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MCI 8102

MARINE CORPS INSTITUTE

STAFF NONCOMMISSIONED OFFICERS


CAREER DISTANCE EDUCATION PROGRAM

MILITARY STUDIES

MARINE BARRACKS
WASHINGTON, DC
MILITARY STUDIES (8102)
Course Introduction

Scope The responsibilities of SNCOs increase with every rank reached. As an NCO,
you will need continuing education on a variety of subjects to master these
additional responsibilities.

Technical and tactical proficiency is the hallmark of the Marine Gunnery


Sergeant. This course covers a wide range of subjects that will enhance your
abilities in maintaining the high standards expected of the senior non-
commissioned officer ranks.

References The following references were used in the writing of this course:

• Manual for Courts-Martial United States (2000 Edition).


• FMFM 3-2, MAGTF Command and Control Support.
• FMFM 6-1, Marine Division.
• FMFM 6-4, Marine Rifle Company/ Platoon.
• FMFRP 2-12, Marine Air Ground Task Force: A Global Capability.
• FRFRP 0-14, Military and Associated Terms.
• MCDP 3, Expeditionary Operations.
• MCRP 5-12C, Marine Corps Supplement to the Defense Dictionary of
Military and Associated Terms.
• MCRP 5-12D, Organization of Marine Corps Forces.
• MCWP 3.33.1, Marine Air Ground Task Force Civilian and Military
Operations.
• MCWP 3.40.1, Marine Air Ground Task Force Command and Control.
• Miller, William M. Col. USMC, Johnstone, John H. Maj., USMC, A
Chronology of the United States Marine Corps 1775-1934 Volume 1,
1934
• Marine Corps University Archives.
• Leatherneck, December 2001 pg. 64.
• Marine Corps Historical Pamphlet, United States Marine Corps Ranks
and Grades 1775-1969. Historical Division HQMC, 1969.

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 i Course Introduction


Course Introduction, Continued

References, • O’Quinlivan, Michael. Enlisted Rank Insignia in the U.S. Marine Corps
continued 1798-1958, Historical Branch, G-3. Headquarters U.S. Marine Corps,
1958.
• www.marinemedalscom
• www.history.navy.mil
• www.usmc.mil/historical.nsf
• MCO P10520.3B, Marine Corps Flag Manual.
• Simmons, Edwin Howard, The United States Marines A History, 3rd
edition
• Department of the Navy, Naval Historical Center, Washington, D.C.
• Stuart, James, letter dated 31 January 1860.
• Official Report of Col. Robert E. Lee, U.S.A. to Adjutant General, U.S.
Army dated 19 October 1859.
• Millet, Alan R., SEMPER FIDELIS, The History of the United States
Marine Corps: Macmillan Publishing Company, Inc. 1980.
• United States Marine Corps, record Group 127, National Archives of the
United States, Washington, D.C.
• Marine Corps Historical Center, Reference Section, History Branch,
History and Museums Division. Washington, D.C.
• MCO P1020.34F, Marine Corps Uniform Regulations.

Table of The following is the table of contents for this course.


Contents

Study Unit Title Page


-- Course Introduction i
1 Military Justice 1-1
2 The Marine Air Ground Task Force (MAGTF) 2-1
3 Marine Corps History 3-1
4 Changes to Uniforms 4-1
Review Lesson Exercise R-1

Estimated You will spend about 9 hours 55 minutes completing this course. This
Study Time includes the time you will need to study the text, complete the exercises, and
take the final examination.

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 ii Course Introduction


Course Introduction, Continued

Reserve You earn 3 retirement credits for completing this course. You earn reserve
Retirement retirement credits at the rate of one credit for each 3 hours of estimated study
Credits time.

Note: Reserve retirement credits are not awarded for the MCI study you do
during drill periods if awarded credits for drill attendance.

Summary The table below summarizes all important “gateways” needed to successfully
complete this course.

Step When you Then you will For more


information
1 Enroll in the program Receive your Refer to the Program
program material Introduction
2 Complete the self- Arrange to take the Refer to the Program
paced text final examination Introduction
3 Pass the final Receive a course Refer to the Program
examination completion Introduction
certificate

MCI Course 8102 iii Course Introduction


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MCI Course 8102 iv Course Introduction


STUDY UNIT 1
MILITARY JUSTICE
Overview

Estimated 1 hour, 40 minutes


Study Time

Scope Many factors have motivated the Congress of the United States to provide a
separate military justice system. Crimes in the military society--unauthorized
absence (UA), disobedience, disrespect, and conduct unbecoming of a
Marine, as examples, have no match in civilian criminal law. Military
leadership requires you to participate in administering the criminal law
process to the extent it affects your subordinates. This participation
reinforces your leadership and control over those factors that influence the
fighting capacity of the Marine Corps.

Learning After completing this study unit, you should be able to


Objectives
• Define the purpose of the military justice system.

• Explain the rules for a court-martial.

• Identify which offense has been committed.

• Conduct a lawful search.

In This Study This study unit contains the following lessons:


Unit

Topic See Page


Lesson 1 Military Justice System 1-3
Lesson 2 Searches 1-27
Lesson 3 Laws of Land Warfare 1-37

MCI Course 8102 1-1 Study Unit 1


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MCI Course 8102 1-2 Study Unit 1


LESSON 1
MILITARY JUSTICE SYSTEM
Introduction

Estimated 30 minutes
Study Time

Scope This lesson provides a broad overview of the military justice system. It
addresses subjects that are vital to staff non-commissioned officers with
Marines under their charge or who are advising a commanding officer on
military justice matters.

Learning After completing this lesson, you should be able to


Objectives
• Identify the purpose of the military justice system.

• Identify the sources of the military justice system.

• Identify the levels of the military justice system by function.

• Identify the limitations of each punishment’s authorization.

• Identify the convening authority by levels of justice.

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 1-3 Study Unit 1, Lesson 1


Introduction, Continued

In This Lesson This lesson contains the following topics:

Topic See Page


Introduction 1-3
Background Information 1-5
Sources 1-6
Process 1-9
Nonjudicial Punishment (NJP) 1-10
Summary Court-Martial (SCM) 1-13
Special Court-Martial (SPCM) 1-15
General Court-Martial (GCM) 1-16
SPCM and GCM Rights of the Accused 1-17
Courts of Military Review (CMR) 1-21
United States Court of Military Appeals (USCMA) 1-22
United States Supreme Court 1-23
Lesson 1 Exercise 1-24

MCI Course 8102 1-4 Study Unit 1, Lesson 1


Background Information

Purpose The purpose of the military law and justice system is to provide a framework
of law that regulates the military forces of our nation and ensures discipline,
high morale, good order, and just treatment.

Military Law Military law is “the body of law which regulates the military establishment of
a nation.” This body of law includes acts that establish the missions of the
various branches, their authorized strength, and all the details that are required
to administer the Armed Forces. The National Security Act of 1947 is an
example of this type of act. The military justice system is the part of military
law that corresponds to criminal law in civilian life.

Jurisdiction The military justice system applies to active duty military personnel, retired
or reserve members who are entitled to pay or benefits, cadets, and
midshipmen. A complete listing of persons covered is given in Article 2 of
the Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ).

MCI Course 8102 1-5 Study Unit 1, Lesson 1


Sources

Order of The present system of military justice derives its authority from various
Precedence sources in a precedence that must be followed. The following five sources
below are listed in order of precedence:

• The Constitution
• The UCMJ
• The Manual for Courts-Martial (MCM)
• Congressional legislation
• Service regulations

The The Constitution of the United States is the supreme law of the land. From it,
Constitution the President, Congress, and the Supreme Court derive their authority.
Section 8 of Article I grants Congress the authority to make rules for the
regulation of land and naval forces, and by extension, air forces. The
provisions of the Constitution apply to military justice unless specifically
excluded by the Constitution itself.

The UCMJ Using its authority under the Constitution, Congress enacted a code of 140
articles to provide a basis for the administration of justice for the Armed
Forces. Article 36 of the UCMJ authorized the President of the United States
to prescribe the actual procedures to be followed when implementing the
provisions of the UCMJ. The UCMJ may also be referred to as “the Code.”

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 1-6 Study Unit 1, Lesson 1


Sources, Continued

The Manual for Under the authority delegated by Congress, the President issues the MCM,
Courts-Martial which is the basic directive implementing the UCMJ. It sets forth such things
(MCM) as trial procedures, rules of evidence, and maximum punishments for
violations of the Code. The MCM is divided into six parts followed by an
appendix.

Part Name Function


I Preamble Gives the source of military jurisdiction, what
agencies may exercise military jurisdiction, and
the nature and purpose of military law.
II Rules for The MCM gives the rules that govern the
Courts-Martial procedures and punishments in all courts-
martial and also some preliminary,
supplementary, and appellate procedures. This
is a descriptive analysis of procedures for
military justice.
III Military Rules Gives the rules about evidence applicable in
of Evidence courts-martial, including summary courts-
martial.
IV Punitive Articles Articles 78-134, UCMJ, are the punitive
articles. Article 77, Principals, and Article 79,
Accessory After the Fact, explain who is
punishable under these articles and explains
accessory after the fact.
V Nonjudicial Explains the procedures for NJP including the
Punishment authority, limitations of punishment, and
(NJP) appeals.
Appendixes Include the Constitution of the United States,
UCMJ, maximum punishment chart, and an
explanation of various forms.

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 1-7 Study Unit 1, Lesson 1


Sources, Continued

Service The Department of Defense, an executive department, and the Navy


Regulations Department issue directives as authorized by Congress. An example of a
directive is the Judge Advocate General Manual (JAG Manual) which
contains instructions for implementing parts of the UCMJ and the MCM,
which are unique to the Navy and Marine Corps.

MCI Course 8102 1-8 Study Unit 1, Lesson 1


Process

Levels of Basically, the military justice system provides a means to enforce military
Justice System laws. Once a violation of the code has been brought to the attention of the
proper authorities; the commanding officer investigates the charge to
determine the validity of the allegation. Based on the results of this
investigation, the commanding officer then decides if prosecution is
warranted, and, if so, at what level.

