reviewed Section 4.2 of the guidebook and is knowledgeable of the nutrients necessary for grapevine growth. No Yes

4.2 TOTAL

NutritionManagement
4.3 NutrientManagementPlan
4.3.1 The vineyard has a nutrient management plan that includes the components listed in Section 4.3 of the guidebook. No Yes

4.3 TOTAL

4.4 FieldParameters
4.4.1 The soil series of the vineyard is identified using soil maps and soil pits. 4.4.2 Soil site history is documented. 4.4.3 Soil series and soil site history information is included in the nutrient management plan. No No No Yes Yes 4.4 TOTAL Yes

4.5 IdentifyingAreasofConcern
4.5.1 Adjacent areas that may be impacted by vineyard operations (e.g., wetlands, streams, well heads, residences, schools) are identified. 4.5.2 Areas on the vineyard that may require extra attention (e.g., unproductive regions, overly vigorous regions, regions with poor water drainage, and areas with very shallow top soil) are identified. No Yes

No

Yes

4.5 TOTAL

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Question

NA

-3 Never

Answer / Score 0 1 Less frequently than every year No

3 Every year

Reason for NA and/or Other Comments

Your Score

Your NA Score

4.6 PetioleSamplingandAnalysis
4.6.1 Bloom-time or veraison samples of petioles are sent to a lab for analysis.

4.6.2 Petiole lab analysis results are reviewed and understood.

Yes

It may be appropriate to obtain a second, independent interpretation (e.g., from a consultant or soil expert)

4.6.3 Petiole lab analysis results are used to influence the nutrient management plan.

No

Yes 4.6 TOTAL

4.7 SoilSamplingandAnalysis
4.7.1 Soil samples are sent to a lab for analysis (answer only if a soil amendment program is not currently being implemented). NA Never Every 7 years Every 5 years NA - if an amendment program is being implemented (see next question) The frequency of sampling will depend upon whether or not you are currently implementing a soil amendment program NA - if a program is not being implemented (see previous question)

4.7.2 Soil samples are sent to a lab for analysis (answer only if a soil amendment program is being implemented). 4.7.3 Soil variations are considered when collecting samples. 4.7.4 Sample locations are recorded on my site map. 4.7.5 Soil lab analysis results are are reviewed and understood.

NA

Never

Every 3 to Every 2 to 5 years 3 years Yes Yes Yes

No No No

It may be appropriate to obtain a second, independent interpretation (e.g., from a consultant or soil expert)

4.7.6 Soil lab analysis results are used to influence the nutrient management plan.

No

Yes 4.7 TOTAL

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Question

NA

-3

Answer / Score 0 1 Never

Reason for NA and/or Other Comments

Your Score

Your NA Score

4.8 WaterSamplingandAnalysis
4.8.1 Irrigation water is tested or water quality data is obtained from the water purveyor. 4.8.2 Water quality test results are used to influence the nutrient management plan (if necessary). More than In the last 5 years 5 years ago Yes

No

4.8 TOTAL

4.9 CoverCrops
4.9.1 The type of cover crop planted in the vineyard is based on site vigour and erosion and runoff concerns. 4.9.2 Vigour-reducing or vigour-enhancing (e.g., nitrogen fixing legumes) are planted, as appropriate or neutral (i.e., non leguminous, with little growth) cover crops are planted if vigour is not an issue. 4.9.3 Data on the interactions between the cover crop chosen and the vineyard rootstock-scion combination is reviewed to ensure no undesirable outcomes. 4.9.4 Winter cover crops are used to sequester (i.e., to grab hold of) nutrients and to reduce leaching losses. 4.9.5 Cover crops are mowed infrequently in order to reduce energy use and impacts to the ecosystem they support. No Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

More than Three three times per times per year year

Twice per year

Once per year

4.9 TOTAL

4.10 Fertilizers
4.10.1 Environmental impacts from fertilizer use are minimized by correctly calculating the amount of fertilizer the vineyard requires, properly storing fertilizers, and using local sources as much as possible. 4.10.2 If additional fertilizers are required, organic options are considered first (e.g., cover crop, compost, manure, green manure, mulch). No Yes

No

Yes

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Question 4.10.3 Organic matter is managed in such a way to prevent the introduction of unwanted pests, pahogens and weed species. 4.10.4 Only products listed in Section 4.2 of the Organic Production Systems Permitted Substances Lists document are used for soil amendments and crop nutrition (see guidebook for details).

NA

-3

Answer / Score 0 1 No

2 Yes

Reason for NA and/or Other Comments

Your Score

Your NA Score

No

Yes

4.10 TOTAL

4.11 RatesandTimingofNutrientApplication
4.11.1 The same nutrient application regime is used every year regardless of actual requirements. 4.11.2 Nutrients are applied only if the petiole analysis, soil analysis, vine vigour, and visual observations of nutrient deficiencies indicate they are needed. 4.11.3 Nutrients are applied during the growing season and/or post harvest. Yes No

No

Yes

in one in at least in small large two bigger doses and application doses multiple times Yes No 4.11 TOTAL

4.11.4 Nutrients are applied when the vines are dormant.

4.12 MethodsofNutrientApplication
4.12.1 The location where the fertilizer will be applied (e.g., below dripper, row middles, etc.) is identified. 4.12.2 The equipment to use for application is identified. 4.12.3 The factors that will be used to adjust application (i.e., slope, rainfall patterns, soil type, etc.) are identified. 4.12.4 The advantages and disadvantages of application methods discussed in sections 4.11 and 4.12 of the guidebook are considered when choosing the method(s) of nutrient application to use at the vineyard. No Yes

No No

Yes Yes

No

Yes

4.12 TOTAL

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Question 4.13.1 Frequent reviews of the nutrient management plan are conducted throughout the growing season. 4.13.2 A formal annual review and update of the nutrient management plan is conducted before starting the nutrition program for the upcoming year.

NA

-3

Answer / Score 0 1 No

2 Yes

Reason for NA and/or Other Comments

Your Score

Your NA Score

4.13 ReviewandUpdateofNutrientManagementPlan

No

Yes

4.13 TOTAL

SoilManagement
4.14 SoilErosionDuetoWater,Wind,orEquipment
4.14.1 Cover crops are used in and around the vineyard and along farm roads and irrigation canals. 4.14.2 The permeability and runoff rates of the vineyard soil is known, and irrigation is applied accordingly. 4.14.3 Dirt roads are grass covered, treated with an environmentally acceptable anti-dust agent, or watered when traffic requires it. No Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

4.14 TOTAL

4.15 SoilErosionFromRoad,DitchesandCulverts
4.15.1 Steep and/or heavy use roads have been paved, dirt roads have been grassed (where appropriate), and gravel roads have been outsloped and have water bars in place (where appropriate). 4.15.2 Ditches have been grassed or hardened to prevent downcutting. 4.15.3 Culverts are properly sized to accommodate high flows, and inlets and outlets have been hardened to prevent erosion or energy dissipaters (device designed to protect downstream areas) have been installed. No Yes

NA NA

No No

Yes Yes

NA - if you do not have ditches on your property NA - if you do not have culverts on your property

4.15 TOTAL

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Question

NA

-3 More frequently than twice in the last year

Answer / Score 0 1 Twice in the last year Once in the past year

Reason for NA and/or Other Comments

Your Score

Your NA Score

4.16 TillageofVineyardFloor
4.16.1 The vineyard floor is tilled. Once in Once in Explain why floor is tilled: the past 2 the past 5 years years or more or never Yes 4.16 TOTAL

4.16.2 Alternate row tilling is practiced when tillage of the vineyard floor is necessary.

No

4.17 SoilCompaction
4.17.1 Equipment is chosen or modified to minimize compaction (e.g., lightest equipment possible, track-layers, wider or bigger diameter tires, tire pressures as low as possible). 4.17.2 Heavy equipment never enters the vineyard during wet soil conditions. No Yes

No

Yes 4.17 TOTAL

4.18 SoilWaterStorageandMovement
4.18.1 If water infiltration is poor at the site (water puddles and runs off when soil is dry underneath) options to improve water penetration have been implemented (e.g., adding compost, manure, or a cover crop, or deep cultivation between vine rows). NA No Yes NA - if water infiltration is not poor at the site

4.18 TOTAL

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CHAPTER 5 WATER MANAGEMENT


Question NA -3 Answer / Score 0 1 2 3 Reason for NA and/or Other Comments
Your Score Your NA Score

PlanningandAssessment
5.1 TheWaterCycle
5.1.1 The viticulturist is knowledgeable about the concept of the water cycle and understands how it relates to viticulture. No Yes

5.1 TOTAL

5.2 KnowingYourWatershed
5.2.1 The viticulturist knows the name of the local watershed the property is located in. 5.2.2 The viticulturist knows what features make up the watershed (i.e., lakes, streams, etc.). 5.2.3 The viticulturist knows the distance from the property to the primary water source in the watershed. 5.2.4 The viticulturist participates in a local watershed management group. No No No Yes Yes Yes

NA

No

Yes

NA - if there is no local group to join 5.2 TOTAL

WaterQuality
5.3 WaterQualityTestingandAnalysis
5.3.1 Irrigation water is tested or water quality data is obtained from the water purveyor. 5.3.2 When problems are identified, they are amended or managed. NA NA never every 5-10 years No every 2-5 years Yes yearly NA - if you do not irrigate NA - if no problems have been identified 5.3 TOTAL NA - if you do not use injection equipment 5.4 TOTAL

5.4 BackflowPrevention
5.4.1 Backflow prevention devices are installed in line before any injection equipment. NA No Yes

WaterUseEfficiency
5.5 TypesofIrrigationSystems
5.5.1 The irrigation system used is suited to site conditions, water availability and cultural goals. NA No Yes NA - if you do not irrigate

5.5 TOTAL

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Question 5.6.1 The irrigation system design accounts for soil characteristics, vine vigour, slope, cover crop species and canopy size. 5.6.2 The irrigation system is equipped with filtration and injection equipment. 5.6.3 The irrigation system is equipped with pressure compensation. 5.6.4 The irrigation system is equipped with energyefficient technology.

NA NA

-3

Answer / Score 0 1 No

3 Yes

Reason for NA and/or Other Comments NA - if you do not irrigate

Your Score

Your NA Score

5.6 IrrigationSystemDesignandOperation

NA NA NA

No No No

Yes Yes Yes

NA - if you do not irrigate NA - if you do not irrigate NA - if you do not irrigate 5.6 TOTAL

5.7 FlowMeters
5.7.1 Flow meters are installed on wells or other water sources and pumps. 5.7.2 Flows are monitored and recorded at least monthly during irrigation season. NA NA No No Yes Yes NA - if you do not irrigate NA - if you do not irrigate 5.7 TOTAL

5.8 DelineatingIrrigationManagementZones
5.8.1 Irrigation management zones in the vineyard are identified and delineated as described on page 5-7 of the guidebook. NA No Yes NA - if you do not irrigate

5.8 TOTAL

5.9 DistributionUniformityandApplicationEfficiency
5.9.1 The irrigation distribution uniformity and application efficiency of the entire system is tested and recorded. 5.9.2 The relief valves of the subsurface drip system are regularly checked. NA Yes, less Yes, once Yes, once than once every 2 per year every 2 years years Yes, less Yes, at Yes, at Yes, at frequent least once least once least once than once per year per month per week per year No NA - if you do not irrigate

NA

No

NA - if you do not irrigate or if you do not have a subsurface drip system

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Question 5.9.3 The low-pressure irrigation system has the appropriate emitter numbers, spacing and delivery rates, and is operated at run-durations that lead to a wetted soil volume appropriate for the vine canopy size. 5.9.4 The sprinkler system rate of water application per area of irrigation system is used to calculate the amount of time required to wet through the root system.

NA NA

-3

Answer / Score 0 1 No

2 Yes

Reason for NA and/or Other Comments NA - if you do not irrigate or if you do not use a low-pressure system

Your Score

Your NA Score

NA

No

Yes

NA - if you do not irrigate or if you do not use a sprinkler system

5.9 TOTAL

5.10 PumpEfficiency
5.10.1 Pump efficiency is optimized using some or all of the following options: ensuring that the correct impeller is used, improving friction loss in fittings at pump discharge, replacing worn nozzles, and replacing old pumps with more efficient models. 5.10.2 Electric pumps powered by renewable energy (e.g. solar, wind, etc.) are used. NA No Yes, one option Yes, two options Yes, three options Yes, all options NA - if you do not use pumps

NA

No

Yes

NA - if you do not use pumps 5.10 TOTAL

5.11 RoutineSystemMaintenance
5.11.1 Routine maintenance of the irrigation system is completed. NA No less than twice a year Yes, one option Yes, two options Yes, at least twice a year Yes, three options Yes, at NA - if you do not irrigate every irrigation event Yes, all options NA - if you do not irrigate

5.11.2 The routine maintenance involves some or all of the following options: checking for leaks, backflushing filters, flushing lines, chlorinating, acidifying, cleaning or replacing clogged emitters, and inspecting or replacing other parts.

NA

No

5.11 TOTAL

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Question

NA

-3

Answer / Score 0 1

Reason for NA and/or Other Comments

Your Score

Your NA Score

IrrigationScheduling
5.12 SoilMoistureBasedApproaches
5.12.1 The soil water-holding capacity (soil type plus rooting depth), annual rainfall, cover crop water use, and soil variation in the vineyard are known. 5.12.2 Soil moisture monitoring method(s) (e.g., tensiometer, conductivity block, TDR) are used to track soil moisture depletion. 5.12.3 Soil moisture measurements are used to adjust irrigation initiation in the spring/summer and for irrigation scheduling throughout the season. NA No Yes NA - if you do not irrigate

NA

No

Yes, one method Yes

NA

No

Yes, more NA - if you do not irrigate than one List methods used: method NA - if you do not irrigate

5.12 TOTAL

5.13 PlantBasedApproaches
5.13.1 The amount of water used by the vines is estimated and recorded between each irrigation event. 5.13.2 No more than the amount estimated and recorded (or less than this amount) is applied during the next irrigation (unless a heat wave is forecast or varietal requirements justify the use of more water). 5.13.3 Plant water status is monitored by visually assessing shoot tips and tendrils. 5.13.4 Plant moisture stress is quantified using a plant-applied method (e.g., pressure bomb, evapotranspiration) to determine a start date for spring/summer irrigation and for irrigation scheduling throughout the growing season. 5.13.5 Evapotranspiration is monitored and recorded (e.g., using a local weather station, online resource, or evaporation pan) and used in combination with a crop coefficient based on canopy size to determine irrigation requirements. NA No Yes NA - if you do not irrigate

NA

No

Yes

NA - if you do not irrigate If no, explain:

NA NA

No No

Yes Yes

NA - if you do not irrigate NA - if you do not irrigate List tools used:

NA

No

Yes

NA - if you do not irrigate

5.13 TOTAL

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Question

NA NA NA NA

-3

Answer / Score 0 1 No No No

3 Yes

Reason for NA and/or Other Comments NA - if dry farming is not practical for your vineyard NA - if RDI is not practical for your vineyard NA - if you do not irrigate

Your Score

Your NA Score

5.14 DeficitIrrigationandDryFarming
5.14.1 The vineyard is dry farmed. 5.14.2 Regulated deficit irrigation is employed at the vineyard. 5.14.3 Newly planted vines receive enough water to maintain full evapotranspiration, to allow the plant to establish a healthy root system and canopy (i.e., RDI or PRD are not employed on new vines). Yes Yes

5.14 TOTAL

SurfaceWaterMovement
5.15 Runoff
5.15.1 Some or all of the practices listed on page 514 of the guidebook have been implemented to mitigate the potential impacts of runoff. 5.15.2 Irrigation practices create little or no runoff. 5.15.3 Stormwater runoff is collected and reused. No Yes

Significant Moderate runoff runoff No

Minimal runoff

No runoff Yes 5.15 TOTAL

5.16 Drainage
5.16.1 The importance of proper site drainage is known and understood. 5.16.2 Some or all of the practices listed on page 515 of the guidebook have been implemented to protect drains/inlets from possible contamination. No No Yes Yes

5.16 TOTAL

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CHAPTER 6 PEST MANAGEMENT


Question NA -3 Answer / Score 0 1 2 3 Reason for NA and/or Other Comments
Your Score Your NA Score

IntegratedPestManagement
6.1 AvoidPestProblems
6.1.1 The grape varieties grown are suitable for the site. No Yes If yes, explain why:

6.1.2 The establishment of natural enemies is encouraged through use of compatible pesticides and flowering plants that supply nectar and pollen for these biocontrol agents. 6.1.3 The grower is continually learning about common pests and beneficial organisms in the vineyard (e.g., life cycles, natural predators, etc.). 6.1.4 Vine health is optimized through proper irrigation and nutrition programs. 6.1.5 Crop waste management practices that avoid atracting or maintaining pests are used (e.g., proper disposal of prunings, diseased/infested plants/plant parts). 6.1.6 The movement of soil, plants, equipment and vehicles is managed to avoid introduction of pests.

No

Yes

No

Yes

No No

Yes Yes

No

Yes

6.1 TOTAL 6.2.1 Pest damage is identified using reference material as needed. 6.2.2 Pests and beneficial organisms/predators are correctly identified (i.e. using hand lens and reference materials) and recorded. 6.2.3 The life cycle, natural predators, preferred food and environment requirements, and other relevant information is known and understood for each pest and beneficial organism.

6.2 IdentifyandUnderstandthePest

No No

Yes Yes

No

Yes

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Question 6.2.4 Beneficial organisms are identified and their relationship to pest control is known and understood (i.e., does it eat, compete with, or parasitize the pest). 6.2.5 The help of professionals is enlisted when needed.

NA

-3

Answer / Score 0 1 No

2 Yes

Reason for NA and/or Other Comments

Your Score

Your NA Score

No

Yes 6.2 TOTAL

6.3 MonitorPopulationsandDamage
6.3.1 Regular examinations of the vineyard that include sampling and detection methods to estimate the abundance and distribution of pests are performed throughout the year. 6.3.2 Damage symptoms are monitored and recorded throughout the year using consistent and repeatable methods. 6.3.3 Beneficial organism populations are monitored and recorded throughout the year using consistent and repeatable methods. 6.3.4 The potential cost of damage is estimated. No Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes 6.3 TOTAL

6.4 EstablishActionThresholds
6.4.1 Action thresholds have been established for each pest identified in the vineyard. 6.4.2 When establishing the action thresholds, the potential damage to the crop, cost of control methods and value of production are considered. 6.4.3 When establishing the action thresholds, potential impacts on other organisms (including other pests and beneficial organisms) and the environment (soil, water and air) are considered. No No Yes Yes

No

Yes

6.4 TOTAL

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Question

NA

-3 No

Answer / Score 0 1

3 Yes

Reason for NA and/or Other Comments

Your Score

Your NA Score

6.5 ChooseAppropriateControlMethods
6.5.1 Biological, cultural, mechanical and physical control strategies are considered before using chemical application. 6.5.2 Before implementing each control strategy, the risk involved is evaluated and alternatives are considered. 6.5.3 When chemical application is warranted, products that are the least toxic and least persistent are used. 6.5.4 Only products listed in Section 4.3 of the Organic Production Systems Permitted Substances Lists document are used to control pests (see guidebook for details). 6.5.5 A chemical or chemicals listed in Table 6-1 (page 6-5) in the guidebook is/are used to control pests or weeds.

No

Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

Yes, on a regular basis

Yes, but used sparingly and only when absolutely necessary

No

If yes, provide written documentation that demonstrates a clear need for the use of the pesticides, that no safer alternatives exist, and that describes the application details (such as timing, location, rate, and amount used)

6.5 TOTAL

6.6 ReviewandAssessEffectiveness
6.6.1 The effectiveness of pest management decisions is evaluated after every growing season. 6.6.2 The review involves going over records of pest monitoring, weather monitoring, pesticide application, crop yield and quality, and other relevant observations (see page 6-6 of the guidebook for a records checklist). No Yes

No

Yes

6.6 TOTAL

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Question

NA

-3

Answer / Score 0 1

Reason for NA and/or Other Comments

Your Score

Your NA Score

WeedManagement
6.7 IntegratedWeedManagement
6.7.1 Weeds in the vineyard (including invasive weeds) are identified and recorded. 6.7.2 An Integrated Weed Management (IWM) plan (as outlined on pages 6-7 to 6-8 of the guidebook) is created. 6.7.3 The IWM plan includes protocols for dealing with common weed species. 6.7.4 The IWM plan includes contact information of experts that can be called for advice. 6.7.5 Biological, cultural, mechanical and physical control methods are implemented before considering chemical application. 6.7.6 Herbicides are not used at all or low toxicity herbicides are used occasionally. No No Yes Yes

No No No Yes

Yes

Yes

If yes, list methods:

Herbicides used are toxic and/or are used more than twice per season No

Herbicides Herbicides Herbicides of low of low are not toxicity toxicity used used only used only twice per once per season season

6.7.7 Only products listed in Section 4.4 of the Organic Production Systems Permitted Substances Lists document are used for weed management (see guidebook for details).

Yes

6.7 TOTAL

WildlifeManagement
6.8 Birds
6.8.1 The grower can tell the difference between native and invasive birds (both of which may be pests). 6.8.2 Two or more of the control methods listed on pages 5-50 and 5-51 (2006 ed.) of the Best Practices Guide are used immediately if birds attack the crop. No Yes

No

Yes

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Question 6.8.3 Bird scaring devices are managed according to the guidelines set out by the Farm Practices Board and the Ministry of Agriculture and Lands (see page 6-10 of the guidebook).

NA NA

-3

Answer / Score 0 1 No

2 Yes

Reason for NA and/or Other Comments NA - if you do not use bird scaring devices

Your Score

Your NA Score

6.8 TOTAL

6.9 Rodents
6.9.1 Prevention methods, such as those listed on page 6-9 of the guidebook and pages 5-51 and 5-52 (2006 ed.) of the Best Practices Guide, are implemented. NA No Yes NA - if rodents are not a problem at your vineyard

6.9 TOTAL

6.10 Snakes
6.10.1 Snake control practices, such as those listed on page 6-10 of the guidebook, are implemented where snakes are present. NA No Yes NA - if snakes are not a problem at your vineyard 6.10 TOTAL

6.11 DeerandElk
6.11.1 Deer and elk control practices, such as those listed on page 6-11 of the guidebook and pages 5-52 and 5-53 (2006 ed.) of the Best Practices Guide, are implemented where deer or elk have been identified as a nuisance. NA No Yes NA - if deer and elk are not a problem at your vineyard

6.11 TOTAL

6.12 Bears
6.12.1 An electric fence has been installed to keep bears out of the vineyard, where they have been found to be a nuisance or threat. NA No Yes NA - if bears are not a problem at your vineyard 6.12 TOTAL

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Question

NA

-3

Answer / Score 0 1

Reason for NA and/or Other Comments

Your Score

Your NA Score

PesticideManagement
6.13 ReducingEnvironmentalandHealthRisks
6.13.1 Buffer zone information on the pesticide label is followed at all times. 6.13.2 Pesticide migration into unwanted areas through drift, runoff, leaching, or direct transport is avoided. 6.13.3 Site characteristics that may affect pesticide movement, such as soil infiltration and permeability, water table depth, proximity to sensitve areas, and slope, are known and recorded. 6.13.4 Bees and beneficial insects are protected by not spraying hives, not applying pesticides toxic to bees when plants in bloom, and spraying in the evening as much as possible. 6.13.5 When selecting pesticides, those with the following characteristics are chosen: - shortest degradation period - lowest volatility - lowest solubility - highest soil binding capacity - lowest toxicity -shortest PHI (preharvest interval) 6.13.6 Proper protective clothing and equipment is used when handling and applying pesticides. 6.13.7 One or more people at the vineyard know what to do in case of a pesticide-related emergency such as poisoning, eye contact, skin contact and inhalation. NA NA No No Yes Yes NA - if you do not use pesticides NA - if you do not use pesticides

NA

No

Yes

NA - if you do not use pesticides

NA

No

Yes

NA - if you do not use pesticides

NA

No

Yes

NA - if you do not use pesticides

NA

No

Yes

NA - if you do not use pesticides

NA

No

Yes

NA - if you do not use pesticides

6.13 TOTAL 6.14.1 Pesticides are transported on non-absorbent spill trays made of metal or plastic. 6.14.2 Pesticides are transported in containers that are undamaged, properly labelled and sealed.

6.14 PesticideTransport

NA NA

No No

Yes Yes

NA - if you do not use pesticides NA - if you do not use pesticides

6.14 TOTAL

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Question

NA NA NA

-3

Answer / Score 0 1 No No

2 Yes Yes

Reason for NA and/or Other Comments NA - if you do not use pesticides NA - if you do not use pesticides

Your Score

Your NA Score

6.15 PesticideStorage
6.15.1 Pesticides are stored away from drains, ditches, wells and watercourses. 6.15.2 Pesticides are stored in their original containers. If the original container is damaged, pesticides are stored in another suitable container and a replacement label is obtained from the supplier. 6.15.3 Pesticides are stored in a locked, dry and vented building that is made of concrete or other impervious materials.

NA

No

Yes

NA - if you do not use pesticides

6.15 TOTAL

6.16 MixingandLoadingPesticides
6.16.1 The mixing and loading site is located well away from people, wells and waterbodies. NA No Yes NA - if you do not use pesticides 6.16 TOTAL

6.17 PesticideApplication
6.17.1 When selecting pesticide application equipment, methods that have low application rates, wipe-on chemical or produce coarse droplets are chosen. 6.17.2 Sprayers are properly calibrated using the checklist on page 7-13 (2006 ed.)/7-17 (2010 ed.) of the Best Practices Guide. 6.17.3 Records are kept of every application and include site, date, target pest, pesticide and amount used, crop stage, harvest date, application method, spray volume, weather observations, and precautions followed. NA No Yes NA - if you do not use pesticides

NA

No

Yes

NA - if you do not use pesticides

NA

No

Yes

NA - if you do not use pesticides

6.17 TOTAL

6.18 PesticideandPesticideContainerDisposal
6.18.1 The volume of waste is reduced by mixing only the amount of pesticide required for a specific application. 6.18.2 Unused mixed pesticides are not dumped on land or allowed to drain into sewers or other piping systems. NA No Yes NA - if you do not use pesticides

NA

No

Yes

NA - if you do not use pesticides

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Question 6.18.3 No more than one year's supply of pesticides is purchased at one time. 6.18.4 Empty pesticide containers are disposed of at collection sites, or safely stored for short time until disposal is more convenient.

NA NA NA

-3

Answer / Score 0 1 No Yes No

Reason for NA and/or Other Comments NA - if you do not use pesticides

Your Score

Your NA Score

Yes

NA - if you do not use pesticides

6.18 TOTAL

6.19 EmergencyPreparednessandResponse
6.19.1 A spill kit is available to deal with pesticide spills. 6.19.2 Emergency response numbers are readily available to all workers in the operation by posting in a conspicuous location. 6.19.3 An updated list of pesticides stored on-site is kept in case of fire or spill. 6.19.4 Up-to-date MSDS are kept on file are readily available. 6.19.5 Fire extinguisher(s), approved for chemical fires, are kept near pesticide storage area(s). NA NA No No Yes Yes NA - if you do not use pesticides NA - if you do not use pesticides

NA NA NA

No No No Yes Yes

Yes

NA - if you do not use pesticides NA - if you do not use pesticides NA - if you do not use pesticides

6.19 TOTAL

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CHAPTER 7 EMPLOYEES, NEIGHBOURS AND COMMUNITY


Question NA -3 Answer / Score 0 1 2 3 Reasoning for NA / Other Comments
Your Score Your NA Score

HumanResources
7.1 StaffingandRecruiting
7.1.1 A staffing strategy is developed that includes the labour-type and numbers of employees needed and when they are needed. 7.1.2 Up-to-date schedules and flowcharts are used to help understand and plan staffing needs. 7.1.3 Up-to-date and accurate descriptions for each job, which includes job title and skill requirements, as well as sustainability policies and practices related to the position, are developed. 7.1.4 A copy of the job description is given to the employee and their supervisor. 7.1.5 The job descriptions are reviewed and updated every 1-2 years, with input from the employee where appropriate. 7.1.6 A recruiting strategy that includes sources for temporary contract labour and for full-time employees (e.g., temp agencies, colleges and universities) and recruiting methods (e.g., newspaper, web, trade magazines) is developed. 7.1.7 A standard screening and interviewing process is in place that includes a set of specific interview questions designed for the position. 7.1.8 Exit interviews are conducted to determine why employees are leaving and the results are used to help me retain key employees. No Yes Note: the complexity of your staffing strategy will depend on the size of your operation Note: the complexity of your flowchart will depend on the size of your operation Yes

No

Yes

No

No No

Yes Yes

No

Yes

Note: the complexity of your recruiting strategy will depend on the size of your operation

No

Yes

No

Yes

Note: exit interviews can be as simple as chatting over a glass of wine or a cup of coffee 7.1 TOTAL Yes Note: the complexity and length of your employee handbook will depend on the size of operation 7.2 TOTAL

7.2 EmployeeOrientation
7.2.1 An employee orientation program that includes the content listed in the checklist on page 7-4 is in place. No

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Question

NA

-3 No

Answer / Score 0 1

3 Yes

Reasoning for NA / Other Comments

Your Score

Your NA Score

7.3 EmployeeHandbook
7.3.1 A current and accurate employee handbook is developed. 7.3.2 Employees receive a copy of the handbook and written acknowledgement of their receipt is obtained. 7.3.3 The employee handbook includes sustainable policies and practices. 7.3.4 Employees are trained regarding the material in the handbook and the training is documented. No Yes

No No

Yes Yes

7.3 TOTAL

7.4 InternalCommunications
7.4.1 Regular staff meetings are held to discuss company philosophies and goals, employee workloads and assignments, and workplace procedures and happenings and employees are encouraged to ask questions and voice concerns. 7.4.2 Minutes of staff meetings are kept on file and provided to employees for their information. 7.4.3 Additional methods are used to communicate with employees, which may include newsletters, a staff bulletin board, a company Intranet, and/or posters. 7.4.4 A system is in place that encourages employees to submit suggestions for workplace improvements such as conditions, job training and employee development opoprtunities, and business performance and operational efficiencies. No Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

7.4 TOTAL

7.5 EmployeeRelations
7.5.1 A written grievance and complaint system is in place and employees are aware of the system. 7.5.2 A written discipline policy is in place and employees are aware of this policy. No Yes

No

Yes

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Question 7.5.3 A formal process is in place for handling performance evaluations and employees are aware of the process. 7.5.4 At least one formal employee recognition program is in place and at least one of the recognition programs is related to sustainability (conserving electricity, recycling, conserving water, etc). 7.5.5 Some form of spontaneous positive feedback is regularly practiced either individually or as a group and an annual employee team building activity is hosted. 7.5.6 Employee contributions to implementing sustainable practices are recorded and a sustainability bonus program is implemented to recognize employees that go above and beyond to promote sustainability at the vineyard. 7.5.7 Salaries for each job at the vineyard are at or above the average salary for the region. 7.5.8 Benefits are provided to employees (e.g., health, dental) and those benefits are documented. 7.5.9 Family support services are offered to employees. See the Guidebook for examples of services.

NA

-3

Answer / Score 0 1 No

2 Yes

Reasoning for NA / Other Comments

Your Score

Your NA Score

No

Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

No No

Yes 25% of 50% or 75% or employees more of more of enrolled employees employees enrolled enrolled 1 service 2 services 3 or more provided provided services provided 7.5 TOTAL

No

7.6 EducationandTraining
7.6.1 The company has training plans and goals for employees and management that incorporate sustainability policies and practices. 7.6.2 The annual vineyard budget designates funds specifically for employee education and training. 7.6.3 Employees are encouraged to attend training seminars or other educational programs and the company pays for the training costs and/or allows employees paid time off from work to attend. No Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

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Question 7.6.4 The company has a current membership in the local growers associations and the management team attends their meetings and participates in their events. 7.6.5 The management team regularly attends regional and provincial meetings, seminars, and symposiums. 7.6.6 Trade journals, industry newsletters and other resources are readily available to the management team and employees.

NA

-3

Answer / Score 0 1 No

3 Yes

Reasoning for NA / Other Comments

Your Score

Your NA Score

No

Yes

No

Yes

7.6 TOTAL

7.7 HealthandSafety
7.7.1 A health and safety program is in place that is appropriate for the size and type of operation. 7.7.2 Employee health and safety meetings are conducted and attendance and issues discussed are documented. 7.7.3 A well-planned, well-documented schedule of farm machinery maintenance is followed. Never No Yes

Less than once a month

Once a month

Once every 2 weeks

Weekly

No

Yes 7.7 TOTAL

7.8 SuccessionPlanning
7.8.1 A plan is in place to address succession issues at the vineyard. 7.8.2 The plan was or is being developed using a process simlar to that outlined on page 7-11 of the guidebook. 7.8.3 The plan contains some or all of the components listed on pages 7-12 and 7-13 of the guidebook. No No In progress Yes Yes

No

Yes, some Yes, most Yes, all of of the of the the componen componen componen ts ts ts 7.8 TOTAL

7.9 DocumentationandRecordKeeping
7.9.1 vineyard managers are aware of what, how and when documentation is to be done. 7.9.2 Documentation is done in a timely, consistent manner and in a format that will stand up in court. No No Yes Yes

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Question 7.9.3 Documentation is stored properly for as long as is required by law and is readily accessible.

NA

-3

Answer / Score 0 1 No Yes

Reasoning for NA / Other Comments

Your Score

Your NA Score

7.9 TOTAL

NeighbourandCommunityRelations
7.10 IdentifyingPotentialConcerns
7.10.1 Neighbours and community members who may be concerned about or interested in the vineyard operations are identified and documented. 7.10.2 Relevant neighbour and community concerns about the vineyard operations are identified and documented. No Yes

No

Yes

7.10 TOTAL

7.11 OutreachandCommunication
7.11.1 Neighbours and community are informed about vineyard operations, including the sustainable practices used and when and why they are used. 7.11.2 Neighbour and community input is used to improve outreach and communications practices. 7.11.3 A consistent and timely process is in place for making information regarding upcoming changes in vineyard operations available to neighbours, community members, and other stakeholders. 7.11.4 Neighbour and community issues related to the vineyard are addressed through participation in programs, meetings, and other appropriate forums related to those issues. 7.11.5 Neighbour/community events are hosted at the vineyard to showcase the operations and build relationships. No Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

7.11 TOTAL

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Question

NA

-3

Answer / Score 0 1 No No No

3 Yes

Reasoning for NA / Other Comments

Your Score

Your NA Score

7.12 RespondingtoComplaints
7.12.1 A written procedure for following up on complaints from neighbours is in place. 7.12.2 A person from the vineyard is delegated to field, record and respond to complaints. 7.12.3 All employees are trained in the process to follow when confronted with complaints from neighbours. 7.12.4 All complaints and their outcomes (i.e., followup, solutions) are documented. Yes Yes

No

Yes 7.12 TOTAL

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SUMMARY SCORE CARD


CHAPTER 1 SETTING YOUR SUSTAINABILITY FOUNDATION
Section 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Land Base - Mapping and Description Human Resources Operational Resources Creating a Sustainability Mission Statement Total Possible Score 3 2 2 7 14 Your NA Score Your Score

TOTAL

Your Overall Chapter 1 Percentage

CHAPTER 2 ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT


Section 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 2.14 Identifying the Biogeoclimatic Zone Identifying Habitat Features Identifying Wildlife (including Species at Risk) Choosing Your Site Minimizing Land Clearing Encouraging Diversity Retaining and Restoring Habitat Protecting Wetlands and Other Aquatic Habitat Connecting Your Land to Neighbouring Landscapes Controlling Invasive Species Managing Crop Damage Caused by Wildlife Preventing Pollution Communicating Practices Working with Environmental Organizations Total Possible Score 2 3 3 3 13 12 9 8 6 11 6 6 2 4 Your NA Score Your Score

TOTAL

88

Your Overall Chapter 2 Percentage

SUSTAINABLEPRACTICESFORBCVINEYARDS|MARCH2010

SCORECARD

CHAPTER 3 VITICULTURAL MANAGEMENT


Section 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.10 3.11 3.12 3.13 3.14 3.15 3.16 Business Planning and Market Research Site Selection Site Preparation Soil Management Water Quality and Irrigation Variety, Rootstock, Scion and Clone Plant Certification Vineyard Layout Trellis and Vigour Planting Maintaining Young Vines Crop Estimation Canopy Assessment and Management Fruit Exposure Frost Protection Vineyard Decommissioning Total Possible Score 6 9 10 9 6 7 3 2 4 2 6 5 8 4 2 6 89 Your NA Score Your Score

TOTAL

Your Overall Chapter 3 Percentage

CHAPTER 4 SOIL AND NUTRITION MANAGEMENT


Section 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.10 4.11 4.12 4.13 4.14 4.15 4.16 4.17 4.18 Physical and Chemical Properties of Soil Nutrients Necessary for Grapevine Growth Nutrient Management Plan Field Parameters Identifying Areas of Concern Petiole Sampling and Analysis Soil Sampling and Analysis Water Sampling and Analysis Cover Crops Fertilizers Rates and Timing of Nutrient Application Methods of Nutrient Application Review and Update of Nutrient Management Plan Soil Erosion Due to Water, Wind, or Equipment Soil Erosion From Roads, Ditches, and Culverts Tillage of Vineyard Floor Soil Compaction Soil Water Storage and Movement Total Possible Score 1 1 3 5 4 7 11 4 11 10 5 5 4 6 6 5 4 2 Your NA Score Your Score

TOTAL

94

Your Overall Chapter 4 Percentage

SUSTAINABLEPRACTICESFORBCVINEYARDS|MARCH2010

SCORECARD

CHAPTER 5 WATER MANAGEMENT


Section 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 5.10 5.11 5.12 5.13 5.14 5.15 5.16 The Water Cycle Your Watershed Water Quality Testing and Analysis Backflow Prevention Types of Irrigation Systems Irrigation System Design and Operation Flow meters Delineating Irrigation Management Zones Distribution Uniformity and Application Pump Efficiency Routine System Maintenance Soil Moisture-Based Approaches Plant-Based Approaches Deficit Irrigation and Dry Farming Stormwater Runoff Drainage Total Possible Score 1 5 5 2 3 9 5 3 10 6 6 7 11 7 8 3 Your NA Score Your Score

TOTAL

91

Your Overall Chapter 5 Percentage

CHAPTER 6 PEST MANAGEMENT


Section 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.9 6.10 6.11 6.12 6.13 6.14 6.15 6.16 6.17 6.18 6.19 Avoid Pest Problems Identify and Understand the Pest Monitor Populations and Damage Establish Action Thresholds Choose Appropriate Control Methods Review and Assess Effectiveness Integrated Weed Management Birds Total Possible Score 11 9 8 7 13 5 17 5 2 2 2 2 14 4 6 2 6 6 7 128 Your NA Score Your Score

Rodents
Snakes Deer and Elk Bear Reducing Environmental and Health Risks Pesticide Transport Pesticide Storage Mixing and Loading Pesticides Pesticide Application Pesticide and Pesticide Container Disposal Emergency Preparedness and Response

TOTAL

Your Overall Chapter 6 Percentage

SUSTAINABLEPRACTICESFORBCVINEYARDS|MARCH2010

SCORECARD

CHAPTER 7 EMPLOYEES, NEIGHBOURS AND COMMUNITY


Section 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 7.9 7.10 7.11 7.12 Staffing and Recruiting Employee Orientation Employee Handbook Internal Communications Employee Relations Education and Training Health and Safety Succession Planning Documentation and Record Keeping Identifying Potential Neighbour/Community Concerns Outreach and Communication with Neighbour/Community Responding to Neighbour/Community Complaints TOTAL Total Possible Score 15 3 7 8 20 12 9 8 3 6 13 9 113 Your NA Score Your Score

Your Overall Chapter 7 Percentage

SUSTAINABLEPRACTICESFORBCVINEYARDS|MARCH2010

SCORECARD

List the assessment questions upon which you scored -3 or 0. Write the sustainable practice required to score 1, 2 or 3. Set goals and actions that are specific to achieving the sustainable practice. Determine what you will monitor and when to check if your goals are being met. A few examples are included for you.
Question Proposed Sustainable Practice Specific Goals/Actions Related to Sustainable Practice Restore bunchgrass habitat in southwest corner of property Work with local conservation group to determine best way to do this Collect soil samples and send to lab every five years Timeline Proposed Monitoring (What and When) Date Completed and Comments EXAMPLE

2.6.3

Retain and restore natural habitat

Spring 2010 photos and drawings every year

4.7.1

Send soil samples to lab for analysis

April 2010 record results in my & every 5 nutrient management years after plan, every five years

EXAMPLE

5.10.1

Test and record distribution uniformity and application efficiency of irrigation system

Conduct catch can trials once per year

July 2010 & record results in my once per irrigation management year after plan, once per year

EXAMPLE

SUSTAINABLEPRACTICESFORBCVINEYARDS|MARCH2010

ACTIONPLAN

Question

Proposed Sustainable Practice

Specific Goals/Actions Related to Sustainable Practice

Timeline

Proposed Monitoring (What and When)

Date Completed and Comments

SUSTAINABLEPRACTICESFORBCVINEYARDS|MARCH2010

ACTIONPLAN

CHAPTER 1 SETTING YOUR SUSTAINABILITY FOUNDATION


Table of Contents
page INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................. 1-1 DEFINING YOUR RESOURCE BASE .................................................................................. 1-2 1.1. 1.2. 1.3. 1.4. Land Base Mapping and Description .............................................................. 1-2 Human Resources .............................................................................................. 1-5 Operational Resources ....................................................................................... 1-5 Mission Statement .............................................................................................. 1-5

CREATING A SUSTAINABILITY MISSION STATEMENT ........................................................ 1-5

1.0 SETTING YOUR SUSTAINABILITY FOUNDATION


Introduction
In order to embark on this program you must first understand what sustainability means and how it relates to viticulture. You also need to create a sustainability vision for your vineyard that will provide the foundation for your program. Your sustainability vision includes defining your resource base, developing your sustainability goals, and creating a sustainability mission statement. Sustainable viticulture can be defined by three overlapping principles: Environmentally sound: Viticultural practices that are sensitive to the environment. Economically feasible: Viticultural practices that are economically feasible to implement and maintain. Socially equitable: Viticultural practices responsive to the needs and interests of society-at-large. These three overlapping principles which provide a general direction to pursue sustainability are not easily translated into daily operations of grape growing. The main purpose of this Guidebook is to break down general principles into specific grape growing practices. Sustainable viticulture is a broad topic that means different things to different people. Some consider it to be a philosophy, others consider it to be guidelines for determining viticultural practices, and some view it as a management strategy. The Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education Program at University of California, Davis, points out that a systems perspective is essential to understanding sustainable agriculture. A systems perspective involves viewing multiple factors when making decisions on the farm and realizing that each farm is part of a complex community ecosystem, which in turn can impact or be impacted by global economics and global ecological processes (e.g., El Nino). It is important to note that timelines for sustainable viticulture practices are not measured in a few years, but in decades and even hundreds of years. The impacts of unsustainable viticulture practices may only be felt by future generations. On the flip side, implementing sustainable viticulture practices and measuring results is also an ongoing process that does not happen overnight. The Sustainable Practices for BC Vineyards assessment and guidebook will help you to choose practices to implement over time and teach you how to monitor and measure the results of these practices.

Environment Society Economy

Figure 1-1: The interconnectedness of the economy, society and the environment in the concept of sustainability. Adapted from: www.sustainablemeasures.com/Sustainability/ABet terView.html.

CHAPTER 1 SETTING YOUR SUSTAINABILITY FOUNDATION | Page 1-1

Defining Your Resource Base


You cannot manage what you dont measure. Defining your resource base will provide you with a measurement of where you are now so you can judge whether progress is being made. The intention is to have you put on paper what you already know about your vineyard to give you perspective and enable you to effectively communicate that information with others involved in your vineyard operations (e.g., auditors, consultants, contractors, employees, emergency first responders). The resource base of your vineyard is all of the resources you have available to you to operate and manage your property and business. It is a valuable exercise to think of and write down your resource base as it gives you perspective on what you are managing and can give you new ideas on how to manage. The resource base for your vineyard consists of the land, the people and the operational resources.

Your base map should be accompanied by a written description. Be as detailed as possible and include the following components: Property boundaries Total hectares of your property Total hectares of vineyards Degree of slope Physical features: roadways, driveways, buildings, equipment storage areas, fences, etc. Vineyards Other crops, including fruit trees and vegetable gardens Landscaping (e.g., flower gardens, lawns) Contours Seasonal and permanent water features: streams, drainages, pools, etc.

Your mapping information will need to be reviewed regularly to ensure that the information is current. An example base map of a vineyard and a blank map template that you may wish to use are included on the next pages.

1.1.

Land Base Mapping and Description

A base map of your vineyard and the surrounding land is a necessary and invaluable component of sustainable viticulture. You can use a topographical, PARC Summerland GIS map, survey, or hand drawn map, or a combination of these. Air photos or orthophotos are also very handy to have. The base map will provide the foundation for creating the following specific maps: Ecosystem management map, which will include environmentally sensitive ecosystems and features (page 2-4) Soil management map (pages 4-10 and 4-11) Irrigation management map (page 5-7) Pest management map (page 6-3)

Page 1-2 | SUSTAINABLE PRACTICES FOR BC VINEYARDS | MARCH 2010

VINEYARD BASE MAP - EXAMPLE

CHAPTER 1 SETTING YOUR SUSTAINABILITY FOUNDATION | Page 1-3

VINEYARD BASE MAP - TEMPLATE

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1.2.

Human Resources

List all people who have anything to do with the management or operations of your vineyard. You can list the types of activities these people do rather than listing their names (e.g., fencing contractor, seasonal worker). This list will help you ensure that your sustainable practices are communicated to those that will be implementing the practices or whose activities could affect the sustainable operation of your vineyard. For example, say you made a significant effort to restore native vegetation along a property boundary only to have the fencing contractor bulldoze it because he or she did not recognize it as valuable habitat. Having the contractor listed as someone to whom you need to communicate your sustainable practices may have avoided the situation. The list may include any or all of the following groups of people: family, friends, employees, contractors, stakeholders, neighbours, community members, bankers, agricultural advisory committees, agricultural regulators (governmental and private organizations), and environmental and conservation groups. Family members and friends should be listed so you can ensure they know how to react in case of an emergency or accident, for example.

Note: You may already have a list of equipment and machinery for insurance purposes. If so, you can use that list here. There will be some cross-over with your operational resources lists and your lists for land base and people.

Creating a Sustainability Mission Statement


A sustainability mission statement considers the fundamental ideas of how you wish to achieve sustainability of your vineyard. The mission statement will provide the framework on which your viticulture management decisions will be based.

1.4.

Mission Statement

A mission statement is a formal, short, written statement of the purpose of a company or organization. You may already have a mission statement for your vineyard. If so, you do not need to write a new one, just incorporate sustainability into your existing mission statement. A mission statement typically contains: 1. the purpose of the business or organization (e.g., to grow high quality grapes), 2. how this purpose is being filled (e.g., using sustainable techniques that protect the environment and provide social benefits), and 3. the principles and ideals that guide your work. Examples of mission included below: statements are

1.3.

Operational Resources

Being familiar with your resources will help you to develop your Action Plan when it comes to implementing sustainable practices. You might find it easiest to develop two separate lists of operational resources one that focuses on mechanical resources, equipment and buildings and one that focuses on financial resources and reference materials (e.g., manuals, guides).

We are an environmentally and socially conscious grower, producer, and marketer of wines of the highest quality

CHAPTER 1 SETTING YOUR SUSTAINABILITY FOUNDATION | Page 1-5

and value. Working in harmony and with respect for the human spirit, we are committed to sharing information about the enjoyment of food and wine in a lifestyle of moderation and responsibility. We are dedicated to the continuous growth and development of our people and business. Fetzer Vineyards, California Be good stewards of the land, the grape, the community, and the consumer. Prairie State Winery, Illinois Use environmentally safe, viticulturally and economically sustainable farming methods, while maintaining or improving quality and flavour of wine grapes. Caliza Winery, California

Page 1-6 | SUSTAINABLE PRACTICES FOR BC VINEYARDS | MARCH 2010

CHAPTER 2 ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT


Table of Contents
page INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................. 2-1 ENVIRONMENTAL FEATURES .......................................................................................... 2-2 2.1. 2.2. 2.3. 2.4. 2.5. 2.6. 2.7. 2.8. 2.9. 2.10. 2.11. 2.12. 2.13. 2.14. Identifying the Biogeoclimatic Zone.................................................................... 2-2 Identifying Habitat Features ............................................................................... 2-4 Identifying Wildlife (including Species at Risk) ................................................... 2-7 Choosing Your Site .............................................................................................. 2-8 Minimizing Land Clearing.................................................................................... 2-8 Encouraging Diversity ......................................................................................... 2-9 Retaining and Restoring Habitat ........................................................................ 2-9 Protecting Wetlands and Aquatic Habitat ......................................................... 2-10 Connecting Your Land with Neighbouring Landscapes .................................... 2-11 Controlling Invasive Species ............................................................................. 2-12 Managing Crop Damage Caused By Wildlife .................................................... 2-12 Preventing Pollution .......................................................................................... 2-12 Communicating Practices to Employees & Contractors ................................... 2-13 Working with Environmental Organizations ...................................................... 2-13

ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PRACTICES .................................................................. 2-8

RECOMMENDED RESOURCES ...................................................................................... 2-15

2.0 ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT


Special thanks to Margaret Holm of the Okanagan Similkameen Conservation Alliance for her extensive input to this chapter.

Introduction
Chapter objective: To encourage a balanced and holistic management approach that recognizes the vineyard as part of an interconnected system and adopts practices that reduce environmental impacts and contribute to biodiversity. British Columbia is blessed with a rich variety of habitats and wildlife and distinct wine growing regions surrounded by stunning natural scenery. Some of the same factors of climate, soils, and geography that contribute to our healthy growing industry also support a diversity of unique ecosystems and plant and animal populations. Although large areas of connected native vegetation support the highest levels of native biodiversity, smaller patches of native and semi-natural vegetation can also support many species. As the human population and development expands, many wildlife species increasingly depend on private land and working landscapes such as vineyards for all or part of their life cycle. Ecosystem management is a balanced and holistic approach to managing natural resources that acknowledges all parts of the system as interconnected. Healthy and biologically diverse ecosystems provide many important goods and services to viticulturists that can reduce the need for inputs such as pesticides and fertilizers, increase the productive capacity of the land, and reduce production risks. Viticultural activities can impact ecosystems and be detrimental to biodiversity. Impacts may include:

Loss of habitat to land development; Altering the size and shape of habitats and the distances between them; Changes in surface and ground water levels from over-irrigation, which may negatively impact habitat and water quality, or dewatering of wetlands and riparian areas from water extraction; Reduction in nutrient uptake, cooling of soils, increase in erosion, and nutrient and chemical runoff into watercourses through over-irrigation; Soil, air and water pollution from improper use of production inputs; and Harming of pollinators such as native bees and natural predators such as hawks and snakes through the use of pesticides and rodenticides.

As a viticulturist, you have the unique opportunity to help support biodiversity on your vineyard and thus contribute to the resilience of ecosystems on your property and beyond. Vineyards provide habitat, food sources and breeding grounds for a variety of birds, amphibians and reptiles and can serve as corridors for wildlife as they move between habitats. It is equally important to consider how an individual vineyard can contribute to biodiversity on a regional scale. Many animals and plant seeds and pollen move over large areas that extend well beyond the vineyard boundary. Meeting the needs of wide-ranging species requires management strategies that operate on a larger scale.

CHAPTER 2 ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT | Page 2-1

For more information on ecosystem management, see Chapter 7 and Chapter 11 of the EFP Reference Guide and the EFP Planning for Biodiversity: A Guide for BC Farmers and Ranchers publication (available from your advisor or at http://wag.org.au/documents/doc109-planning-biodiversity-titlepagepreface-tofc.pdf).

Coast: Coastal Douglas Fir Coastal Western-Hemlock You can download a brochure that describes the ecosystems, climate, wildlife, endangered species and special features of the BEC zone you are located in (links to and information from the brochures are provided below). Hard copies of the brochures can be ordered by calling Crown Publications at 1-800-663-6105.

Environmental Features
This section will guide you through the identification of environmental features of your property; provide an overview of some of the ecosystem types you may encounter on or near your property; and outline best practices for protecting, restoring, and enhancing those ecosystems and the species that depend on them.

Ponderosa Pine

2.1.

Identifying the Biogeoclimatic Zone

The Biogeoclimatic Ecosystem Classification (BEC) system divides British Columbia into fourteen biogeoclimatic or ecological zones. These zones are large geographic areas that share a similar climate within the province. You can use this classification system to learn more about the characteristics of the ecosystem your vineyard is part of. See http://www.for.gov.bc.ca/hre/becweb/res ources/maps/map_download.html for a map of the biogeoclimatic zones. BEC zones where winegrapes are grown include: Interior: Ponderosa Pine Bunchgrass Interior Douglas Fir Interior Cedar Hemlock (low elevations in Shuswap region)

ponderosa pine forests typify the area hot, dry zone (although not as hot and dry as the Bunchgrass Zone) consists of a mosaic of forests, grasslands, and wetlands home to a wide variety of birds, mammals, reptiles, and amphibians, some of which are relatively rare or threatened occupies a narrow band along the bottoms and lower side walls of a number of major river valleys, including the Fraser (in the LyttonLillooet area), lower Thompson, Nicola, Similkameen, and lower Kettle also occurs in areas adjacent to Okanagan Lake and in southeastern BC near Cranbrook and Lake Kookanusa brochure URL: www.for.gov.bc.ca/hfd/pubs/Docs/Bro /Bro60.htm. covers less than one percent of the total area of BC supports a rich diversity of ecosystems and a wide variety of plants and wildlife, including many rare and endangered species dry and relatively mild low-elevation climate, together with an abundance of productive agricultural land

Bunchgrass

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one of the most populated and most developed areas in the BC interior consists mostly of narrow fingers of land centred on the major river valleys of the Okanagan, Thompson, and Fraser river basins these include the Okanagan Valley from Summerland south to the United States border, the Thompson River Valley from Kamloops to Spences Bridge, the Nicola River Valley, and the Fraser and Chilcotin river valleys south of Riske Creek to north of Lillooet zone occurs from the valley bottom up to elevations of approximately 900 m on the valley slopes brochure URL: www.for.gov.bc.ca/hfd/pubs/Docs/Bro /Bro54.htm. lies in the heart of BCs southern interior often described as cattle country land of rolling hills and valleys covered by dry grasslands and open forests also supports a rich diversity of natural communities and wildlife species spreads across low- to mid-elevations in the east Kootenays, the OkanaganSimilkameen and Thompson region, the Shuswap region and southern parts of the Chilcotin and Cariboo Cranbrook, Vernon, Chase, Princeton, Boston Bar, Clinton, and Williams Lake all lie within this zone brochure URL: www.for.gov.bc.ca/hfd/pubs/Docs/Bro /Bro47.htm. found at elevations of 660-1400 metres in the Shuswap region experiences cool, wet winters and warm, moderately dry summers productive coniferous forests that include Western red cedar or western hemlock characterize these forests

A wide variety of birds find food and habitat in this zones productive ecosystems. Brochure URL: www.for.gov.bc.ca/hfd/pubs/docs/Br o/bro48.pdf. home to some of the province's most interesting and diverse ecosystems mild climate contains some of the province's rarest vegetation, which is seriously threatened by growing human settlement covers a small area of BC's south coast, including a band of lower elevation along southeastern Vancouver Island, the Gulf Islands, and a fringe of mainland along Georgia Strait Victoria, Nanaimo, and Powell River are major urban centres in the area brochure URL: www.for.gov.bc.ca/hfd/pubs/Docs/Bro /Bro30.htm. characterized by a towering forest canopy and thick underbrush one of Canada's wettest climates and most productive forest areas stretches in a broad swath along the province's entire coast covers most lower elevations west of the Coast Mountains, from the very wet and exposed outer coast to drier and more sheltered areas of the inner coast also extends east of the Coast Mountains along major river valleys brochure URL: www.for.gov.bc.ca/hfd/pubs/Docs/Bro /Bro31.htm.

Coastal Douglas Fir


Interior Douglas Fir


Coastal Western Hemlock


Interior Cedar Hemlock


CHAPTER 2 ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT | Page 2-3

2.2.

Identifying Habitat Features

Overview of ecosystem types and information on wildlife (including species at risk) included in this section.

This section guides you through the identification and mapping of the habitat features of your property and its surrounding environment. If you are considering establishing a new vineyard on a site, or are re-establishing areas of your current property, it is strongly recommended that you obtain a knowledgeable professional to conduct an environmental survey. The survey will identify potential environmental risks and the presence of sensitive areas in the property.

Mapping
To create your ecosystem management map, you will be adding habitat features to your base map (numbers 5-10 below). Using your map and coloured pencils, divide your property into the ten categories listed below: 1. roads, driveways, buildings, equipment storage areas, lawns, greenhouses, and gardens 2. cultivated areas (including vineyards) 3. treed or wooded areas 4. native grasslands 5. rock bluffs, cliffs, mountainous areas (rugged terrain) 6. wetlands and other water features, permanent and seasonal (streams, rivers, lakes, floodplains, seasonal pools, ditches, swales) 7. riparian areas 8. linear habitats (windbreaks, hedgerows, buffers, uncultivated fence lines, ravines, gullies, and other corridors of native vegetation) Note: Fallow land should be mapped in the category which reflects its anticipated future use. Also indicate on your map any areas of weed infestation. An overview of ecosystem types you may need to identify and include on your map is provided below. Riparian Areas Riparian areas are typically linear ecosystems alongside lakes, rivers, streams and ponds that are characterized by lush vegetation including trees, shrubs, cattails, sedges and grasses.

Preparation
The following materials will help you complete your assessment: The base map of your property that you created in Chapter 1 Coloured pencils for marking map A transparent grid overlay (optional)

Other resources you can draw upon include: Your local Environmental Farm Plan Advisor Local government websites or hard copy mapping services (phone your municipality or regional district to request) GoogleEarth (http://earth.google.com/downloadearth.html.) Appendix C of Develop With Care: Environmental Guidelines for Urban and Rural Land Development in British Columbia (available at www.env.gov.bc.ca/wld/documents/b mp/devwithcare2006/develop_with_c are_intro.html)

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Riparian areas ecosystems that:

are

highly

valuable

provide habitat for important birds, animals, and insects, serve as a filter, preventing sediments and nutrients in surface runoff from entering waterways, buffer against flooding and erosion, and support shrubs and trees that shade watercourses.

Riparian areas play an important role in pest management in your vineyard. Areas of native vegetation provide refuge for beneficial insects that prey on agricultural pest species. Insect species that thrive in riparian areas are, in turn, food for birds such as owls that prey on vineyard rodents. Other birds, such as swallows, bluebirds and wrens, will also make riparian areas their home and will help to reduce insect pests. Wetlands and Other Aquatic Habitats An aquatic ecosystem is a group of interacting organisms dependent on one another and their water environment for nutrients (e.g., nitrogen and phosphorus) and shelter. Familiar examples are ponds, lakes and rivers, but aquatic ecosystems also include areas such as floodplains, wetlands, and vernal (seasonal) pools which are flooded with water for all or only parts of the year. Man-made ditches and swales may also be considered aquatic habitat. Aquatic ecosystems support a wide variety of life forms including bacteria, fungi, and protozoans (single-celled organisms); bottom-dwelling organisms such as insect larvae, snails, and worms; free-floating microscopic plants and animals known as plankton; large plants such as cattails, bulrushes, grasses, and reeds; and fish, amphibians, reptiles, and birds.

Wetlands are a particularly important aquatic ecosystem. They act like giant sponges; holding back water during floods and releasing it during dry periods. They play a very important role in minimising soil erosion and attenuating floods. They are also natural filters that purify water by trapping pollutants such as sediment, heavy metals and disease-carrying organisms. Wetlands also provide special habitat for many plant and animal species that depend on them for all or part of their lifecycles.

Figure 2-1: Wetland near Summerland. PHOTO: DICK CANNINGS

Trees and Woodlands Trees provide a number of habitat functions for birds including areas for nesting, roosting, foraging, and refuge. They also provide habitats for other animals, reptiles, insects, bats and amphibians. Dead and dying trees, referred to as habitat trees or wildlife trees, provide nutrients for the soil and important habitat and food for some insects and animals. By providing a healthy tree habitat, you will increase the biodiversity on your property and improve the areas overall health. Trees will provide other benefits to your vineyard. Planting trees on bare hillsides will reduce erosion by increasing water penetration and infiltration rates and by helping to increase the nutrient cycle in
CHAPTER 2 ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT | Page 2-5

the soil. Trees planted alongside a vineyard can also act as a windshield to reduce any impact to the vines by high winds. Healthy strong trees also add aesthetic value to any property. Trees also act as perches for hawks and owls that are important predators of rodents.

Figure 2-3: Garry Oak ecosystem. PHOTO: ISTOCK

Grasslands (Shrub-steppes) Grasslands are open areas where grasses or grass-like plants are the dominant vegetation and where there are few trees. Grasslands are one of Canadas most endangered ecosystems. In BC, grasslands cover less than 1% of the land base. Grasslands are the main natural habitat of the Okanagan and Similkameen valleys; home to many unique plant and animal species. Grasslands also contain flowering plants, called forbs, and shrubs. Big sagebrush, antelope-brush, bluebunch wheatgrass, needle-and-thread grass, and rabbit brush are common in lower elevation grasslands in British Columbia.

Figure 2-2: Vineyard surrounded by forest in Tappen. PHOTO: JIM WRIGHT

FACT BOX: GARRY OAKS AND ASSOCIATED ECOSYSTEMS

Garry oaks are gnarly shaped trees that, in Canada, are found almost exclusively within a narrow coastal strip of southeast Vancouver Island, in the nearby Gulf Islands, and in two areas of the Fraser River Valley. Garry oak ecosystems include woodlands with Garry oak, arbutus, and Douglas-fir trees, often combined with rock outcrops, wildflowers, grassy meadows, coastal bluffs, or seasonal pools. Garry oak areas provide habitat for more than 100 species of birds, 7 amphibian species, 7 reptile species, 33 mammal species, more than 800 insect and mite species and about 700 plant species (GOERT, 2010). Many of these species occur nowhere else in Canada. Land conversion for development has vastly reduced the extent of Garry oak ecosystems. Less than 5% remains in a near-natural condition.

Figure 2-4: Vineyard next to natural grasslands and gullies in Naramata. PHOTO: DICK CANNINGS

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FACT BOX: ANTELOPE-BRUSH GRASSLANDS


Antelope-brush needle-and-thread shrub steppe grasslands extend mainly from Osoyoos to Skaha Lake. They are characterized by the large, often gnarled looking Antelope-brush. In the spring, each shrub is covered with thousands of fragrant yellow flowers. These grasslands are one of the most critically imperiled plant communities in Canada. Many endangered and threatened mammals, plants, birds, reptiles and amphibians are found in the Antelope-brush ecosystems. The greatest loss has been due to intensive agricultural expansion and urban development. Identifying whether this type of grassland occurs on your property or in the surrounding area and implementing appropriate protection and/or restoration measures is extremely important to ensure the future health of this unique ecosystems and the species that rely on them.

Rugged Terrain Cliffs and mountainous areas that are the backdrop to many grape growing areas in BC provide valuable habitat for wildlife. This rugged terrain is an important movement corridor for large mammals and ungulates. The cliffs provide a nesting area for eagles and falcons and the talus slopes are winter hibernation habitats for snakes and lizards. This terrain is often a natural refuge for wildlife surrounded by urban development and cultivated land.

Figure 2-6: Vineyard adjacent to rugged terrain. PHOTO: DICK CANNINGS

2.3.

Identifying Wildlife (including Species at Risk)

Figure 2-5: Antelope brush ecosystem in Osoyoos. PHOTO: KELLIE GARCIA

For more information, visit: www.osca.org/index.php/spotlight/antelo pe_brush.

Vineyards provide habitat for a variety of species. Some birds, rodents and mammals that eat vines and grape crops are considered pests (see Chapter 5 Pest Management) but many species have a positive or neutral effect on vineyards. Raptors and snakes keep rodent populations under control and most bird species eat insects in the summer while they are raising their young. Bats flying overhead in the evening eat thousands of flying insects and the rare Pallid bat eats insects on the ground. Due to concern over low numbers of certain plant and wildlife species,

CHAPTER 2 ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT | Page 2-7

provincial and federal environment ministries have developed a ranking system for the degree to which species are at risk of becoming endangered. The ranking goes from vulnerable, to threatened, endangered, and finally extirpated (no longer occurring in the wild in British Columbia). Each of these designations has a scientific and legal definition but for simplicity, the term species at risk is used for any plant or animal that is of conservation concern. There are many agency resources and websites that provide information about natural habitats and species at risk on your vineyard and the surrounding region (see section 2.14). Many of these websites also have information and suggestions on land management and stewardship practices that can benefit local habitats and species. Identify wildlife (including sensitive species) that you have observed on your property. Mark a dot on the location where they were observed. If you have not observed the species but know that there is potential the species may use your property, list the species on the back of the map.

Environmental Management Practices


2.4. Choosing Your Site

The key to an environmentally viable vineyard depends largely on good site selection. Careful site selection can help you retain or restore important habitat features and ecologically sensitive areas and functions and will enable you to minimize soil, drainage, and pest problems. Choosing previously developed agricultural land for a vineyard rather than converting natural habitat is the best option available to viticulturists. Section 3.2 contains more information about determining site suitability.

2.5.

Minimizing Land Clearing

Grape growers are often faced with the challenge of determining how much of their land to put into production and how much to leave as native land. Land preparation activities, such as clearing and grubbing, have a severe impact on birds, small mammals and snakes. In general, the least altered areas of your vineyard property have the highest potential for conserving biodiversity. Once native areas are converted to production it can be very difficult, time consuming, and costly to restore them back to their native state. Timing your land preparation activities to avoid particularly sensitive times life stages (i.e., nesting, breeding, rearing young) will minimize impacts to wildlife. Land clearing and preparation should be done between October and March, where possible. Consult your local conservation organization (see section 2.14) to learn

Figure 2-7: Snake identification workshop being held at a vineyard. PHOTO: MARGARET HOLM

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more about what you can do at your particular site.

2.6.

Encouraging Diversity

Structure diversity, the variation in physical structure of both native vegetation and crops, on your land provides an important contribution to biodiversity. Maintaining a mix of vegetation layers, such as forbs, grasses, shrubs, and trees provides a diversity of habitats for birds, animals, and insects.

Figure 2-9: Snake fence erected at Tinhorn Creek Vineyards, Oliver, BC. PHOTO: MARGARET HOLM

In agricultural landscapes a majority of the biodiversity occurs in the soil in the form of micro-organisms, bacteria, fungi, ants, earthworms and many other species. A biologically diverse soil is more likely to show better structure, aeration, water infiltration, nutrient cycling and accessibility than a biologically-deficient soil.

2.7.
Figure 2-8: Screech owl in a nesting box. PHOTO: DICK CANNINGS

Retaining and Restoring Habitat

FACT BOX: TINHORN CREEK VINEYARDS SNAKE HABITAT


With the help of the South Okanagan Similkameen Stewardship Program run by The Land Conservancy, Tinhorn Creek Vineyards erected a snake fence along a snake travel corridor to prevent snakes from entering the vineyard. Artificial cover was also provided outside the fence. This increased worker safety and significantly decreased snake mortality.

Native areas (e.g., wetlands, aquatic areas, riparian areas, forest/woodlands, grasslands, and rugged terrain) provide the most important contribution to biodiversity. Native plants are uniquely adapted to local conditions and are home to many unique plant and animal species. Semi-natural areas (e.g., shelterbelts, hedgerows, fencerows, buffers, and road margins) also contribute to the conservation of biodiversity. Maintaining or establishing areas of native vegetation in the vineyard has many advantages, including: shade and shelter from winds soil protection reduced salinity problem

CHAPTER 2 ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT | Page 2-9

provide habitat for native plants and animals, improve property values, encourage beneficial insects and birds, and improve water quality.

Native vegetation can also shade vines, but this issue can be overcome by good planning of planting sites and the types of trees and shrubs that are planted. Advice on the potential for retention or restoration of native vegetation around your property is available from your local conservation organizations (see Section 2.14).

natural habitats. Covenants may restrict future use, development, or practices that could damage the natural or cultural features of the agreed upon land (Land Trust Alliance of British Columbia, 2002). This is an alternative way to ensure that habitats, ecological communities and species on your land are maintained, monitored and preserved. When you enter into a conservation covenant, you can work with the land trust company or group to custom design a conservation agreement for all or part of your land.

2.8.

Protecting Wetlands and Aquatic Habitat

Figure 2-10: Antelope brush habitat restoration at Tinhorn Creek Vineyards, conducted in partnership with The Land Conservancy South Okanagan Stewardship program. PHOTO: THE LAND CONSERVANCY

Three major objectives for the protection and management of wetlands and other aquatic habitats are (Wetland Stewardship Council, 2009): Protect and maintain water quantities Protect and maintain water qualities Protect and maintain habitats and species These objectives can be achieved by: Knowing what you have (see Section 2.2) Protecting with buffer zones Minimizing impacts from viticultural activities Aquatic buffer zones are upland areas adjacent to the aquatic habitat. These areas may contain undisturbed natural habitat or have some level of disturbance caused by existing or past land uses. Well designed and maintained buffers can provide a wide range of benefits such as (Wetland Stewardship Council, 2009): Maintaining water quality by filtering out sediment, fertilizers and other toxic materials before they enter the aquatic area;

FACT BOX: ECOSYSTEM INITIATIVES AT SUMMERHILL PYRAMID WINERY, KELOWNA


Summerhill Pyramid Winery protects approximately 20 acres of streamside forest, a pond, a wide dry gully of pines and healthy bunchgrass, and a pocket of antelope brush.