The levels of the military justice system are

• Nonjudicial punishment (NJP)


• Summary Court-Martial (SCM) (lowest level court)
• Special Court-Martial (SPCM) (intermediate level court)
• General Court-Martial (GCM) (highest level court)
• Court of Military Review (CMR)
• United States Court of Military Appeals (USCMA)
• United States Supreme Court

MCI Course 8102 1-9 Study Unit 1, Lesson 1


Nonjudicial Punishment (NJP)

Article 15 NJP is often referred to as Article 15, company punishment, NJP, office
“NJP” hours, and captain’s mast. The term “mast” originated from the area around
the main mast of sailing ships, the center where the ship’s company gathered.
The area also served as a place for floggings and other punishment.
Therefore, in the Navy, an Article 15 punishment is known as a “mast” or
“captain’s mast.” In the Marine Corps, the customary name of the
proceeding is “office hours.”

Convening Company commanders and an OIC, given authority, may award NJP to both
Authority enlisted and officers of their command. They may not, however, delegate
their authority. For example, a colonel may not give a by-direction authority
to a captain to award NJP to an individual when the colonel is the convening
authority.

Objective of The primary objective of NJP is to correct the offender for minor breaches of
NJP discipline without the stigma of a court-martial conviction. Used properly,
such authority in the hands of commanding officers can be an effective tool
for promoting good order and discipline within the military.

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 1-10 Study Unit 1, Lesson 1


Nonjudicial Punishment (NJP), Continued

Authorized Article 15 (office hours) punishments can be imposed together or limited by


Punishments grade. Sentences awarded can, at a future time, be vacated. Below are
punishments that can be imposed by grade of the convening authority.

Company grade officers can impose • Correctional custody for 7 days


• Forfeiture of not more than 7 days
pay
• Reduction to the next inferior pay
grade
• Extra duties for not more than 14
days
• Restriction for not more than 14 days
• Admonition or reprimand
Field grade officers can impose • Correctional custody for not more
than 30 days
• Forfeiture of not more than ½ of 1
months basic pay per month for 2
months
• Reduction to the next inferior pay
grade
• Extra duties for not more than 60
days
• Restriction for not more than 60 days
• Admonition or reprimand

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 1-11 Study Unit 1, Lesson 1


Nonjudicial Punishment (NJP), Continued

Right to Appeal If NJP is imposed, the accused must be informed of his right to appeal the
punishment to the next superior authority if he feels that the punishment is
unjust or disproportionate to the offense.

The superior authority to whom the appeal is made, as well as the officer who
imposed the punishment, may at any time suspend probationally any part of
the unexecuted punishment. He may remit, mitigate, or set aside the
punishment, whether executed or unexecuted, and restore all rights,
privileges, and property affected.

Appeal This appeal must be in writing. The accused must submit it within five
Procedures working days of imposition of punishment.

A Marine who has appealed may be required to undergo any punishment


imposed while the appeal is pending.

If action is not taken on the appeal within five days after the appeal was
submitted and if the service member has so requested, any unexecuted
punishment involving restraint or extra duty must be stayed until action on the
appeal is taken.

MCI Course 8102 1-12 Study Unit 1, Lesson 1


Summary Court-Martial (SCM)

Function The function of the summary court, the lowest level court, is to exercise
justice promptly with a simple procedure for non-capital offenses such as

• Unauthorized Absence (UA)


• Disrespect
• Disobedience

Jurisdiction Summary courts-martial have jurisdiction to try only enlisted persons subject
to the Code for any non-capital offense made punishable by the Code.
Officers may not be tried by summary courts-martial.

Convening A convening authority is a person empowered by law to create a court-


Authority martial. The lowest unit commanding officer in the Marine Corps who may
convene a summary court-martial is a battalion/squadron commander with the
exception of the officer ranks authorized by Articles 22 and 23, UCMJ, and
Section 0115, JAG Manual. Anyone who may convene a special or general
court-martial may also convene a summary court-martial.

Composition A summary court-martial is composed of one commissioned officer on active


duty. According to Naval policy, the summary court-martial officer must be a
Navy lieutenant or Marine captain. In some commands, the officer
designated must be a major. The officer should be appointed on the basis of
age, training, experience, length of service, and judicial temperament. The
summary court-martial officer does not have to be a lawyer; he may carry any
MOS. He acts as judge, jury, trial counselor, and counselor for the defense.

Power A summary court-martial has the power to subpoena witnesses, take


depositions, and punish for contempt of court. All witnesses must testify
under oath or affirmation. There are no challenges in a summary court-
martial. A summary court-martial is a Federal court, and a conviction will
follow a Marine throughout his/her remaining military and civilian career.

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 1-13 Study Unit 1, Lesson 1


Summary Court-Martial (SCM), Continued

Rights of the At a summary court-martial the accused has the right to


Accused
• Refuse trial by a summary court-martial
• Consult with counsel before making decisions about the court
• Be represented by a civilian counsel at his own expense if such
representation would not delay the proceedings
• Cross-examine witnesses and examine evidence
• Call witnesses and introduce evidence
• Remain silent

Authorized SCM can punish the offender with


Punishments
• Confinement for 30 days
• Hard labor without confinement for 45 days
• Restriction for 60 days
• Forfeiture of two-thirds pay per month for 1 month
• Reduction in grade to the lowest enlisted pay grade

Note: In the case of noncommissioned officers above the fourth pay grade
(sergeants and above), the summary court-martial may not adjudge
confinement or hard labor without confinement and may reduce in
grade only to the next lower grade.

MCI Course 8102 1-14 Study Unit 1, Lesson 1


Special Court-Martial (SPCM)

Purpose The purpose of this court is to exercise justice for cases that are serious but
non-capital, such as desertion, assault, larceny, and robbery. The special
court-martial (SPCM) is also described as an intermediate level court.

Jurisdiction Special courts have jurisdiction to try officers and enlisted persons subject to
the code for any non-capital offense made punishable by the Code.

Convening Only battalion and squadron commanders or above and those officers
Authority authorized by Articles 22 and 23, UCMJ, and section 0115 of the JAG
Manual may convene a special court-martial.

Composition The special court-martial is composed of at least three members and a


military judge.

Rights of the Accused persons appearing before a special court-martial have the same
Accused rights as persons appearing before a general court-martial. These rights are
discussed on following pages.

Authorized This is any punishment that is not limited by the code except:
Punishment
• Death
• Dishonorable discharge
• Dismissal
• Hard labor without confinement for more than 3 months
• Confinement for more than 6 months
• Forfeiture of more than 2/3 pay for more than 6 months

The most severe sentence is 6 months’ forfeiture, 6 months’ confinement,


reduction to private, and a bad conduct discharge. This is generally referred
to as “6, 6, and a kick.”

MCI Course 8102 1-15 Study Unit 1, Lesson 1


General Court Martial (GCM)

Purpose The purpose of this court, the highest level court, is to exercise justice for
cases that are of a very serious nature including capital offenses, such as rape,
manslaughter, arson, treason, and mutiny.

Jurisdiction This court may try officers and enlisted personnel.

Convening The general court-martial may be convened only by those flag or general
Authority officers in command of units or activities designated by section 0115, JAG
Manual in addition to those authorized by Article 32, UCMJ.

Composition The general court is composed of at least five members and one military
judge.

Authorized A general court-martial may award any allowable punishment to include


Punishment death, confinement, reduction, forfeiture of all pay, and discharge.

MCI Course 8102 1-16 Study Unit 1, Lesson 1


SPCM and GCM Rights of the Accused

Cannot Refuse The accused cannot refuse either a special or general court-martial.

Detailed 27(b) When a case is referred to a special or general court, a military counsel must
Counsel be detailed for the accused. This counsel is referred to as a “27(b)” counsel
because the officer must meet the qualifications under Article 27(b), UCMJ.
Basically, the officer must be a

• Graduate of an accredited law school


• Member of the bar of a Federal court or the highest court of a state
• Judge advocate as certified by the judge advocate general of his/her
Armed Force.

Right to a In addition to the right to detailed counsel, the accused at a general or a


Military special court-martial has the right to have a military counsel of his/her own
Lawyer choice defend him, if such counsel is available. Such a requested counsel
must meet the same qualifications listed under Article 27(b), UCMJ.

The accused has a right to the assistance of both a requested counsel and a
detailed counsel. The detailed counsel can be excused if the accused so
desires.

Availability of In determining whether a requested counsel is reasonably available, all the


Requested facts and circumstances should be taken into consideration, including the
Counsel duties and the geographical location of the requested counsel and military
situation. No particular reason for the request of the accused is required.

For example, a Marine stationed in Iwakuni, Japan, may request a Marine


lawyer from El Toro, California because he wants the help of someone from
another base. Even if the accused does not know this attorney personally, the
attorney must be provided unless his duties would prohibit his leaving his
post. Distance and cost alone are not a reason for the attorney to be
unavailable.

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 1-17 Study Unit 1, Lesson 1


SPCM and GCM Rights of the Accused, Continued

Civilian In addition to representation by a military counsel of his/her own choice, a


Representation civilian lawyer can also represent the accused. The civilian lawyer must be
retained at the expense of the accused. The civilian counsel must be a
member in good standing of a state or Federal bar.

The detailed military counsel can be retained to assist the civilian counsel or
may be excused altogether.

Self- An accused may represent himself at any trial by court-martial. The court
Representation may accept a request for self-representation only after advising the accused of
his rights to be represented by qualified counsel. The military judge
determines if the accused is capable of representing himself.

Non-legal At a general or special court-martial at which an accused can receive a bad


Representation conduct discharge, a civilian or military member who is not a lawyer (non-
lawyer) cannot represent the accused. However, a non-lawyer may be present
at the defense table for consultation.

Guidelines on Headquarters Marine Corps (HQMC) has published recent guidelines as to


Attorney when an accused who is in pretrial confinement must be contacted by an
Contact attorney. Within 24 hours after the commencement of confinement, a judge
advocate must personally visit the accused. Within 72 hours after the
commencement of pretrial confinement, the detailed counsel or requested
counsel must personally interview the accused.

Method of Trial The accused in a special or general court-martial has the right to choose
among three alternatives what person or group of persons will sit in judgment.
The alternatives include

• Trial by judge
• Trial by a panel of officers
• Trial by a panel of officers and enlisted personnel

The decision on the alternatives must be made before the trial with the
assistance of the defense counsel.