Conservation Covenants
Conservation covenants, easements or agreements work to preserve an area of land for the purpose of conservation. This is a voluntary legal agreement between the current land owner and a land trust company aimed at conserving the land for

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Mitigating flood impacts and protecting downstream property by reducing the impacts from storm events; Improving human health by removing bacteria and other disease causing organisms; Preventing soil erosion by stabilizing banks; Providing habitat including wildlife corridors, shade, food and protection for fish and wildlife, including endangered species; Enhancing recreational opportunities; and Enhancing viewscapes and aesthetics.

become threatened or extinct. Connecting native and semi-natural areas on your land and between your land and neighbouring landscapes helps maintain continuous areas of habitat. These connections may be used as travel corridors for animals during migration, when searching for food and mates, and when young are dispersing. Uncultivated corridors also provide routes for pollen and seeds to disperse.

Required buffer widths and composition are a function of (Wetland Stewardship Council, 2009): the pollution or nuisance potential of a given farm activity the effectiveness of the vegetation to reduce pollution or nuisance the time of year an activity is occurring the sensitivity of an area to be protected the soil, topographic and climatic conditions associated with a site It is strongly recommended that viticulturists work with an appropriately qualified professional to ensure decisions for wetland buffer distances are based on a review of the current scientific literature (see recommended resources section at the end of this chapter).

Figure 2-11: A gulley that will be preserved during development of a vineyard. PHOTO: GARY STRACHAN

There is no single figure available for suggested corridor widths or lengths, as this depends on which animal or plant is in questions. However, generally the wider the corridor is the better. It is important to note that you are not expected to provide corridors that give problem wildlife (e.g., deer) easy access to your vineyard. Work with local conservation organizations and your neighbours to determine the best location, width and length of corridors that will encourage wildlife movement but also protect your vineyard.

2.9.

Connecting Your Land with Neighbouring Landscapes

When large, continuous areas of habitat are fragmented, many ecological processes that keep these systems functioning are disrupted and species

CHAPTER 2 ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT | Page 2-11

FACT BOX: MAINTAINING WILDLIFE TRAVEL CORRIDORS AT GODS MOUNTAIN ESTATES, PENTICTON
Gods Mountain Estates placed their vineyard deer fence well inside their property boundaries, leaving natural habitat outside the fence but within their acreage. This allows wildlife to travel along all four sides of the vineyard to get to their water sources and up to the cliffs and forest for shelter.

2.11. Managing Crop Damage Caused By Wildlife


Wildlife such as deer, bear, rodents and birds can develop a liking for grapes or the vine itself and cause significant crop losses. See the Wildlife Management section of Chapter 6 Pest Management for methods of controlling problem wildlife.

2.12. Preventing Pollution


Good chemical and waste management practices can make a profound contribution to retaining biodiversity. Pollution prevention, also known as P2, is about avoiding the creation of pollution and waste, rather than trying to clean it up or manage it after the fact. Pollution prevention techniques and practices generally focus on the following areas (Environment Canada, 2010): substances of concern; efficient use and conservation of natural resources; material substitution; product design/product reformulation; process changes; reuse and recycling on-site; training; purchasing techniques; equipment modifications; and operating efficiencies/clean production Potentially polluting materials that cannot be prevented should be recycled. Recycling techniques often allow hazardous materials to be put to a beneficial use. Those that cannot be prevented or recycled should be treated. Disposal or other release into the environment should be employed only as a last resort. Whether you are recycling,

Figure 2-12: Bighorn sheep. PHOTO: GARY STRACHAN

2.10. Controlling Invasive Species


Invasive species include plants, animals, insect, and micro-organisms that are not native to the region but were introduced either accidentally or intentionally. Invasive species are generally detrimental to the conservation of biodiversity. Next to habitat loss, invasive species pose one of the greatest threats to biodiversity in BC. Examples of invasive species in BC include Canada thistle, puncturevine, quackgrass, sulphur cinquefoil, knapweed, most of our agricultural insect pests, the European Starling, and the American bullfrog.

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treating or disposing, you should do it in an environmentally safe manner.

North Okanagan-Shuswap Region The North Okanagan Resource/Habitat Atlas (NORHA) is a web-based mapping tool that brings together a variety of information about natural and cultural attributes and resources of the North Okanagan region. The contents of the atlas can assist people in creating a profile of the myriad of ecosystems with which they interact in the North Okanagan. It is available at www.shim.bc.ca/atlases/nord/index.cfm. The North Okanagan Parks and Natural Areas Trust is registered to hold and administer covenants on lands. These covenants can control access to the lands and preserve them in their natural state in perpetuity. See www.nopnat.com/ for more information. The mission of the Shuswap Environmental Action Society is to study environmental issues, inform the public about environmental problems and solutions, coordinate activities and share information with other local, provincial, and national environmental organizations, and take actions to improve our local environment. See http://www.seas.ca/ for more information. Central and South Okanagan-Similkameen Region The Habitat Atlas for Wildlife at Risk: South Okanagan-Similkameen focuses on 32 species considered "at risk" in the South Okanagan and Lower Similkameen. It is available at www.env.gov.bc.ca/okanagan/esd/atlas/i ndex.html. The South Okanagan Similkameen Conservation Program was created to protect the biodiversity of the OkanaganSimilkameen area, to maintain a viable
CHAPTER 2 ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT | Page 2-13

2.13. Communicating Practices to Employees & Contractors


Communicating your environmental practices to employees and contractors, including seasonal workers, is a key component of successful ecosystem management. These people conduct activities that can either harm or benefit ecosystems and the species they support.

2.14. Working with Environmental Organizations


There are three main types of environmental organizations that provide assistance and resources for an ecosystem approach to managing your vineyard.

Land trust organizations help private land owners with stewardship, purchase private land for conservation and manage conservation covenants on private land. They work with land owners under a strict code of privacy information. They often help find funds for landowners to assist with costs of fencing and restoration. Stewardship groups encourage private
land owners to restore and retain healthy habitat. They usually offer free advice for land owners, but a detailed biological assessment would likely have a fee attached.

Conservation

organizations have education and outreach as their goals.

ecological corridor between the deserts to the south and the grasslands to the north, and to effect recovery of endangered species to the extent possible. The program website is www.soscp.org. The Okanagan Similkameen Conservation Alliance www.osca.org provides brochures on species at risk and guidelines designed for agriculture. They are available for free as laminated posters and cards designed to be posted in work yards and sheds. SOS Stewardship Program - The Land Conservancy (TLC) (Penticton office) has compiled a comprehensive list of species and habitat documents for landowners. TLC, along with their stewardship program (South Okanagan Stewardship) has published many excellent fact sheets for land owners over the past 15 years. Many of these are available in print form from their office and all are on their website at http://blog.conservancy.bc.ca/nature/sou th-okanagan-similkameen-stewardshipprogram/stewardship-publications-andfactsheets/. South Coast Region The South Coast Conservation Program coordinates and facilitates the implementation of conservation actions to maintain and restore species and ecosystems at risk on the South Coast of BC. The program website is www.sccp.ca. Vancouver Island and Gulf Islands The Garry Oak Ecosystem Recovery Team (GOERT) coordinates efforts to protect and restore endangered Garry oak and associated ecosystems and the species at risk that inhabit them. Their website, www.goert.ca, contains extensive information about Garry oak ecosystems and how to protect them. The Islands Trust is a federation of independent local governments which

plans land use and regulates development in the trust area. The trust area covers the islands and waters between the British Columbia mainland and southern Vancouver Island, including Howe Sound and as far north as Comox. The Island Trust website, www.islandstrust.bc.ca/, provides detailed information on coastal ecosystems and wildlife. The Central Saanich Agricultural Resource Atlas provides a comprehensive overview of the land base of the municipality, with a particular focus on the soils, groundwater resources and climate factors that influence agricultural production. Available at: www.centralsaanich.ca/hall/Departments /planning/planning/Agricultural_Resource _Atlas.htm This CRD Natural Areas Atlas is a webbased mapping tool that facilitates wellinformed and responsible land-use decisions. In the Atlas, you will find important information such as the locations of salmon bearing streams, spawning zones, old growth forests, endangered ecosystems, record-sized trees and shoreline habitats It is available at: www.crd.bc.ca/es/natatlas/atlas.htm. All of BC The Stewardship Centre for British Columbia has done a great job at pulling together provincial species at risk information on the Species at Risk & Local Government: A Primer for British Columbia website located at http://www.speciesatrisk.bc.ca/. The website will help you to:

learn about species at risk and the threats they face, learn which species at risk are in your area, and

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search for species at risk by name or ecosystem type.

mp/wetlandways2009/wetlandways_d ocintro.html. Buffer widths: Wetlands in Washington State: Vol. 1: A Synthesis of the Science (Washington State, 2005) provides a recent and extensive review of the current science relating to wetland features and functions. It is available at www.ecy.wa.gov/pubs/0506006.pdf. The Planner's Guide to Wetland Buffers for Local Government (Environmental Law Institute, 2008) provides a further review and synthesis of the science and found that effective buffer sizes for wildlife protection may range from 10 m to more than 1,500 m depending on the species and use. It is available at www.elistore.org/reports_detail.asp?ID =11272. Land Development Best Practices Develop with Care: Environmental Guidelines for Urban and Rural Land Development in British Columbia. http://www.env.gov.bc.ca/wld/docum ents/bmp/devwithcare2006/develop_ with_care_intro.html See Chapter 10 of the Best Practices Guide for more resources.

Other excellent sources of species and habitat information include: Grasslands Conservation Council of British Columbia www.bcgrasslands.org/ Delta Farmland and Wildlife Trust www.deltafarmland.ca Ducks Unlimited www.ducks.ca/province/bc/index.html Wildlife tree stewardship www.wildlifetree.org BC Lake Stewardship Society www.bcls.org Native Plant Society of BC http://www.npsbc.org/ Living By Water www.livingbywater.ca/

Recommended Resources
In addition to the resources listed throughout this chapter, the following resources are recommended for your review. Biodiversity Planning for Biodiversity: A Guide for BC Farmers and Ranchers. The CanadaBritish Columbia Environmental Farm Plan Program. Available online at www.ardcorp.ca/index.php?page_id=3 9. Biodiversity Conservation: An Organic Farmers Guide. Wild Farm Alliance. Available online at www.wildfarmalliance.org/resources/o rganic_BD.htm Wetlands: Wetland Ways: Interim Guidelines for Wetland Protection and Conservation in British Columbia, Wetland Stewardship Partnership, www.env.gov.bc.ca/wld/documents/b

CHAPTER 2 ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT | Page 2-15

CHAPTER 3 VITICULTURAL MANAGEMENT


Table of Contents
page INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................. 3-1 PRELIMINARY CONSIDERATIONS .................................................................................... 3-1 3.1. 3.2. 3.3. 3.4. 3.5. 3.6. 3.7. 3.8. 3.9. 3.10. 3.11. 3.12. 3.13. 3.14. 3.15. 3.16. Business Planning and Market Research........................................................... 3-1 Site Selection ...................................................................................................... 3-3 Site Preparation .................................................................................................. 3-5 Soil Management ................................................................................................ 3-7 Water Quality and Irrigation ................................................................................ 3-8 Variety, Rootstock, Scion, and Clone Selection .................................................. 3-9 Plant Certification ............................................................................................. 3-10 Vineyard Layout ................................................................................................ 3-11 Trellis and Vigour .............................................................................................. 3-12 Planting ............................................................................................................. 3-13 Maintaining Young Vines .................................................................................. 3-13 Crop Estimation ................................................................................................ 3-13 Canopy Assessment and Management ............................................................ 3-13 Fruit Exposure ................................................................................................... 3-14 Frost Protection................................................................................................. 3-14 Decommissioning a Vineyard ........................................................................... 3-15

VINEYARD ESTABLISHMENT ........................................................................................... 3-9

VINEYARD MAINTENANCE ............................................................................................ 3-13

VINEYARD REMOVAL .................................................................................................... 3-15 RECOMMENDED RESOURCES ...................................................................................... 3-15

3.0 VITICULTURAL MANAGEMENT


Introduction
Chapter objective: To provide practices that support due diligence and help the viticulturist make informed planning decisions when acquiring, establishing and managing a vineyard. A viticulturist makes many decisions each day that influences the vineyards ability to produce grapes. In a sustainable vineyard, each decision considers the interactions between the various components of the vineyard system (e.g., soil, water, beneficial insects and wildlife) and focuses on producing high quality grapes with minimum inputs and adverse impacts on the environment and human health. Careful planning prior to establishing or replanting a vineyard will help minimize soil, drainage and pest problems and can help you retain or restore important habitat features and ecologically sensitive sites and functions. Even before selecting a site, a new or existing grower should study the economic realities of growing grapes in BC to help ascertain the current and longer term economic viability of the vineyard. Things to consider include: Cost of production Cost of land or leasing Current market Market trends Government support programs Overall management approach and corresponding costs Strategic selection of the grape variety that matches the conditions of the site, produces an economic yield, has a fair market value, is in demand, and meets the quality expectations of the client winery is key to economic sustainability of the vineyard.

Preliminary Considerations
3.1. Business Planning and Market Research

Any business is highly competitive, and the grape growing industry is no exception. A thorough, accurate and well-researched business plan is essential to the success of your vineyard. It will help you to: organize your thoughts, clarify your goals, and measure progress; acquire knowledge and collect information about your industry, customers, and the marketplace; anticipate and avoid obstacles your business is likely to encounter; communicate your vision, goals, and strategies to management, staff, and customers and be more persuasive to funding sources; and understand the financial aspects of your business, including cash-flow and break-even requirements.

Both internal users (e.g., management and key employees) and external users (e.g., lenders, investors, venture capitalists, attorney, accountant, and insurance agent) will be reading and using your business plan. There are many resources available that can support you in your effort to prepare a business plan. A business plan template is included on page 3-2. Your plan could be a few to many pages in length, depending on the size of your operation.

CHAPTER 3 VITICULTURAL MANAGEMENT | Page 3-1

BUSINESS PLAN OUTLINE


Title Page Contact information including the name of the vineyard and the name, address, and phone number of the owner(s)

Financial standards Marketing objectives and strategies (including product, price, place or distribution, and promotion strategies) Sales and distribution

Executive Summary a 1-2 page overview of your business plan that should be written last Purpose of the plan Description of overall business concept including mission statement and company history (if applicable) Product(s) and/or service(s) Marketing and sales strategies for the production/provision of those product(s) and/or services(s) Market analysis and description Organization and personnel (key managers and owners, key operations personnel) expertise and business capabilities Financial data (funds required and their use, historical financial summary, prospective financial summary) Table of Contents List of main sections and corresponding page numbers List of tables, figures, and appendices Purpose of Business What you want to accomplish (i.e., what is the ultimate purpose for starting/running this business ) Mission Statement Goals and objectives Description of business, including type of legal entity Description of Product(s) and/or Services(s) Definition of product(s) and/or service(s) Specific benefits of the product/service Ability to meet demands Competitive advantages Description of current position in life cycle Copyrights, patents and trade secrets Existing legal agreements Research and development activities Market Analysis and Strategy Market research industry description and outlook Distinguishing characteristics and key attributes of primary and secondary target markets Identification of key competitors and their strengths and weaknesses Barriers to entry into the market Regulatory environment

Organization, Management and Staffing Organizational structure of your business, including management personnel, key employees, board, advisory committee, professional services, consultants, etc Background and experience level of those who will run the business Management skills and professional services that are available in-house Management skills and professional services that need to be hired or contracted Management compensation and incentives available Milestones and Timelines Critical dates in the development and operation of the business Short-term and long-term plans to reach goals (e.g., planting schedules, openings, release dates) Barriers or risks and potential solutions Financial Information Start-up and operating expenses Generated and required cash flow Funds required and their uses Financial statements Methods of financial reporting Operations and Implementation Description of facilities, production, inventory control, quality control, capacity, productivity, labour, processes, equipment, supply and distribution, order fulfillment and customer service, research and development, financial control, and contingency planning Technology plan software, hardware, telecommunications, personnel Operational issues essential to nature and success of your company, provide a distinct competitive edge and/or overcome frequent problems in a business such as yours Appendices or Exhibits Resumes of key managers Pictures of products Professional references Market studies Pertinent published information Significant contracts

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3.2.

Site Selection

The key to an environmentally and economically viable vineyard depends largely on good site selection. Major considerations should be climate, soil, topography, and water. You should also consider the current state of the property; whether it is undeveloped natural habitat or previously developed agricultural land and how close it is to existing amenities and to the winery you will be selling your grapes to. You will most likely need the help of industry professionals and government agencies and access to available resources (i.e., weather data). You should answer the questions on the next page when considering a property for vineyard development. See pages 3-1 to 3-5 of the Best Practices Guide for more information on site selection.

Reusing agricultural land may also prove to be more cost-effective than establishing a new site with the required infrastructure. It is recommended that an environmental survey be conducted by a knowledgeable person (e.g., Environmental Farm Plan advisor, environmental consultant or knowledgeable local conservancy group representative). This person should inspect the property and help owners identify potential environmental risks that may be subject to local, provincial or federal legislation. These environmental characteristics may include proximity to water, endangered species, and sensitive habitats. Local conservancy groups may be able to provide information on local environmental issues. Completing the Ecosystem Management chapter assessment will also help ensure environmental due diligence.

Environmental Due Diligence


All forms of land development, including agricultural, involve changes to the landscape that may damage or put natural resources at risk and may impact sensitive natural habitat. Development of land for a vineyard can include tree removal (including the possible clearing of orchards), land clearing and levelling, herbicide application, riparian vegetation removal, brush burning, grading, recontouring, altering water sources and water drainage, putting in irrigation systems, excavating, installing erosion control measures, and construction of roads, wells, dams, fences, and buildings. Due to the rarity of some types of ecosystems, and their importance for species at risk, it is preferable to develop existing agricultural land instead of clearing unmodified sensitive ecosystems.

Habitat for Organisms

Wildlife

and

Beneficial

During vineyard establishment and development it is important to ensure damage to existing habitat (i.e., seasonal bodies of water (vernal pools), drainages, floodplains, etc.) is minimized. This may be achieved by: Setting aside land and leaving or establishing these areas with native plant species. This land should be in addition to hard-to-farm areas (such as vernal pools, riparian areas, fence lines, rocky areas, and ditch banks). Maintaining a buffer with native vegetation between the habitat and the vineyard where possible. Integrated weed management for the control of invasive weed species in and around the vineyard is also recommended.

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VINEYARD SITE SUITABILITY CHECKLIST


What is the zoning of the site? Do local zoning bylaws limit farming? Do zoning bylaws prevent urban encroachment? What are the environmental regulations relating to site development? What are the environmental values of the site? Is the site natural unmodified habitat? Does the site have species at risk associated with the habitat? How would the site biodiversity be affected by vineyard development? Has an environmental survey of the site been conducted by a knowledgeable person? (e.g., environmental consultant, knowledgeable local conservancy group representative, etc.) to: Document potential environmental risks and the presence of sensitive areas in the property. Ensure that during development of the site, damage to existing habitat is minimized by following the practices outlined in the guidebook under Habitat for Wildlife and Beneficial Organisms sub-section. What are the water rights and water quality for the property? Are there available water and/or water rights? What is the water quality? For information on water quality testing see the Water Management chapter. What is the site history? Was it used for agricultural purposes? Is the site compatible with grape production? List past irrigation history and systems used. List past crop and or animal use and management practices. List past insecticide, fungicide, herbicide use and residual carryover potential for each material. Have any fumigants been used at the site? Was past land use uniform or variable across the site? Has the site been levelled, eroded or altered in any significant way? What is the neighbourhood like? Identify the land uses adjacent to the main property. Describe the general geography.

What other crops are grown in the area? Is there potential for incompatibility issues from herbicides used in other crops, e.g., 2,4-D drift? Is there a winery nearby? Is the area susceptible to deer and elk predation? Will fences need to be erected to protect the vineyard? What is the proximity to roads, suppliers and wineries? Distance to urban centres, residential properties, schools, etc. Is there a local market for grapes? What utilities and infrastructure are already available? Roads Hydro, water, sewer, etc. What are the local and micro climates of the site? Have I collected historical weather and temperature data for the site? Have I installed a weather station and monitored it for at least a year prior to planting? What is the average length of the growing season? What is the average precipitation? What is the accumulation of heat throughout the growing season (degree days)? What were the temperatures for my site from previous cold winter events? Is there enough slope to provide good cold air drainage? Slope greater than five percent is preferred. What is the elevation of the site? Is the site in a windy location? Windy areas tend to have less frost but wind can reduce vine vigour and growth. Is the site near a large body of water or large rock formation to help temper climate in the immediate vicinity? What are the soil conditions like? Soil physical, chemical, and biological properties. See the Soil Management chapter for more information on identifying soil conditions. What varieties are suitable for my site and are they the varieties desired by wineries? See pp. 3-9 to 3-16 (2010 ed.) or pp. 3-9 to 319 (2006 ed.) of the Best Practices Guide for a list of varieties. Obtain the services of an industry consultant.

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3.3.

Site Preparation

Levelling the Vineyard Floor


In uneven (hummocky) terrain with notable depressions and gullies it is often advantageous to level the vineyard to create a more uniform working surface. Levelling can reduce or eliminate frost pockets, modify slopes to make machinery operation safer, or improve overall aspect and air drainage on a vineyard site. As a result, land levelling has become a common practice in many regions. There are many risks involved in land levelling. Great care needs to be taken to try and preserve the topsoil (A horizons) layers of the natural soil profile (see discussion of the soil profile in Section 4.1). The A and B horizons are most favourable for plant growth as they contain the nutrient supplying organic matter and are generally leached of salts or excess lime that characterise the underlying unweathered parent materials of the C horizon. In the silty soils found along the benchlands adjacent to Okanagan Lake, the chemistry of the soil profile changes rapidly with depth. Exposing C horizon material to the surface will result in longterm soil quality degradation and reduced productivity where this occurs. Coarser textured soils like those in the Oliver and Osoyoos areas do not have the same conditions in the C horizon. In the case of these sandy and gravely soils exposure of the C horizon to the surface is less critical than on the silty soils. The ideal situation when land levelling from a soil perspective is to collect and stockpile the A and B horizon soil from the profile. The parent materials (C horizon) may then be levelled as needed. The final step is to replace the A and B horizon materials over the levelled surface to ensure none of the C horizon is exposed.

While the thickness of the A and B horizons will vary over the landscape, a good rule of thumb would be to collect and stockpile the surface 20 to 40 cm of soil for re-distribution after levelling. While the careful collection, stockpiling and re-distribution will minimize the impact of land levelling on the resultant soil quality, the mechanical treatment of the soil material will invariably destroy soil structure, which in turn can reduce porosity and the soils ability to supply air and water to plant roots. There will be disturbance to the topsoil biological community as well. Fortunately, good soil management practices can, over time, see the reestablishment of soil structure and functioning biological communities in the soil if care has been taken in the levelling process. It may take decades to overcome the loss in surface soil quality if C horizon materials are left at the surface and in these cases, the land levelling activity would have to be considered an unsustainable practice.

Figure 3-1: Site preparation activities prior to planting a vineyard. PHOTO: GARY STRACHAN

CHAPTER 3 VITICULTURAL MANAGEMENT | Page 3-5

Improving Compacted Layers


It is important to identify compacted soil layers within the potential rooting zone that could negatively impact vine growth. Where a compacted layer is identified, a number of techniques can be employed to break up the soil profile (see Table 3-1). The technique you choose will depend upon your soil type and level of compaction and safe machinery operation at your site (e.g., rollover risks). Deep ripping should be carried out only when there is a hardpan soil that restricts roots and water to a shallow soil depth. Before undertaking any deep ripping it is important to determine the extent of the hard pans and/or compaction problem and decide whether deep ripping is necessary. If soil is deep and uniform, only surface tillage or disc plowing may be necessary. Vineyards established on Vancouver Island and the Lower Mainland will often require deep ripping due to cemented subsurface layers. A recommended practice is to rip to approximately 1.1 metres at 3 metres intervals and lay drain tiles at that depth at some angle (e.g., perpendicular) to the ripping. Contact the Ministry of Agriculture and Lands for more information. If surface tillage, disc plowing or deep ripping is required at your site, follow these practices: Do it during late summer or early fall when soil moisture is at its lowest; Ensure it does not introduce toxic factors to the roots (e.g., salt boron) by mixing subsoil layer up to the surface; Drop organic matter into the trench created so that organic matter and any soil amendments are placed deep into the soil profile

Table 3-1: Techniques that can be used to improve compacted soil layers. Technique Spading Description

Turns hard, compacted soils into deeply fractured structures while avoiding mixing sub-soils with surface soils Leaves the bottom of the worked area rough and unglazed, ultimately promoting water percolation and root growth Maintains the basic organic structure of the soil Requires one pass only Can effectively incorporate green manures and crop residues into the soil profile Ripping Cracks or shatters hard layers at 2-7 feet, but does not mix the soil Permanently improves soils with cemented hardpans Temporarily improves tight or compacted soil, but Does not improve claypan layers for long because they usually reseal Minor effect on sand or gravel layers Slip-plowing Rips, but also lifts and mixes the soil at 3-6 feet Effective on claypans and sand or gravel layers Makes a wide channel, creates some mixing of surface and subsoil layers Causes more shattering than ripping Chisel Relieves compaction and mixes the soil in the surface 2 feet Best for loosening soil and breaking up surface compaction such as plowpans and wheel ruts Adapted, in part from Dlott, et. al, 2006, p 3-15

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See page 4-14 of the Best Practices Guide for information on good soil management practices to implement before planting vines.

Many of these physical and chemical properties will also give an indication of site drainage and erosion potential. Section 4.1 of the Soil and Nutrition Management chapter contains more information on the physical and chemical properties of soil. Soils that do not possess all of the ideal components for establishing a vineyard can be amended somewhat. Examples of soil amendment methods include: Amending soil with lime if acidic Sulphur (or acids in drip) if alkaline Compost/manure or cover crop if low in organic matter

3.4.

Soil Management

Soil Survey
Thorough soil analysis is one of the best investments a grower can make as soil properties play a major role in vine health, vineyard growth and production. A soil survey should be completed by a qualified professional the year before planting, prior to ordering vines. See page 3-6 of the Best Practices Guide for information on soil surveys.

Section 4.10 of the Soil and Nutrition Management chapter contains more information on soil amendments. In addition to soil amendments, cover crops may be utilized to address certain issues such as: Reducing soil erosion due to wind and water Protecting soil surface during high traffic events during the growing season Increasing water infiltration Reducing insect populations (pests) or increase beneficial insect populations (predators) Reducing chemical use Reducing weeds Reducing vine vigour Recycling nutrients within the soil ecosystem Preventing nutrient leaching Increasing organic matter Altering microclimate

Soil Physical and Chemical Properties


The soils physical and chemical properties will greatly affect its ability to hold and transfer nutrients to the vines. Because of this, it is important to determine the following items in order to make the necessary amendments before tilling: Chemical properties Soil composition (i.e., percent sand, silt and clay) pH Organic matter content Cation exchange capacity (CEC) Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR) Base saturation Water-holding capacity Deficiencies or toxicities (i.e., boron, sodium, chlorides, zinc and phosphorus)

Section 4.9 of the Soil and Nutrition Management chapter contains more information on cover crops.

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Any soil amendments and modifications made on the site should be recorded for future reference.

3.5.

Water Quality and Irrigation

Addressing Soil Biological Problems Preplanting


Assessing the soil for biological problems is another crucial part of setting up a prosperous and sustainable vineyard operation. Nematodes can present a problem as they are ubiquitous organisms (present in all places). Some species of these organisms feed on the roots of plants and generally thrive on the roots of woody crops (especially grapes or trees). This is why it is important to sample the soil for nematodes prior to planting and it is especially important for the samples to include the roots of the previous crop or cover vegetation. When deciding on sampling locations, growers must consider the previous land use and soil variation. Knowing the species type and population levels of nematodes on the site will be crucial in choosing a rootstock that is resistant to these pests. Alternately, lab results may show that no biological problems exist and warrant no further actions. When biological problems are identified in a vineyard, they should be addressed by: Removing as many roots as possible from the previous perennial crop as some pests can survive on these (for up to 8-10 years in the case of grape roots); Using an appropriate resistant rootstock; and Carefully selecting and using a cover crop to deal with a specific issue (i.e., mustard for nematodes).

Water quality can impact the soil, vine yields and fruit quality and food safety. Knowing what is in the water is the first step in mitigating any detrimental effects. For this reason, it is recommended that water to be used for vineyard irrigation be assessed for suitability and nutrient values, especially water obtained from groundwater wells or surface water bodies. Even if your water is supplied by a municipality or irrigation district, it is still important for you to know about your water quality. For information on water quality testing please refer to section 5.3 of the Water Management chapter. Some examples of water quality issues and how they may affect the vineyard include: pH affects acidity and alkalinity for grape growth; Sodium Absorption Ratio (SAR) can affect water penetration; A range of parameters from pH, Suspended Solids, Calcium bicarbonate, and other minerals can affect clogging of drip emitters; Spray tank water pH can either negatively or positively affect the efficacy of pesticides; Total dissolved solids can affect water salinity; and Sodium, chloride and boron can be toxic to vines. Because of their toxicity to grapevines, it is important to know sodium, chloride and boron concentrations prior to planting. In cases where water quality is an issue, the relative sensitivity to toxic elements should be an important factor in selecting scion and rootstocks. You may need to install a proper filtration system to deal with water quality issues.

For more information on nematodes and phylloxera refer to section 62 of the Pest Management chapter.

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Your soil survey and water quality testing will also play a role in determining the appropriate irrigation system design (e,g., high levels of calcium bicarbonate or manganese may lead to clogging of drip irrigation emitters), and determining fertilization requirements (taking into account nitrogen levels in the water). For more information, refer to the Water Management chapter and the Soil and Nutrition Management chapter. The irrigation system should be installed and be fully functional prior to planting. This is so the vineyard site can be irrigated before the planting begins and immediately after planting.

Irrigation (see Water Management chapter) Cover crop (see Soil and Nutrition Management chapter) Fertilization (see Soil and Nutrition Management chapter) Distribution of shoots and fruit along the fruiting zone

The following sections of this chapter, as well as subsequent chapters, will help you to achieve vine balance in your vineyard.

3.6.
Variety

Variety, Rootstock, Scion, and Clone Selection

Vineyard Establishment
Vine balance refers to the process of giving the vine the right inputs and conditions to grow, while at the same time preventing excessive growth. Excessive growth leads to a decrease in fruit yields. Some forms of stress trigger the plants survival and reproductive mechanisms, which lead to more fruit production. Achieving a balanced vine is one of the most important factors in viticulture as it affects many other factors such as susceptibility to pests, air ventilation, sun exposure, and fruit yields. A balanced vine can minimize or eliminate the need for remedial measures such as hedging, leaf removal, shoot positioning or shoot removal. Vine balance can be achieved through proper: Vineyard design (spacing, trellising and training) Pruning Crop load adjustments

The variety you choose to grow will depend upon your site characteristics, market demand, and other factors. Grape variety descriptions are included in the Best Practices Guide. Always consult a number of sources before selecting varieties to grow. See pp. 3-9 to 3-16 (2010 ed.) or pp. 3-10 to 3-19 (2006 ed.) of the Best Practices Guide for a description of grape varieties.

Rootstock
Selecting a rootstock that matches your site conditions is essential to vine balance, improved water and disease management, and optimal wine quality and will reduce the need for chemical or cultural intervention. It is essential that rootstocks are certified disease-free (see Section 3.6). See pp. 3-17 to 3-19 (2010 ed.) or pp. 3-20 and 3-21 (2006 ed.) in the Best Practices Guide for a description of important grape rootstocks.

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Growers are encouraged to seek the advice of an experienced consultant when selecting rootstock.

Scion
When selecting a scion to go with the rootstock, the grower should look for a plant that is visibly healthy and that has been tested and certified to be virus free and free from other known pathogens. Growers should ask for certificates from the nursery or source of scion material. The scion must also be appropriate for the rootstock, local climate and soil properties. Growers are encouraged to seek the advice of an experienced consultant when selecting scion.

Easier and more successful propagation; Reduced production costs and chemical inputs required to offset the harmful effects of these diseases; Higher crop yields, better plant growth and crop quality, reduced disease and mortality; Increased international competitiveness and economic viability.

Clone
Clone selection should be based on information from local trials where the soil, rootstock, trellis, irrigation, etc., were as close as possible to the growers vineyard, or on broad-based province-wide experience and marketability. Clones of some varieties vary greatly in their bunch tightness and bunch rot susceptibility. Consulting with the wine maker, nursery and/or private consultant is encouraged when selecting a clone.

3.7.

Plant Certification

The following information was provided by Ray Johnson, Section Head, Grapevine Diagnostic Program at the Centre for Plant Health, Sidney Laboratory, Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA). Prevention is the only practical cure for viruses, virus-like diseases, phytoplasmas and other diseases such as Crown gall. Starting with healthy plant material is essential for a sustainable vineyard. The benefits of using healthy plant material include:

There are many benefits to buying certified grape plants for your vineyard. The advantages of certification programs include: Most effective approach for the production of healthy vegetatively propagated planting stock. Many viruses spread naturally via insect and nematode vectors. There is no cure once a plant has become infected; Increased assurance to growers that they are buying healthy plants derived from plants originally tested for specified viruses and other diseases, and that have been propagated under conditions that mitigate the likelihood of subsequently becoming infected during propagation; Certification is usually provided and monitored by a neutral party; Reduced spread of damaging domestic pests and prevention of the introduction of damaging invasive foreign pests. There are various types of certification programs: Phytosanitary only where the focus is on diseases & other pests. o Pest list may be comprehensive or limited; o May or may not include pest tolerance levels for different pests.