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 1-18 Study Unit 1, Lesson 1


SPCM and GCM Rights of the Accused, Continued

Trial by Judge The first alternative that an accused has is to be tried by a military judge alone
who will determine guilt or innocence, and the sentence, if the accused is
found guilty. The qualifications for a military judge are set forth in Article
26(b), UCMJ: He must be a commissioned officer, a member of a state or
Federal bar, and certified as a military judge by the Judge Advocate General
of the Navy. Such certification is normally given to judge advocates
(captains and above) who have had trial experience as defense or prosecuting
counsel.

Panel of The second alternative that the accused has is the panel of officers that the
Officers convening authority has designated for his court. Before trial, the order
designated by the court members is made available to the accused and his
counsel. The attorney can then determine whether it would be in the best
interest of his client to be tried by the officers designated or to select a
different alternative. The panel of officers may be no fewer than three
members for a special or five members for a general court-martial.

Panel of Mixed The third alternative that the accused has, if he is enlisted, is to elect a trial by
Rank a panel of officers and enlisted personnel. If the accused requests that
enlisted personnel be added to the court, then at least one-third of the court
must be enlisted. If dividing the numbers of court member’s results in a
quotient with a fraction, the number of enlisted members is rounded up (2 1/3
becomes 3). Upon such a request from the accused, the convening authority
details an appropriate number of enlisted personnel to sit as court members.
The enlisted personnel on the court cannot be from the same unit as the
accused and they must all be senior in rank to the accused.

Sentencing If the accused is found guilty, the same persons who tried him will sentence
him.

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 1-19 Study Unit 1, Lesson 1


SPCM and GCM Rights of the Accused, Continued

Right to The accused has a right to reject certain court personnel after they are
Challenge detailed. This is called the right to challenge. The two types of challenge are

• Challenge for cause


• Peremptory challenge

Challenge for Rules-Court-Martial 912(f)(1) lists the grounds upon which a military judge
Cause or court member may be challenged for cause. For example, if any one of the
members of the court is a witness for the prosecution or was an investigating
officer in the case, he would be excused from participating in the case upon
challenge from either side.

In addition to any pretrial investigation they may have done, both counsels
have the opportunity during the first stage of the trial to question the court
members and the judge to determine if any grounds exist that form the basis
for the challenge for cause. If the judge finds a legitimate basis for the
challenge, he will dismiss himself or the challenged member automatically.

Peremptory The peremptory challenge is an arbitrary challenge. When a peremptory


Challenge challenge is made, the challenged member is automatically excused without
any deliberation. There is only one peremptory challenge for both sides, and
the peremptory challenge may be used only against a court member, not the
judge.

MCI Course 8102 1-20 Study Unit 1, Lesson 1


Courts of Military Review (CMR)

Within JAG These courts are established within the office of the judge advocate general
(JAG) of each military department.

Types of Cases They decide questions of law and fact and review sentences that involve
punitive discharge, confinement for one year or more, or dismissal of an
officer.

Automatic This is an automatic review except when the accused waives or withdraws
Review appellate review in accordance with (R.C.M.) 1110, MCM, 1998.

MCI Course 8102 1-21 Study Unit 1, Lesson 1


United States Court of Military Appeals (USCMA)

Highest Although all citizens have ultimate recourse to the Supreme Court of the
Appeals Court United States, The United States Court of Military Appeals (USCMA),
established by Congress under the authority of Article I of the Constitution, is
the highest appeals court within the military justice system.

Composition The USCMA is composed of three civilian judges whom the President
appoints. They serve for terms of fifteen years.

Types of Cases The USCMA decides questions of law. It interprets, and if necessary,
modifies the UCMJ and subordinate regulations.

MCI Course 8102 1-22 Study Unit 1, Lesson 1


United States Supreme Court

Military Justice The new feature of the Military Justice Act of 1983 provides for the U.S.
Act of 1983 Supreme Court to review, at its discretion, certain military cases where the
USCMA has acted. This court is also referred to as the highest court in the
land.

MCI Course 8102 1-23 Study Unit 1, Lesson 1


Lesson 1 Exercise

Estimated 10 minutes
Study Time

Directions Complete items 1 through 8 by performing the action required. Check your
answers against those listed at the end of this lesson.

Item 1 The purpose of the military justice system is to

_____________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________

Item 2 One source for the military justice system is

a. the Magna Carta.


b. congressional legislation.
c. the laws of land warfare.
d. legal judgements.

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 1-24 Study Unit 1, Lesson 1 Exercise


Lesson 1 Exercise, Continued

Item 3 Through Matching: In the space provided place the letter of the level of the military
6 justice system in column 2 that best describes the function listed in column 1.
The answers in column 2 maybe used only once.

Column 1 Column 2

Function Level of the Military Justice


System
___ 3. For serious but non-capital a. Nonjudicial punishment (NJP)
offenses such as desertion, b. Summary Court-Martial (SCM)
robbery, larceny, assault etc. c. Special Court-Martial (SPCM)
___ 4. Simple procedures for minor d. General Court-Martial (GCM)
offenses such as disrespect, e. Court-Martial
unauthorized absence, or
disobedience
___ 5. Office hours
___ 6. For cases very serious in
nature including capital
offenses (rape, manslaughter,
arson, treason, etc.)

Item 7 How long do you have to appeal NJP?

a. 14 working days
b. 7 working days
c. 5 working days
d. 24 hours

Item 8 Who can convene a General Court Martial?

a. Captain in the Army


b. General officer
c. Colonel in the Marine Corps
d. Major in the Judge Advocate

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 1-25 Study Unit 1, Lesson 1 Exercise


Lesson 1 Exercise, Continued

Answers The table below provides the correct answers to the exercise items. If you
have any questions, refer to the reference page listed for each item.

Item Number Answer Reference Page


1 Provide a framework of law that 1-5
regulates the military forces of our
nation and ensures discipline, high
morale, good order, and just treatment.
2 b 1-6
3 c 1-15
4 b 1-13
5 a 1-10
6 d 1-16
7 c 1-12
8 b 1-16

Summary This lesson provided you with information about the basis of the military
justice system, the types of punishments and courts, the rights of the accused,
and the levels of appeal. The next lesson will discuss searches.

MCI Course 8102 1-26 Study Unit 1, Lesson 1 Exercise


LESSON 2
SEARCHES
Introduction

Estimated 20 minutes
Study time

Lesson Scope Just as the fifth amendment of the Constitution protects you from testifying
against yourself, the fourth amendment safeguards your right to physical
privacy. This lesson will cover what types of searches are legal and the limits
to physical privacy.

Learning After completing this lesson, you should be able to


Objectives
• Identify the definition of probable cause.

• Identify the legal objects of a search.

• Identify the types of lawful searches.

In This Lesson This lesson contains the following topics:

Topic See Page


Introduction 1-27
Probable Cause 1-28
Legal Objects of a Search 1-29
Types of Searches 1-30
Lesson 2 Exercise 1-35

MCI Course 8102 1-27 Study Unit 1, Lesson 2


Probable Cause

Definition Probable cause exists when there is a reasonable belief that the property, or
evidence sought is located in the place or on the person to be searched.

Waiver Just as the right to remain silent may be waived, Marines may voluntarily
give up their Constitutional protection from unreasonable searches.

Authority If a Marine does not desire to waive this Constitutional protection, and you
still wish to search the individual Marine or their property, then you must be
able to show that the search is reasonable to gain the authority to search.

Basis for To legally search an individual or their property, you must first show
Probable Cause probable cause or obtain that individual’s willing consent to do a search of
their property. Failure to do so will cause any results of the search to be
inadmissible as evidence in a trial by court-martial.

Fruit of the Knowledge of what constitutes a lawful search and seizure is very important
Poisoning Tree because only evidence seized during a lawful search is admissible in a court-
martial. Evidence seized through leads obtained during an illegal search is
inadmissible. This tainted evidence is known as the “fruit of the poisoning
tree.”

Example Pvt. Smith’s commanding officer (CO) searches her off-base apartment
because the CO believes the private is hiding marijuana there. During the
search, the CO finds no marijuana, but discovers a letter in which the private
tells a friend that she has hidden marijuana in her car. The CO searches the
car and seizes the marijuana. Neither the letter nor the marijuana is
admissible in court because the search of the apartment was unlawful.
Military personnel have no authority to search an off-base residence in the
United States.

MCI Course 8102 1-28 Study Unit 1, Lesson 2


Legal Objects of a Search

Four Only certain items are legal objects of a search. To conduct a legal search, the
Categories objects you look for must fall under one of the following four categories

• Instruments of the crime


• Evidence of the crime
• Fruits of the crime
• Contraband

Instruments of These are items which have been used to commit a crime, but which are not
the Crime illegal to have, such as a stocking mask and hunting knife.

Evidence of the These are items, beyond actual weapons, which could link the accused to a
Crime crime, such as blood-stained clothing or a gunshot wound.

Fruits of the These are items in the possession of the accused as a result of the crime, such
Crime as stolen jewelry or a stolen car.

Contraband These items are illegal to possess under any circumstance. During an
authorized search, they may be seized.

Resisting In a search of an individual resisting arrest, you may search for and seize
Arrest Search items that a suspect could use to escape or resist arrest.

MCI Course 8102 1-29 Study Unit 1, Lesson 2


Types of Searches

Six Types There are six types of searches

• Searches authorized by commanding officer


• Necessity searches
• Searches pursuant to a search warrant
• Consent searches
• Searches incident to lawful apprehension
• Searches where no expectation of privacy exists

Search The most common type of search is the one authorized by a commanding
Authorized by officer. The search must be within the commanding officer’s area of
Commanding jurisdiction and is limited to property and persons subject to military
Officer authority. This authority may not be delegated. Civilians and their property
may not be searched.

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 1-30 Study Unit 1, Lesson 2


Types of Searches, Continued

CO’s Search A commanding officer’s ability to authorize a search is limited by several


Limitations factors. The commanding officer

• Is limited by the probable cause requirement as to what can be searched.


He may search only where he reasonably believes evidence will be found.

• Can authorize a search of personnel only within his command,


jurisdiction, whether they are on or off base, and in any area or property
under his control. This area or property must be on base.

• Can also authorize a search of his command which includes all


government property or property owned by personnel under his authority.
For example, a commanding officer could order a search of a Marine’s
room on base if he had probable cause, but not of an apartment in a
civilian housing area. The commanding officer could also authorize a
search of a Marine’s private vehicle if it were on base.

• Must be neutral and detached and must perform his duties with a judicial,
rather than a police attitude. For example, a commanding officer is not
permitted to personally conduct a search he has authorized. He cannot
authorize a search when he has been personally involved in gathering
information, which would lead to probable causes to authorize such a
search. The order must be sure to state precisely what person or place is
to be searched and the object of the search.

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 1-31 Study Unit 1, Lesson 2


Types of Searches, Continued

Necessity In some cases, there may not be time to obtain authorization from the CO to
Search conduct a search. In cases where immediate action is necessary to prevent the
removal or destruction of evidence, a necessity search may be conducted. In
such a case, you must not only establish probable cause, but also show that
the commanding officer could have properly authorized the search if there
had been time. You must demonstrate that the circumstances preclude
obtaining permission in the normal way.

Searching Occasionally, a commanding officer may find that there is probable cause to
Outside of search an area outside his jurisdiction. If the area is subject to military
Jurisdiction control, the appropriate commanding officer, who has been contacted and
given the evidence for probable cause, can authorize the search. In the case
of off-base civilian property, the case is brought to the attention of the civilian
authorities having judicial powers over the suspected area. Upon being
convinced that probable cause does exist, the civilian judiciary issues the
warrant, which is then served by appropriate civilian law enforcement agency.
Military personnel may act as observers, but do not take an active part in the
search.

Consent Search In this case, the owner of the property or the person to search freely gives
their consent to search. No probable cause is needed in this kind of search.
Promises of better treatment or threats should never be used to gain consent.
If there is no legal right to search, consent to search should not be induced by
any means.

Article 31 When asking suspects for their consent to search, it is not required to give
Warning and Article 31 rights and warnings; however, it helps to establish that the consent
Consent Search was voluntary if you have given the warnings. If the suspect does not want to
make a statement or answer questions without a lawyer, you may still ask him
whether he consents to a search. It is best to advise the suspect that he has a
right to withhold the consent before asking him to consent. It is always
proper to have a third party present during a search to protect yourself from
being accused of illegal actions during or after the search.

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 1-32 Study Unit 1, Lesson 2


Types of Searches, Continued

Search Incident When a lawful apprehension is made, the apprehending personnel are
to Lawful authorized to conduct a search of the person being apprehended and the
Apprehension immediate area in which the person was apprehended. This search, which is
designed to prevent the destruction or disposal of evidence and to protect the
person performing the apprehension by revealing any weapons, must be
conducted as soon as possible after the apprehension.

Who May Any officer, warrant officer, staff noncommissioned officer or


Apprehend noncommissioned officer can apprehend anyone who falls under the UCMJ.

Who May be The law states that you can apprehend a person only when you have probable
Apprehended cause to apprehend or to quell any disturbance of verbal or physical nature.
This can include civilians within military jurisdiction.

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 1-33 Study Unit 1, Lesson 2


Types of Searches, Continued

What May be The law allows for the search of an apprehended person, his body and
Searched clothing and the immediate area where the person has been apprehended. The
law allows you to search in a manner to protect yourself. If in the course of a
search you find incriminating evidence, it may be seized.

Search Where The right to be free from unreasonable searches applies only to an
No Expectation individual’s body and property. It does not apply to government property
of Privacy used by the accused in the execution of his duties. Areas such as office desks,
Exists government vehicles, etc., may be legally searched without consent or
probable cause since no expectation or right of privacy exists. On the other
hand, areas such as wall lockers, used mainly for personal gear, do fall under
the provisions of the Fourth Amendment. For example, a wall locker used to
store personal gear cannot be searched without probable cause; the wall
locker and its contents would be considered personal property and therefore
protected by the Fourth Amendment.

MCI Course 8102 1-34 Study Unit 1, Lesson 2


Lesson 2 Exercise

Estimated 10 minutes
Study Time

Directions Complete items 1 through 3 by performing the action required. Check your
answers against those listed at the end of this lesson. If you have any
questions, refer to the reference page listed for each item.

Item 1 Which of the following is considered a reasonable belief that a crime has been
committed and that the item being searched for is in the place being searched?

a. Not a good enough reason to search


b. Probable cause
c. A fact admissible in court
d. Evidence of the crime

Item 2 Which of the following is a legal object of a search?

a. Marine in possession of pistol on private property


b. Marine in possession of marijuana on private property
c. Marijuana found in Marine’s a car off base
d. Marijuana found in Marine’s car on base

Item 3 Identify which of the following is a lawful search?

a. Search authorized by the commanding officer.


b. Search authorized and conducted by the commanding officer.
c. PFC Warrior consents to a search after being told, “Things could go
easier for you.”
d. PFC Warrior consents to a search after being told, “We are going to
search anyway, you could make it easier.”

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 1-35 Study Unit 1, Lesson 2 Exercise


Lesson 2 Exercise, Continued

Answers The table below provides the correct answers to the exercise items. If you
have any questions, refer to the reference page listed for each item.

Item Number Answer Reference


1 b 1-28
2 d 1-29
3 a 1-30

Summary This lesson provided you with information on obtaining proper authorization
for searches and on how to conduct a lawful search. The next lesson will
discuss the laws of land warfare.

MCI Course 8102 1-36 Study Unit 1, Lesson 2 Exercise


LESSON 3
LAWS OF LAND WARFARE
Introduction

Estimated 20 minutes
Study Time

Lesson Scope A soldier can justifiably kill his military enemy counterpart who is trying to
kill him, but it would be a criminal act to attack or kill a member of the
enemy population whose fate is irrelevant to the outcome of the conflict or an
enemy that is disarmed and is attempting to surrender. In this lesson, we will
cover the sources of the law, basic concepts and forbidden targets, and tactics
and techniques that violate the laws of war.

Learning After completing this lesson, you should be able to


Objectives
• Identify the sources for the laws of land warfare.

• Identify a noncombatant.

• Identify factors that may contribute to violating the laws of land warfare.

In This Lesson This lesson contains the following topics:

Topic See Page


Introduction 1-37
Background 1-38
Concepts 1-39
Forbidden Targets, Tactics and Techniques 1-40
Enemy Captives and Detainees 1-41
Unlawful Acts and Orders 1-43
Responsibilities of the Staff Noncommissioned Officer 1-44
Lesson 3 Exercise 1-45

MCI Course 8102 1-37 Study Unit 1, Lesson 3


Background

Sources of the Laws of land warfare are ideas of honor and civility that were created to
Law maintain some compassion at a time of war. The laws of land warfare were
derived from two principal sources.

• Treaties
• Customary laws

Treaties Certain treaties have long been a source for the laws of land warfare. Two
that the United States has adopted for the use during armed conflicts are the
Hague Rules of 1907 and the Geneva Convention of 1949.

Customary Customary laws came about due to practices in war that were and are so
Laws universally undesirable or contemptible that their condemnation has assumed
legal force. The rationale behind customary laws is that there can be definite
advantages to observing certain restraints during war. Causing unwarranted
suffering and pain to the enemy or cruelty to a local civilian population,
which has nothing to do with accomplishing the mission at hand, can cause a
loss of tactical superiority and dehumanize those involved in conducting the
act. This may also lead to defeat on the battlefield. The white flag of truce,
which came to be respected during the middle ages, is just one example of
conduct in accordance with a customary law.

Purpose of the The purpose of the laws of land warfare is an attempt to regulate and reduce
Laws of Land the violence of war by
Warfare
• Protecting both combatants and noncombatants from unnecessary
suffering

• Safeguarding fundamental human rights of persons who fall into the


hands of the enemy

• Hastening the restoration of peace

MCI Course 8102 1-38 Study Unit 1, Lesson 3


Concepts

Effects The laws of land warfare place limits on the exercise of an enemy’s use of
power in an armed conflict. They require that opposing forces refrain from
using any degree of violence unnecessary for the prosecution of military
operations. The laws of land warfare require that combatants conduct
hostilities so as to avoid undue suffering.

Military Military necessity is the application of force which justifies those measures
Necessity (not forbidden by law) required for securing the complete submission of the
enemy.

Unnecessary Unnecessary suffering recognizes the humanitarian need for restraint even in
Suffering the violence of combat. This principle applies not only to the degrees of
violence, but also to dishonorable or deceptive acts which would encourage
abuse.

Binding on The laws of land warfare are binding on all combatant nations and members
States and of their respective Armed Forces.
Individuals

MCI Course 8102 1-39 Study Unit 1, Lesson 3


Forbidden Targets, Tactics, and Techniques

Improper The laws of land warfare cover actions that are considered improper on the
Actions battlefield. There are portions of the laws that cover the safeguarding of
defenseless people and property not directly involved with military activity.
The use of unlawful targets, techniques, and tactics may be dangerous in
itself. It is likely to enrage enemy soldiers, causing them to fight harder or to
use illegal methods of their own.

Noncombatants All persons participating in military operations or activities are considered


combatants. This distinction is not always easy to make. Guerrillas often
mix with or disguise themselves as civilians. Noncombatants are persons not
participating (meaning that they don’t have an RPG, AK-47, or grenade in
their hand) in military operations or activities. They include

• Civilians
• Medical personnel
• Chaplains
• POWs and detainees
• Sick and disabled
• Wounded

Common Rules • Individuals parachuting from a disabled aircraft are considered helpless
and are noncombatants. On the other hand airborne troops exiting a
aircraft for the purpose of combat would be considered combatants and
can be fired on while still in the air.
• Don’t fire upon any medical personnel, vehicles, buildings, tents, or other
facilities used for the care of the wounded, sick, and disabled. You cannot
mark yourself or your position with a medical service symbol unless you
have been designated to perform such duties.
• You are not allowed to attack villages, towns, or cities unless required by
the mission. You do not destroy a town, city, or village to remove one
sniper.
• Using poisons or chemical weapons is against the laws of land warfare.
• The laws of land warfare prohibit the alteration of weapons or
ammunition to inflict undue suffering and dismemberment to the enemy.
Flame throwers, napalm, and shotguns are not forbidden by the laws of
land warfare. Using a bullet with an altered tip, however, would be
considered an act that violates the laws of land warfare.

MCI Course 8102 1-40 Study Unit 1, Lesson 3


Enemy Captives and Detainees

Terminology The terms captives and detainees will be used here instead of prisoners of war
because the laws of land warfare apply to all persons who come under your
control in combat. You capture combatants and detain noncombatants.