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May also include quality (such as grades) and variety (trueness to variety or clone) standards. For export or only domestic purposes. Mandatory or voluntary. Official (government run or approved) vs industry run vs nursery based (under a quality assurance program accredited under Standards Council of Canada or other association).

main reason for purchasing certified plants. Both varieties and rootstocks should originate from certified nurseries. Viruses in either the variety or rootstock will spread throughout the plant after grafting. Whether you buy plant material or receive cuttings from a friend, always ask for the parentage and source of both rootstock and scion. For more information on Canadian nurseries participating in the CFIA grapevine certification program contact your local CFIA office. For information on import and domestic movement requirements for grapevine propagative material see www.inspection.gc.ca/english/plaveg/prot ect/dir/d-94-34e.shtml or contact your local CFIA office. BC Coastal and Mainland Office 4321 Still Creek Dr., Suite 400 Burnaby, British Columbia, V5C 6S7 Tel: 604-666-6513 Fax: 604-666-1261

Sources of certified grapevines include: Canadian CFIA-certified nurseries. o Foreign pest risks eliminated; o Domestic pest risks greatly reduced; o Only official Canadian certification program. Imported from foreign CFIAapproved programs in the United States (California, Washington, Oregon) and Europe (France & Germany). o Reduces but does not totally eliminate risks of introducing both known and unknown foreign quarantine pests such as viruses, phytoplasmas, other diseases, and insects; o Some economically damaging non-quarantine viruses have been detected in samples tested from importations. Even if you are purchasing from Canadian sources, it is important to purchase certified plants. Economically damaging viruses such as Grapevine fanleaf virus, Arabis mosaic virus, Tomato ringspot virus, Grapevine leafroll-associated viruses, and X-disease and Aster yellows phytoplasmas are present in some Canadian vineyards. Other, currently unknown pests may also be present in Canadian vineyards as a result of illegal importations. The unknown origin of uncertified plants is a

3.8.

Vineyard Layout

Vineyard uniformity makes vineyard operations more efficient, leads to uniform crop development and ultimately leads to higher quality fruit. To achieve this, the grower must first: Determine row orientation based on site physical features (i.e., soil type, slope, aspect, prevailing winds, etc.); Divide the vineyard into blocks based on uniformity; Ensure vineyard design and row direction allow for safe and easy access; Ensure headlands are wide enough for equipment to make turns; and Ensure erosion is minimized.

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A vineyard is best laid out when it is divided into blocks based on uniformity. It is generally not ideal to design the vineyard layout based on existing fence and property lines, to accommodate the fewest possible tractor turns or to make rows as long as possible. The sites physical characteristics should be the most important factor in determining row orientation. These physical characteristics could be the result of: Environmental survey findings; Soil profile inspection and modification; Soil tested for physical and chemical properties and amended pre-planting; and/or Soil tested for biological problems pre-planting. Additionally, the vineyard design should be safe and easy to farm with row directions that minimize erosion and trellises aligned according to regional wind patterns and sun exposure. For vineyards that are adjacent to a sensitive site such as a public highway, row orientation should be such that equipment (e.g., sprayers, dusters) turnaround is minimized next to the sensitive area. See page 3-7 of the Best Practices Guide for more on row direction.

consideration the fertility of the soil, quality of the water, the amount of available sunlight, the intensity of sunlight and the length of the growing season, with the purpose of creating a balanced vine to produce high quality fruit. See page 3-7 of the Best Practices Guide for more on vine spacing.

3.9.

Trellis and Vigour

The trellis system supports the vine to achieve optimum production, which is dependent on capacity and vigour of the vine. Soil properties and the rootstock will have an effect on the capacity of the vine. The complexity of the trellis system will differ depending on the vine vigour. The following items should be considered when selecting a trellis system: Site properties (e.g., soil fertility, slope, etc.) Quality of irrigation water. Growth habit Vigour Size Winter hardiness of vine Fruitfulness of basal buds Site selection Harvest and pruning methods

Vine Spacing
Plant spacing is an important decision when planting a new vineyard. Row spacing determines the amount of fruiting area or the number of linear feet of fruiting surface per acre. Row and vines should be spaced to accommodate the vigour of the clone, scion and rootstock, and take into

A good trellis system provides structural support that creates an open canopy with moderate fruit zone exposure to light and air, and allows for efficient farming while minimizing canopy manipulation. Wine quality should be the main outcome of selecting the appropriate trellis type.

See pp. 3-21 to 3-26 (2010 ed.) or pp. 3-24 to 3-28 (2006 ed.) of the Best Practices Guide for more on trellis systems.

Page 3-12 | SUSTAINABLE PRACTICES FOR BC VINEYARDS | MARCH 2010

3.10. Planting
Some recommended planting new vines are: practices when

Planting material should be handled and stored according to nursery directions. The soil around the newly planted vines should be compacted to remove air pockets. For green growing vines, tamp soil moderately to avoid breaking the roots. For dormant vines, tamp more vigorously, as breaking of roots is less of a problem. For grafted vines ensure the graft union is kept well above the final level of the under-vine soil surface to prevent the scion from rooting. Support plant viability by increasing water holding capacity (i.e., with coir, bone meal, etc.). A disadvantage of this is that it could limit plant root growth. Monitor soil moisture around the vine roots and observe vine characteristics such as node length, cane diameter and shoot tips and tendrils.

Figure 3-2: A newly planted vineyard with bamboo stakes and milk cartons to protect the plants. PHOTO: GARY STRACHAN

3.12. Crop Estimation


See pp. 4-68 to 4-73 (2010 ed.) or pp. 4-64 to 4-69 (2006 ed.) of the Best Practices Guide for information on crop estimation.

3.13. Canopy Assessment and Management


See pp. 4-2 to 4-6 (2010 ed.) or pp. 42 to 4-5 (2006 ed.) of the Best Practices Guide for definitions of canopy components, goals of canopy management, and light and temperature effects of canopy manipulation. To achieve uniform vegetative growth and fruit development in the vineyard block (Dlott, et. al., 2006): Prune vines differentially to match their vigour; Remove weak and late blooming shoots; Tailor irrigation blocks to the soil and rootstock requirements; Drop slow ripening fruit at or after veraison; and

See page 3-8 of the Best Practices Guide for more information on planting grapevines.

Vineyard Maintenance
3.11. Maintaining Young Vines
See page 4-1 of the Best Practices Guide for information on maintaining young vines.

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Harvest units from uniform sections of the vineyard. A qualified consultant should be retained to help you achieve appropriate vineyard uniformity.

Canopy Assessment
See page 4-6 of the Best Practices Guide for information on canopy assessment methods.

Special note: It is important to ensure the fruit is not exposed to too much sunlight, which will cause sunburn and splitting. Too much exposure may also lead to hail and bird damage and potential reduction in positive fruit aroma and flavour compounds. See page 4-11 of the Best Practices Guide for the characteristics of the ideal canopy.

Canopy Management
See pages 4-6 and 4-7 of the Best Practices Guide for information on canopy manipulation techniques. Special note: Pruning and thinning should not be done in the rain due to the high likelihood of infection from Esca type fungi. See page 4-13 of the Best Practices Guide for information on pruning.

3.15. Frost Protection


See pp. 4-49 to 4-65 (2010 ed.) or pp. 4-45 to 4-61 (2006 ed.) of the Best Practices Guide for more on frost protection.

Figure 3-4: Vineyard hit with an early fall frost; light frost symptoms are similar to water stress. PHOTO: GARY STRACHAN

Figure 3-3: Good canopy density - exposed fruit and filtered shade. PHOTO: GARY STRACHAN

3.14. Fruit Exposure


See page 4-10 of the Best Practices Guide for more on hedging and leaf removal to improve fruit exposure.
Figure 3-5: Frost pocket in a vineyard. The green leaves on nearby vines, indicate a low temperature boundary in the lower part of the site. PHOTO: GARY STRACHAN

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Vineyard Removal
3.16. Decommissioning a Vineyard
When decommissioning a vineyard, ensure the following are completed when removing the vines: Grind the above-ground portions of the vines, or sell them to a co-generation company that can use the vines as biomass for fuel (if one is available). Remove as many roots as possible. Ensure the following refuse disposal practices are implemented: Plastics o Reuse or return all waste plastics to depots for recycling. o The Waste Exchange Program has a Recycling Hotline 1-800-6674321. o Properly dispose of plastics that have contained or contacted toxic materials. See Table 5.2 Hazardous Waste Regulation for Empty Pesticide Containers in the EFP Reference Guide (pg 5-12). Treated Wood o Waste wood that was treated with registered preservatives is not considered hazardous waste under the Hazardous Waste Regulation of the Environmental Management Act. o Wood waste can include pallets, boards or posts. o Reuse treated wood products for other applications (i.e. landscaping). o Take treated wood product to an approved landfill. o Obtain a permit from the Ministry of Environment to bury the material on farm property. o DO NOT burn treated wood as open fires cannot reach the temperature required to eliminate the preservatives, not to mention the

toxic fumes that emanate from the burn pile. o A proactive approach when implementing a vineyard is to look into other options such as metal, concrete or recycled plastic posts. Metal Disposal o Most commercial suppliers accept the return of metal containers. o Recycling options exist for most types of metal containers. o Taking the metal containers to an approved landfill is another option. See pages 2-10 to 2-13 of the EFP Reference Guide for more information on farm waste disposal best practices.

Recommended Resources
Financial Planning Information for Establishing a VINIFERA Wine Grape Planting Okanagan Region, Ministry of Agriculture and Lands, available at: www.agf.gov.bc.ca/grape/publications /vinifera.htm Wine Islands Growers Association library listing: www.wiga.ca/Library/LibraryWIGA.htm Information on spaders in Wine Business Monthly: www.winebusiness.com/wbm/?go=get Article&dataId=47243

See pp. 4-12, 4-66 and 4-67 and Chapter 10 (2010 ed.) or pp. 4-12, 462 and 4-63 and Chapter 10 (2006 ed.) of the Best Practices Guide for more resources.

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CHAPTER 4 SOIL AND NUTRITION MANAGEMENT


Table of Contents
page

INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................. 4-1 SOIL AND NUTRIENT CHARACTERISTICS.......................................................................... 4-1 4.1. 4.2. 4.3. 4.4. 4.5. 4.6. 4.7. 4.8. 4.9. 4.10. 4.11. 4.12. 4.13. 4.14. 4.15. 4.16. 4.17. 4.18. Important Properties of Vineyard Soils ............................................................... 4-1 Nutrients Necessary for Grapevine Growth ........................................................ 4-5 Nutrient Management Plan ................................................................................ 4-7 Field Parameters ................................................................................................. 4-9 Identifying Areas of Concern ............................................................................. 4-10 Petiole Sampling and Analysis .......................................................................... 4-11 Soil Sampling and Analysis ............................................................................... 4-11 Water Sampling and Analysis ........................................................................... 4-12 Cover Crops ....................................................................................................... 4-14 Fertilizers .......................................................................................................... 4-15 Rates and Timing of Nutrient Application ......................................................... 4-19 Methods of Nutrient Application ....................................................................... 4-20 Review and Update of Nutrient Management Plan .......................................... 4-21 Soil Erosion Due to Water, Wind, or Equipment ............................................... 4-22 Soil Erosion from Roads, Ditches, and Culverts ............................................... 4-23 Tillage of the Vineyard Floor ............................................................................. 4-23 Soil Compaction ................................................................................................ 4-23 Soil Water Storage and Movement ................................................................... 4-24

NUTRITION MANAGEMENT ............................................................................................. 4-7

SOIL MANAGEMENT ..................................................................................................... 4-22

RECOMMENDED RESOURCES ...................................................................................... 4-24

4.0 SOIL AND NUTRITION MANAGEMENT


Introduction
Chapter objective: To provide soil and nutrition management practices that minimize impacts on the natural environment and reduce the need for inputs such as water and fertilizer. Soil is the foundation of your vineyard. It provides nutrients and anchorage for your grapevines. Optimized monitoring and management of your soil and its nutrients produces healthier vines and ultimately better wine quality and reduces the risk of negatively impacting the surrounding environment. This chapter guides you step-by-step through the completion of a nutrient management plan. The main objectives of a nutrient management plan are to supply crops with nutrients at the appropriate rate, timing, and with the appropriate method to produce an economically optimal crop in terms of both yield and quality and to minimize the risk of pollution by loss of nutrients via runoff, leaching, emissions to the air or other loss mechanisms. The chapter also provides sustainable practices to maintain soil quality by reducing erosion and sediment transport on-site and minimize off-site movement of soil and water.

Soil and Nutrient Characteristics


4.1. Important Properties of Vineyard Soils

See pages 8-1 to 8-6 of the EFP Reference Guide for more information. The purpose of this section is to help you understand some of the terminology that will be used throughout the chapter and to provide you with general background information on soil. The three main components of soil are: Minerals: derived from decomposed rocks (ideally 45% of soil makeup) Organic matter: decomposed plant and animal residues, living organisms (ideally 5% of soil makeup) Pore spaces: space between solid parts of the soil. Pore space is occupied by water and air. If the pore space is entirely made up of water the soil is considered to be saturated. If the pore space is entirely made up of air the soil would be completely dry and unable to support plant growth. An ideal soil pore space to support plant growth is about 50 / 50 air and water in the pore space (water at 25% of total soil makeup and air at 25% of total makeup). These three components provide the physical framework to support plant growth and anchorage. The balance between each of these components as well as the chemical properties of the soil determines a soils ability to support plant growth over the long term.

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Other important characteristics of soil include texture, structure, porosity, organic matter, and bulk density. These characteristics are described in Table 4-1.

Soil Profile
A soil profile is examined to a depth of one to two metres. While your interest is normally concentrated on the topsoil because it lies directly under your control, grapevine roots penetrate into the lower horizons and are affected by the composition of these deeper layers. An accurate account of the soil must include not just the topsoil, but the subsoil as well. Knowing what type of soils you are dealing with is the first step to understanding how to properly care for your vines. Description of Soil Horizons A) Topsoil (A Horizon(s)) is the layer formed over time from which plants obtain water and nutrients. It most often varies from 5 to 20 cm in thickness. This zone is the most influenced by soil management and contains the most organic matter and biological activity. The amount of organic matter determines the fertility of the soil. Topsoil is easily lost when land levelling is done; it should be carefully removed and then replaced after grading the subsoil below. B) Subsoil (B Horizon) contains less organic matter and generally fewer roots but is still an important zone for nutrient uptake. In fine-textured soils the B horizon may accumulate materials leached from the topsoil such as clay which can create a compact subsoil layer. In sand and/or gravely soils, the horizon is identified as having a brownish or reddish colour. C) Parent Material (C Horizon) is basically unweathered, geologic parent material, often of glacial origin. There is limited

biological activity. In fine-textured soils the C horizon is identified as a zone of lime accumulation and sometimes hard concretions composed of calcium carbonate. In coarse-textured soils the C horizon lacks the colours as seen in surface horizons. Figures 4-1 to 4-4 show typical soil profiles in areas of British Columbia. A generalized soil profile is shown in Figure 4-5. Your soils may vary considerably from the photos and figure.

Figure 4-1: Typical soil profile in the Naramata Bench area. PHOTO: ELIZABETH KENNEY

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Figure 4-2: Typical soil profile in the Black Sage area of Oliver. PHOTO: ELIZABETH KENNEY

Figure 4-4: Typical soil profile in the Delta, Lower Fraser Valley, area. PHOTO: ELIZABETH KENNEY

Figure 4-3: Typical soil profile in the Penticton area. PHOTO: ELIZABETH KENNEY

Figure 4-5: Well-developed soil, showing the typical sequence of horizons. Adapted from Brady (1990, fig. 1.3).

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Table 4-1: Important physical properties of vineyard soils. Property Texture


Description the relative proportions of sand, silt and clay particles found in a soil sample affects nutrient and water holding capacity and aeration of the soil grouped into 12 classes (see Figure 4-6) sandy soils (those dominated by sand sized particles and are referred to as having coarse texture): water enters at a rapid rate, does not retain water and nutrients well, good aeration and easy penetration by plant roots, often low in organic matter and nutrients silty soils (those dominated by silt-sized particles and referred to as having medium texture): holds more water and nutrients than sand, but less than clay, has less drainage than sandy soils, but more than clayey soils clayey soils (those dominated by clay-sized particles and referred to as having fine texture): good water and nutrient holding capacity, may have poor drainage and little aeration, compaction may be a problem loamy soils (those dominated by a mixture of particle sizes): considered best for grape growing because of the desirable properties of a sand, silt, and clay mixture, which allows for ease of cultivation, adequate water-holding capacity and nutrient-storage capacity and good drainage the way soil particles clump together into larger units called soil aggregates naturally occurring soil aggregates are called peds affects the availability of air and water in soil classified according to 3 groups of traits: type: the shape of the soil peds (granular, blocky, platey or structureless) class: the size of the peds (very fine, fine, medium, coarse or very coarse) grade: how distinct and strong the peds are (weak to strong where the peds are easily visible and can be handled without breaking) ideal soil structure for plant growth is well aggregated soil that contains large, continuous pores takes a very long time to develop naturally but can be damaged very quickly by mechanical operations and compaction amount of pore space in the soil these pores convey oxygen, water and dissolved nutrients and provide the space in which roots grow nature of the pore space will vary depending on: texture: sand (relatively large pore spaces, good aeration) and clay (relatively small pore spaces, holds water but can have poor root aeration) structure: aggregation of particles creates larger pore spaces mixing of the soil particles: excessive cultivation, for example, will decrease porosity by destroying natural soil structure, compaction will reduce total pore space due to compression made up of living microorganisms and plant and animal residues in various stages of decomposition plays an important role in many beneficial soil functions, including source of nitrogen, sulphur and phosphorus. contains chemical exchange sites that increase the ability of the soil to hold onto nutrient compounds maintains soil structure and stability increases soil water holding capacity; humic substances can hold up to 5 times their weight in water provides a major energy source for soil microorganisms increases soil temperatures due to darker soil, which also promotes biological activity excessive tillage, soil erosion and poor cover crop management will speed the loss of organic matter measures, for a given volume of dry soil, how much is occupied by solids and how much by pore space (i.e., how compact a soil is)

Structure

Porosity

Organic Matter

Bulk Density

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Table 4-2 provides information on some of the macronutrients and micronutrients essential to grapevine growth and common effects of deficiencies or excesses.

Nutrient Cycles
Each nutrient element has its own cycle, the process by which the nutrients required by living organisms move through the living (biotic) and non-living (abiotic) components of an ecosystem. Major plant nutrients include nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. These nutrients follow cyclical patterns as they are used and reused by living organisms. Organic materials, like plant litter, decompose and are reincorporated into the soil as nutrients by decomposer organisms. Some physical processes, such as oxidation, mechanical breakage, lightening, fire and wind are non biological contributors to the nutrient cycle. The manner and rate at which nutrients are cycled plays an important role in agricultural health and can be directly influenced by soil and nutrition management practices. A complete nutrient management plan (see Section 4.3) should take into consideration methods of managing and taking full advantage of the natural nutrient cycle.

Figure 4-6: Soil textural classes (outlined in bold lines) are defined by percentage of sand, silt, and clay (fine lines parallel to arrows). Adapted from Brady (1990, fig. 4.6).

4.2.

Nutrients Necessary for Grapevine Growth

The purpose of this section is to help you understand some of the terminology that will be used throughout the chapter and to provide you with general background information on nutrients.

Macronutrients and Micronutrients


Nutrients come from the soil and are absorbed through the root system. They can be divided into two types: Macronutrients: essential elements that plants use in large amounts. Include nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulphur. Micronutrients: essential elements that plants use in small quantities. Include zinc, iron, manganese, copper, boron, molybdenum, chlorine, nickel

Figure 4-7: Simplified nitrogen cycle in soil.

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Table 4-2: Nutrients essential to grapevine growth and common effects of imbalances. Macronutrients Nitrogen

Use and Effect on Grapevine

Of all soil nutrients, nitrogen is the most likely to be deficient Makes up 1% to 2% of the dry matter of a grapevine Used as a component of proteins, and in energy transfer and photosynthesis Deficiency symptoms include: loss of vigour, yellow leaves, red petioles Excess causes vigour, reduced fruit set, reduced bud fertility, bud necrosis, bunchstem necrosis Phosphorus Makes up 0.1% to 0.3% of the dry matter of a grapevine Used in the fatty portion of cell membranes, carbon fixation, sugar metabolism, energy storage and genetic material Deficiency symptoms include: reduced shoot growth, yield, and fruit set, low bunch numbers, basal leaves that turn pale or yellow and fall before flowering time, and red dots near the edges of mid or terminal lobes of basal leaves Potassium Makes up 3% of dry weight of a grapevine Required to form sugars, starches, proteins, acids, colouring materials, odour and taste for grapes Increases the hardiness of the plant for winter and makes it more drought resistant Deficiency symptoms include: yellow leaves in centre of new shoots starting at edge and moving into the centre, necrotic spots, holes, brittle leaves, uneven ripening of fruit, scorched leaves, reduced shoot growth, low vigour, reduced berry set and yields, and delayed growth of shoots and reductions in initial yield of young vines. Excess reduces calcium and magnesium and produces high pH wines Magnesium Essential for chlorophyll and is linked to phosphorus uptake Deficiency symptoms include: yellowing between the veins of older leaves, red pigmentation in red varieties, grape stem drying, and yellowing of basal leaves Calcium Plays a part in root, protein and carbohydrate formation Controls the uptake of water into the vine Deficiency symptoms include: dead buds and tips, necrotic leaf edges Excess can affect the uptake of other nutrients, especially magnesium, boron, and potassium, and result in high soil pH Micronutrients Use and Effect on Grapevine Zinc Component of enzyme catalyst reactions Deficiency symptoms include: reduced fruit set, reduced internode length and small leaves, hen and chick berries Deficiency symptoms usually occur at the shoot tip Iron Used for chlorophyll development, enzyme system activation, and the formation of organic compounds Deficiency symptoms include: chlorophyll loss starting between the small leaf veins, fading beginning at the leaf margins and progressing interveinally, reduce set, and dry leaves Deficiency often referred to as iron chlorosis, lime chlorosis, or lime-induced chlorosis Manganese Used in the formation of chlorophyll and works to activate enzymes Deficiency symptoms are similar to iron or zinc deficiency symptoms Boron Regulates plant hormones Influences cell differentiation, cell growth, pollen germination and growth of pollen tubes Deficiency symptoms include: reduced fruit set, puckered leaves, brown necrotic spots on leaf margins and base of shoots Excess can cause toxicities Note: This table provides a summary of information on pp. 4-19 to 4-25 (2010 ed.) or pp. 4-17 to 4-23 (2006 ed.) of the Best Practices guide for Grapes for British Columbia Growers.

For more information about macronutrients and micronutrients see pp. 4-19 to 426 (2010 ed.) or pp. 4-17 to 4-23 (2006 ed.) of the Best Practices Guide.

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Nutrition Management
4.3. Nutrient Management Plan
of a nutrient

The main objectives management plan are:

1. To supply crops with nutrients at the appropriate rate, timing, and with the appropriate method to produce an economically optimal crop in terms of both yield and quality; and 2. To minimize the risk of pollution by loss of nutrients via runoff, leaching, emissions to the air or other loss mechanisms. Nutrient management planning is included as a component of the Environmental Farm Plan. The nutrient management plan outlined in the EFP is more appropriate for large-scale farms than it is for vineyards. With this in mind, a nutrient management planning process has been developed here that is more appropriate for vineyards. Some technical components of the EFP Nutrient Management Reference Guide will be essential to preparing your management plan, and are referred to in the appropriate sections below. For this section, please obtain the EFP Nutrient Management Reference Guide from your EFP Advisor or download it from www.agf.gov.bc.ca/resmgmt/EnviroFar mPlanning/EFP_Nutrient_Guide/Nutri ent_Guide_toc.htm. Acknowledgement: The structure and content recommended for your nutrient management plan in the following sections is based, in part, on the LodiWoodbridge Winegrape Commissions Soil Management Companion Document. Issues to be used as guidelines to develop a nutrient management plan include:

Field Parameters Petiole Analysis Soil Analysis Water Analysis Sources and Forms of Nutrients Areas of Concern Rates of Fertilizer Application Timing of Fertilization Methods of Application Environmental Considerations with Fertilizer Fertilizer Storage Annual Review and Update

Nutrient management planning is an ongoing process. Your nutrient management plan must be kept in a form that will make it easy for you to find information and to record new information as necessary. There are various ways to organize your Plan, but the best is by placing it in a binder and using tabs to separate the different sections of the plan and the different vineyards if you have more than one. Organize the tabs of your nutrient management plan to match the guidelines above. Not all of the guidelines may apply to you, but try to be as thorough as possible. There are various ways to organize your information but probably the best is by placing it in a binder and using tab sheets to separate the different sections of the plan. A template is included on page 4-8. A nutrient management plan should be revisited each year and new reports should be generated to reflect any changes in the nutrient management planning strategy.

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NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT PLAN TEMPLATE


The title page identifies the vineyard name and all pertinent contact information for the vineyard. This page should be inserted prior to the Table of Contents.

Title Page

Timing of that application (i.e., what time of year and how many times during the year

Table of Contents

The Table of Contents gives an outline of all the sections of the plan. It should be inserted immediately after the Title Page but prior to Tab 1. Tab 1: Field Parameters Information related to your soil classification Size of your property Soil site history, answers to questions on page 4-10 of the Guidebook This information can also be used in your Soil Conservation Plan Tab 2: Identifying Areas of Concern Base map with areas of concern identified Accompanying written description Records of predominant wind direction, water table depth, vineyard irrigation system, and potential for leaching based on soil type and water table Tab 3: Petiole Sampling and Analysis Test results and analysis from lab Tab 4: Soil Sampling and Analysis Test results and analysis from lab Tab 5: Water Sampling and Analysis Test results and analysis from lab TAB 6: COVER CROPS Species of cover crops that you are or will be using in your vineyard Reasons for use (e.g., managing nitrogen excess in soil, reducing erosion, etc.) Tab 7: Fertilizers Specific environmental considerations for fertilizer use on your property Type of fertilizer you are or will be using Reasons for use Tab 8: Rates and Timing of Fertilization Amount of fertilizer you will be applying

Tab 9: Methods of Nutrient Application Where the fertilizer will be applied (e.g., below dripper, row middles) What method will be used to apply the fertilizer Who will apply the fertilizer What equipment will be used Factors you will use to adjust the application date or method (e.g., slope, rainfall patterns, soil type)and how they will be changed based on those factors Tab 10: Review and Update To be completed periodically throughout the season and formally before starting your fertility program for the following year. Actual application rates Actual application dates Actual material that was used Tonnage Outcome of application (i.e., enough, too much, too little for crop and quality goals) Events that caused deviation from the plan (e.g., weather, lack of labour, crop maturity) You can start a new binder each year or add data from multiple years into the same binder. If the same binder is used for the second year, all new reports for year 2 should be inserted within the same tabs as in year 1 and placed immediately behind the year 1 reports. To separate the years, it is advisable to insert a coloured sheet of paper or a tab between year 1 and year 2. For subsequent years, the same process should be repeated. With time, the binder will become too thick to continue inserting new reports. It is recommended that a new binder be started after the fifth year. If using a new binder each year, the information in the binder should be inserted in the same order each year.

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4.4.

Field Parameters

For each vineyard, the nutrient management plan requires information on soil classification, size, and history. Step 5 in the EFP Nutrient Management Reference Guide (page 6) provides more information on what to include in this section of your Plan.

the soil, particularly if the soils have been intensively managed (irrigated, fertilized, levelled, amended, etc) over the last 20 years. The soils of interior BC vineyards are generally alkaline (pH >7.5) and low in organic matter. Many fine-textured soils contain abundant free lime which promotes high pH (>8.0). Most of the soils of the south Okanagan are sandy and/or gravely in texture, mildly alkaline but very low in organic matter. pH values exceeding 8.0 occur in some of the calcareous fans of the Similkameen. By contrast soils of coastal regions are acidic (pH <7.0) and tend to be higher in organic matter. The soil properties at a given site are the product of natural soil forming factors like climate and parent material origin but also past management history. In particular, a history of poor land levelling may result in long term management challenges for grape growers particularly where free lime subsoil has been exposed on the surface. Over the last 5 years the Viticulture Research Program at the Pacific Agri-Food Research Centre (PARC) in Summerland has conducted surveys of grower vineyards in the Okanagan and Similkameen valleys and produced variety block maps with soil series information from published soil surveys listed. In most cases a soil scientist has field checked and validated this information. All participating growers should have this information. It is planned that this information will be collected and updated as new vineyards are established or existing vineyards change as funding allows. For more information about the availability of soil information for the Okanagan and Similkameen valley vineyards contact Carl Bogdanoff at AAFCPARC Summerland at (250) 494-2124.

Soil Classification
The interaction of the climate, physiography, geology, and vegetation ecology is what creates soil on the earths surface. Because these factors can vary so greatly, they create many types of soils with different properties. The soil types that make up the grape growing regions of BC are diverse and may vary in pH, depth, texture and organic matter content, among other things. You will need to use soil maps to determine the soil series that occur on your vineyard.

Soil Maps
The Canadian System of Soil and Soil Climate Classification is a taxonomic system used to categorize soil in Canada. The levels of soil categories descending from broad to more specific are: Order, Great Group, Sub- Group, Family and Series. Because soil series is a more specific level of classification, it is the best to use for local and site specific information. The soil series is the name of the soil (example Penticton silt loam) and will include information on soil texture (proportions of sand, silt, clay and gravel), pH, organic matter content, and soil depth to water table or bedrock if these occur near the surface. However, the regional soil surveys were conducted many years ago and so the descriptions of soil series that may be available for your vineyard may not reflect the current condition of

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While the same format of information does not exist for vineyards in other parts of the province, detailed soil survey maps do exist for most agricultural areas where grapes are grown in the province. For soil information for other areas of the province contact Elizabeth Kenney at AAFC in Agassiz, at (604) 796-2221.

Soil Site History


Consider the following when documenting your soil site history (adapted, in part, from Washington Association of Wine Grape Growers, 2006): How long has this site been a vineyard? List any past irrigation history and the systems used. List any past crop and/or animal management practices. List any past herbicide usage and carryover potential for each material. List any past fertilizers and soil amendments used. Was the past land use uniform or variable across the site? Has the site been levelled, eroded, or altered in any significant way? What is the native vegetation on the site or in the surrounding area?

Soil Pits
A soil map is a good starting point in identifying your soil types, but the best way to get to know your soil is to dig a pit and have a look. At pre-planting, it is necessary to dig to a minimum of 1 to 2 metres deep. In an established vineyard your soil pits should be 1 metre deep. Based on your own knowledge of soil variation in your vineyard, or from information from the soil map, make observations using a soil pit of each soil series (type) on your vineyard. Starting from top of the pit, observe profile to determine properties and differences between horizons. Place golf tees or markers at the top and bottom of each horizon to clearly identify it. Look for and record: different colors, shapes, roots, the size and amount of stones, small dark nodules (called concretions), worms, or other small animals and insects, worm channels, and anything else that is noticeable. Periodically observing your soil will help you to plan and interpret your soil management outcomes. A soil professional or viticulture consultant can help you with interpreting soil features as you observe them in the field.

4.5.

Identifying Areas of Concern

Areas of concern include adjacent areas that may be impacted by your vineyard operations (e.g., wetlands, streams, residences, schools) and areas on your vineyard that may require extra attention. Use the base map you created in Chapter 1 to record areas and provide an accompanying written description. Refer to this new map as your soil management map. For adjacent areas of concern identify the following attributes: Type Why it is of concern Proximity to vineyard Size and type of buffer present

Hectares of Property/Vineyard
Record the size of your property in its entirety and the size of each of your vineyards.

To identify areas on your vineyard that may need extra attention consider the following:

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Unproductive regions of the vineyard Overly vigorous regions of the vineyard Regions with poor water drainage Areas with very shallow top soil Areas that have variations in canopy colour Areas where there is a variation in cover crop

Also record the predominant wind direction, water table depth, vineyard irrigation system, and potential for leaching based on soil type and water table.

Nitrate-nitrogen (NO3) can also be used as a guideline to determine nitrogen levels, but ambiguity exists in defining critical values. NO3 is highest at bloom, and progressively decreases until stabilization several weeks after bloom; therefore sampling should be done at full bloom. Below 350 ppm is considered deficient, above 500 ppm adequate, and above 2000 ppm excessive. It is important to note that if vines display high vigour, additional nitrogen is not needed, regardless of NO3 or nitrogen lab results.

4.6.

Petiole Sampling and Analysis

An annual petiole (leaf stem) sample and analysis will provide an accurate determination of the nutritional status of your grapevine and help you to develop a nutritional and fertilizer regime. Contact the lab in advance to discuss packaging and timing of sample and results. See page 4-29 (2010 ed.) or page 426 (2006 ed.) of the Best Practices Guide for information on how to sample grape petioles.

Figure 4-5: Petiole removed from a grapevine leaf blade. PHOTO: GARY STRACHAN

It may be appropriate to obtain a second, independent interpretation (e.g., from a consultant or soil expert) of the petiole analyses and their application to your nutrient management plan, even if you understand how to interpret and apply the results.

Interpreting Petiole Test Results


See Table 4.14 in page 4-29 (2010 ed.) or page 4-27 (2006 ed.) of the Best Practices Guide for a summary of the adequate nutrient range for grapes based on bloom time petiole analysis.

4.7.

Soil Sampling and Analysis

Soil tests provide reliable information relating to organic matter content, pH, degree of salinity, and relative quantities of available plant food. Soil sampling and analysis should be done every 5 years or every 2 to 3 years if undergoing a soil amendment program or if fertigation is the soils primary source of

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nutrients. Fall (post harvest) is the best time to sample soils. Soil tests are not reliable for determining fertilizer requirements because of the volume of soil that grapevines can mine, differences in nutrient uptake rates among rootstocks, soil variability, root health, nutrient interactions, and other factors. Petiole tests are the best tool for making decisions on whether or not to add nutrients to vineyards. Soil testing is useful in identifying nutrient imbalances, deciding the form of fertilizer to apply, and tracking soil changes in your vineyard over time. Make a map of your vineyard that separates varieties and indicates areas that are different from each other (e.g., slope, surface soil colour, drainage, soil texture). Add these characteristics to the soil management map you began creating in section 4.5. See page 4-30 (2010 ed.) or page 428 (2006 ed.) of the Best Practices Guide for information on how to sample soil. Contact the lab in advance to discuss sample packaging, how quickly you should deliver the sample to the lab after taking it, and when to expect results. Avoid contamination of the samples. Make sure to store the samples in a cool place and mail or deliver them to the lab as soon as possible.

See page 4-31 (2010 ed.) or page 428 (2006 ed.) of the Best Practices Guide for a list of soil testing laboratories. Note: It may be appropriate to obtain a second, independent interpretation (e.g., from a consultant or soil expert) of the soil analyses and their application to your nutrition management plan, even if you understand how to interpret and apply the results.

4.8.

Water Sampling and Analysis

The purpose of water sampling and analysis is to determine what your water is contributing to the nutritional balance of the soil. Section 5.3 of the Water Management chapter contains information on water sampling and analysis.

Interpreting Soil Test Results


Some of the most important soil parameters are described in Table 4-3.