Signals Enemy soldiers may signal you by waving a white flag, or abandoning their
positions with their arms raised as the enemy did in the Persian Gulf War.
The way they signal their desire to stop fighting may vary, but you must
allow them to give up once you receive the signal.

Restrictions There are certain restrictions to follow when dealing with captives. The four
When Dealing restrictions with captives are
with Captives
• When you capture enemy soldiers or detain noncombatants during
combat, you must treat them humanely.

• You may question captives or detainees for military information, but


never use threats or other forms of coercion. An enemy captive is
required to give only his rank, serial number, and date of birth.

• You must safeguard captives and detainees from dangerous combat


activities. Captives and detainees can dig foxholes or bunkers for their
own protection but are not required to work in support of war.

• You may search captives or detainees for military intelligence or items


that could be harmful to themselves or friendly troops.

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 1-41 Study Unit 1, Lesson 3


Enemy Captives and Detainees, Continued

Civilians and It may be difficult to understand the rage and anguish of seeing personal
Private rights abused and property destroyed. Our nation has not been torn by the
Property devastation and destruction of war (the attacks of September 11th 2001 are the
exception to what is being addressed in this lesson). There are four general
rules when dealing with civilians and private property in combat:

• Provide protection for civilians from verbal and physical attacks. Women
in war zones will be protected from rape and forced prostitution.

• Do not take non-military items while searching dwellings in enemy


towns, villages, or cities.

• It is lawful to move or resettle civilians if it is urgently required for


military reasons.

• Do not start fires in civilian homes or dwellings or burn their property


unless the necessities of war urgently require you to do so.

MCI Course 8102 1-42 Study Unit 1, Lesson 3


Unlawful Acts and Orders

Confusion Fear All Marines have a duty to prevent criminal acts where U.S. forces are
and Stress involved. In the dehumanizing environment of war, wearied Marines can lose
their sense of identity. Marines become fatigued from lack of food and sleep.
The experience of constant violence may lead to general confusion, fear, and
stress. The result can be the deterioration of discipline and moral values
within a unit. These factors can cause Marines to commit unlawful acts.
However, atrocities or illegal acts of war do not become more acceptable
because they were committed by Marines who were “in the bush” too long.

Required If you see an act being committed that is clearly a violation of the laws of
Action land warfare, you must act to prevent it. If the crime directly and
immediately endangers your life or the life of another person, you may use
deadly force to prevent it.

Orders Any order to commit a crime, such as murder, rape, arson, torture, or pillage,
is in violation of the laws of land warfare. Such an order is clearly criminal
and unlawful. This order would also violate any common sense rules of
decency, social conduct, and morality, and not be in standing with what the
Marine Corps would find acceptable in an armed conflict.

Crimes You must report any and all crimes in combat. If a crime involves your
immediate superiors, report it to their superior. An individual may be tried
and convicted for crimes committed in combat even after they have left
service.

Example Marines who kill captives and detainees cannot excuse themselves from the
act by stating that they were told to “take care of them” and took it as an order
to execute them.

MCI Course 8102 1-43 Study Unit 1, Lesson 3


Responsibilities of the Staff Noncommissioned Officer

Prevent The SNCO must take all possible measures to prevent violations of the laws
Violations of land warfare by subordinates. He is responsible if he has knowledge of a
crime and fails to take steps to ensure compliance with the laws of land
warfare. He must ensure that his subordinates do not violate the laws of land
warfare. Ignoring the actions of subordinates does not remove the SNCO
from responsibility for their actions.

Reasons for When combat occurs, it is frequently sudden, unexpected, and characterized
Violations by extremely violent action, savage behavior, and intense danger. These
violent acts of combat tend to bring out certain behaviors which could be
possible reasons for violations of the laws of land warfare. There are five
main reasons this could occur.

• Fear
• Stress
• Personality problems
• Frustration
• Fatigue

Psychological Seeing a fellow comrade wounded or killed will have a traumatic impact on
Danger yourself or your Marines. Combat is a brutal event, and casualties are to be
expected. The shock of seeing friends killed tends to bring out an “eye for an
eye” mentality which can lead to a violation of the laws of land warfare. This
psychological danger can happen to any Marine regardless of rank.

SNCO The SNCO must be aware of problems caused by the horror and confusion of
Leadership battle. He must ensure that commands are obeyed and that the commands are
Factor in conjunction with the laws of land warfare. The leadership of the SNCO is
the cornerstone of Marines in combat and will be the factor that can prevent
any violation.

MCI Course 8102 1-44 Study Unit 1, Lesson 3


Lesson 3 Exercise

Estimated 10 minutes
Study Time

Directions Complete items 1 through 3 by performing the action required. Check your
answers against the correct answers at the end of this lesson.

Item 1 Which of the following is a source of the laws of land warfare?

a. The Constitution
b. The Hague Rules
c. The Magna Carta
d. The Articles of War

Item 2 Select the noncombatant from the following choices.

a. Enemy soldier with a radio


b. Enemy soldier riding a bike
c. Man with a dog
d. Uniformed woman in vehicle

Item 3 Which of the following can be a factor in violating the law of land warfare?

a. Happiness
b. Stress
c. Cowardice
d. Corruption

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 1-45 Study Unit 1, Lesson 3 Exercise


Lesson 3 Exercise, Continued

Answers The table below provides the correct answers to the exercise items. If you
have any questions, refer to the reference page listed for each item.

Item Number Answer Reference


1 b 1-38
2 c 1-40
3 b 1-44

Summary This lesson provided you with information about the laws of land warfare and
on the responsibilities staff noncommissioned officers have for compliance
with those laws.

MCI Course 8102 1-46 Study Unit 1, Lesson 3 Exercise


STUDY UNIT 2
THE MARINE AIR GROUND TASK FORCE (MAGTF)
Overview

Estimated 1 hour, 15 minutes


Study Time

Unit Scope This study unit teaches you how the operational forces in Marine Corps units
are formed into Marine Air Ground Task Forces (MAGTF) for deployment,
training, and combat operations. This study unit also teaches you about the
Special Purpose MAGTF (SPMAGTF).

Learning After completing this study unit, you should be able to


Objectives
• Identify the elements of a Marine Air Ground Task Force (MAGTF).

• Identify the purpose of a MAGTF.

• Identify the components of a MAGTF.

• List the components of a Special Purpose MAGTF (SPMAGTF).

• Explain the concept of employment of a SPMAGTF.

• State the mission of a Marine Expeditionary Force (MEF).

• List the components of a MEF.

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 2-1 Study Unit 2


Overview, Continued

In This Study This study unit contains the following lessons:


Unit

Topic See Page


Lesson 1 The Marine Air Ground Task Force (MAGTF), 2-3
and Special Purpose MAGTF (SPMAGTF)
Lesson 2 Employment of a Marine Air Ground Task Force 2-23

MCI Course 8102 2-2 Study Unit 2


LESSON 1
MARINE AIR GROUND TASK FORCE
Introduction

Estimated 30 minutes
Study Time

Lesson Scope The objective of this lesson is to teach you the elements and structure of a
Marine Air Ground Task Force (MAGTF), and a Special Purpose MAGTF
(SPMAGTF).

Learning After completing this lesson, you should be able to


Objectives
• Identify the four basic forces of a Marine Air Ground Task Force
(MAGTF).

• Identify what the Command Element (CE) provides the MAGTF.

• Identify what the Ground Combat Element (GCE) provides the MAGTF
commander.

• Identify the mission of an Air Combat Element (ACE).

• Identify the units that make up the Combat Service Support Element of a
MAGTF.

• Identify some of the mission of a Special Purpose MAGTF (SPMAGTF).

• Identify the size of a SPMAGTF.

• Identify the concept of employment of a SPMAGTF.

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 2-3 Study Unit 2, Lesson 1


Introduction, Continued

In This Lesson This lesson contains the following topics:

Topic See Page


Introduction 2-3
Marine Air Ground Task Force 2-5
Command Element 2-9
Ground Combat Element 2-10
Air Combat Element 2-13
Combat Service Support Element 2-16
Mission of a Special Purpose MAGTF (SPMAGTF) 2-18
Lesson 1 Exercise 2-19

MCI Course 8102 2-4 Study Unit 2, Lesson 1


Marine Air Ground Task Force

Background The Marine Air Ground Task Force (MAGTF) organization is based on
combined arms integration of ground combat, aviation combat, and combat
service support elements into a cooperative team under a single Marine
commander and command element (CE). The concept for this organization
traces its origins back to the 1920s when the Marine Corps shifted its primary
mission from defending advanced naval bases to seizing them. In adopting
this new mission, Marine Corps planners had to address many problems
associated with making landings on hostile shores. Foremost among these
problems was developing a tactical unit that had the combat potential,
balance, and flexibility necessary to accomplish amphibious warfare.

Composition The Marine Air Ground Task Force (MAGTF) is the Marine Corps’ principal
warfighting organization for all missions across the range of military
operations. The MAGTF provides a combatant commander in chief or other
operational commanders with a versatile expeditionary force for responding
to a broad range of crisis and conflict situations. They are designed to be
light enough to get there and heavy enough to win battles. MAGTFs are
balanced, combined arms forces with organic command, ground, aviation,
and sustainment elements. MAGTFs are organized, trained, and equipped to
perform forward-presence, crisis-response, and full-scale combat missions.
MAGTFs are a general-purpose air-ground-logistics forces that can be
tailored to the requirements of a specific situation.

MAGTF While uniquely task-organized for specific missions, all MAGTFs share
Structure certain characteristics in their organization. The structure of the MAGTF
determines what its capabilities and limitations are and what types of
missions it can undertake.

How A Whether Marines are rescuing American citizens from turmoil, providing
MAGTF humanitarian aid to foreign refugees, or fighting a high-intensity war against
Operates technologically advanced adversary, they will operate in some form of a
MAGTF. Marines routinely organize, train, deploy, and operate as MAGTFs.
Tailoring MAGTFs for specific missions through task organization is
standard procedure. As a result, the MAGTF is a cohesive military
organization with a well-understood command relationship and operating
procedures.

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 2-5 Study Unit 2, Lesson 1


Marine Air Ground Task Force, Continued

Organization The following defines the organization of a MAGTF.

• Configured to accomplish a specific mission


• Commanded by a single commander
• Structured the same regardless of size

Elements The MAGTF always has the following four elements:

• Command element (CE)


• Ground combat element (GCE)
• Aviation combat element (ACE)
• Combat service support element (CSSE)

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 2-6 Study Unit 2, Lesson 1


Marine Air Ground Task Force, Continued

MAGTF Types As a reference for sizing and capability, MAGTFs are categorized into the
following five types:

• Marine Expeditionary Force (MEF)


• Marine Expeditionary Brigade (MEB)
• Marine Expeditionary Force Forward (MEF Fwd)
• Marine Expeditionary Unit (MEU)
• Special Purpose Marine Expeditionary Force (SPMAGTF)

Scalability The following table shows how MAGTFs may be deployed.

MEF Major Theater War


Win Our Nation’s Battles

MEB Smaller-Scale
Crisis Response Contingencies

MEF Fwd
Forward Elements of a MEF Smaller MEF Presence

MEU (SOC) Promote Peace and


Presence and Engagement Stability

SPMAGTF
Specific Mission Specific Crisis Missions
Orientated

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 2-7 Study Unit 2, Lesson 1


Marine Air Ground Task Force, Continued

Concepts The statutory mission of the MAGTF is to provide the Fleet Marine Force
(FMF) with the ability to

• Seize or defend advanced naval bases.


• Conduct land operations in support of naval campaigns.
• Perform other duties as directed.

MAGTFs’ All MAGTFs share certain common characteristics, regardless of their size or
Common mission, as shown below.
Characteristics
Common characteristics

• Readiness for expeditionary service


• Strategic mobility
• Capability for forcible entry
• Environmental versatility
• Capability for independent action
• Sea air-land coordination
• Logistic strengths and limitations
• Flexibility
• Tactical surprise
• Capability with naval, joint, and combined operations
• Sea basing
• Forward basing

MCI Course 8102 2-8 Study Unit 2, Lesson 1


Command Element

Command Despite its obvious wartime usefulness, the concept of a separate MAGTF
Element headquarters was abandoned after the Korean War. The new ad hoc policy
History called for the commander of the Ground Combat Element (GCE) to assume
control over the MAGTF. Emphasis was on the ground combat role with the
aviation and logistic elements serving in supporting roles. After the Vietnam
war, the Marine Corps reemphasized its amphibious mission and reactivated
the concept for separate headquarters for MAGTFs as they were formed.
Under the more formal system, the MAGTF headquarters became the
Command Element (CE).

Command The Command Element (CE) provides the command and control necessary
Element for the effective planning and execution of all military operations. It is
normally a permanent headquarters, and also includes units that provide
intelligence, communications, and administrative support in general support
of the MAGTF.

Responsibility The MAGTF is made up of several distinct combat and CSS elements. It is
the Command Element’s (CE) responsibility to synchronize all of the
elements of the MAGTF into an integrated team focused on the single battle.
The CE also has to be adaptive to working in a joint or multinational
environment. The Command Element (CE) of a Marine Air Ground Task
Force (MAGTF)

• Provides the MAGTF command and control system for ground, air, and
Combat Service Support (CSS) forces.

• Facilitates sequencing of additional MAGTFs as necessary because of its


modular design.

• Consists of the commander, staff, and surveillance, reconnaissance, and


intelligence element.

MCI Course 8102 2-9 Study Unit 2, Lesson 1


Ground Combat Element

Definition FMFRP 2-12 defines the GCE as…The MAGTF element that is task-
organized to conduct ground combat operations. GCEs are constructed
around an infantry unit that varies in size from platoons or companies of 40
to 200 Marines to one or more divisions of approximately 20,000 Marines.
GCEs also include appropriate combat support and combat service support
units. Normally, there is only one GCE in a MAGTF.

Basics The Ground Combat Element (GCE) is a potent, flexible organization


structured to respond to the full dimension of crises and conflicts. The GCE
is one of the MAGTF commander’s fists (as is the ACE; you can use both of
them as you would in a boxing match). You can use the GCE to exploit the
principles of maneuver and firepower in the conduct of ground combat
operations. Given the expanse of options available to MAGTF and joint
planners, it is imperative that you develop an understanding of what the GCE
brings to the fight.

Ground The ground combat element (GCE) is task-organized to conduct ground


Combat operations in support of the MAGTF mission. During amphibious operations,
Element it projects ground combat power ashore using transport helicopters from the
aviation combat element and organic and Navy landing craft. It may have
any composition required by the mission, although normally it is built around
an infantry unit reinforced with artillery, reconnaissance, armor, engineer, and
other forces as needed. The ground combat element may range from a light,
air transportable unit to one that is relatively heavy and mechanized.

Capabilities Capabilities of the Ground Combat Element (GCE) are listed below:

• Extraordinarily flexible
• Employable in virtually all climates and places
• Enjoys combat power from numerous sources
• Sustains itself for a finite period if properly task-organized

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 2-10 Study Unit 2, Lesson 1


Ground Combat Element, Continued

Limitations Some limitations of the Ground Combat Element (GCE) are listed below:

• Lack of organic mobility assets. The total Assault Amphibious Vehicle


(AAV) and motor transport assets of the Marine division will “lift” almost
one third of the assigned infantry units.

• Lack of organic combat power when compared to Army units, specifically


in the areas of armor and artillery. To compensate for this fact, the GCE
is heavily dependent upon the ACE’s ability to provide timely and
effective close air support.

• The operational reach of the GCE is also limited by its shallow organic
logistics infrastructure. It requires significant support from the CSSE for
sustainment in prolonged operations conducted over distances greater than
75 miles.

Employment The Marine Ground Combat Element (GCE) operates as an integral


component of the MAGTF. It does not operate independently, but receives its
mission from the MAGTF commander. The GCE is employed as

• Task-oriented (primary focus): The defeat of the enemy by application of


superior military power at decisive places and times.

• Combat power: The GCE is capable of maneuvering to advantage and


applying in combination direct and indirect fires against the enemy.

• Task-organized (mission-oriented): The grouping of all tactical,


administrative, and service elements as a result of mission analysis,
assignment of tasks, and construction of the organization to accomplish a
specific task.

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 2-11 Study Unit 2, Lesson 1


Ground Combat Element, Continued

Responsibility The GCE of a MAGTF

• Conducts ground combat operations.


• Consists of an infantry unit varying in size from a rifle platoon to three
Marine divisions.
• Contains organic combat support and combat service support units.

Mission The mission of the Ground Combat Element (GCE) is to provide the MAGTF
Commander with an expeditionary ground force prepared to conduct
combined arms operations across the spectrum of conflict and in any
operational environment.

MCI Course 8102 2-12 Study Unit 2, Lesson 1


Air Combat Element

Marine FRFRP 0-14, Military and Associated Terms, defines Marine aviation
Aviation assault support as…The use of aircraft to provide tactical mobility and
Assault logistic support for the MAGTF, the movement of high priority cargo and
Support personnel within the immediate area of operations, in-flight refueling, and the
Definition evacuation of personnel and cargo.

Air Combat The Air Combat Element (ACE) is one member of the MAGTF task-
Element organized combined arms team. The ACE supports the MAGTF mission by
performing some or all of the six functions of Marine aviation:

• Antiair warfare
• Assault support
• Offensive air support
• Air reconnaissance
• Electronic warfare
• Control of aircraft and missiles

The ACE is normally built around an aircraft organization augmented with


appropriate air command and control, combat, combat support, and combat
service support units. The ACE can operate effectively from ships,
expeditionary airfields, or austere forward operating sites and can readily and
routinely transit between sea bases and expeditionary airfields without loss of
capability. The ACE can range in size and composition from an aviation
detachment with specific capabilities to one or more Marine Aircraft Wings
(MAW).

Uniqueness One of the most important differences between a MAGTF and other
comparably sized tactical units is that a MAGTF has a sizable organic
aviation component.

ACE as Part of All MAGTFs have three important elements led by one commander:
MAGTF
• Ground Combat Element (GCE)
• Aviation Combat Element (ACE)
• Combat Service Support Element (CSSE)

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 2-13 Study Unit 2, Lesson 1


Air Combat Element, Continued

Marine The ACE and the four groups listed below fall under the Marine Aircraft
Aircraft Wing Wing (MAW).
(MAW)
• Marine Aircraft Group (Fixed Wing) (FW)
• Marine Aircraft Group (Rotary Wing) (RW)
• Marine Wing Support Group (MWSG)
• Marine Air Control Group (MACG)

Greatest The greatest benefit aviation assault support provides is the ability to quickly
Benefit maneuver ground forces to take advantage of fleeting battlespace
opportunities.

Benefits to Air assault benefits the MAGTF by


MAGTF
• Combining speed and focus to shape the MAGTF battlespace

• Adding depth while allowing the commander to maneuver forces away


from enemy strength

• Allowing the commander to move equipment or personnel via rapid


movement to a place and time where the enemy will be placed in a
predicament and forced to react instead of acting

Role The ACE of a MAGTF does the following:

• Conducts air operations and provides air support to the GCE and CSSE
• Integrates air-ground combat operations
• Consists of aviation units sized from one reinforced helicopter squadron
to three Marine aircraft wings
• Contains organic combat support and combat service support units

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 2-14 Study Unit 2, Lesson 1


Air Combat Element, Continued

Limitations Limitations of air assault support include

• Limited visibility
• Effects of weather
• Landing zone ID
• Time on station
• Reduced radius of action
• Communications
• Enemy defenses (drives how assault support operations are conducted)

The biggest limitation, as in all aviation operations, is a sophisticated air


defense system.

Employment Employment of air assault support includes

• Attack (Timing is critical to ensure unit is in place before the main attack
kicks off.)
• Exploit
• Pursue
• Secure and defend
• Recon in force
• Conduct a raid
• Support the MAGTF in the defense

Mission Marine aviation provides the MAGTF commander with a unique force. This
force is ready for deployment and employment and is capable of meeting the
MAGTF’s requirements across the spectrum of conflicts. To meet these
requirements, Marine aviation performs the six doctrinal functions.