Laboratories That Offer Petiole and/or Soil Analysis

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Table 4-3: A description of important soil parameters and guidelines for interpreting lab results Parameter pH Description/Importance Measure of acidity (low pH) or alkalinity (high pH) of the soil. Influences the plant availability of macronutrients (N, P, K, S, Ca, Mg, and K) and micronutrients (Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, B, and Mo) Interpreting Lab Results 6.0 to 7.0 is ideal because all nutrients are available at this pH Vines can grow in soil that is pH 4.0 to 8.5 pH greater than 8.0 indicates high calcium carbonate and presence of salts pH greater than 9.0 indicates high levels of salinity Low pH can be caused by years of fertilizer and sulphur use and may induce aluminum toxicity Low pH can also create fungi problems that cause root disease High pH can be accompanied by iron chlorosis See page 8-5 of the EFP for more information. Varies widely with soil type The more negative the charge of the soil, the greater its ability to attract and hold positively charged nutrient ions (cations) including (magnesium (Mg++), calcium (Ca+) and potassium (K+)) As the amount of base cations increases, so does the pH For all alkaline soils, base saturation will typically be greater than 50% and many will approach 100% Values < 0.7 mmho/cm indicate no salinity present 0.7 to 2.0 mmho/cm indicate minor salts present, potentially problematic 2.0 to 4.0 mmho/cm indicate moderate salinity that will affect plant growth and fruit yield over 4.0 mmho/ cm can result in major yield reductions < 300 ppm are good 300 to 700 ppm are acceptable > 700 ppm are problematic

Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC)

Base Saturation Electroconductivity (EC)

Also known as the buffer index Measure of the electrical charge of the soil Measure is used to calculate the amount of lime needed to raise the pH CEC can be altered with soil organic matter Indicates the ratio of base cations in the soil to total cation exchange capacity Measure of soil salinity

Chlorides

A small amount of chlorides are essential for grapevine growth but chlorides can be toxic at low concentrations

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4.9.

Cover Crops

Table 4-4: Factors to consider when choosing a cover crop. Consideration Growth Habits

A cover crop is any plant that improves the soil on which it grows. The use of cover crops in a vineyard is a long term cost effective way to regulate the amount and persistence of soil organic matter. It takes approximately three years from the initial planting of cover crops to see nutrient cycling benefits in the soil organic matter whereas the changes in soil tilth and water penetration and infiltration can occur within one or two years. Cover crops are featured predominately in this section because they are a very effective way to manage soil and nutrients in your vineyard. Cover crops can consist of grasses or legumes, but are typically planted together for their complimentary benefits; the grass makes up the bulk and the legumes provide additional nitrogen. See pages 4-41 and 4-42 for the benefits and potential problems associated with cover crops. Choosing the correct cover crop requires the consideration of a number of factors, as outlined in Table 4-4.

Questions What kind of growth habit is needed? When is the growth required, e.g., lots of vigorous late fall growth or rapid early spring growth? Rooting depth Water requirements Nutrient requirements Does the cover crop need to survive over winter? Would it suit the cropping schedule and soil type if the cover crop winter killed and dried out by spring? Will the cover crop become a weed concern? How is it controlled? What options are there for control? How sensitive is the cover crop to herbicide residues? What is the seed cost and is the seed available in your area?

Tendency to Compete with Vines Overwintering

Control Options (Tendency to spread) Sensitivity to herbicides Seed cost and availability Environmental impact

Can the cover crop damage natural habitat (e.g., orchard grass)? Establishment What is the best way to plant the seed? Is different equipment required? How easy is it to establish? Nutrient Is the cover crop a nitrogen producer or does it require Management nitrogen to grow well? Pest What crop family is the cover Management crop in? Is it related to other crops in the rotation? Are there pest concerns? Source: adapted from Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs, 2002.

See pp. 4-43 to 4-46 (2010 ed.) or pp. 4-39 to 4-42 (2006 ed.) of the Best Practices Guide for information on choosing and managing cover crops.

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sections provide best practices for fertilizer use that will minimize environmental impacts, enhance energy and other cost savings, and benefit society.

Environmental Considerations
See pages 8-1 to 8-6 of the EFP Reference Guide for more information on the environmental considerations of fertilizer use. Some of the environmental concerns to be aware of when working with any kind of fertilizer are: Water pollution (nitrogen and phosphorus leaching): occurs when the fertilizer washes into surface water (streams, lakes or rivers) or leaches into groundwater. A cover crop that establishes quickly in the fall and stays throughout the winter can prevent/reduce nitrogen leaching by taking up added nutrients as can careful use of irrigation water to avoid adding excess water to the root zone that will facilitate leaching of any soluble nutrients. Air pollution: a problem primarily with dry, powdery fertilizers or when fertilizers are applied by spraying. Avoid air pollution problems by only spraying on days when there is no wind. Habitat and animal risks: proper storage and application of fertilizers can reduce the risk of natural habitats and animals being adversely affected by fertilizers. For information on how to store manure and other fertilizers, see www.agf.gov.bc.ca/resmgmt/fppa/refg uide/activity/87021844_Manure_Storage.pdf. Energy costs: some fertilizers have a high energy cost. The mining and processing of phosphate and potash fertilizers consume some energy but the highest energy cost is involved in making ammonia.

Figure 4-6: The use of cover crops in a vineyard.

4.10. Fertilizers
A fertilizer is a substance used to supply essential elements. Two major questions people ask about fertilizers are what specific fertilizer to use and how much to use. There are no universal answers to these questions. The ability of roots to take up nutrients depends on the nutrient supply, but it also depends on other factors, such as soil structure, the availability of air and water, and the population of soil organisms surrounding the roots. After the initial nutrient application, a grower should be prepared to make appropriate modifications later in the season or in the following year, considering the weather and how the grapes are growing. Grapes can often be grown without added fertilizers. A sustainable vineyard will use nutrients released through the decomposition of inherent soil organic matter, nitrogen fixed by leguminous cover crops and contained in irrigation water to maintain nutrient levels as much as possible. All types of fertilizers can have negative impacts on the environment if not managed properly. Rather than promoting the use of certain fertilizers over others, this program promotes the responsible use of any fertilizer, whether organic or inorganic (synthetic). The following

CHAPTER 4 SOIL AND NUTRITION MANAGEMENT | Page 4-15

Organic Fertilizers
See pp. 4-17 to 4-18 (2010 ed.) or pp. 4-15 to 4-16 (2006 ed.) of the Best Practices Guide for information on organic fertilizers. Organic fertilizers include manure, mulch and compost. Many are considered slow release because nutrients are released gradually over the growing season as the organic matter decays. The responsible use of organic materials as soil amendments also benefits society because other options for disposing of the materials, such as landfilling and incineration, often carry greater risks to the environment. That said, organic fertilizers are usually bulky and expensive to transport (both financially and environmentally) so it is important to look at locally-sourced options first. Many organic materials contain low amounts of nutrients. Although organic fertilizers are not always a quick fix for immediate nutrient requirements, they can be applied to balance the nutrient levels over time. Animal Manure Animal manure is the oldest known fertilizer. Throughout history, people have long relied on animals as a source of soil nutrients. To realize the potential value of manure and to avoid pollution problems, well-planned manure handling and storage systems are essential. Manure has several benefits: it has good amounts of nitrogen and potash, fair amounts of other micronutrients, and traces of several micronutrients;

it adds organic matter to the soil 20 to 40 percent of manure is made up of organic solids; it is low in phosphorus but it helps prevent phosphorus from being tied up in the soils, thus making it available for plants; and it has longer-lasting effects than an equivalent amount of chemical fertilizer.

Table 4-5 provides an estimate of the average nutrient content of several types of animal manure. Manure includes both solids and liquids, which are for the most part the feces and urine of the animal. The solid part may also include bedding. Most of the potash in manure is contained in the urine, and the phosphate is contained primarily in the feces. Nitrogen is distributed equally between the two parts. The nutrient content of manures is low compared to commercial fertilizers.
Table 4-5: Nutrient content of several animal manures, in pounds of nutrients per ton. Animal N P2O5 Dairy cattle 10 4 Beef cattle 11 8 Poultry 23 11 Swine 10 3 Sheep 28 4 Horse 13 5 Source: Plaster, 1997. Pounds/Ton K2O S 8 1 10 1 10 3 8 3 20 2 13 -Ca 6 3 36 11 11 -Mg 2 2 6 2 4 --

Table 4-5 is provided as a guideline the nutrient value of manure can vary considerably depending on several factors, including the feed, the age and productivity of the animal, and the amount and type of bedding in the manure. Always be sure the manure added to your vineyard meets the nutrient need of your vineyard. Although it is not always practical, testing your manure at time of application will be very helpful in determining its nutrient content.

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Proper handling of manure reduces nutrient losses and lowers the chance of polluting surface or groundwater. The best way to handle manure is to spread it on unfrozen ground and turn into the soil immediately. If it is not practical to mix it into the soil immediately, the manure should be stored short-term in a storage structure with a concrete floor and walls and a roof to stop drainage losses and slow down the drying of the manure. Sharp nitrogen losses occur if it begins to decay before it is spread. The losses occur when urea changes to ammonia gas during decay the loss is most rapid when it is warm and the concentration of urea is highest. Covering manure piles with straw, hay or tarps will reduce N loss. Raw manure might contaminate the soil with E. coli bacteria, so it is better to use properly composted material. Chapter 6 of the EFP contains more information about the nutrient levels in the different types of manure. Pages 3-17 to 3-29 provides information on manure environmental concerns, legislation, and beneficial management practices. Green Manure Green manure is a cover crop that is grown to be tilled and turned under while still green. Green manure reduces erosion, weed growth and increases organic matter and nutrients in soil. Legumes, grasses, or other plants can be grown for green manure, depending on the soil nutrient requirements. The turning under of the cover crop can increase the nutrient and water holding capacity and aeration levels of the soil. Green manure crops can be planted in March or April, after the fall cover has

been removed. A good time to consider green manuring is prior to vineyard establishment. Green manuring is generally not practiced in dry climates where water is chronically a limiting element to plant growth. Considerable soil water is lost in transpiration from the green manure plant, lowering the water table. Mulch Mulch is an organic matter material (e.g., straw, leaves, vine and grape waste) that is spread on the soil surface. Mulch decomposes and provides the soil with increased nutrients and soil aggregation. Mulches also block evaporation of water from the soil, moderate soil temperatures, slowing down soil drying, and help control the growth of weeds Compost Composting is the decomposition of waste products by aerobic means (i.e., through microorganisms that require oxygen). The successful production of compost depends primarily on the moisture content, air supply and quantity of material. The unique feature of compost as a fertilizer is its usually predictable and ideal C/N ratio, combined with a high concentration of minerals. Compost also contains high levels of microorganisms that aid in the decomposition and may increase pest and disease resistance of the vineyard. Composting also destroys viable weed seeds that may be present in uncomposted manures.

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Table 4-6: Compost and manure pros and cons (characteristics may vary per product, especially from mixed sources). Material Green waste compost Pros and Cons High carbon and low nitrogen, potassium, and phosphorus. Good choice for building stable organic matter. May immobilize nitrogen if incorporated (particularly a problem with high C/N ratio material). Recycles urban yard wastes. Typically low in salt content. Source and quality is important because it can be a source for undesirable chemical residues. High nitrogen (slow release) and low carbon. High nitrogen (slow release) and low carbon. May contain high levels of salts. High potassium and nitrogen (slow release). Recycles winery waste products. High nitrogen (slow release) and very high phosphorus.

Figure 4-7: Machine used to turn compost at a vineyard in the Okanagan. PHOTO: GRAHAM OROURKE

Compost made up of manure or food waste can have quite high concentrations of salt. Grapevine growth can be affected if salinity levels of the compost are greater than 2.5 ds/m and certainly will be impacted if salinity levels exceed 4.0 ds/m. Therefore, it is advised not to use manure or food waste compost if your vineyard soil is somewhat saline (soil test results for EC > 3.0 ds/m). If using compost in high quantities or for specific nutrient needs, have the compost tested to find out what levels of nutrients are in it. Because compost can be made up of such a variety of materials, it can vary greatly in nutrient content and salinity levels. If your compost is from an Okanagan landfill, be sure to test for boron levels as they are higher than desirable in many cases. Pages 2-26 to 2-30 of the EFP Reference Guide provides information on compost environmental concerns, legislation, and beneficial management practices. The pros and cons of various types of compost and manure are included in Table 4-6.

Dairy manure compost Steer manure compost Grape pomace compost Chicken manure compost Dairy manure

Moderate nitrogen, but needs incorporation for maximum contribution because of ammonia volatilization. May contain numerous weed seeds. Steer Moderate nitrogen, but needs manure incorporation for maximum contribution because of ammonia volatilization. May contain numerous weed seeds and high levels of salts. Chicken Very high nitrogen and phosphorus, but manure needs incorporation of maximum contribution because of ammonia volatilization. Has strong odour, can burn young vines, and can tie up zinc if includes bedding. Raw grape High potassium and moderate nitrogen. pomace Recycles winery waste. Source: Ohmart and Matthiasson, 2008

Special note: do not apply fermented grape pomace to vineyard soils as it can be highly toxic.

Synthetic Fertilizers
Synthetic fertilizers are manufactured in labs and are composed of synthetic chemicals and/or minerals. Some fertilizers contain one main nutrient

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source, while others contain multiple sources. Different nutrient compositions suit different crops and soil types. Some of the advantages of synthetic fertilizers include: nutrient amounts can be tweaked depending on what is lacking in the soil quickly available to the plant upon application cost effective easily transported can be bought in quantities needed Over-application of synthetic fertilizers may lead to: burning of the root plant death leaching due to rain or irrigation increased salinity to toxic levels excessive vigour The production of synthetic fertilizers uses large amounts of energy. The bulk of energy use is not consumed directly at the agricultural site, but indirectly during the production, packaging and transportation of the fertilizer. Additional energy is then used on site during application. Page 2-14 to 2-16 of the EFP Reference Guide provides information on environmental concerns, legislation, and beneficial management practices related to chemical fertilizers.

application (i.e., what time of year and how many times during the year). The amount and type of fertilizer applied should be based on the results of your petiole and soil tests, the nutrients available to the vines, the amount removed with harvest, the nutrients incorporated into root and trunk growth (510% of that removed with harvest), and the vineyard vigour. It is important to ensure vines are balanced, leaching is minimized, and nutrients are not over or under applied. Knowledge of deficiency symptoms (see Table 4-2), good record keeping, and experimentation with quantities and timing of fertilizer applications will also aid in assessing the soil capability and determining the appropriate rates and timing of applications. pp. 4-19 to 4-26 (2010 ed.) or pp. 4-17 to 4-23 (2006 ed.) of the Best Practices Guide provide recommendations on amounts, sources and application rates of fertilizers. The timing of fertilization is important to maximize the positive effects of the fertilizer to the soil and to minimize its potentially negative effects to the grapevines and the surrounding environment. General best management practices for fertilizer timing and application include: Add fertilizers in small amounts and in multiple doses to decrease the possibility of leaching into the groundwater or of creating excessive nutrient levels; Add fertilizers during the growing season when the uptake of nutrients by the grapevines is at its peak, or at

4.11. Rates and Timing of Nutrient Application


See pages 6-18 to 6-22 of the EFP for more information on rates and timing of nutrient application. This section of your nutrient management plan should outline the amount of fertilizer you will apply and the timing of that

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post harvest to allow the grapevines time to take up the nutrients for the next growing season; Do not apply nutrients on excessively wet soils and soils which are cold, frozen or snow covered as these soils are less likely to absorb nutrients; and Never add fertilizers when the grapevines are dormant.

Advantages of fertigation include distribution uniformity, reduced fertilizer use, minimal off-site movement, flexible in timing fertilizer application and significantly less labour intensive, all of which reduce overall costs. An alternative to fertigation is the use of a biological source to add nutrients to the soil. A biological source may be compost, pomace or a cover crop. As the crop is irrigated, water transports nutrients from the biological source into the root zone of the plants. See pp. 4-27 to 4-28 (2010 ed.) or pp. 4-24 to 4-25 (2006 ed.) of the Best Practices Guide for the advantages and disadvantages of fertigation.

Table 6.11 and Table 6.12 (pages 6-21 and 6-22) in the EFP Reference Guide provide monthly manure spreading practices in the coastal region and the interior region, respectively.

4.12. Methods of Nutrient Application


This section of your nutrient management plan should address the following questions: Where will the fertilizer be applied (e.g., below dripper, row middles)? Will the irrigation system be used to apply the fertilizer? Who will apply if someone from your operation wont be doing the application? What equipment will be used? What factors will you use to adjust application date or method and how will they change (e.g., slope, rainfall patterns, soil type)?

Soil Surface Applications


Some fertilizers are added directly onto the soil and then worked into the soil for optimal results. This includes the organic fertilizers such as manure and compost and some synthetic fertilizers as well. The advantages of topical applications are: One of the simplest methods of fertilizing; Easiest method of applying organic fertilizers (i.e., manure, compost); and Can be used to apply bulk blends rapidly.

Fertigation
Fertigation (or chemigation) is the process of applying highly soluble inorganic fertilizers using an irrigation system for application. Fertigation is only as effective as the irrigation system it is used in. Fertigation works best in a trickle/drip system but can also be used through sprinkler or surface irrigation.

The disadvantages are: Some nutrients do not leach very far into the soil, and if left on the surface may not reach the root zone; Runoff can occur if rainfall or irrigation rates exceed the infiltration capacity of the soil. Some moisture is needed to solubilise the nutrients and transport them downward into the root zone so they can be utilized by the plant;

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Nutrients can have an adverse affect on animals that enter the vineyard too soon after application; and Light and powdery fertilizers can blow away on a windy day. Be sure to work the fertilizer into the soil as soon as possible.

Foliar Spraying
Foliar feeding involves spraying solutions directly on the leaves of the vines. The nutrients are absorbed through the stomata (openings in leaves that allow gases to move in and out). The most practical use of foliar sprays is to solve trace element shortages. Spraying the leaves bypasses any soil problems (e.g., trace elements being tied up in the soil). See page 4-20 (2010 ed.) or page 418 (2006 ed.) of the Best Practices Guide for information on nitrogen foliar applications (urea). The advantages of foliar spraying are: Often provides the quickest response of any method of fertilization so may be used as a quick cure for a deficiency.

to be maintained and calibrated to ensure uniform distribution. Calibration is a determination of the amount of solid or liquid applied to a given area for a specific piece of application equipment. Uniformity is the evenness of application across the band spreading width from the beginning to end of each pass. See page 6-25 of the EFP Reference Guide for information on how to calibrate manure application equipment.

4.13. Review and Update of Nutrient Management Plan


Your nutrient management plan should be reviewed periodically throughout the season and a formal annual review and update conducted before starting your fertility program for the following year. The questions to consider during your reviews are: What were your actual application rates? When did you actually apply? How did you actually apply? What material was actually used? What was your tonnage? Was the fertility enough, too much, or too little for your crop and quality goals? What events caused deviation from the plan (e.g., weather, lack of labour, crop maturity, etc.)? Reflect on these deviations from your plan and update or change components to better predict next season.

The disadvantages are: Results are usually short-lived so it may be necessary to repeat feedings several times; Difficult to supply enough of the major elements; and Sprays strong enough to supply much nutrient value can burn the leaves and damage application equipment.

Nutrient Application Calibration

Equipment

In order to manage nutrients effectively, both manure and fertilizer spreaders need

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Soil Management
4.14. Soil Erosion Due to Water, Wind, or Equipment
Agricultural lands lose surface soil every year to different types of erosion. Water erosion happens when rainfall or melting snow or even excess irrigation washes valuable topsoil away. Water erosion can be limited by ensuring your soil has good water infiltration, good water holding capacity (by the addition of organic matter to your vineyard). If possible and necessary, you should consider a drainage system for your vineyard. (Although some larger vineyards use a tile drainage system, this can be costly and not feasible for many viticulturists. Drainage ditches or gullies to catch excess water are another alternative.) Cover crops will help protect the surface soil and prevent water erosion as well. Drip irrigation will minimize water use and runoff. Mass movement erosion occurs when a large amount of soil moves and takes more soil with it. This is like a landslump or small landslide and occurs on a slope. Generally mass movements will be caused by concentrated runoff flows that saturate soils on sloping terrain. If possible, avoid planting on steep grades. Sandy or clayey textured soils are more likely to be carried away in mass movement erosion. Add organic matter to your soil to help limit mass movement erosion. Planting cover crops will also work to reduce the possibility of mass movement erosion. Tillage erosion occurs through plowing and discing the soil on sloping and hummocky (uneven hilly) landscapes. On most cultivated soils this is the major factor in soil movement usually resulting in removal of topsoil from convex landform positions

and deposition in concave or depressional positions. The impact is to greatly reduce soil health on the eroded slopes and knolls. The object should be to minimize tillage on hummocky landscapes. In some high-value vineyards in Europe it is not uncommon for vineyard managers to transport soils moved downslope through tillage back onto upperslope positons to maintain soil health and productivity. Wind erosion occurs when wind blows away surface soil. Cover crops will help protect the soil from wind. Also, planting trees and shrubs on the perimeter of your vineyard will act as a windbreak and help to protect you vineyard from wind. Air quality is an important consideration when working with soil. Dust particles in the air can be considered air pollution. Particulate matter (PM) in the air is measured in diameter. PM10 means particulate matter less than 10 microns in diameter. At this size, the particles can be inhaled and enter the lungs and it is very difficult for the body to get rid of them. If enough of these particles accumulate in the lungs, they can create health problems. It is important to be aware of PM10 and how you can reduce them in your vineyard. Using dust suppression materials (paving, oil, roadmix gravel, organic matter) on roadways and shifting soil only when it is moist and not on windy days are two measures to reduce your impact on air quality. Breaks in water supply lines or irrigation lines can result in large volumes of water being discharged over a small area. In fine textured soils (clayey and silty soil classes) considerable erosion can occur very quickly. Water supply lines must be inspected and maintained on a regular basis to prevent such erosion events from occurring.

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See page 4-17 (2010 ed.) or page 415 (2006 ed.) of the Best Practices Guide for more information on erosion control.

Pages 8-9 to 8-13 and 8-17 of the EFP Reference Guide contains more information on soil erosion risk.

4.15. Soil Erosion from Roads, Ditches, and Culverts


It is important to limit erosion associated with roads and their infrastructure and to prevent erosion that does occur from reaching adjacent waterbodies. Important sediment reduction measures for roads, ditches and culverts include (Horwath et. al, 2008): Outsloping unpaved roads minimizes surface erosion by rapidly moving water from the roadbed. Outsloping also disperses eroded sediments along the hill-slope, where it can be filtered by cover crops or natural vegetation, rather than concentrating sediment in the ditch. Vegetating unpaved roads with grass or other vegetation reduces erosion and dust. Grassing and hardening ditches to prevent erosion and downcutting. For low to moderate slopes use perennial grasses to stabilize ditch surfaces and filter sediments from unpaved road surfaces. For steeper slopes and points of potential high scour, hardening with stone or cement may be necessary. Stabilizing culverts at both the inlet and outlet by ensuring soil is well compacted and points of scour hardened (e.g., with stone or cement); sizing culverts to accommodate high flow events; installing culverts at a slope matching the downstream grade; and installing energy dissipaters below the culvert outflow.

4.16. Tillage of the Vineyard Floor


Tillage or discing (tilling which cultivates only the top few inches of soil) should be used sparingly. Once a vineyard is established, tillage of the vineyard floor should not be done more than once every five years, if at all. Tilling can break down soil structure, deteriorate soil organic matter, and adversely affect soil aggregation. Tilling can also break down mycorrhizae fungi and contribute to soil compaction. Tilling can be necessary if you use green manure as part of your nutrient management plan. Tilling is then used to turn under these plants for decomposition in the soil for specific nutrient requirements. This practice of tilling should still be done only when required and the adverse affects of soil compaction should be considered in your soil management practices. Use a spader or cultivator to minimise the impacts of tillage.

4.17. Soil Compaction


See page 8-1 of the EFP for more information about best practices to minimize soil compaction. Soil compaction occurs when heavy traffic such as tractors or other farming equipment, compresses soil, causing it to lose pore space. The loss of pore space makes the soil less able to absorb and hold water, causing an increased likelihood of water erosion. Vine roots require a certain amount of water and oxygen in order to take in nutrients and

CHAPTER 4 SOIL AND NUTRITION MANAGEMENT | Page 4-23

grow and soil compression makes less space for both water and oxygen in the soil and can have an impact on vine growth. To avoid soil compression: Do not use heavy equipment on wet soil Use lighter equipment when possible Use equipment with tracks or wide diameter tires to reduce ground loading Keep tire pressure on equipment as low as possible (tracked tractors have the lowest psi) Plant cover crops (the roots create space in the soil to reduce compaction) Use equipment that can do 2-4 rows at a time

Water holding capacity: affected by the soil structure, texture and organic matter content. Inside the soil aggregates are water holding micro pores. Soil with good water holding capacity will store water during rainfall for use by the vines roots. Grow cover crops or add compost or mulch to create well aggregated soil. Sufficient drainage: affected by internal porosity, which can be enhanced by adding organic matter, or by landscape position whereby runoff water collects at a site. In this later case, artificial drainage may be required.

Recommended Resources
Soil management: Ministry of Agriculture and Lands publications Soil Management Handbook for the Lower Fraser Valley and Soil Management Handbook for the Okanagan and Similkameen Valleys Fertigation: Chemigation Guidelines for BC, can be ordered from the Irrigation Industry Association of BC at 604-859-8222. Nutrient Management Nutrient Management Reference Guide. Canada- British Columbia Environmental Farm Plan Series. www.agf.gov.bc.ca/resmgmt/EnviroFar mPlanning/EFP_Nutrient_Guide/Nutrie nt_Guide_toc.htm Nutrient Management Factsheets, BC Ministry of Agriculture and Lands. www.agf.gov.bc.ca/resmgmt/EnviroFar mPlanning/EFP_Nutrient_Guide/Nutrie nt_Guide_toc.htm See page 4-47 (2010 ed.) or page 443 (2006 ed.) and Chapter 10 of the Best Practices Guide for more resources.

4.18. Soil Water Storage and Movement


Soil should have good infiltration rates and a high water holding capacity to soak up surface water and thereby minimize run off, which can cause soil erosion, and maximize the amount of water that can be made available to vine root systems. Water that is available to the vine roots is essential for healthy growth as water stress on the vine will affect the growth of leaves, shoots and fruit. Good soil structure is important for creating optimal levels of water infiltration, water holding capacity and drainage. If water from irrigation or rain water puddles on top of the soil and runs off when the soil underneath is dry, measures to improve the infiltration capacity of the soil should be taken. Water infiltration: affected by how prone the soil is to crusting. Covering soil with mulch or compost will improve the ability of the soil to absorb water.

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CHAPTER 5 WATER MANAGEMENT


Table of Contents
page INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................. 5-1 IDENTIFYING LOCAL CONDITIONS ................................................................................... 5-1 5.1. 5.2. 5.3. 5.4. 5.5. 5.6. 5.7. 5.8. 5.9. 5.10. 5.11. 5.12. 5.13. 5.14. 5.15 5.16 The Water Cycle .................................................................................................. 5-2 Your Watershed .................................................................................................. 5-2 Water Quality Testing and Analysis ..................................................................... 5-3 Backflow Prevention ........................................................................................... 5-5 Types of Irrigation Systems ................................................................................. 5-5 Irrigation System Design and Operation ............................................................. 5-6 Flow Meters......................................................................................................... 5-6 Delineating Irrigation Management Zones ......................................................... 5-7 Distribution Uniformity and Application Efficiency.............................................. 5-7 Pump Efficiency .................................................................................................. 5-8 Routine System Maintenance............................................................................. 5-8 Soil Moisture-Based Approaches ...................................................................... 5-10 Plant-Based Approaches ................................................................................... 5-11 Deficit Irrigation and Dry Farming Methods...................................................... 5-13 Stormwater Runoff ............................................................................................ 5-14 Drainage............................................................................................................ 5-15

WATER QUALITY ............................................................................................................. 5-3

WATER USE EFFICIENCY ................................................................................................. 5-5

IRRIGATION SCHEDULING .............................................................................................. 5-9

SURFACE WATER MOVEMENT ...................................................................................... 5-14

RECOMMENDED RESOURCES ...................................................................................... 5-15

5.0 WATER MANAGEMENT


Introduction
Chapter objective: To promote responsible use of water through monitoring, proper irrigation system design and scheduling, efficient technologies, and runoff control. Effective irrigation management can help growers reduce their water consumption, minimize the likelihood of excess nutrients leaching beyond the plants rooting depth, increase crop yield, improve fruit quality and capitalize on related cost savings. Consequently, the environment and society also benefit: reduced water consumption in the vineyard means more water is available for the future or for other needs; reducing or eliminating runoff and nutrient leaching means less impact on streams, lakes and aquifers. Not only will water conservation save water, but in many cases energy use will be reduced, thus having a significant impact on operating costs for the vineyard. To be effective, irrigation management must be tailored to suit site conditions, plant characteristics, vine size, spacing and variety, and must be compatible with other management goals such as cover crop maintenance, frost protection, and disease and pest control. Growers should use a varied set of tools to help them make more informed decisions. These tools may include monitoring equipment, weather stations, online data banks (i.e., evapotranspiration data) and calculators (i.e., irrigation calculator). Please note: this chapter is not a technical guide on how to fine-tune your irrigation system. For a more technical approach to fine-tuning your irrigation system, the BC EFP can provide assistance through their Irrigation System Assessment Guide, available at www.agf.gov.bc.ca/resmgmt/EnviroFarmPl anning/EFP_Irrigation_Guide/Irrig_Guide_ toc.htm.

Identifying Local Conditions


Soil type, land features, and irrigation water source are examples of local conditions unique to every vineyard that should be considered in any water management scheme, as they will influence how the crop objectives can be achieved. Local parameters and conditions should be monitored on an ongoing basis, to identify shortfalls in the strategy and to take the necessary corrective actions. Some monitoring tools may include: soil monitoring devices weather stations other information resources (e.g., www.irrigationbc.com and www.farmwest.com)

Some local parameters to track may include: visual plant stress leaf water potential soil moisture evapotranspiration (ET) estimates

The data should not only be collected but also recorded and interpreted to support irrigation scheduling decisions. Other considerations such as energy efficiency should also be taken into account when relevant.

CHAPTER 5 WATER MANAGEMENT | Page 5-1

5.1.

The Water Cycle

5.2.

Your Watershed

The water cycle is an essential component to agriculture and life in general. It is important for all water users to optimize the water received from the natural cycle, especially as water becomes a scarcer resource. During precipitation, moisture is stored as both surface and ground water. Some of this water is lost through evaporation back to the atmosphere or runs off the site as surface flow. Additionally, some water is taken up by plants, where it is stored in the plant and transpired back into the atmosphere. The plant communities on the vineyard and particularly the vine and cover crop selection can have a significant impact on how water is cycled, as various plants use and store water differently. To take full advantage of natural water resources you should have a basic understanding of the water cycle and of how practices such as monitoring evapotranspiration, increasing the water holding capacity of your soil, improving soil filtration, and managing runoff fit into the cycle.

Your vineyard is located in a watershed. A watershed is an area where surface water captured by precipitation, filtration and stored water, drains into the same water source. Watersheds can be large areas that drain into an ocean or smaller areas that drain into a lake. All living things in a watershed area depend on their common water source and therefore all have a vested interest a healthy watershed. Activities on the land in a watershed can have both a local environmental impact and an impact downstream. Knowledge of the local watershed is important in understanding what issues a region faces regarding their water resources. To find out which local watershed your property is located in, contact your water purveyor or local government (i.e., municipality or regional district). Or, you may go to the Know Your Watershed website. Know Your Watershed website
http://map.ns.ec.gc.ca/kyw/Default.aspx?lang=en-ca

The Know Your Watershed (KYW) project provides Canadians with on-line access to a map of the watershed they live in, as well as a growing list of related watershed information. These maps show your local watershed, its associated ocean basin, and a watershed profile including towns sharing your watershed, upstream and downstream basins, related federal and provincial websites, and local environmental groups. Future content will include local photographs submitted by schools, water quality indicators, water levels, and water use information.

Figure 5-1: Drawing of the water cycle. Source: Environment Canada Freshwater Website www.ec.gc.ca/Water/en/nature/prop/e_cycle.htm

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Snowpack

Precipitation

Tributaries Ridge Agriculture Sub Basin Riparian zone Town Lake

Forestry

Wetland Percolation Groundwater (aquifer)

Percolation

Figure 5-2: Drawing of a typical watershed. Adapted from Capital Regional District Watershed Website www.crd.bc.ca/watersheds/protection/watershed-basics/index.htm

Consider the following when you look at local maps of your watershed area: How close is your property to the primary water source? What special features make up your watershed (i.e., lakes, streams, etc.)? Is your vineyard connected to any tributary watersheds?

water boards, and other types of organizations. As a viticulturist, it is in your best interest to be involved in watershed management groups so you can play a part in ensuring a safe and secure source of water for viticulture in the future.

Water Quality
5.3. Water Quality Testing and Analysis

Participation in a Management Group

Local

Watershed

Local watershed stewardship groups aid in planning and development to protect the watershed area. These may include nonprofit organizations, irrigation districts,

Water quality is an important aspect in irrigation planning. Water of poor quality can carry pollutants, pathogens and salts

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that can negatively impact the vineyard and the environment. Irrigation water suitability is greatly influenced by the concentration of salts. The long-term growth of a crop and health of the soil will be greatly influenced by salinity (TDS) and the proportion of sodium relative to magnesium in water (SAR). It will also depend on soil type, irrigation practices, grape variety and rootstock. High levels of salts can affect the osmotic effect at the root zone, meaning that greater tensions are needed within the roots to extract water in higher salinity soil. Additionally, some of the salts may be in a form that is toxic to vine roots (i.e., chloride and sodium), which can affect shoot growth and yield potential. High levels of boron can cause leaf damage (cupping and spotting), defoliation and depressed growth. Methods of dealing with salt toxicity include: Ensuring good drainage. Soil type has a large effect because good drainage results in leaching of salt out of the root zone. Adding calcium to the soil. Water filtration may be necessary as carbonate and bicarbonate ions in water can combine with calcium and magnesium, precipitate and block drippers and emitters.

Where private groundwater wells are the source of water, testing for irrigation suitability and nutrient content should be performed every three years. Where dynamic water sources such as streams are the source, a more frequent monitoring scheme is recommended as water quality can change more often. Growers should inspect wellheads and water sources on an annual basis to identify potential contamination, and additional water testing should be carried out when a cause for concern is identified. Table 5.1 shows parameters according to the BC Approved Water Quality Guidelines. In all cases the values shown are maximum limits. In case of dispute, the original document (available from BC Ministry of Environment) must be consulted. In addition to the parameters listed in Table 5-1, it may be beneficial to analyze for bicarbonate, calcium, magnesium, manganese and total suspended solids (TSS). Pages 9-16 and 9-17 of the EFP Reference Guide provide information on irrigation water quality.