MCI Course 8102 2-15 Study Unit 2, Lesson 1


Combat Service Support Element

Definition of The official Dictionary of Military Terms, 2nd edition, 1992, defines logistics
Logistics as the science of planning and carrying out the movement and maintenance of
forces. In its most comprehensive sense, those aspects of military operations
include

• Design and development, acquisition, storage, movement, distribution,


maintenance, evacuation, and disposition of material
• Movement, evacuation, and hospitalization of personnel
• Acquisition or construction, maintenance, operation, and disposition of
installations
• Acquisition or furnishing of services

Foundation of For much of human history, armies have had little need for logistical support.
Logistics They carried weapons that never needed a resupply of ammunition. Their
horses and other animals found their own forage. The men themselves
usually found enough food as they moved through the countryside.

No modern military force can, however, function very long without a steady
supply of the sinews of war. Advances in technology and organization have
made modern military forces more powerful and lethal than ever before.
These advances have also made today’s military completely dependent on
constant logistical support.

Requirement To function for any length of time, the MAGTF needs its organic combat
service support element (CSSE).

Combat Service The Combat Service Support Element (CSSE) provides a full range of
Support support functions from sea bases aboard naval shipping or from expeditionary
Element bases ashore. The CSSE provides sustainment and logistical support external
to the MAGTF. MAGTFs can augment this organic sustainability by external
support from the Navy, other services, and host nation support organizations.

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 2-16 Study Unit 2, Lesson 1


Combat Service Support Element, Continued

Responsibility The CSSE of a MAGTF:

• Provides a range of CSS functions and capabilities

• Complements the CSS capabilities of GCE, ACE, and CE

• Consists of the following type units:

• Supply
• Landing Support
• Maintenance
• Transportation
• General Engineering
• Health services
• Communications
• Headquarters and Service

Mission Provide the MAGTF commander with a support element that may range in
size from a Marine Expeditionary Unit (MEU) Service Support Group
(MSSG) to a Force Service Support Group (FSSG) tailored to provide for the
total range of logistics support.

MCI Course 8102 2-17 Study Unit 2, Lesson 1


Mission of a Special Purpose MAGTF (SPMAGTF)

Mission SPMAGTFs accomplish specific missions when the planning time is adequate
to tailor forces to an actual situation. Missions may range from noncombatant
evacuation to disaster relief and humanitarian assistance. They are designated
as SPMAGTF (location).

Examples of a SPMAGTF Liberia was formed from elements of the II Marine Expeditionary
SPMAGTF Force and deployed from Camp Lejeune, North Carolina, to relieve the 22d
Marine Expeditionary Unit (special operations capable) deployed off the coast
of Liberia in April 1996. Another example is SPMAGTF that conducted
Operation Eastern Exit, the evacuation of the U.S. Embassy in Mogadishu,
Somalia, in January 1991. It was formed from elements of the 4th Marine
Expeditionary Brigade, deployed in the Gulf of Oman for Operations Desert
Shield and Desert Storm in 1990-1991.

Components A SPMAGTF may be any size, but normally it is a relatively small force--the
size of a Marine Expeditionary Unit (MEU) or smaller--with narrowly
focused capabilities chosen to accomplish a limited mission.

Concept of A SPMAGTF may be task-organized deliberately from the assets of a


Employment standing Marine expeditionary force and deployed from its home base for a
particular mission, or it may be formed on a contingency basis from an
already deployed MAGTF to perform an independent, rapid-response mission
of usually limited scope and duration. Common missions of a SPMAGTF
include raids, peacekeeping, noncombatant evacuation operations, disaster
relief, and humanitarian assistance. For example, a special purpose MAGTF
was deployed to Haiti to restore democracy, conduct peacekeeping
operations, and provide humanitarian assistance. SPMAGTFs are normally
designated by the mission location or operation name, such as “SPMAGTF
Somalia” or “SPMAGTF Support Democracy.”

MCI Course 8102 2-18 Study Unit 2, Lesson 1


Lesson 1 Exercise

Estimated 10 minutes
Study Time

Directions Complete exercise items 1 through 8 by performing the action required.


Check your answers against those listed at the end of this lesson.

Item 1 What are the four basic task forces that are formed to make a MAGTF?

a. Marine Expeditionary Unit, Command Element, Ground Combat


Element, Aviation Combat Element
b. Marine Expeditionary Force, Division, Headquarters Element, Force
Service Support Group
c. Ground Combat Element, Aviation Combat Element, Combat Service
Support Element, and Command Element
d. Division, Wing, Support, Marine Expeditionary Force

Item 2 What does the Command Element provide to the MAGTF?

a. Ground support
b. Command and control
c. Air support
d. Service support

Item 3 What does the GCE provide to the MAGTF commander?

a. Air operations and provides air support to the Combat Service Support
Element (CSSE) and Air Combat Element (ACE)
b. Ground combat operations
c. Combat Service Support Element (CSSE) capabilities of Ground Combat
Element (GCE), Air Combat Element (ACE), and Command Element
(CE)
d. A staff, surveillance, reconnaissance and intelligence

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 2-19 Study Unit 2, Lesson 1 Exercise


Lesson 1 Exercise, Continued

Item 4 Air units sizing from one reinforced helicopter squadron to three Marine
Aircraft Wings are all part of the __________________ of the MAGTF.

a. Ground Combat Element (GCE)


b. Command Element (CE)
c. Combat Service Support Element (CSSE)
d. Air Combat Element (ACE)

Item 5 Which of the following units is one of the Combat Service Support Elements
of a MAGTF?

a. Maintenance
b. Infantry
c. Close air support
d. Landing Force Operations Center (LFOC)

Item 6 What is the mission of a Special Purpose MAGTF (SPMAGTF)?

a. To use all available forces to accomplish the mission.


b. To accomplish a large scale operation in a short period of time.
c. To utilize all assets of a Marine Expeditionary Force (MEF).
d. To accomplish specific missions when the planning time is adequate.

Item 7 Special Purpose MAGTFs (SPMAGTFs) may be any size, but normally they
are a relatively _______________ force.

a. large
b. small
c. well defined
d. bulky

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 2-20 Study Unit 2, Lesson 1 Exercise


Lesson 1 Exercise, Continued

Item 8 Common missions of a SPMAGTF include raids, peacekeeping,


noncombatant evacuation operations, disaster relief, and

a. humanitarian assistance
b. air alerts
c. large scale envelopments
d. counterinsurgency operations

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 2-21 Study Unit 2, Lesson 1 Exercise


Lesson 1 Exercise, Continued

Answers The table below provides the answers to the exercise items. If you have any
questions, refer to the page listed for each item.

Item Number Answer Reference


1 c 2-6
2 b 2-9
3 b 2-12
4 d 2-13
5 a 2-17
6 d 2-18
7 b 2-18
8 a 2-18

Summary This lesson has shown you the basic breakdown of the Marine Air Ground
Task Force (MAGTF) and the Special Purpose MAGTF (SPMAGTF). The
following lesson will highlight in detail the Marine Corps’ employment
considerations of a MAGTF.

MCI Course 8102 2-22 Study Unit 2, Lesson 1 Exercise


LESSON 2
EMPLOYMENT OF A MAGTF
Introduction

Estimated 15 minutes
Study Time

Lesson Scope The objective of this lesson is to teach you the employment of a MAGTF.

Learning After completing this lesson, you should be able to


Objectives
• Identify the mission of a Marine Expeditionary Force (MEF).

• Identify the components of a MEF.

In This Lesson The lesson contains the following topics:

Topic See Page


Introduction 2-23
Mission of a Marine Expeditionary Force (MEF) 2-24
Components of a Marine Expeditionary Force (MEF) 2-26
Lesson 2 Exercise 2-27

MCI Course 8102 2-23 Study Unit 2, Lesson 2


Mission of a Marine Expeditionary Force (MEF)

Marine While sharing the characteristics with all MAGTFs, the Marine Expeditionary
Expeditionary Force (MEF) is the largest and most capable fighting force of the MAGTF. It
Force has no fixed structure, but is task-organized and designed to handle specific
duties. The MEF may range in size from half the assets of a division and
aircraft wing to multiple divisions and aircraft wings. The total number of
Marines and Sailors in the MEF may range from 30,000 to over 60,000.
Whatever the size of a combat force, it is supported by an appropriate Combat
Service Support Element (CSSE).

Size The MEF is the largest of the MAGTFs. It consists of the following:

• MEF: Command element


• GCE: One or more Marine divisions (MARDIV)
• ACE: One or more Marine aircraft wings (MAW)
• CSSE: One or more force service support groups (FSSG)

Locations To facilitate implementation of the Marine Corps MAGTF doctrine, the


Marine Corps has established permanent MAGTF command elements at the
MEF and MEB levels, throughout the world. These elements consist of a
commander, who may concurrently command another unit, and a nucleus
staff of officers and enlisted personnel. The three Marine Expeditionary
Forces are

• I MEF Camp Pendleton, California


• II MEF Camp Lejeune, North Carolina
• III MEF Camp Courtney, Okinawa

Mission The Marine expeditionary force (MEF) is the principal Marine Corps
warfighting organization, particularly for larger crises or contingencies. It is
capable of missions across the range of military operations. Each MEF
consists of a permanent command element and one Marine division, Marine
aircraft wing, and force service support group. Each forward-deploys Marine
expeditionary units on a rotating basis.

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 2-24 Study Unit 2, Lesson 2


Mission of a Marine Expeditionary Force (MEF), Continued

Specific MEF The Marine Expeditionary Force (MEF), operating independently or as a


Missions service component of a larger joint or multinational force, might include a
wide-range of expeditionary operations such as

• Amphibious operations

• Assaults
• Raids
• Demonstrations
• Withdrawals

• Sustained operations ashore in any geographical environment


• Commitment as a follow-on reinforcement for a smaller MAGTF
• Operations in support of a maritime campaign, such as the seizure or
defense of an advanced naval base

• Military Operations Other Than War (MOOTW) operations

• Counterinsurgency
• Terrorism counteraction
• Peacekeeping
• Peacetime contingency operations

MCI Course 8102 2-25 Study Unit 2, Lesson 2


Components of a Marine Expeditionary Force (MEF)

Components The size and composition of a deployed MEF can vary greatly depending on
the requirements of the mission. A MEF can deploy with not only its own
units but also units from the other standing MEFs, the Marine Corps Reserve,
or other Services. A MEF normally deploys by echelon. The lead echelon of
the MEF, tailored to meet a specific mission, is designated the MEF Forward
(FWD) and may be commanded by the MEF commander personally or by a
designated commander. The MEF (FWD) prepares for the subsequent arrival
of the rest of the MEF or other joint or combined forces. However, the
deployment of the MEF (FWD) does not necessarily mean that all the forces
of the standing MEF will follow. This would occur only if the entire MEF
were required.