Most vineyards in BC are supplied with water by irrigation districts, municipalities or regional districts. These water purveyors carry out regular water testing and usually treat water to drinking-water standards prior to distribution. Where this is the case, growers may not need to test their water for irrigation suitability, however, growers should request test results from their water purveyor at least once every five years.

Page 5-4 | SUSTAINABLE PRACTICES FOR BC VINEYARDS | MARCH 2010

Table 5.1: Test parameters for irrigation water for wine grapes. Analysis pH Irrigation Parameters** 7.0 8.7 Comments 8.5 or greater suggests possible sodium hazard

it to the plant along with the irrigation water. See section 4.12 for more information on fertigation. Backflow prevention devices are essential in a fertigation system to prevent water source contamination.

Aluminum Boron Chloride Copper (sheep) Faecal coliform Lead, neutral and alkaline fine textured soils Lead, all other soils Sodium Sulphate Nitrate Nitrite Iron Total dissolved solids (salinity)

5mg/l dissolved 0.5 - 1.0mg/L 100mg/l 200ug/l 1000/ml 400ug/l 200ug/l 300mg/l 500mg/l No level No level 0.3mg/l 500mg/l

Water Use Efficiency


5.5. Types of Irrigation Systems

Irrigation systems used in BC vineyards include high-volume, high pressure sprinkler systems and low pressure systems such as drip or trickle and microsprinklers. pp. 4-32 and 4-33 (2010 ed.) or pp. 430 and 4-31 (2006 ed.) of the Best Practices Guide contain information on types of irrigation systems. Pages 9-17 and 9-18 of the EFP Reference Guide contain information on types of irrigation systems. Regardless of the irrigation system type, it is important to know the rate of water application per area to calculate the amount of time required to wet through the root system. Water delivery rates will be influenced by characteristics of the site and crop such as terrain, slope, cover crops and the rate of water absorption by and percolation within the soil. Most vineyards in BC are irrigated by overhead sprinklers, which are used not only to supply water but to provide frost protection. While overhead sprinklers are the predominant method of irrigation, drip and microjet systems are also being used.

Hardness

Zinc for irrigation 1000ug/l water with pH <6 Zinc for irrigation 5000ug/l water pH >7 Zinc for irrigation 2000ug/l water with pH 6-7 **Irrigation parameters are for systems that do not provide public access and do not provide overhead irrigation to crops that are eaten raw. Source: BC Approved Water Quality Guidelines

Aesthetic objective only. Objective level: Higher values indicate high salt content For information only

5.4.

Backflow Prevention

Fertigation is a way of distributing fertilizers, soil amendments or other water soluble products through an irrigation system. The process involves injecting fertilizer into irrigation lines and delivering

CHAPTER 5 WATER MANAGEMENT | Page 5-5

specifications outlined in industry adopted irrigation design manuals. They also provide scheduling information to the property owner to ensure that the systems are operated correctly. Visit www.irrigationbc.com/CertifiedProfessionals to find a CID in your area. The irrigation system designer must set water application rates that are ideal for the local soil characteristics and vine vigour. Equally important are the number of emitters and their spacing from each other; these should be set to deliver a water rate adequate for the vine size and soil texture. An irrigation system should include certain basic components:
Figure 5-4: Inverted sprinkler system in a vineyard. PHOTO: TED VAN DER GULIK

Figure 5-3: Drip irrigation of young vines in Oliver. PHOTO: KELLIE GARCIA

back-flow preventers flow controls filtration and injection equipment pressure compensation energy efficiency accommodation for site variation.

5.6.

Irrigation System Design and Operation

To prevent plugging of irrigation emitters, a filtration system and regular inspections of the emitters are recommended. These components and controls can enhance safety and energy efficiency. Pages 9-18 to 9-20 of the EFP Reference Guide contain more information on irrigation system design and operation.

The irrigation system must be designed to provide vines their maximum water requirements. Also, the system design must take soil characteristics into consideration. Irrigation companies can help growers determine flow rates, sprinkler sizes, pipe and pump needs for the land and crop to be irrigated. Irrigation systems must be designed and installed correctly. You should use a Certified Irrigation Designers (CIDs) to help you design and install your system. CIDs are held to a code of ethics that require the selection and design of irrigation systems that meet standards and

5.7.

Flow Meters

Water metering in an irrigation system helps by providing a visual representation of water consumption and can help detect leaks in the system. Metering usually leads to water conservation efforts, including a reduction in wasted water. Flow meters can be installed on wells and other pumps to provide an accurate

Page 5-6 | SUSTAINABLE PRACTICES FOR BC VINEYARDS | MARCH 2010

measure of water usage. Monthly checks and recording of flows are recommended.

5.8.

Delineating Irrigation Management Zones

An important component of irrigation management is the identification of zones of the vineyard that have similar plantavailable water storage and similar cropwater extraction patterns. Zones will have significantly different water and nutrient requirements that will affect irrigation scheduling. To delineate irrigation management zones you can follow these steps, which consist of creating different layers of drawings (using tracing paper) and overlaying these on top of the base map of your site (FAO, 2005): Step 1: Make a copy of the base map created in Chapter 1. Step 2: Make a copy of the soil management map created in Chapter 4 on tracing paper. Ensure the drawing identifies the dominant soil types and key soil properties that affect soil-water storage. Mark areas with similar irrigation requirements. Step 3: Draw your irrigation system plan on a new sheet of tracing paper, and overlay on top of the soil management map and base map. Mark areas watered by each valve and in each irrigation shift. Step 4: Overlay a planting plan of grape varieties.

Integrate this information to draw up irrigation-scheduling units. Delineate areas that have similar irrigation requirements according to soils, aspect, topographic location and vine type/cultivar. Some modification may be required to the irrigation system. Refer to the resulting map (or maps) as your irrigation management map(s).

Figure 5-5: Steps in delineating management zones. (FAO, 2005)

irrigation

5.9.

Distribution Uniformity and Application Efficiency

Distribution Uniformity (DU) is a measurement of the evenness of water application over a field, and is expressed as a percentage. Application efficiency is an indication of the percentage of water applied by the irrigation system that is actually available to the crop. It is important for irrigation water to be distributed evenly throughout the vineyard so the vine canopy, yield and fruit quality are uniform throughout the block. The goal should be to avoid overwatering one area and not watering enough in another, since this will affect crop uniformity -- one of the most important parameters influencing wine quality. Table 5-2 lists the impacts of irrigation extremes.
CHAPTER 5 WATER MANAGEMENT | Page 5-7

Table 5-2: Impacts of irrigation extremes Over-Irrigation Under-Irrigation

Drowns roots, Reduces crop stressing plants yield Leaches nutrients Reduces crop and pesticides from quality (fruit and the root zone to vegetable size) groundwater Reduces nutrient Reduces plant uptake growth Cools soil, thus Weakens plant reducing root growth Encourages root disease Reduces crop quality Increases system operating costs May impact unnecessarily on water resources and impact fish and wildlife resources that rely on adequate and sustained water quality and quantity Source: Nyvall and Tam, 2005, p. 4

Energy efficiency of pumps can be optimized by having a pump operate at or close to its Best Efficiency Point, accomplished by: Ensuring that the correct impeller is used Improving friction loss in fittings at pump discharge. Replacing worn nozzles as these can apply more water than desired and can throw off your irrigation schedule (water budget). Replacing pump with a more efficient model.

Pumps fed by electricity produced from clean alternate sources of energy such as wind or solar photovoltaic, have become an economically viable option for many vineyards in North America and are considered the most sustainable.

Simple catch can trials can be conducted on any type of irrigation system and the data used to calculate the distribution uniformity for the system. Yearly testing and recording of distribution uniformity of the irrigation system is recommended, unless subsurface drip irrigation is employed, in which case relief valves should be checked weekly. Testing can be done by monitoring emitter outflows and pressure differences across the block and make corrections where needed. Irrigation systems should be assessed for distribution uniformity and application efficiency before scheduling is developed.

5.11. Routine System Maintenance


Once your system is designed and installed it is up to you to make sure it is being used (scheduled) and maintained properly. Irrigation scheduling takes into account the location, landscape, soil and irrigation system operation parameters. The IIABC provides an online irrigation calculator that can be used to help develop watering times and amounts for landscape irrigation. The scheduling calculator is integrated with the climate network so that current evapotranspiration data is used in the calculations. See www.irrigationbc.com for the calculator and instructions on how to use it. Routine checks of your entire system will help ensure proper functioning and reduce water waste.

5.10. Pump Efficiency


An irrigation system can be made more efficient firstly by having a custom designed distribution system with adequate pump and pipeline sizes, and by irrigating according to crop requirements.

Page 5-8 | SUSTAINABLE PRACTICES FOR BC VINEYARDS | MARCH 2010

Low-Volume Surface Systems


Sprinkler systems can be expensive to install and can consist of many components. These may require a significant amount of maintenance to continue operating at maximum efficiency. Irrigation system leaks waste water and can result in significant off-site movement of water, contributing to non-point source pollution. For proper performance it is necessary that filters, lines and sprinkler heads are operating as designed without interference from clogging, leaks or breaks. A backflushing or self-cleaning filter is ideal for this application. Routine maintenance should include: checking for leaks backflushing filters flushing lines chlorinating (if needed) acidifying (if needed) cleaning or replacing clogged emitters inspecting or replacing other parts

High-Volume Sprinkler Systems


Routine maintenance should be done while irrigating, and should include: check and fix head rotation problems checking and fix nozzle clogging Repair line leaks and breaks

Irrigation Scheduling
High quality fruit depends on an irrigation schedule that is started at the right time of the season and continued at optimal intervals. The definition of adequate will depend on soil, crop, atmospheric, irrigation system and operational factors. The decision making process can include simple things, such as making decisions based on personal experience or following neighbours practices, or more complex methods, such as using soil water measurements, forecasts/meteorological data, climate projections, plant stress indicators, and monitoring leaf turgor pressure, trunk diameter and sap flow. The goal of any irrigation program should be to supply the vine with enough water to survive and produce high quality fruit, while minimizing loss due to percolation and runoff. Irrigation scheduling is a systematic way of determining when and how much to irrigate. Its purpose is generally to replace the amount of water lost from the soil over a specified period of time, although other considerations exist (i.e., winter hardiness). Benefits of irrigation scheduling include (Prichard, nd): Reduced costs (energy and water Control of excess vegetative growth Reduced cost of hedging and multiple leaf removal Reduced disease susceptibility Increased fruit quality

Low-Volume Subsurface Systems


Low-volume sub-surface systems may require a significant amount of maintenance to continue operating at maximum efficiency. Routine maintenance should be done while irrigating, and should include: checking for leaks backflushing filters flushing lines chlorinating (if needed) acidifying (if needed) cleaning or replacing clogged emitters inspecting or replacing other parts

CHAPTER 5 WATER MANAGEMENT | Page 5-9

Reduced environmental risks (off site and percolation movement Reduced fertilizer losses (deep percolation

5.12. Soil Moisture-Based Approaches


As the vine canopy expands and temperatures rise, the evapotranspiration rate increases and this can deplete the soil of surplus water reserves from winter rain and irrigation. Vine water stress generally occurs when half of the rootavailable water has been depleted and stress increases as the dry point is reached. To manage irrigation effectively, the scheduling of irrigation events should be based on direct measures of soil moisture, which will help determine what is available for the plant, and what needs to be supplied. Monitoring frequency will depend on the rate at which soil dries. Soil water measurements are easy to apply in practice and can be quite precise. Many commercial systems are available and some sensors can be readily automated. Disadvantages include the fact that soil heterogeneity requires many sensors (often expensive) or an extensive monitoring program and selecting a position that is representative of the rootzone can be difficult. (Jones, 2003).

Whatever the technique to determine irrigation scheduling, growers should avoid overwatering or not supplying sufficient water to grape vines. Overwatering can lead to fruit splitting, mildew and fungi. Insufficient moisture can cause vine stress and negatively impact yield and fruit quality and winter hardiness. See pp. 4-35 to 4-38 (2010 ed.) or pp. 4-33 to 4-36 (2006 ed.) of the Best Practices Guide for more information on scheduling methods. See pages 9-20 to 9-25 of the EFP Reference Guide for more information on irrigation water scheduling.

FACT BOX: CALCULATOR

IRRIGATION

SCHEDULING

The Irrigation Industry Association of BC (www.irrigationbc.com) has developed an agriculture irrigation scheduling calculator. The calculator will determine an irrigation schedule for all types of agricultural irrigation systems and crop types. The IIABC also has a landscape irrigation scheduling calculator. The calculators use real time climate data to determine an irrigation schedule and information on when to apply the next irrigation. They are tools to help the system operator make quick decisions without having to do numerous hand calculations. User guides are available to help you through the process.

Water Holding Capacity of Soil


During irrigation or rainfall, gravity pulls water through large pores in the soil and approximately 50% of it ends up being held in the smaller pores of typical soil. Sandy soils have larger pores and therefore hold on to less water, while clay soils have smaller pores that can hold more water per unit volume. However, the smaller pores hold on to water more tightly and leave less water available for the vine.

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See p. 4-34 (2010 ed.) or p. 4-32 (2006 ed.) of the Best Practices Guide for information on soil type and plant-available moisture. Knowing your soils water storage capacity, along with annual rainfall, cover crop water use and soil variation, is essential in developing a water budget, and in conducting proper irrigation initiation in the spring/summer and irrigation scheduling later in the growing season. See page 9-16 of the EFP Reference Guide for more information on the role of soil in irrigation.

water deficits. Plant stress sensing includes both water status measurements and plant response measurement.

Visual Cues
Visual cues are easy to detect, but often not precise. They should be used in combination with one or more other irrigation scheduling techniques. See p. 4-38 (2010 ed.) or p. 4-36 (2006 ed.) of the Best Practices Guide for a list of grapevine waterstress symptoms.

Pressure Chamber (Pressure Bomb)


The pressure chamber, also called a pressure bomb, is an invaluable tool for monitoring winegrape vine water status and is available commercially at a reasonable cost. It is portable and the measurements are done in real time in the vineyard, so irrigation management decisions can be made as data is collected. Two disadvantages of this method are that it is slow and labour intensive (and therefore can be expensive) and it is unsuitable for automation. There are basically three ways a pressure chamber can be used to measure vine water status. These include: predawn leaf water potential (PDLWP), mid-day leaf water potential (LWP), or mid-day stem water potential (SWP). The three methodologies vary mainly in the timing of the measurement and the preparation of the leaf to be sampled. Leaf water potential (LWP) Taken in the one-hour period from 30 minutes prior to and 30 minutes after solar noon (time can be lengthened in a practical field
CHAPTER 5 WATER MANAGEMENT | Page 5-11

Methods and Instruments for Measuring Soil Moisture Content


Soil water potential and soil water content can be measured using a variety of techniques. Soil moisture testing techniques and devices have advantages and disadvantages depending on the use of the measurement. For example, tensiometers, conductivity blocks, time domain reflectometry (TDR) probes, and the soil feel method are useful for monitoring soil moisture status; however, these may not be sufficient if employing a deficit irrigation strategy. See pp. 4-35 and 4-37 (2010 ed.) or pp. 4-33 and 4-34 (2006 ed.) of the Best Practices Guide for more information on soil moisture monitoring techniques. Equipment should be professionally calibrated to ensure accurate readings.

5.13. Plant-Based Approaches


Irrigation scheduling can also be done based on sensing of the plant response to

situation to 1 hour before and 1 hour after solar noon) Fully expanded leaf exposed to direct sunlight is chosen for measurement Leaf is covered with a small plastic bag that is wrapped tightly around leaf and secured before cutting from shoot Petiole of bagged leaf is cut from shoot with sharp razor as close to shoot as possible Petiole quickly placed in chamber with cut edge of petiole facing outside and bagged leaf blade inside chamber Operator carefully watches exposed edge of petiole for appearance of drop of water as soon as it appears the operator reads the corresponding pressure from the chamber gauge Main limitation is the time frame allowable to ensure consistency which limits the number of vines that can be measured in one day

Predawn leaf water potential (PDLWP) Same basic methodology as LWP except readings are taken beginning at 3:30am and ending before sunrise Questionable practicality due to timing To ensure appropriate and consistent results, it is imperative that technicians be well-trained in the use of the pressure chamber and the choice of leaves to sample.

Evapotranspiration
Weather records and evapotranspiration estimates can also be used to help to determine how much water to apply to the vineyard.

See page 4-36 (2010 ed.) or page 434 (2006 ed.) of the Best Practices Guide for more information on leaf water potential. Stem water potential (SWP) Taken in the one-hour period beginning 30 minutes prior to solar noon and ending 30 minutes after solar noon Leaf on the shaded side of canopy is chosen to minimize any possible heating effects Leaf wrapped in black plastic bag that is covered with aluminum foil Leaf is left in bag for 90 to 120 minutes (allows LWP to come into equilibrium with SWP) Leaf is then excised and tested in pressure chamber using same method as LWP

Figure 5-6: Weather station in a vineyard that is used to calculate degree days and evapotranspiration. PHOTO: GRAHAM OROURKE

Evapotranspiration is an estimate of the amount of water lost through the evaporation of water from the soil surface and the transpiration of water vapour from the plant. This estimated amount can help determine how much water to apply to the crop to replace the water that was lost. The following factors increase evaporation from the soil surface:

Page 5-12 | SUSTAINABLE PRACTICES FOR BC VINEYARDS | MARCH 2010

frequent irrigation wetting a larger area high temperatures low humidity wind

5.14. Deficit Irrigation and Dry Farming Methods


Regulated Deficit Irrigation
Regulated Deficit Irrigation (RDI) is the practice of applying mild water stress at different phenological stages of growth to influence vine growth, improve berry quality and to reduce the incidence of bunch rot. RDI can be a component of a standard irrigation strategy or utilized in a drought strategy to limit vine water use during periods of limited water availability. For RDI to be effective, accurate measurements of soil and/or plant water deficits must be taken, as opposed to simply replacing the amount of water lost, which relies mainly on estimates of evapotranspiration. Successful RDI programs have been known to cut vine water consumption by 50%-65%, although the risk of delayed harvest and poor quality fruit is higher. Clay soils and deeper root zones can sustain vines at lower RDI levels due to the better water-holding capacity of clays and the longer reach of the roots. RDI is not ideal for young vineyards, low vigour vineyards from rootstock/scion selection, limited soil resource or vineyards with nutrition or pest related issues. RDI may not be feasible or advantageous (or more difficult to implement) on coarse textured soils. While much is known to date, there is still a lot to learn about successfully applying RDI concepts to different regions, site conditions, varieties, rootstock, soil types and trellis systems. Ultimately, it is up to the grower to fine-tune the system for their own vineyards.

Plant transpiration is mostly affected by: wind temperature humidity light intensity root depth soil-water availability, soil texture and structure plant physiological characteristics

Evapotranspiration can be estimated using an evaporation pan (atmometer or evaporimeter) or climatic data obtained from weather stations. Real time evapotranspiration estimates are available from numerous weather stations across BC and can be found at www.farmwest.com or www.irrigationbc.com. The evapotranspiration estimate provided by the weather office (ET0) is based on a reference grass, so growers must use a formula to estimate the evapotranspiration value for their crop. See page 4-36 (2010 ed.) or page 434 (2006 ed.) of the Best Practices Guide for a formula that can be used to estimate evapotranspiration. The quantity of water applied can be based on replacing all (no deficit) or a portion (deficit irrigation) of the estimated evapotranspiration. Section 5.14 describes in more detail deficit irrigation techniques aimed at reducing water consumption while still maintaining a high quality crop.

CHAPTER 5 WATER MANAGEMENT | Page 5-13

See page 4-37 (2010 ed.) or page 435 (2006 ed.) of the Best Practices Guide for more information on RDI.

5.15

Stormwater Runoff

Partial Root Zone Drying


The basis for PRD is that the positive effects of mild water stress and high vine water status can be achieved simultaneously by having part of the vine root system in moist soil and the other part in relatively dry soil. See page 4-37 (2010 ed.) or page 435 (2006 ed.) of the Best Practices Guide for information on partial root zone drying. Important Note on Irrigation Scheduling During Vineyard Establishment It is important for newly planted vines to receive enough water to maintain full evapotranspiration, which allows the plant to establish a healthy root system and canopy. Even mild water stress should be avoided in young vineyards. Make sure the soil in the root zone is well drained and has sufficient porosity. Also, the young vines may need frequent, low rate applications of fertilizer since overapplication of water can leach nutrients from the root zone.

Stormwater originates from roofs, paved and non-paved areas within the vineyard. Unmanaged stormwater flow can substantially increase the risk of overloading the wastewater storage and treatment system. Runoff quality degrades as it moves and collects pollutants, and ends up in surface water or groundwater bodies. It may form rills or gullies on unprotected soil, which can lead to channel and stream bank degradation. Areas bordering water bodies such as streams, lakes, ponds and wetlands should be protected from pollution by setting up a buffer strip of undeveloped land, preferably with native vegetation, between the water body and human activity or development. Look into the feasibility of using separated non-contaminated stormwater in your vineyard for irrigation. Make sure to inspect banks along streams for erosion during and after heavy storm events, especially if they are unstable. Any erosions problems that are identified should be fixed on a timely basis. The following is a list of practices that can be adopted to prevent excessive runoff on your site: soil and water conservation planting of cover crops vegetation filter strips separating vineyard from water bodies conservation tillage installing subsurface drainage that is built for the specific soil conditions and plant rooting requirements. ditch banks unpaved roadways

Surface Water Movement


Surface water run-off from excess irrigation or precipitation events, can collect and carry pollutants to nearby watercourses and degrade water quality. Pollutants can include pesticides, fertilizers and sediment. A properly designed drainage system can go a long way in reducing or preventing negative environmental impacts.

Page 5-14 | SUSTAINABLE PRACTICES FOR BC VINEYARDS | MARCH 2010

increasing channel capacity to higher-than-normal levels restricting access and use of critical riparian areas addressing soil permeability problems

See pages 9-39 to 9-41 of the EFP Reference Guide for more information on runoff.

Keep waste away from drains to prevent water pollution. Keep floatable material (e.g., branches, plastic materials) located away from any drains. Grade land to reduce shallow surface ponding that attracts unwanted wildlife (not wetlands!). Install permanent drop structures in channels to allow water to flow gently without causing erosion.

5.16

Drainage

Adequate drainage can help increase soil strength, control salinity and alkalinity in some cases, and improve nutrient uptake. Significantly higher volumes of precipitation on the BC coast make subsurface drainage necessary to control saturation of the root zone, soil compaction, overland flow (run-off) and erosion. Inadequate drainage can lead to flooding, which can lead to increased amounts of pollutants being washed into water bodies. Flooding can be an issue in BC coastal areas, especially if they also experience runoff from neighbouring, uphill areas. Consider implementing practices: the following

Surface water run-off, from excess irrigation or precipitation events, can collect and carry pollutants to nearby watercourses and degrade water quality. Pollutants can include pesticides, fertilizers and sediment. A properly designed drainage system can go a long way in reducing or preventing negative environmental impacts. See pages 9-33 to 9-38 of the EFP Reference Guide for more information on drainage.

Recommended Resources
IRRICAD: computer software for the development and design of pressurised irrigation or water supply systems www.irricad.mcgrafix.com/ Low-pressure system designs and operation: BC Ministry of Agricultures: BC Trickle Irrigation Design Manual (available to purchase from the Irrigation Industry of BC (www.irrigationbc.com), or contact irrigation equipment suppliers. BC Ministry of Agriculture and Food Irrigation Factsheet - Reducing Pumping Costs by Increasing Irrigation System Efficiencies www.irrigationbc.com/images/clientpd fs/580250-1.pdf

Install receptor drains to reduce overland flow and erosion potential. Obtain a sketch of where your drains are and where they lead to. Make sure the stormwater system is not cross-connected with the sanitary or septic systems. Make sure your drainage system directs runoff away from sensitive water bodies. Where drains may be susceptible to pollution, install catch basin inserts, drain covers or other protective devices.

CHAPTER 5 WATER MANAGEMENT | Page 5-15

Plant water requirement or water budget methods: BC Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Fisheries Water Conservation Factsheet Trickle Irrigation Scheduling Using Evapotranspiration Data (Order No. 577.100-4) www.agf.gov.bc.ca/resmgmt/publist/5 00series/577100-4.pdf Irrigation scheduling techniques: BC Ministry of Agriculture and Lands Water Conservation Factsheet 577.100-1: Irrigation Scheduling Techniques. www.agf.gov.bc.ca/resmgmt/publist/5 00series/577100-1.pdf BC Temperature Evapotranspiration www.farmwest.com and Monitor:

BC Guide to Irrigation Scheduling and Water Conservation: www.farmwest.com/index.cfm?method =pages.showPage&pageid=235 Irrigation System Assessment Guide, Canada- BC Environmental Farm Plan publication, available at: www.agf.gov.bc.ca/resmgmt/EnviroFar mPlanning/EFP_Irrigation_Guide/Irrig_ Guide_toc.htm

See Chapter 10 of the Best Practices Guide for more resources.

Page 5-16 | SUSTAINABLE PRACTICES FOR BC VINEYARDS | MARCH 2010

CHAPTER 6 PEST MANAGEMENT


Table of Contents
page INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................. 6-1 INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT .................................................................................. 6-1 6.1. 6.2. 6.3. 6.4. 6.5. 6.6. 6.7. 6.8. 6.9. 6.10. 6.11. 6.12. 6.13. 6.14. 6.15. 6.16. 6.17. 6.18. Avoid Pest Problems ........................................................................................... 6-1 Identify and Understand the Pest ....................................................................... 6-2 Monitor Populations and Damage ...................................................................... 6-3 Establish Action Thresholds ................................................................................ 6-4 Choose Appropriate Control Methods................................................................. 6-4 Review and Assess Effectiveness ....................................................................... 6-6 Integrated Weed Management ........................................................................... 6-7 Birds .................................................................................................................... 6-9 Rodents ............................................................................................................. 6-10 Snakes .............................................................................................................. 6-10 Deer and Elk ..................................................................................................... 6-11 Bears ................................................................................................................. 6-11 Reducing Environmental and Health Risks ...................................................... 6-12 Pesticide Transport ........................................................................................... 6-12 Pesticide Storage .............................................................................................. 6-12 Mixing and Loading Pesticides ......................................................................... 6-12 Pesticide Application ......................................................................................... 6-12 Pesticide and Pesticide Container Disposal .................................................... 6-13

WEED MANAGEMENT ..................................................................................................... 6-7 WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT................................................................................................ 6-8

PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT ............................................................................................ 6-11

RECOMMENDED RESOURCES ...................................................................................... 6-13

6.0 PEST MANAGEMENT


Introduction
Chapter objective: To encourage integrated pest and weed management practices that minimize economic, health and environmental risks associated with pesticides and herbicides. A vineyard, like any other agricultural ecosystem, attracts a range of organisms. Some are beneficial, some are neutral, and some are counterproductive to an economically sustainable operation. The incidence, frequency, and severity of pest impacts vary depending on the vineyard location, climate, soil type, ecological conditions and other factors. For thousands of years, humans have used pesticides in one form or another in an attempt to destroy, repel or mitigate pests. Synthetic pesticides were developed in the 1940s, and their widespread use lead to a green revolution that saw increased yields and crop viability. By the 1950s and 1960s, it became apparent that pesticides and their application practices were responsible for the contamination of soil and water, human health problems, and the emergence of pesticide resistant pests. As a response to this new reality, a new approach was developed to manage pests while reducing or eliminating the use of pesticides. Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is an essential component of a sustainable viticulture program.

Integrated Pest Management


Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is a systematic ecosystem-based approach that utilizes biological, cultural, physical and chemical tools to manage pests. While the use of chemicals form part of an IPM program, its main goal is to utilize a variety of management practices to reduce the need for chemicals, and when they are needed, to use products that are least damaging to the crop, non-target organisms, humans, and the environment. IPM relies on an understanding of pests; their lifecycles, feeding and reproduction patterns, and natural enemies. IPM discourages relying solely on calendar sprays without regard for the effects of the control materials used. Its goal is not to eradicate pests, but to control them. That is to keep their populations at levels that are not detrimental to the ongoing sustainability of the vineyard. See page 5-1 of the Best Practices Guide for a description of the six steps of IPM. To develop your own IPM Plan, follow the steps in Table 5.1 (page 5-4) of the EFP Reference Guide.

6.1.

Avoid Pest Problems

The first step in any IPM Plan is to identify and implement practices that will help you to prevent pests for establishing in your vineyard in the first place.

CHAPTER 6 PEST MANAGEMENT | Page 6-1

See page 5-1 of the Best Practices Guide for a list of best management practices to prevent pests.

Research the life cycles, natural predators, and other relevant information of identified pests.

6.2.

Identify and Understand the Pest

Insects and Mites


For information on identification (including colour photos), life cycle and damage, monitoring and spray thresholds, and control methods for insects and mites refer to pages 5-27 to 5-50 (2010 ed.) or pages 5-21 to 546 (2006 ed.) of the Best Practices Guide. Fewer insect pests attack grapes grown in British Columbia compared with most other major grape producing regions of the world. For this reason, growers in BC are able to pursue programs that preserve populations of beneficial insects and predacious mites that help regulate numbers of pests. Pests that may cause problems in your vineyard include leafhoppers, cutworms, wasps, spider mites, thrips, grape mealybug, scale insects, grape erineum mite, snailcase bagworm, wood boring beetles, grasshoppers, and whitefly. Beneficial organisms can help keep pest numbers under control, but the vineyard must be generally hospitable for them to thrive. An environment that is friendly to beneficial organisms can be kept by limiting pesticide and other chemical applications to a minimum, and by providing natural habitat for them to live in. Beneficial organisms may include bacterial and viral diseases and vertebrates such as toads, bats and birds. However, predators such as spiders, mites and other insects can be singled out as the most important natural control agents for pest insects and mites.

In agriculture, a pest is an organism that damages crops or impedes operations through feeding, parasitizing, infecting, attacking, etc. However, it is possible for an organism to be a pest for one crop and beneficial or neutral for another, which is why accurate identification and understanding of pests and their natural predators is important. In order to plan and manage crop production to avoid pest problems, growers need to understand the ecology and dynamics of the crop, along with its common pests and their natural predators (beneficial organisms). Learning about common pest life cycles, the timing of pest activities, their natural predators, and ways of affecting their populations, enables growers to plan and manage production in economical and environmentally-friendly ways that focus on pest prevention. The following actions should be completed regularly in order to identify and understand the pests that may occur in your vineyard: Identify pest damage - use the Best Practices Guide for Grapes for British Columbia Growers and other reference material as needed. Identify pests - use 10 to 20x hand lens or photograph and match against reference material. Identify beneficial organisms (natural enemies) - use hand lens or photograph and match against reference material.

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Plants that help to increase beneficials include (examples only, not a comprehensive list): nectar producing plants, aromatic plants, flowering plants, roses for western grape leafhopper parasite.

The most common diseases in British Columbia include Powdery Mildew, Botrytis Bunch Rot, Sour Rot, Crown Gall and viruses. Other diseases being watched closely (but do not currently present economic challenges) include Pierces disease, Eutypa dieback, and young vine decline.

Soil-borne Pests
For information on soil-borne pests refer to pp. 5-23 and 5-34 (2010 ed.) or pp. 5-21 and 5-31 (2006 ed.) of the Best Practices Guide. Soil-borne pests and diseases are caused by organisms that live in or on the surface of the soil. The most common soil-borne pest management strategy is fumigation of the soil prior to planting or using pestresistant rootstock. However, other management methods exist that are crucial in developing a productive vineyard. Nematodes are an example of a typical soil-borne pest.

6.3.

Monitor Populations and Damage

Finding an organism that is known to damage crops does not automatically mean that pest control is required. You need to know how many of them there are, and whether the numbers are static, increasing or decreasing as the season progresses in order to determine the potential damage to the crop and decide if and what control measure is needed. The following monitoring methods should be conducted if a pest is found in your vineyard. Observations should be noted on an annotated map (use the base map you created in Chapter 1). Use sampling and detection methods to estimate the abundance and distribution. Examine for damage symptoms and determine if the damage is spreading. Examine for beneficial organisms (natural enemies) and determine if their populations are healthy. Estimate potential cost of damage. Sampling is a disciplined, reliable and repeatable approach to measuring pests so that samples taken in different vineyards or at different times can be meaningfully compared. Sampling techniques are the specific methods used to collect the information. Pest numbers are usually monitored either by using beating trays, sweep nets, or insect traps and collecting parts of the grapevine and

Pathogens and Diseases


For information on disease diagnosis, symptoms, life cycle, and prevention and control methods please refer to pp. 5-4 to 5-26 (2010 ed.) or pp. 5-4 to 5-20 (2006 ed.) of the Best Practices Guide. Diseases can be very damaging to grape production as they negatively impact fruit quality. As with insects and mites, accurate diagnosis of diseases is an important component of integrated pest management. Correct identification of a disease and an understanding of its life cycle will enable you to select the most appropriate control method.

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counting pest numbers. The technique will depend on the pest.

Preventive measures are often costeffective and pose little to no risk to humans or the environment. Once preventive measures are no longer sufficient and action thresholds are exceeded, a grower may employ various strategies to bring pest population levels under control. Effective control methods are used from less risky (e.g., pheromones that disrupt pest mating or mechanical control such as trapping or weeding) to most risky (e.g., pesticide broadcast spraying). Riskier pest control methods should be used only if further monitoring, identification and action thresholds indicate the less risky control measures have not been effective. To prevent pests from reproducing to levels where they will cause problems, consider the following: Examine alternate control strategies. Evaluate effectiveness and risk of each strategy. Explore biological controls such as pheromone use, predator enhancement strategies, alternate food sources for beneficial insects, etc. Explore cultural (physical) controls (including mechanical, behavioural and physical) such as pest-resistant crop varieties, weeding, encouraging natural competition, reducing the number of potential hiding places, canopy management strategies, etc. Explore chemical controls (such as insecticides, fungicides, etc.) after other options have been explored. Record your mode of action. The choice of chemical can have a dramatic impact on the environment and human health; growers should select least disruptive or organic chemicals first and avoid using broad-spectrum, persistent materials that are harmful to beneficial

6.4.

Establish Action Thresholds

To determine when pest control is required, growers have to estimate the point at which the cost of remedial action is less than the cost of tolerating the pest. This point is referred to as an action threshold (sometimes referred to as a spray threshold or economic threshold). Establishing an action threshold for each pest in the vineyard is critical in guiding pest control decisions. Acceptable action thresholds for spraying should be set for each vineyard based on: Past experience Vine vigour Numbers of beneficial insects present Potential damage to the crop Cost of control methods Value of production Impact on other organisms and the environment. What has already been applied. Potential impact on neighbours.

Generic threshold data for the majority of pests does not exist, making it crucial for growers to develop their own based on careful observation and experience. Ideally, preventive measures are taken before the action threshold is ever exceeded.

6.5.

Choose Appropriate Control Methods

The first line of defence in an IPM is prevention, which means managing the crop in such a way that discourages the proliferation of pests while maintaining optimal crop production (see section 6.1).

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insects and the environment. Table 6-1 lists chemicals whose use is discouraged under this program. Growers using any of the pesticides listed in Table 6-1 must provide written documentation that demonstrates a clear need for the use of the pesticides, that no safer alternatives exist, and that describes the application details (such as timing, location, and amount used). Please note that the list in Table 6-1 does not override legislation or organic standards Growers should consider the impact of chemicals applied for the control of one pest on the natural enemies of secondary pest. Eradicating natural enemies may lead to an outbreak of other pests (e.g., most mealybug outbreaks appear to be induced by insecticides applied against other pests). For some pests, the best action is the early use of safe, non-persistent and selective pesticides that can be less damaging than other practices. Disruptive chemicals, on the other hand, not only damage the environment, but can also cause outbreaks of secondary pests that require additional insecticide applications. While some cultural and biological controls can be applied when pests reach the action threshold, most need to be applied months or even years earlier to prevent pests reaching the action threshold. For example, increasing groundcover diversity is an ongoing process, while sticky tape in areas heavily infested with leafhoppers needs to be applied in spring.

Table 6-1: Pesticides (listed by chemical group and active ingredient) whose use is discouraged under the BC Sustainable Winegrowing Program. Avoid use of methyl-bromide azinphos-methyl Use strongly discouraged paraquat organophosphates (diazinon, malathion) endosulfan neonicotinoides (acetamiprid, clothianidin) pyrethroids (permethrin, cypermethrin) Reason highly toxic to humans, contributes to destruction of the ozone layer neurotoxin, harmful to beneficials, banned in the European Union since 2006 Reason highly toxic to humans and wildlife, high risk to salmon and aquatic life nerve agent, toxic to other insects, wildlife, pets and humans, high risk to salmon and aquatic life highly toxic to humans and wildlife harmful to beneficials, particularly bees develop resistance permethrin harmful to all beneficial arthropods cypermethrin harmful to all beneficial insects and mites, high risk to salmon and aquatic life moderate to high impact on all beneficials, high risk to salmon and aquatic life

carbamates (carbaryl)

A note on copper formulations: Copper build-up in the soil in some cases to toxic levels has been experienced in areas where it has been used extensively to control downy mildew. This is not a problem in BC because there is no downy mildew here; copper is used sparingly and mostly for hardening off the plants in the fall or for prevention of sour rot. Some organic standards limit the amount of actual copper applied per year per acre. Use with caution in your vineyard. See Chapter 7 of the Best Practices Guide for more information on pest control products.

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IPM RECORDS CHECKLIST


The following records should be kept in a notebook or computer. When identifying and monitoring pests and beneficial organisms, record the following: Date of monitoring sampling Location of sample Sample size (how widespread) Pest/disease identified Number found Block/variety Growth stage of vines (phenology) Crop yield and quality (and any other observations related to crop condition) When applying control methods, record the following: Application date Block Vine growth stage Pest controlled Technique used Weather conditions Observations If applying pesticides, also record the following information: Product used (trade name) and amount per tank Rate used per hectare Spray volume per hectare Pre-harvest interval Re-entry interval (as stated on label)

Figure 6-1: Sticky tape being used to control pests in a vineyard. PHOTO: JOSE GARCIA

See pages 5-2 and 5-3 of the Best Practices Guide for more information on control decisions and methods.

6.6.

Review and Assess Effectiveness

IPM depends on continual improvement through learning about the crop, pests and beneficial organisms. Keeping accurate records of observations and actions taken in the vineyard is very important. Records will be invaluable in identifying changes in pest and beneficial organism prevalence and their weaknesses, which should aid in evaluating the effectiveness of your treatment options, and for planning adjustments for the next growing season.

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Weed Management
6.7. Integrated Weed Management

For the purposes of this program, we will refer to weeds as being plants that grow in the vineyard that are unwanted and have a detrimental effect on vineyard production. Weeds are unwanted because they compete with crop plants for soil nutrients, light and water. In severe cases, weed infestation can lead to crop production delays and even crop failure. Many weed species are also considered invasive plants by provincial and regional governments, and as such, there is legislated control required on private lands. Growers should be aware of the distinction between unwanted nuisance weeds (as discussed here) and invasive weeds (noxious) as classified by the province, which landowners have an obligation to eliminate. Growers can learn more about invasive weeds on the following websites: Regional District OkanaganSimilkameen: Invasive Plant Program: http://www.rdos.bc.ca/index.php?id=1 22 Invasive Plant council of BC: http://www.invasiveplantcouncilbc.ca/

The focus of an IWM should be prevention, keeping chemical methods as a last resort to control the spread of weeds. Combinations of different mechanical, cultural, biological and chemical methods may be necessary for different species. For example, experts no longer recommend pulling knapweed, but cutting it down and leaving the roots to support the biological control agent. It is now preferable to sustain a small population of the biological agents who keep the weeds in manageable numbers. An effective IWM program relies on three main sets of practices. Practices that limit the introduction and spread of weeds (prevention). Practices that help the crop compete with weeds (help "choke out" weeds). Practices that keep weeds "off balance" (make it difficult for weeds to adapt).

pp. 5-51 to 5-55 (2010 ed.) or pp. 5-47 to 5-49 (2006 ed.) of the Best Practices Guide provide information on methods of weed control. To create an IWM plan, refer to the Ministry of Agriculture and Lands: Weed Management Planning section (part of the Integrated Weed Management Introductory Manual) at www.agf.gov.bc.ca/cropprot/weedman.ht m#PLANNING. The manual helps growers create a plan by going through the following essential steps in detail: Diagnosing the problem (identifying the weed and possible causes): More often than not, weeds are a symptom of a problem, and this should be addressed first. Causes

An Integrated Weed Management (IWM) approach that uses a combination of different practices to manage weeds is the most sustainable approach a grower can use. The goals of IWM are to maintain weeds at manageable densities and to prevent more aggressive weeds from taking hold in your vineyard. Relying on a variety of prevention and control techniques prevents weeds from becoming resistant to one control method.

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may range from poor seedbed, land, or drainage preparation, soil pH, diseases/insects, herbicideresistant weeds, weed population shifts, microbial degradation, weather effects on herbicide activity, and lack of an integrated management plan. Learn to identify weeds or contact your local Ministry of Agriculture and Food office to assist you. This will be crucial in selecting the right control strategy.

application, which can lead to lower crop yields and waste money. Monitoring Success/Failure: Keep good records of actions taken and record the effectiveness. This will help in making improvements in the future.

Wildlife Management
Wildlife such as deer, bear, rodents and birds can develop a liking for grapes or the vine itself and cause significant crop losses. Some of these animals are managed as pests (e.g., rodents and some birds) while others are managed as problem wildlife (i.e., deer, elk and bear). It is important to balance the need to protect your vines and grapes with the need to maintain healthy local ecosystems and support the species that depend on them. Refer to the Ecosystem Management chapter for more information. Good wildlife management requires using an integrated approach (like that discussed earlier in the Integrated Pest Management section). Your approach should include prevention of conflict, identifying and learning about the species, monitoring them and the damage they cause, choosing appropriate control methods and reviewing the effectiveness of your actions. Most wildlife issues can be managed through preventative measures. For example, habitat alteration and exclusion strategies can reduce the number of pests and problem wildlife frequenting your vineyard. These strategies may include using grow tubes around young vines to discourage chewing by rodents; selecting cover crops that are less desirable to wildlife, locating compost heaps away from forests and thickets; and clearing

Preparing a plan of attack (planning the control program): Record relevant information (i.e., crops, cropping sequence and weeds that are present) on your base map (created in Chapter 1). Are the weeds caused by underlying factors such as poor drainage, poor fertility or pH? If so, correct these first. Learn about weed control strategies and write them on the map along with notes on timing of control operations. Is the herbicide you plan on using registered for use on your crop? Is the target weed listed on the herbicide label? What is the cost per hectare? How will my control program impact the environment? If using herbicide, how persistent, and how toxic is it to fish and wildlife? Choose a control method based on effectiveness, cost and environmental considerations. Implementing the program: Strictly follow the timing outlined in your plan. If using herbicides, ensure accurate herbicide application to (1) avoid over-application, which could result in crop damage, environmental impacts and wasted money and (2) avoid under-

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away brush piles that create habitat for birds. Your Integrated Pest Management plan should include a section on wildlife management. The following information will help you determine when and what control methods to use for birds, rodents, snakes, deer and elk, and bears.

6.8.

Birds

Birds can be divided into invasive bird species (e.g., starlings) and other birds that may be unwanted but are native. Some birds are protected by the Migratory Birds Convention Act (e.g., bluebirds) and the Species at Risk Act (e.g., Lewis's Woodpecker). Starlings, robins, house finches and other birds feed on grapes. Starlings, however, cause the most damage. Ensure that starlings are not able to nest in farm structures, or destroy their nests before the young fledge. Creating nest traps can be effective in controlling starlings but care should be taken not to trap other cavity nesting birds (e.g., bluebirds, flickers). See Section 5.5, starting on p. 5-56 (2010 ed.) or p. 5-53 (2006 ed.) of the Best Practices Guide for examples of bird control methods. If birds begin to attack the crop, act immediately and implement a combination of two or three control methods.

Figure 6-2: Hawk kite to scare birds, which is generally more acceptable to neighbours than a propane cannon, but perhaps not as effective. PHOTO: GARY STRACHAN

FACT BOX: AUDIBLE BIRD SCARE DEVICES INTERIOR AND SOUTH COAST BC
Audible bird scare devices can be a nuisance to nearby residents. The Farm Practices Board, the Ministry of Agriculture and Lands and industry representatives have reviewed this issue. As a result of these reviews, the Ministry has revised the guidelines for the use of audible bird scare devices in Interior BC and South Coast BC. See the Interior BC Wildlife Damage Control fact sheet, available at www.al.gov.bc.ca/resmgmt/fppa/refguide /activity/87021860_Wildlife_Damage_Interior_BC.pdf for a list of the guidelines for Interior BC. See the South Coast BC Wildlife Damage Control fact sheet, available at www.al.gov.bc.ca/resmgmt/fppa/refguide /activity/87021859_Wildlife_Damage_South_BC.pdf for a list of the guidelines for South Coast BC. It is illegal to kill or harass most native birds and their nests in Canada as detailed in the Migratory Birds Convention Act and the BC Wildlife Act.

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Note: The European Starling is a nonnative bird for which there is an aggressive campaign of extermination and netting to prevent fruit loss. Starlings compete with native birds for nest sites. Extermination of starlings is legal in BC.

If rodenticides are used in and around manure or compost piles, be sure to collect the traps before any manure or compost is removed to prevent spreading to unwanted parts of the property where they could pose a risk to pets, birds, farm animals and wildlife.

6.9.

Rodents

Rodents can damage young vines by gnawing on grape shoots, roots and crowns. While the damage they cause in vineyards is usually minor, they can also attract animals such as badgers, snakes and coyotes, which can become problem wildlife. See Section 5.5, starting on p. 5-56 (2010 ed.) or p. 5-53 (2006 ed.) of the Best Practices Guide for examples of rodent control methods. In addition to the control methods listed in the Best Practices Guide, consider the following: Manage food and water supplies o Avoid spilling farm animal feed (if applicable) o Store feed in covered containers o Eliminate water sources such as leaky taps, sweaty pipes and open drains Rodent-proof buildings and eliminate nests o Keep building doors in good condition o Keep areas around buildings free of weeds, long grass and debris o Install screens on ventilation ports and other openings Maintain good general sanitation and cleanliness through the vineyard Rake under vines to prevent mice Promote the predators of rodents, which include owls, raptors, weasels and snakes.

6.10. Snakes
Snakes are not an agricultural pest but can become a nuisance or a danger to vineyard workers. In fact, snakes are beneficial to crops because they are significant predators of rodents. Provincial and federal laws make it an offence to harass or kill snakes. The Land Conservancy South OkanaganSimilkameen Stewardship Program promotes responsible management of snakes in the Southern Interior of BC. They recommend the following snake management practices: Maintain natural buffer of at least 100m from rocky slopes. Leave draws/ravines as migration corridors; use culverts or bridges where roads cross these corridors. Maintain or enhance existing debris/cover features to which snakes are drawn to reduce accidental encounters and for easy relocation of snakes. Provide artificial cover (e.g., small pallets, rock piles) away from frequented work places and clearly identify them. In this way the snakes can reside in the cover areas and forage all night for rodents in the crop and are rarely encountered by people. Install snake barrier fencing along the perimeter of an agricultural area, where this is needed and practical. Develop irrigation-fed ponds outside the snake barrier to reduce the attraction of snakes to irrigated crops.

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Inform workers if snakes are found in the vineyard, how to avoid encounters and how to respond to an encounter. Avoid accidental killing of snakes during vineyard activities such as driving, mowing, tilling, and haying. Contact your local conservation officer or another qualified person if you need help relocating snakes.

6.11. Deer and Elk


Deer and elk can severely damage vines. They eat buds, spurs, shoots, fruit and leaves and/or rub their antlers against the plant, breaking branches and removing bark in the process. See Section 5.5, starting on p. 5-56 (2010 ed.) or p. 5-53 (2006 ed.) of the Best Practices Guide for examples of deer control methods. In addition to the control methods listed in the Best Practices Guide, consider the following: When dealing with deer and elk, the following practices should be considered: Scare devices o Cracker or whistler shells, propane exploders and electronic Av-Alarm or Phoenix Wailer Systems. o Short term solution as animals become tolerant of the noise. Allow hunters (especially bow hunters) access to your land during hunting seasons, where this is permissible. Plant lure crops or crops less desirable to wildlife.

Figure 6-3: Deer in a vineyard. PHOTO: LEO GEBERT

6.12. Bears
Bears can be a nuisance in some vineyards and can pose a threat to workers. The only long-term, proven and effective method for keeping bears out of vineyards is properly constructed electric fencing. See Section 5.5, starting on p. 5-56 (2010 ed.) or p. 5-53 (2006 ed.) of the Best Practices Guide for more information about managing bears. See pages 11-16 to 11-17 of the EFP Reference Guide for more information on wildlife management.

Pesticide Management
A pesticide is any material used to kill, control or manage pests, including products to manage the growth of plants. The main environmental concern with pesticides is the direct or indirect impact their use may have on the soil, water, air,

CHAPTER 6 PEST MANAGEMENT | Page 6-11

fish, wildlife, pets and humans. Pesticide pollution can result from the inappropriate application of pesticides (due to wrong volumes or bad timing), spills, backflow and improper disposal of chemicals and/or containers. Short-term and longterm effects on wildlife that come into contact with treated crops are also an issue. See pages 5-10 to 5-21 of the EFP Reference Guide for information about pesticides, including legislation and beneficial management practices. See Chapter 7 in the BC Best Practices Guide to learn more about pesticide application.

pp. 7-8 to 7-11 (2010 ed.) or pp. 7-2 to 7-15 (2006 ed.) of the Best Practices Guide provide information on personal protection and first aid.

6.14. Pesticide Transport


See page 7-11 (2010 ed.) or 7-6 (2006 ed.) of the Best Practices Guide for information on transporting pesticides. See pages 5-14, 5-20 and 5-21 of the EFP Reference Guide for information on transporting pesticides.

6.13. Reducing Environmental and Health Risks


The primary environmental concern related to pesticides is any unwanted movement to sensitive environmental areas such as watercourses, ground water, and fish or wildlife habitat. Pesticides can move by: Drift movement of spray droplets or vapour in the air Runoff movement in the water or bound to eroding soil Leaching movement in water through the soil Direct transport movement of soil, vegetation, and other materials that contain pesticide residues. See page 7-14 (2010 ed.) or page (79 (2006 ed.) of the Best Practices Guide for information on special environmental precautions. Special safety precautions must be taken when handling pesticides. See the Best Practices Guide for more information.

6.15. Pesticide Storage


See page 7-12 (2010 ed.) or 7-6 (2006 ed.) of the Best Practices Guide for information on storing pesticides. See page 5-14 of the EFP Reference Guide for information on storing pesticides.

6.16. Mixing and Loading Pesticides


See page 7-12 (2010 ed.) or 7-6 (2006 ed.) of the Best Practices Guide for information on mixing and loading pesticides.

6.17. Pesticide Application


Application characteristics affecting the movement of pesticides include: Application methods direct applied pesticides (wipe-on) have a lower risk than sprayer applied.

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Droplet size coarse droplets are less prone to drift than fine droplets (although they are also less effective so a balance must be achieved). Application rate lower rates decrease the risk of runoff and leaching.

www.agf.gov.bc.ca/resmgmt/publist/3 00series/307251-1.pdf.

See page 7-12 (2010 ed.) or 7-7 (2006 ed.) of the Best Practices Guide for information on applying pesticides. See pages 5-15 to 5-17 of the EFP Reference Guide for information on pesticide use.

6.18.

Pesticide and Pesticide Container Disposal

Wildlife Damage Control South Coastal BC Wildlife Damage Control, BC Ministry of Agriculture and Lands, www.agf.gov.bc.ca/resmgmt/fppa/refg uide/activity/87021859_Wildlife_Damage_South_BC.pdf Interior BC Wildlife Damage Control, BC Ministry of Agriculture and Lands, www.agf.gov.bc.ca/resmgmt/fppa/refg uide/activity/87021860_Wildlife_Damage_Interior_BC.pdf Birds: The BC Grape Growers Association website has information on regulations related to birds: www.grapegrowers.bc.ca. Netting for Bird Control for Grapes A Decision Making Guide www.agf.gov.bc.ca/cropprot/grapebird net.pdf. Installation of Bird Proof Netting for Horticultural Crops www.agf.gov.bc.ca/resmgmt/publist/3 00series/336100-1.pdf. Integrated Bird Management www.agf.gov.bc.ca/cropprot/birdipmpl an.pdf. Snakes: SOS guide: Working in Snake Country A Guide for Agricultural Workers: http://blog.conservancy.bc.ca/nature/ south-okanagan-similkameenstewardship-program/stewardshippublications-and-factsheets/ Rodents: Rodent Control on Agricultural Land in British Columbia, available from the BC Ministry of Agriculture and Lands office

See page 7-13 (2010 ed.) or 7-8 (2006 ed.) of the Best Practices Guide for information on pesticide and pesticide container disposal. See page 5-19 of the EFP Reference Guide for information on pesticide and pesticide container disposal.

Recommended Resources
Grape virus diseases: Ministry of Agriculture and Lands, www.agf.gov.bc.ca/cropprot/grapeipm /virus.htm Wildlife fencing: Crop Protection and Wildlife Control Fences, available at www.agf.gov.bc.ca/resmgmt/publist/3 00series/307250-1.pdf Electric Fencing Manual available from the BCMAL office Fencing Factsheet Deer Exclusion Fencing for Orchards and Vineyards using Woven Wire, URL:

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Bears: BC Agriculture Wildlife Advisory Committee www.agf.gov.bc.ca/resmgmt/partners/ committee_info.htm. BC Bear Smart Community Program website page titled Shocking Solutions to Bear Conflicts - A Primer on Electric Fences at www.bearaware.bc.ca/electricfencing.htm. Farm Practices: Interior BC Wildlife Damage Control available at www.agf.gov.bc.ca/resmgmt/fppa/refg uide/activity/87021860_Wildlife_Damage_Interior_BC.pdf.

Pesticides: Organic Production Systems Permitted Substances List, URL: www.tpsgcpwgsc.gc.ca/cgsb/on_the_net/organic /032_0311_2006e_Amended%20Oct%202008%20and %20Dec%202009.pdf Ministry of Agriculture and Lands. About Pesticides website: www.al.gov.bc.ca/pesticides/a.htm Pesticide Storage: On-farm Pesticide Storage and Handling Facility, available at www.agf.gov.bc.ca/resmgmt/publist/3 00Series/373130-2.pdf See Chapter 10 of the Best Practices Guide for more resources.

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CHAPTER7 EMPLOYEES,NEIGHBOURSANDCOMMUNITY
Table of Contents
page INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................ 7-1 HUMAN RESOURCES................................................................................................................ 7-1 7.1. 7.2. 7.3. 7.4. 7.5. 7.6. 7.7. 7.8. 7.9. 7.10. 7.11. 7.12. Staffing and Recruiting ........................................................................................... 7-1 Employee Orientation ............................................................................................. 7-3 Employee Handbook ............................................................................................... 7-5 Internal Communications ....................................................................................... 7-6 Employee Relations ................................................................................................ 7-6 Education and Training ........................................................................................... 7-7 Health and Safety ................................................................................................... 7-8 Succession Planning ............................................................................................ 7-10 Documentation and Record Keeping ................................................................. 7-10 Identifying Potential Concerns ............................................................................ 7-14 Outreach and Communication ............................................................................ 7-15 Responding to Complaints .................................................................................. 7-16

NEIGHBOUR AND COMMUNITY RELATIONS .......................................................................... 7-14

RECOMMENDED RESOURCES ............................................................................................... 7-16

7.0 EMPLOYEES, NEIGHBOURS AND COMMUNITY


Chapter objective: To provide practices that will contribute to a positive working environment for you and your employees and enhance your relationship with your neighbours and community.

Human Resources
Whether you have 5 or 75 employees, clear, consistent and documented human resources (HR) policies and practices are fundamental to maintaining positive employee relations. You should consider the following topics in your HR policies and practices: Staffing and recruiting Employee handbook Effective and open communication Complaints and grievances Performance evaluation and discipline Employee recognition and teambuilding Housing initiatives for seasonal workers Education and training Health and safety Succession planning Documentation and record-keeping The next sections will help you learn more about these topics and the practices that can be used to promote HR sustainability.

Introduction
The area of employee, neighbour and community relations relates to all three Es of sustainability the environment, the economy and social equity. Recruiting, training and retaining good employees, promoting a safe work environment, and building positive employee relations play a major role in the level of productivity, competitiveness, innovation, liability and profitability of your vineyard. Implementing sustainable practices at your vineyard requires willing, dedicated and skilled employees that feel committed to the vineyard and care about its success. In other words, your employees are critical to achieving tangible environmental results from your sustainable practices program. Your vineyard can contribute to social equity through job creation, bringing tourism and other revenue to your community, and educating the public about sustainability through vineyard tours and other events. The better you are at anticipating conflict and educating and communicating with your neighbours and community the less likely you and/or your employees will have to spend valuable time responding to complaints. A good reputation with your neighbours and community will go a long way - these same people could also be your customers!

7.1.

Staffing and Recruiting

Understanding Staffing Needs and Labour Availability


A strategy that analyses your staffing needs for 2 to 5 years into the future will help you hire the correct number of employees with the appropriate skills to successfully operate your vineyard. Understanding your staffing needs will enable you to prepare budgets for wages and salaries, recruiting costs, and employee education and training.

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Consider the following questions when developing your staffing strategy: What type of labour do you need (i.e., skilled, unskilled or highly skilled; seasonal or permanent)? When are your peak periods? When are your slower periods? Do your peak periods coincide with another local industry and, if so, how will that affect your potential labour pool? Can any of the work be moved to avoid peak labour demands? Are there any major activities in the region that could affect your ability to get the right people at the right time? Can you accomplish the same amount of work with fewer people over a longer period of time (i.e., full-time, long-term employees)? Can you round up instead of down for the number of employees you need? For example, if you determine you have enough hours and budget for 4.5 employees, can you round up to 5 employees instead of down to 4? Flow charts and schedules are useful when planning your staffing needs on a long term, annual and seasonal basis. Having clearly defined job positions you are looking to fill and profiles of the backgrounds needed for key employees will help you in identifying and fulfilling your staffing needs.

Consider including the following points in your standard job descriptions: how to complete the job, why the job must be completed a certain way, when the job needs to be completed, why the job needs to completed within a specific time frame, what the job performance expectations are, and what the employment conditions and terms are.

Publish your standard job descriptions in an employee handbook (see section 7.2). Make sure to update them on an annual basis.

Recruiting
Recruitment is the process of identifying and hiring the best-qualified candidate for a job vacancy, in a most timely and cost effective manner. Your recruiting methods may differ depending on whether you are looking for temporary or full-time employees. You will need to establish a budget for recruiting that is based on your evaluation of staffing needs. Examples of recruiting methods include: relationships with labour contractors or temp agencies, word of mouth, keeping contact information on those seeking work for use at a later date, advertising in local and regional newspapers and industry publications, advertising on the Internet, attending job fairs, and relationships with community colleges or universities

Standard Job Description


Clear, concise, and realistic individual job titles and descriptions will help employees understand what is expected of them and provide them with a sense of direction. Standard job descriptions will also help to alleviate conflict among staff and management and will ultimately increase productivity.

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It is important to use consistent messaging in your job descriptions and to coordinate your hiring, especially if you have different managers hiring for different job positions. If a position comes available make sure to look internally first before going through the recruiting process.

Exit Interviews
An exit interview is a meeting between at least one representative from a company and a departing employee. An exit interview will help you gather information for improving working conditions and retaining employees. Exit interviews are most commonly conducted with employees who have voluntarily resigned, but are also useful to conduct with casual employees to learn how the employee enjoyed his or her term and whether or not he or she is planning on returning next season. In small operations it may not make sense to track statistics of number of employees leaving because the numbers may be very small. However, it is still important to determine why an employee leaves and to document the reason in the employee file.

Standard Interviewing Format


Your job position descriptions and employee background profiles will help you to fairly and quickly screen resumes and applications that you receive and determine who is most suitable for an interview. A standard interviewing format will help you to: provide consistent and fair interviews, ask all of the pertinent questions needed to fully evaluate the potential employee, avoid questions that are inappropriate, and effectively evaluate people applying for the same position against each other to choose the best person for the job.

7.2.

Employee Orientation

The orientation of new employees to their work environment and associated task(s) is an essential component of due diligence on behalf of the employer. Orientation is an ideal time to introduce employees to your companys sustainability policies and practices. Also, make sure that your companys health and safety policies and practices are included in the orientation and that applicable employees are given WHIMIS and First Aid training. See page 9-2 (2006 ed.) of the Best Practices Guide for more information on employee orientation.

Interview questions should be related to the job description and generally fall into five categories: 1. Previous work experience that may be relevant to the position 2. General skills and aptitudes related to job criteria 3. Education 4. Attitudes and personality 5. Career goals and occupational objectives Make sure to request references from interviewees you are interested in and to contact those references before hiring the person.

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EMPLOYEE ORIENTATION CHECKLIST


Employee Handbook Provide Employee Handbook to the new employee and use it to guide orientation Overview of Company Organizational structure Mission and values Goals and objectives Products, priorities and strategies Sustainability philosophy and practices Overview of Position Job description review (provide copy to employee) Specific performance standards and expectations Probationary period and probationary review process (if applicable) Company Policies and Procedures Work procedures such as timekeeping, dress code, work schedule, time off, overtime, breaks Grievance and complaint system Discipline policies, including for specific issues such as tardiness, absenteeism, drug and alcohol use, violence, harassment Process for performance evaluations Benefits and eligibility requirements Transportation and travel policies Health and safety policies

Health and Safety Your health and safety training will vary depending on the job description. It may include the following: Availability and interpretation of Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) Hazardous materials handling Solid waste handling First aid Importance of personal hygiene Prevention of heat stress Equipment operational and confined space safety Fork lift Personal protective equipment Fall protection Respiratory protection Hearing loss protection Work Site Familiarization Tour of operations Introduction to immediate supervisor Introduction to other employees and others she/he will regularly interact with in her/his job Employee Documentation Employee signing of required documents such as employment contract, handbook receipt, etc.

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7.3.

Employee Handbook

Having an accurate, clear, and up-to-date employee handbook enables the employee and employer to have a firm understanding of their relationship and various responsibilities. It results in less worker confusion, mistakes and complaints and can reduce the risk of potential costly legal suits. An employee handbook serves to inform employees about company policies, procedures and practices and to communicate expected standards of performance and conduct. The size, format and content of your employee handbook will vary depending on the size and operations of your vineyard. For a small owner-operated vineyard, a few pieces of paper stapled together may be sufficient; however a larger operation may require a fully developed, bound handbook or an outline format on the company website Common employee handbook contents include: Welcome and Purpose Disclaimer (specify that handbook is not a contract of employment) Company Strategy and Values Sustainability Philosophy and Practices Employee Definitions (distinguish between full-time staff and contract employees) Communication and Grievance Policies Work Schedules and Compensation Policies Benefits and Time Off Policies Transportation and Travel Policies Performance Management and Discipline Policies Environmental Health and Safety Practices

Important legal considerations regarding employee handbooks include: Have your handbook reviewed by a lawyer to ensure your policies are clear and consistent and cannot be misconstrued Update your handbook as needed to reflect the actual practices of the company Implement handbook policies and procedures because if you do not implement them as outlined in the handbook, your company can be held legally liable Ensure that your handbook is regarded as a resource of policies and guidelines rather than a contract or employment Obtain written acknowledgement of Employee Handbook receipt and of any revisions or updates by having your employee sign a document.

Below is an example acknowledgement of receipt. I, ______________, acknowledge that I have received a copy of the (Your Company Name) Employee Handbook dated: (date). By my signature below, I acknowledge, understand, accept and agree to comply with the information contained in the Employee Handbook. I understand that this handbook is intended as a guide only, and is not intended to be a complete description of employers policies and procedures. Furthermore, I understand that this handbook is neither a contract of employment nor a legally-binding agreement. Employee signature:__________________ Date:___________________

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7.4.

Internal Communications

Clear, continuous lines of communication throughout all levels of employment, from supervisor to seasonal workers, are critical to a well-functioning workplace. The more employees know, the more they feel part of the company. Communication methods include: Regular staff meetings One-on-one meetings with each employee Newsletters or bulletins Informal, brief tail-gate sessions to discuss safety and/or sustainable practices Company Intranet Email Phone calls Bulletin board with current information Posters promoting safety, health, and good housekeeping procedures Employee handbook (see Section 7.3) Communication is as much about listening as it is about talking. Make sure you pay attention to your employees when they speak about their ideas, problems, needs or suggestions. If managers are accessible and encourage staff to share their thoughts, both the business and employee will benefit. Conduct all verbal communications in the primary language of the employees, or ensure a translator is present. Also, translate communication materials (e.g., job descriptions, applications) into primary language.

to create a positive company culture, increase employee job satisfaction and productivity, and decrease the risk of legal liability issues. The following topics are covered: complaints and grievances, performance evaluation, discipline and recognition, and compensation and benefits. Your policies related to these topics may differ for casual versus long-term employees.

Complaints and Grievances


A step by step employee grievance process avoids uncertainty and anxiety that may arise from uncomfortable situations and demonstrates that the communication channels are open and issues will be dealt with in a professional, confidential, and timely fashion.

Performance Evaluation, Discipline and Recognition


A performance management system should document the following information: How employees will be evaluated for job performance (e.g., one-onone meetings, written performance reviews). How often their performance will be evaluated and when (e.g., once per year at the end of the year, every six months). How the performance management system is linked to pay and promotions.

7.5.

Employee Relations

This section provides information on policies that you should consider in order

Work with your key employees to develop annual goals and assess their progress at their performance reviews. Train your managers and employees on how your performance management system works.

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Consider having a post-production wrap-up meeting to discuss things that went well during the year and those that did not. Use the results of this meeting to improve your operations the next year. Employee recognition can enhance job satisfaction and performance, promote cohesiveness among employees, and promote sustainable practices. Recognition may be given to acknowledge good work ethic, good safety performance, contribution to sustainable practices, length of service, teamwork, or community service. Examples of employee practices include: recognition

Praise and positive feedback for a job well done, Gift certificates, Free wine, Outing or celebration, Service awards luncheon or dinner, Bonus, Paid time off, Sabbatical after 10 years, and Salary increase and/or promotion.

Do you pay all employees competitive wages at or above the average wage for your region? How do you determine salaries for each job or job family? How often do you update your salary structure? How is it organized and documented? Do you participate in wage surveys? What benefits do you provide to employees? Document complete list, including government required benefits such as workers compensation. Describe why you offer each benefit and how the benefits administered (i.e., who does it, when, and what are the eligibility requirements)? How are wages and benefits communicated to employees? How is payroll administered (i.e., who does it, when, and what methods are used)?

7.6.

Education and Training

Incentives work extremely well when the employer acknowledges employees before they ask for time off, salary increase, etc. Provide the incentive close to when the employee did the task that you are recognizing. Prepare a written discipline policy and explain it to your employees before you need to use it. The policy should include stepped and progressive procedures and must be uniformly implemented.

Your employees are an integral part of the team that successfully works together to produce quality wines. They need basic education and training required to complete their job to a satisfactory level. They should also be provided with opportunities to enhance their understanding and skills in the workplace, especially if that training covers sustainable practices. An effective training and professional development program ensures that employees that have the skills needed to accomplish their work, increases employee satisfaction, and enhances job performance. You should develop an annual education and training plan for you and your employees. The plan should include specific training that is required for each

Compensation and Benefits


Questions to address when documenting your compensation and benefits philosophy and strategy include:

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major job category, based on what you can afford. Consider where your grape growing and business knowledge is lacking and consider how your business can improve by providing education to key employees. A good understanding of your employees career goals and aspirations is key to ensuring job satisfaction and reducing turnover rates. Your training plan will need to consider the different job categories at your vineyard. Management staff will require different education and training than regular employees. Managers need to be well versed in all areas of your vineyard operations and share your vision. They need to have the skills, management style, personality, and value system conducive to managing employees in this type of employment situation. They also need to be clear on all job titles and expectations and be knowledgeable of labour laws and compliance issues. You may also want to provide different opportunities for key employees than for casual or seasonal workers. That said, your casual staff are more likely to come back year after year if they are rewarded with exciting professional development opportunities that enhance their job satisfaction. You will need to establish an annual education and training budget that includes required training (e.g., WHMIS, first aid) and also includes funds for additional, more expensive professional development opportunities for key employees (based on what you can afford). If you are not willing or able to cover all education and training costs, you can consider providing paid time off or other incentives instead. Education and training ideas include:

Academic or industry workshops, seminars, and continuing education courses, Wine and Grape Associations annual meetings and other events, membership in local vintners associations, Grape growing publications, technical bulletins, and newsletters, In-house education by inviting a speaker or teaching your employees yourself, Organizing tours through suppliers (e.g., tour of glass factory that makes bottles), Visiting other wine regions, Cross-training (having employees work in different parts of the business for a day or so), Attending industry conferences and other networking opportunities.

Document all education and training provided to employees.

Figure 7-2: Picking Syrah at Tinhorn Creek Vineyards. PHOTO: CHRIS MASON STEARNS

7.7.

Health and Safety

Worker health and safety is a major contributor to the social equity component of your sustainable business. The kind of program you have depends on the number of regularly employed workers in your workforce (regularly employed

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means those who work at least one continuous month in a year, whether full time or part time). Vineyards with more than 20 workers must have a formal written program, while vineyards with less than 20 workers must have a more informal program based on regular meetings with workers. Resources to help you prepare your health and safety plan include: The Health and Safety for Smalland Medium-Sized Wineries, published by the BC Wine Grape Council, provides instructions on how to develop a health and safety program. WorkSafe BC provides numerous publications that may be helpful, including 3 Steps to Effective Worker Education and Training, WHIMIS at Work, How to Implement a Formal Occupational Health and Safety Program, and Managing Safety from the Supervisors Perspective. See www.worksafebc.com to download these publications. The Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) Regulation contains legal requirements that must be met by all workplaces under the inspection jurisdiction of WorkSafeBC. Many sections of the Regulation have associated guidelines and policies. See WorkSafeBC.com for more information. The BC Food Processors Health and Safety Council provides advisory, training and consulting services. They also provide a forum for occupational health and safety issues from across the province of

BC. See www.bcfphsc.com/index.php. FARSHAs Vineyard and Orchards Coordinator and the Regional Safety Coordinator for your area are available to help you with your health and safety needs. Contact information is available from the main FARSHA office:

Suite #311, 9440 - 202 Street, Langley, BC V1M 4A6 Toll Free: 1-877-533-1789 Phone: 604-881-6078 Fax: 604-881-6079 Email: farmsafe@farsha.bc.ca Web: www.farsha.bc.ca/contact_us.php See pp. 9-1 to 9-4 (2010 ed.) or pp. 9-1 to 9-3 (2006 ed.) of the Best Practices Guide for more information on health and safety.

Maintenance of Farm Machinery


Keep a maintenance schedule for all farm machinery (i.e., tractors, sprayers, mowers, ATVs, trucks, forklifts, hedger, etc.). Poorly maintained equipment is not only hazardous to personnel, but is also bad for the environment, resulting in poor performance including fuel wastage and shortening the life of the equipment.

Figure 7-1: Tractor safety is important in a vineyard, especially where there are steep slopes.

PHOTO: JIM WRIGHT

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7.8.

Succession Planning

In British Columbia, family-owned estate wineries and vineyards are common and many will soon be faced with a transfer of ownership. Succession planning is a continuous process to plan for the transfer of knowledge, skills, labour, management, control and ownership of the business between one generation and the next or to new owners outside the family (Coughler, 2004). Succession planning is usually only done at the top management team level. The goal of succession is to enable the business to operate and prosper without the day-to-day involvement of the current leader or leaders. Current leader or leaders must identify the next leaders, mentor them, and provide detailed and well-documented systems and frameworks in which to operate and then step back. Each vineyard is unique and no single approach works for everyone. However, succession planning can be thought of as a six-step process. The steps are not necessarily completed in a sequence or in a set order. Some steps must be completed one after the other, but others can be done at the same time and still others can be completed in random order. The six steps are outlined on page 7-11. The format of your written succession plan will vary depending on the situation, but you should consider all of the components described on page 7-12.

policies and make necessary improvements. Certain documentation is also required for compliance with federal and provincial labour laws. Consider the following regarding documentation and record keeping: Ensure supervisors are aware of what should be documented, when it should be documented and how it should be documented. Determine the roles and responsibilities for record keeping (i.e., who does what). Record the list of employee records and documents that you maintain (e.g., employee applications, performance appraisals, discipline records). Describe where you keep the records (e.g., employee file, on a computer). Describe how long you keep each document. Make sure you are complying with legislative requirements for length of time you need to keep records and what records you need to keep. Describe your process for preparing and submitting required documents to the federal and provincial government. Make sure your documentation is completed in a timely, consistent manner, and using a comprehensive format that will stand up in court and is free of personal opinion.

7.9.

Documentation and Record Keeping

Proper documentation is important throughout the employment process, from hiring to disciplinary action to job termination. Documentation helps you to review and evaluate your HR plans and
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STEPS IN THE SUCCESSION PLANNING PROCESS


(Coughler & Anderson, 2004):

Step 1: Open the Lines of Communication


Define personal, family (if applicable) and business objectives and goals Identify successor: o Does the next generation wish to be involved in the business? o If yes, the process moves forward within the framework of transitioning to the next generation. o If no, the discussions and decisions will focus on preserving family wealth and the transition out of farming. o Assess the compatibility of objectives and goals. o Work towards reaching consensus between the founder(s) and the successor(s) on major objectives and goals. o Consider hiring a trained outside facilitator to assist in these discussions. Identify a team of advisors to help you through the process (e.g., facilitator, accountant, lawyer, lender or credit advisor, business advisor, financial planner, insurance specialist) Everyone involved in the process needs to acquire a basic understanding of the process read articles, attend workshops or seminars Collect relevant technical information (particularly financial) o Compile and review documents such as the legal will, the power of attorney, property deeds, mortgage and loan information, tax returns, bank account information, financial statements, current financing arrangements, retirement savings position, business and legal agreements, current list of suppliers and service providers, production and performance records o Identify missing pieces Analyze financial viability and profitability of the business o Compare the financial performance of the vineyard to industry benchmarks to

determine its relative current financial situation and profitability o Develop projected cash flow and income statements to investigate potential future financial situation and viability Review additional specific technical information o This includes details related to methods of transfer, financing options, tax and legal implications, business structure options, business agreements, and tenancy issues

Step 3: Generate Options


Address the various issues related to, but not limited to: o Ownership transfer options- purchase, rent, gifts, bequests, etc. o Financing options (both internal and external) o Business organizations/structure (i.e., sole proprietorship, partnership, corporation, etc.) o Legal considerations (e.g., will, power of attorney, etc.) o Tax strategies and implications Generate numerous options that consider the information gathered in Step 2 Investigate different what if scenarios and develop contingencies to address such things as disagreement, disaster, death, disability and divorce

Step 2: Collect and Analyze Information

Step 4: Make Preliminary Decisions

Start narrowing down your options and make preliminary decisions on the direction of the plan

Step 5: Design, Develop and Review


Write the succession plan As decisions are documented, your team of advisors should review the plan and provide detailed feedback, advice and comments This should be an open process with all that are involved

Step 6: Implement and Monitor


Provide copies of the plan to all those involved Follow the timetable laid out in the plan Monitor progress as the plan is implemented Modify the plan as needed

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COMPONENTS OF A WRITTEN SUCCESSION PLAN


The following information is adapted from a fact sheet entitled Components of a Farm Succession Plan, prepared by Peter Coughler for the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food & Rural Affairs. A. Business Overview Executive Summary of the overall plan Action points to implement the plan Description of current business, including relevant points such as: o Size and location of the operation o Products o Production amounts o Organizational structure o Type(s) of business arrangement(s) Include enough detail to set the stage for the rest of the plan, but not so much that it is overwhelming B. Description of Business and Personal Goals and Expectations Describes the business and personal goals and expectations of the founder(s) and the successor(s) The rest of the process and the resulting plan should flow from this section C. Retirement Plan Deals with two issues financial and lifestyle Lifestyle includes how the founder(s) will be involved in the business, living arrangements, desired activities for the founder(s) Financial component includes where retirement money will come from, an explanation of any retirement-income strategies and how the money will be spent D. Training and Development Plan for Successor Outlines the necessary skills and knowledge required by the successor(s) to successfully operate a vineyard

Includes a skills profile of the successor compared to the founder, a gap analysis and an action plan to address those gaps A skills profile breaks down common activities to operate a vineyard and the skills needed for each The action plan may include such things as additional training, responsibility sharing, job shadowing, etc. A performance review process is also outlined under this component; it helps identify both strengths and where improvements are needed In all cases a regular meeting should take place to review the successors progress. It should focus on what has worked, what has not, why, and what could be done differently. This should be a two-way discussion and a positive experience for both the founder and the successor a chance to share and learn.

E. Business Plan Describes how the vineyard business will meet the needs of both the founder and the successor Includes a financial analysis of the business past, present and future to determine if it is profitable and viable Describes the future direction of the business (e.g., maintaining the same scale, downsizing, expansion, diversification, etc.) and how this direction will affect the business F. Operating Plan Outlines how to manage everyday business activities Identifies the roles, responsibilities and authorities related to day-to-day operations and how decisions are made Outlines the plan for family business meetings to discuss the transfer process, including how they will function, who will be involved, who will be responsible for what, where the meetings will take place

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G. Management, Control and Labour Transfer Plan Related to the operating plan [F] Describes how the transfer of management, control and labour to the successor will take place Includes a timetable for transition (linked to implementation timetable[I]) Also needs to be closely connected to the successor development plan [D] H. Ownership Transfer Plan Outlines how the business is currently structured and how it will change during the transfer process, including a description of the business arrangement that will be used (e.g., sole proprietorship, partnership, corporation) Link to business overview [A] Explains how the transfer of asset ownership will be handled, including a description of the transfer mechanism (e.g., purchase, gift, bequest, combination) Also may include: o an explanation of the financing required, the various sources available and the preferred financing option(s) o an inventory and valuation of assets and liabilities o an explanation of the tax implications of the proposed transfer process along with a description of how these items will be addressed o an outline of the insurance requirements related to life, disability, disaster and related insurance tools and a description of the legal agreements (e.g. employment contracts, partnership agreements, shareholder agreements, buy-sell agreements, etc.). Copies of these could be attached as appendices for reference purposes. o A copy (or copies) of the legal will(s) and any prenuptial agreements could also be attached for reference.

I.

Implementation Timetable Provides a timetable to complete key activities that are prioritized with deadlines Communications Plan A description of how those involved communicate about transition and succession planning (link to operating plan [F]) o Rules of meetings and discussions o Schedule for regular meetings o Outline of who will participate in the meetings o Meeting locations and meals o Meeting responsibilities and decision making processes (e.g., who will set up the meeting and agenda, chair meetings, take minutes) o an outline of the ground rules for the discussion (e.g. everyone has a turn to talk, not interrupting, no blaming, stay focussed on the agenda item, etc.). A discussion of how disputes are managed and resolved (e.g., voting, third-party mediation)

J.

K. Contingency Plan Outlines what will happen and who will ensure the implementation of contingency measures in such situations as illness, death, disability, divorce, disagreement, disaster, business downturn or failure Includes reference to the insurance requirements and selected mechanisms (link to ownership transfer plan [H])

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Neighbour and Community Relations


Many vineyards in British Columbia are located in rapidly changing areas, where competition for land can bring agriculture/rural areas and urban/suburban areas close together. Rapid population growth in many winegrowing areas of BC is putting a strain on resources such as water, energy, and on air and environmental quality. There is also increasing public concern and awareness about environmental and social issues and more interest in how businesses address these issues. For these reasons it has become imperative for vineyards to establish good neighbour and community relations. To maintain a harmonious relationship with your neighbours and community, it is important to take the time to research local issues and learn various perspectives, anticipate and minimize nuisances, and educate the public about your processes so they understand how and why you do certain things through the year. There are many potential positives to the community from your vineyard practices and operations. It is important to maximize these benefits by informing your neighbours and community about your sustainable values, initiatives, production practices, products and technologies. The purpose of this section is to identify potential issues that can arise at the agricultural-urban interface and to help you better understand, communicate about, and engage in positive problem solving solutions.

7.10. Identifying Potential Concerns


A proactive plan that emphasizes education and communication will minimize conflicts and maximize the potential benefits of your vineyard to society. The first step in proactive planning is to anticipate potential concerns and sources of conflict and develop solutions before they occur. Potential concerns of your neighbours and/or the community may include the following: transportation and traffic o increased traffic at peak labour times o traffic on vineyard roads and ancillary roads water quality and supply o competing uses o water pressure o sedimentation of water supply due to erosion o chemicals and pesticides affecting water quality noise and vibrations o vineyard groundwork o wind machines for crop protection o wind turbines for electrical generation o engine driven irrigation pumps o cropping equipment o night time grape harvest o bird control devices o traffic visual impacts o lighting: lights in greenhouses, grape harvester and equipment lights during harvest, yard security lights o viewsheds air quality o dust (traffic on unpaved roads, soil erosion by wind from laneways and bare fields,

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livestock ventilation fans, field tillage) o chemical spraying o odours (manure, pomace or other organics storage and field application, compost piles, pesticide applications, livestock pasturing) o smoke (burning prunings, farm wastes, organic materials for heating shops, greenhouses) Other community issues may include housing, education, health care, and urban sprawl.

7.11. Outreach and Communication


Formal and effective outreach and communication is essential to identifying and addressing potential concerns and to developing positive relationships with your neighbours and community. Consider the following when developing your outreach and communications plan. Get acquainted with vineyard neighbours and your local community and generate goodwill: Get to know those that may be impacted by your operations in a friendly setting. Invite them to tour your vineyard (for example). Be involved in community events and civic and charitable groups to work alongside community members.

outlining the sustainable practices you use, when, and why. Find out what issues are important to neighbours and fellow community members and learn and understand various perspectives. Pay attention to local and regional zoning laws and growth management plans. Attend meetings and workshops with community members to ensure that your perspective is represented. Host neighbour/community events at your vineyard and be involved in community events and civic and charitable groups.

Educate your neighbours and community and yourself: Share your sustainable vineyard goals and how they benefit the surrounding community. Inform your neighbours and community about your company

Communicate with your neighbours and local community: Be open to discussing their concerns and questions and respect their views. Find a neutral setting to discuss their concerns. Seek common areas of interest. Alert them to upcoming potential nuisances before they begin. Ensure that your neighbours know how to contact you and consider providing an after hours phone number. Communicate with neighbours often through such methods as periodic visits, phone calls, community parties, postcards to alert of spraying, etc. Explore changes to practices that could smooth tensions (e.g., rescheduling objectionable activity to when neighbours are at work and not on weekends when they are likely to be outside. Make sure your employees are educated and trained to answer questions and speak on your vineyards sustainability initiatives with consumers and community members. Develop a relationship with local media:

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Invite reporters to your vineyard and give them newsworthy information. Share your sustainable practices and explain what your operation is doing to reduce pesticide use, water use, etc. Respond promptly if media does call. If you do not have the information they are asking for then contact them with the name of someone who can help.

7.12. Responding to Complaints


Even the best proactive planning may not entirely avoid complaints from your neighbours. The following practices should be used to deal with complaints: Develop a written procedure for addressing complaints from neighbours. Train all employees in the procedure. Delegate one person to managing the complaints process. Document all complaints with understanding and tact. Ensure all complaints are followed up on.

Recommended Resources
California Association of Winegrape Growers The Winegrape Guidebook for Establishing Good Neighbour and Community Relations http://migrate.cawg.org/images/stories/ pdf/good-neighbor-guide-hires.pdf Succession Planning: Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs: www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/busdev/su ccession.html See Chapter 10 of the Best Practices Guide for more resources.

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REFERENCES
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Dlott, J., Ohmart, C. P., Garn, J., Birdseye, K. and Ross, K., eds. (2006). Code of Sustainable Winegrowing Practices Self-Assessment Workbook. Wine Institute & California Association Winegrape Growers. 477pp. Ducks Unlimited. (2009). URL: www.ducks.ca/province/bc/index.html. Accessed February 27, 2009. Earnshaw, S. (2004). Hedgerows for California Agriculture: A Resource Guide. Community Alliance with Family Farmers. URL: www.caff.org/programs/farmscaping/Hedgerow.pdf. Accessed February 20, 2009. Egan, B. BC Ministry of Forests. Ecosystems of BC. URL: www.for.gov.bc.ca/hfd/pubs/Docs/Bro/Bro01.pdf. Accessed February 15, 2009. Environment Canada Freshwater Website. URL: www.ec.gc.ca/Water/en/nature/prop/e_cycle.htm. Accessed April 15, 2009. Environment Canada. (2009). The Hydrologic Cycle. URL: www.ec.gc.ca/Water/en/nature/prop/e_cycle.htm. Accessed September 15, 2009. Fish Friendly Farming. (2009). URL: www.fishfriendlyfarming.org. Accessed April 15, 2009. Fretzer Vineyards. (2008). Philosophy. URL: www.fretzer.com/philosophy. Accessed February 10, 2009. GOERT. (2010). Garry Oak Ecosystems Recovery Team website. URL: www.goert.ca/. Accessed March 3, 2010. Goodwin, I. (1995). Irrigation of Vineyards: A Winegrape Growers Guide to Irrigation Scheduling and Regulated Deficit Irrigation. Institute of Sustainable Irrigated Agriculture, Tatura, Victoria, Australia. Hall, L.S., Krausman, P.R., and Morrison, M.L.. (1997). The Habitat Concept and a Plea for Standard Terminology. Wildlife Society Bulletin 25(1):173-182. Hellman, E. W. (ed.). (2003). Oregon Viticulture. Oregon State University Press. Corvallis, Oregon. Horwath , W., Ohmart, C.P., Storm, C.P. (2008). Lodi Winegrowers Guidebook: A SelfAssessment of Integrated Farming Practices. Lodi-Woodbridge Winegrape Commission and US Environmental Protection Agency. Ingels, C.A., Bugg, R.L., McGourty, G.T., and Christensen, L.P. (1998). Cover cropping in vineyards: a growers handbook. Univ. Calif. Div. Nat. Res. Res. Publ. 3338. 162 pp. Integrated Production of Wine: Guidelines for Farms. (2009). South African Wine & Spirit Board.

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Jackson, D.I. and Lombard, P. B. (1993). Environmental and Management Practices Affecting Grape Composition and Wine Quality. Jackson, D. and Schuster, D. (2001). The Production of Grapes and Wine in Cool Climates. Gypsum Press and Daphne Brasell Associates Ltd., Wellington, Aoteroa, New Zealand. Jackson, D. (2001). Monographs in Cool Climate Viticulture 1, Pruning and Training. Daphne Brasell Associates and Lincoln University Press, Wellington, Aoteroa, New Zealand. Jackson, D. (2001). Monographs in Cool Climate Viticulture 2, Climate. Daphne Brasell Associates Ltd. Wellington, Aoteroa, New Zealand. Jones, K. (nd). The Australian Wine Industrys Environment Strategy: Sustaining Success. Klinkenberg, B. (2008). E-Flora BC: Electronic Atlas of the Plants of BC. URL: www.eflora.bc.ca. Accessed February 15, 2009. Land Trust Alliance of British Columbia. (2002). Preserving Natural and Cultural Features of Land with a Conservation Covenant. URL: www.landtrustalliance.bc.ca/options.html. Accessed February 28, 2010. Lavkulich, L.M. (2007). Soil Landscapes of BC Part 2: The Major Soils and Soil Processes of British Columbia. Ministry of Environment of British Columbia. URL: www.env.gov.bc.ca/soils/landscape/part2.html. Accessed March 2, 2009. Loukidelis, D. (1992). Using Conservation Covenants to Preserve Private Land in BC. Westcoast Environmental Law. URL: www.wcel.org/wcelpub/2986_1.html#con. Accessed February 22, 2009. Luvkulich, L.M. and Valentine, K.W.G. (March 2007). Soil Landscapes of BC Part 3: The Canadian System of Soil and Soil Climate Classification. Ministry of Environment of British Columbia. URL: www.env.gov.bc.ca/soils/landscape/part3.html. Accessed March 2, 2009. Macqueen, R.W. and Meinert, L.D. (2006). Fine Wine and Terroir: The Geoscience Perspective. Geological Association of Canada, Memorial University of Newfoundland. St. Johns, Newfoundland and Labrador. McGourty, G. (2004). Cover cropping systems for organically farmed vineyards. In Practical Winery and Vineyard Magazine. URL: www.practicalwinery.com/septoct04/septoct04p22.htm. Accessed February 27, 2009. Meffe, G.K., Nielsen, L.A., Knight, R.L. and Schenborn, D.A.. (2002). Ecosystem Management: Adaptive Community-Based Conservation. Washington, DC: Island Press. Mitchell, P.D. and Goodwin, I. (1996). Micro-irrigation of Vines and Fruit Trees. AG Media. East Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

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Mollah, M. (1997). Practical Aspects of Grapevine Trellising. Hyde Park Press, Adelaide, South Australia. Morgan, T. and Nelson, B., (eds). (1992). Oregon Winegrape Growers Guide 4th Edition. The Oregon Winegrowers Association. Portland, Oregon. Natural Resources Canada. (2006). Atlas of Canada: Watersheds Map. URL: http://atlas.nrcan.gc.ca/site/english/maps/environment/hydrology/watershed. Accessed February 26, 2009. Nyvall, J. and Tam S. (2005). Irrigation System Assessment Guide. Companion Document to the Canada British Columbia Environmental Farm Plan. BC Agriculture Council. Ohmart, C. P. and Matthiasson, S. K. (2000). The Lodi Winegrowers Workbook: A selfassessment of integrated farming practices. Lodi-Woodbridge Winegrape Commission, Lodi, CA. 135 pp. Ohmart, C. (2008). Why Discing is Bad for Your Vineyard Soil. Wines and Vines. URL: www.winesandvines.com/template.cfm?section=columns_article&content=59882&co lumns_id=41&ctitle=Why%20Discing%20Is%20Bad%20For%20Your%20Vineyard%20 Soil. Accessed March 15, 2009. OMAFRA Staff. (2002). Soil Management and Fertilizer Use: Cover Crops. Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs. URL: www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/crops/pub811/2cover.htm. Accessed March 3, 2009. Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs. (2002). Choosing the Right Cover Crop. URL: www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/crops/hort/news/hortmatt/2007/18hrt07a2.htm. Accessed February 15, 2009. Oregon Low Input Viticulture & Enology Inc. (2009). URL: www.liveinc.org/forms. Accessed February 7, 2009. Parnes, R. (1990). A Growers Guide to Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers. agAccess, Davis, California. Pitwirny, M. (2006). Organization of Life: Species, Populations, Communities and Ecosystems. Fundamentals of Physical Geography, 2nd Edition. URL: www.physicalgeography.net/fundamentals/9d.html. Accessed February 22, 2009. Plaster, E. J. (1997). Soil Science and Management (3rd Edition). Scarborough, Ontario: Delmar Publishers. PRBO Conservation Science. (2009). Safe Nest Boxes for Owls in the West. URL: http://ilmbwww.gov.bc.ca/risc/pubs/tebiodiv/raptors/version2/rapt_ml_v2.pdf. Accessed February 20, 2009.

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Prichard, T. (1996). Modification of Wine Characteristics through Irrigation Management. Final Report to Lodi-Woodbridge Winegrape Commission, Lodi CA. 15pp. Prichard, T. (2000). Management of Zinfandel to Modify Vine and Wine Characteristics. Final Report to Lodi-Woodbridge Winegrape Commission, Lodi CA. 23pp. Prichard, T. (2000). Management of Merlot to Modify Vine and Wine Characteristics. Final Report to Lodi-Woodbridge Winegrape Commission, Lodi CA. 17pp. Prichard, T., Hanson, B., Schwankl, L., Verdegaal, P. and Smith, R. (2004). Deficit irrigation of quality winegrapes using micro-irrigation techniques. Univ. Calif. Coop. Ext. Dept. Land, Air and Water Res. Davis, Ca. 90 pp. Prichard, T. (nd). Winegrape Irrigation Scheduling Using Deficit Irrigation Techniques. University of California Davis. URL: http://cesanjoaquin.ucdavis.edu/files/13563.pdf. Accessed February 23, 2009. Proffitt, T., Bramley, R., Lamb, D., and Winter, E. (2006). Precision Viticulture: A new era in vineyard management and wine production. Winetitles Pty Ltd., Ashford, South Australia, Australia. Reimchen, T. (2001). Salmon Nutrients, Nitrogen Isotopes and Coastal Forests. Ecoforestry Magazine, 13-16. Rice, T.J. (1999). Liming of Vineyard Soils. Practical Winery. URL: www.practicalwinery.com/julyaug99/liming.htm. Accessed March 15, 2009. Schwankl, L., Hansen, B. and Prichard, T. (1993). Low-volume irrigation. Univ. Calif. Irrigation Program. Davis, CA. 116pp. Smart, R. and Robinson, M. (1991). Sunlight Into Wine: A Handbook for Winegrape Canopy Management. Winetitles, Underdale, South Australia, Australia. Scott, L., and Delesalle, B. (2003). The Value of Riparian Habitat and How to Care for It. South Okanagan Similkameen Stewardship Program. URL: www.conservancy.bc.ca/attachments/okanagan/sosstewardship/The%20Value%20of %20Riparian%20Habitat-single.pdf. Accessed May 3, 2009. Sheldon, D., Hruby, T., Johnson, P., Harper, K., McMillan, A., Granger, T., Stanley, S., and Stockdale, E. (2005). Wetlands in Washington State, Volume 1: A Synthesis of the Science. Washington State Department of Ecology. Publication #05-06-006. Olympia, Washington. Shepherd, G (ed). (2004). The Ecosystem Approach: Five Steps to Implementation. World Conservatory Union (IUCN). Switzerland and Cambridge, UK: Gland. Smallwood, K.S, Nakamoto, B.J, and Geng S. (1996). Association Analysis of Raptors on a Farming Landscape. In: Bird, D.M, D.E Varland and J.J Negro (eds). (1996). Raptors in

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Human Landscapes: Adaptations to Built and Cultivated Environments. Academic Press. San Diego, California. South Australian Wine and Brandy Industry Association Inc. (2002). Sustaining Success: The Australian Wine Industrys Environment Strategy. URL: www.wfa.org.au/files/what_we_do/Sustaining_Success.pdf. Accessed March 15, 2010. Stimson, D., and OConner, K. (2005). Multiple Benefits in Vineyard Erosion Control. Practical Winery and Vineyard Magazine. Strachan, G. (2009). Cool Climate Viticulture. Okanagan College Course Presentation. Styles, S. W. and Burt, C. M.. (1999). Drip irrigation for trees, vines and row crops. Cal. PolySan Luis Obispo Irrigation Tech. and Res. Center., San Luis Obispo. CA. Sustainable Winegrowing New Zealand Working Group and Charles, J (Ed). (2008). Sustainable Winegrowing New Zealand (5th Edition). New Zealand: New Zealand Winegrowers. Sustainable Winemaking Ontario. (nd). Viticulture Addendum to the Canada-Ontario Environmental Farm Plan Program, Third Edition. Thrupp, L. (2002). Fruits of Progress: Growing Sustainable Farming and Food Supplies. Washington, D.C: World Resources Institute. Thrupp, L., Costello, M.J., McGourty, G. (2008). Biodiversity Conservation Practices in California Vineyards: Learning from Experience. Bulletin from the California Sustainable Winegrowing Program. URL: www.sustainablewinegrowing.org/docs/2008Biodiversity_in_Vineyards.pdf. Accessed February 15, 2010. Traynor, J. (2003). Leaf vs. Petilole Analysis to Find N in Grapes. Grape Grower Magazine. URL: www.beesource.com/pov/traynor/ggmfeb2003.htm. Accessed March 13, 2009. Vernal Pool Association. (nd). URL: www.vernalpool.org/vpinfo_1.htm. Accessed February 23, 2009. VineBALANCE New York. (2009). Guide to Sustainable Viticulture Practices. Workbook Sections. URL: www.vinebalance.com/workbook_sections.php. Accessed October 15, 2008. Washington Association of Wine Grape Growers. (2006). Vinewise: Washington Guide to Sustainable Viticulture. URL: www.vinewise.org/245.html. Accessed October 15, 2008. Westcoast Environmental Law. BC Guide to Watershed Law and Planning. Watersheds of BC. URL: www.bcwatersheds.org/issues/water/bcgwlp/d1.html. Accessed February 19, 2009.

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Wetland Stewardship Partnership. (2009). Wetland Ways: Interim Guidelines for Wetland Protection and Conservation in British Columbia. URL: www.env.gov.bc.ca/wld/BMP/bmpintro.html/. Accessed March 15, 2010. Wild Farm Alliance. (2005). Biodiversity Conservation: An Organic Farmers Guide. Watsonville, California. Wrysinski, J. (2002). Monitoring on Your Farm: A Guide to Tracking and Understanding the Resources and Wildlife on Your Farm. Woodland, CA: Yolo County Resource Conservation District. Yalumba Wine Company (2009). Yalumbas Viticultural Code of Practice. Yalumba Wine Company. Angaston, SA. URL: http://www.yalumba.com/library/enviro_viticodeofpractice.pdf. Accessed October 15, 2008.

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GLOSSARY
Annual: a plant that goes through the process of germinating, flowering and dying in one growing season. They need to be replanted each spring. Winter annual plants germinate in the fall and mature the next season. Application rate (pesticide): the rate at which the pesticide should be applied over a given area. It is normally found on the products label and is based on things such as target pest, weather conditions, soil conditions and plant development stages. Beneficial organisms (beneficials): is a subjective term given to organisms that enhance crop production by contributing to pest control, pollination or maintenance of soil health. A beneficial organism for one crop may be detrimental to another and vice versa. Biodiversity: the richness and variety of all life forms plus the habitats and natural processes that support them. Biogeoclimatic zone: An ecosystem spread over a large geographical area that can be characterized by its climate, vegetation, soils and animal life. Cover crop: vegetation that is planted (e.g., grass), or allowed to grow (e.g., native plants) between rows of grape plants. A cover crop is a sustainable tool that can be used to effectively manage soil quality, water use, weeds and pests. Drift (pesticide): Pesticide drift refers to pesticide droplets or dust that are transported by the wind and deposited outside of target areas. Ecosystem processes: the physical, chemical and biological actions or events that link organisms and their environment. Ecosystem processes regulate the climate, clean freshwater, regulate and clean soils, maintain genetic diversity, maintain the water cycle, recycle nutrients, and pollinate crops. Ecosystem services: resources and processes that are supplied by natural ecosystems. Collectively, these benefits are known as ecosystem services. These services are extensive and diverse, affecting the quality of our land, water, food, and health. Ecosystems provide services that: contribute to climate stability and moderate weather extremes disperse seeds mitigate drought and floods cycle and move nutrients protect stream and river channels and coastal shores from erosion purify the air and water and detoxify and decompose wastes control agricultural pests support diverse wildlife populations maintain biodiversity generate and preserve soils and renew their fertility contribute to climate stability

GLOSSARY | Page G-1

purify the air and water regulate disease carrying organisms pollinate crops and natural vegetation enhance aesthetic appeal provide habitat

Ecosystem: a community of plants, animals, and microorganisms that live, feed, and interact in the same area or environment. People are part of ecosystems. Ecosystems develop and exist at different scales: in a drop of water, within a single tree, within a field, across a farm, and across a large region like a major river basin. Evapotranspiration (ET): The combined loss of water to the atmosphere from a given area by evaporation from the land and transpiration from plants; used in determining crop irrigation needs. Fertigation: the application of fertilizers, soil amendments, or other water soluble products through an irrigation system. Foliar spraying: Application of liquid fertilizer by spraying on the leaf of the plant. Grafting: It is a form of asexual plant propagation where the scion of one plant is encouraged to fuse with the rootstock of another. Grafting is a method most commonly used for the propagation of commercial trees and shrubs. Green manure: a cover crop that is grown to be tilled and turned under while still green for the purpose of adding nutrients and organic matter to the soil. Habitat: the living area of a community of plants and animals. It includes the air, soil, water, food and cover components upon which plants and animals depend upon to carry out their life processes. Invasive (noxious) weed: Noxious weeds are typically non-native plants that grow uncontrollably because of a lack of local predators or plant pathogens that would keep their populations under control. They are detrimental to crops because they are highly competitive and difficult to control. Invasive species: Invasive species are plants, animals, aquatic life and micro-organisms that out-compete native species when outside of their natural environment and threaten Canada's ecosystems, economy and society. Leachate (pesticide): Pesticide leachate is pesticide in solution that gets transported by rain or irrigation down into or through the soil to unwanted areas. Macronutrient: Macronutrients are soil nutrients consumed by plants in large quantities, and are necessary for the healthy development of a crop. These are nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and sulphur. In areas that lack one or all of these nutrients, the soil can be amended by applying these as fertilizer. Micronutrient: Micronutrients are those nutrients utilized by plants in small quantities but
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that are crucial to their development. These are boron, copper, chlorine, iron, manganese, molybdenum and zinc. In areas that lack one or all of these nutrients, the soil can be amended by applying these as fertilizer. Mycorrhizae: beneficial fungi that form a symbiotic relationship with the root of a plant, which facilitates nutrient intake for the plant. Organic matter: Decayed material that was once part of a living organism usually rich in nutrients. Perennial: a plant that returns year to year, meaning it does not die in the winter. Pest: is a subjective term given to organisms (including plants, animals or pathogens) that are detrimental to crop production. A pest for one crop may be beneficial to another and vice versa. Pesticide: Any material used to prevent, destroy, repel, attract or reduce pest organisms. Insecticides, herbicides, fungicides and rodenticides are some of the more well-known pesticides. Less well-known pesticides include growth regulators, plant defoliants, surface disinfectants and some swimming pool chemicals. Under federal legislation, all pesticides used in Canada must be registered by Health Canada. Petiole: The small stalk that attaches the leaf blade to the stem of a plant. Rootstock: A rootstock is an established healthy root system used for grafting a cutting or budding from another plant. Runoff (pesticide): Pesticide runoff refers to pesticide solution transported by rain or irrigation outside of the target areas. Scion: A scion is a plant cutting that contains desirable genes for things such as stems, leaves, flowers, or fruit. It is normally grafted onto the rootstock of another plant. Soil amendment: Any material added to a soil to improve its properties (e.g., water holding capacity, drainage, aeration, etc.) Soil compaction: Loss of pore structure and aggregate stability with soil caused by traffic and tillage, particularly in wet soil; reduces the movement of water, air, nutrients and soil microbes in soil. Species at risk: are indigenous species, subspecies, and distinct populations that are at risk of becoming extinct at a local or global level. Vine vigour: Vine vigour refers to the amount of vegetative growth produced by a vine in a single growing season. It has a direct effect on nutrient transport and fruit quality. It is affected by environmental factors such as water availability, climate, soil quality, as well as vineyard practices. Water holding capacity: Soil holds water in the space between its particles due to capillary
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action, ionic forces and surface tension. Water holding capacity refers to the water remaining in a soil when the downward water flow due to gravity becomes negligible. Watershed: the region draining into a river, river system, or other body of water. Other terms used interchangeably with watershed include drainage basin or catchment basin. Weeds: native or invasive (noxious) plants that grow and reproduce aggressively, and compete with crop plants for soil nutrients, light and water. Wilting point: When the plant goes into irreversible distress as the force required to remove water from the soil exceeds the plants ability to do so. The permanent wilting point occurs at a higher (total) water content in clay soils than in sandy soils because the particles are smaller and water is more tightly bound to clay soils.

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