MCI Course 8102 2-26 Study Unit 2, Lesson 2


Lesson 2 Exercise

Estimated 10 minutes
Study Time

Directions Complete exercise items 1 through 4 by performing the action required.


Check your answers against those listed at the end of this lesson.

Item 1 The Marine Expeditionary Force (MEF) is the Marine Corps’


______________ warfighting organization.

a. only
b. principal
c. smallest
d. most effective

Item 2 The MEF has ______________________ but is task-organized and designed


to handle specific duties.

a. a very strict fixed structure


b. issued tasks
c. assigned positions
d. no fixed structure

Item 3 Which is (are) mission(s) of a Marine Expeditionary Force (MEF)?

a. Amphibious assault
b. Military Operations Other Than War (MOOTW)
c. Commitment as a follow-on reinforcement for a smaller MAGTF
d. All the above

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 2-27 Study Unit 2, Lesson 2 Exercise


Lesson 2 Exercise, Continued

Item 4 The size and composition of a deployed MEF can vary greatly depending on
the

a. size of the Ground Combat Element (GCE).


b. requirements of the mission.
c. requirements of the Combat Service Support Element (CSSE).
d. location of the mission.

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 2-28 Study Unit 2, Lesson 2 Exercise


Lesson 2 Exercise, Continued

Answers The table below provides the answers to the exercise items. If you have any
questions, refer to the page listed for each item.

Item Number Answer Reference page


1 b 2-24
2 d 2-24
3 d 2-25
4 b 2-26

Summary This lesson has shown you the basic breakdown of the employment of a
Marine Air Ground Task Force (MAGTF).

MCI Course 8102 2-29 Study Unit 2, Lesson 2 Exercise


(This page intentionally left blank.)

MCI Course 8102 2-30 Study Unit 2, Lesson 2 Exercise


STUDY UNIT 3
MARINE CORPS HISTORY
Overview

Estimated 2 hours, 40 minutes


Study Time

Unit Scope This study unit will give you a better understanding of historical events that
have impacted doctrine, tactics and how the Marine Corps conducts business.

Learning After completing this study unit, you should be able to


Objectives
· Identify the origins of the Staff Noncommissioned Officer (SNCO).

· Identify significant events in Marine Corps history.

· Identify the historical event with the doctrinal outcome.

· Identify the SNCO contribution to the Marine Corps.

· Identify social issues that have caused the Marine Corps to change.

In This Study This study unit contains the following lessons:


Unit

Topic See Page


Lesson 1 History of the Staff Noncommissioned Officer 3-3
Lesson 2 Evolution of the Marine Corps 3-15
Lesson 3 Marine Corps History in the 19th Century 3-29
Lesson 4 The Twentieth Century Marine Corps 3-51

MCI Course 8102 3-1 Study Unit 3


(This page intentionally left blank.)

MCI Course 8102 3-2 Study Unit 3


LESSON 1
HISTORY OF THE STAFF NONCOMMISSIONED OFFICER
Introduction

Estimated 30 minutes
Study Time

Lesson Scope This lesson focuses on origins of Marines and Staff Noncommissioned
Officers (SNCO) in history and how the rank structure has evolved in the
Marine Corps.

Learning After completing this lesson, you should be able to


Objectives
· Identify the origin of the SNCO rank.

· Identify the year the grade of Gunnery Sergeant was created.

· Identify the year the grade of Staff Sergeant was created.

In This Lesson This lesson contains the following topics:

Topic See Page


Introduction 3-3
Origin of the Staff Noncommissioned Officer Ranks 3-4
The SNCO Rank Structure 3-5
Lesson 1 Exercise 3-12

MCI Course 8102 3-3 Study Unit 3, Lesson 1


Origin of the Staff Noncommissioned Officer Ranks

General The staff noncommissioned officer originated out of a need for senior enlisted
leadership. These senior enlisted Marines served as advisors in different
work fields (Military Occupational Specialties) and as commanders of
shipboard detachments.

Continental In establishing the Continental Marines, Congress specified that “no person
Marines be enlisted but such as are good seamen, or so acquainted with maritime
affairs as to serve with advantage by sea”. This emphasis on ship’s
detachments meant, proposed battalions would be broken up into small
groups and the organizations would have a comparatively simple enlisted
rank structure.

The grades that evolved were those of sergeant, corporal, drummer or fifer,
and private.

Reestablishing The U.S. Navy was permanently established in 1798. As a department of the
the Marine Navy, the United States Marine Corps came into being. As far as ships’
Corps detachments were concerned, the old pay grades and titles used by the
Continental Marines were carried over but the Act for Establishing and
Organizing a Marine Corps also provided for staff noncommissioned officers.
Provisions allowed the Commandant to appoint a staff consisting of a
sergeant major, a quartermaster sergeant, a drum major, and a fife major.
This rank structure would remain in effect until 1832.

Post War of Following the War of 1812, the Navy shouldered the heavy burden of
1812 protecting American interests throughout the world. Many naval vessels had
no Marine officer; a sergeant was responsible for the duties of a ship’s
detachment. In 1833 congress created the grade of orderly sergeant to reflect
the responsibilities of the position held by these sergeants at sea.

MCI Course 8102 3-4 Study Unit 3, Lesson 1


The SNCO Rank Structure

General The staff noncommissioned officer corps has evolved as compensation for
billets requiring highly trained professionals. The need for these SNCO’s are
displayed in the evolution of our rank structure.

First Sergeant In1834, an important step in the evolution of the modern first sergeant was
made when three orderly sergeants were employed as clerks at Headquarters
Marine Corps to fill the need for senior enlisted Marines with clerical and
bookkeeping skills. Although these men eventually were replaced by civilian
clerks, their employment as administrative specialists did set the groundwork
for the creation of a first sergeant.

Official documents referred to the noncommissioned officer in charge of a


ship’s guard detachment as a first sergeant. Not until July of 1872 was the
title “orderly sergeant” officially dropped in favor of the more descriptive
“first sergeant.”

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 3-5 Study Unit 3, Lesson 1


The SNCO Rank Structure, Continued

The Gunnery During the war with Spain a measure enacted on 5 May 1898 authorized the
Sergeant grade of gunnery sergeant. Much confusion reined around this grade until
March of 1899 when a law was enacted that set forth the enlisted grades and
the authorized strength of each. The legislators paused to place the gunnery
sergeants on an equal level with the first sergeants in everything but pay. The
gunnery sergeant would receive an additional ten dollars a month for his skill
with naval ordnance, small arms, and signaling.

A candidate for the grade of gunnery sergeant was tested primarily in naval
ordinance. With the development of new signal equipment, some gunnery
sergeants were trained in operating and maintaining radios. Still others
specialized in telephone communication or in using electrically controlled
coastal defense mines.

Gunnery The original design of the gunnery sergeant chevron consisted of three
Sergeant chevrons and three bars with the “device of the school of application,” a
Insignia crossed rifle and naval gun behind an eagle, globe, and anchor. In 1904 the
insignia was revised to three chevrons with a bursting bomb and crossed rifles
set on a scarlet field.

The chevron below reflects the revisions of 1904.

Gunnery Sergeant 1904

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 3-6 Study Unit 3, Lesson 1


The SNCO Rank Structure, Continued

Mid-level Sergeant and quartermaster sergeant were developed to fill the gap in the
Technical technical fields. The first group of staff sergeants received their warrants in
Grades the spring of 1923. On 10 December 1925, the Commandant requested the
establishment of the ranks of master technical sergeant and supply sergeant.
The purpose of requesting the new ranks was to reward men performing
technical duties necessary to the operation of a large post or in the Marine
aviation field. On 6 October 1926, the rank of paymaster sergeant was
approved by Secretary of the Navy.

Staff Sergeant The Marine Corps had multiple variations of the staff sergeant chevron dating
Insignia back to the naval traditions with symbols from our military occupational
specialty (MOS) field represented in the center of the chevron.

Below are a couple of examples of staff sergeant rank from 1935:

Platoon Sergeant Staff Sergeant, Mess

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 3-7 Study Unit 3, Lesson 1


The SNCO Rank Structure, Continued

Upper-level The ranks of technical sergeant, master gunnery sergeant and platoon sergeant
Technical were established during autumn of 1935. The ranks were necessary because
Grades of the continuing misuse of gunnery sergeants.

The rank of master gunnery sergeant was created to give opportunity for
further advancement to specialists in ordnance and gunnery. Technical
sergeant, the same grade as gunnery sergeant, was authorized for
noncommissioned officers holding the title of gunnery sergeant but
performing duties entirely different from ordnance.

Technical The rank of Staff Sergeant and Technical Sergeant both had multiple ranks.
Sergeant
Insignia Below are some examples of the technical sergeant chevrons from 1936:

Gunnery Sergeant Drum Major Supply Sergeant

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 3-8 Study Unit 3, Lesson 1


The SNCO Rank Structure, Continued

Adequate Titles The problem of finding adequate titles for each rank in the Marine Corps was
not solved during the course of World War II. By mid-January 1944, SNCO
rank structure was arranged in the table below. The table also reflects pay
grades before they were inverted in 1949:

Pay General Service Ordnance Aviation, Band,


Grade Engineering,
Communication,
Special staff offices
1 Sergeant Major Master Gunnery Master Technical
1st Sergeant Sergeant Sergeant
Master Gunnery Quartermaster
Sergeant Sergeant
Master Technical Paymaster Sergeant
Sergeant Master Steward
Master Cook
2 Gunnery Sergeant Gunnery Sergeant Technical Sergeant
Technical Sergeant Drum Major
Paymaster Sergeant
Steward 1st Class
Cook 1st Class
3 Platoon Sergeant Platoon Sergeant Staff Sergeant
Staff Sergeant Steward 2nd Class
Cook 2nd Class

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 3-9 Study Unit 3, Lesson 1


The SNCO Rank Structure, Continued

Rank By the end of World War II, certain branches had eased standards for the
Designation requirements for promotion. This caused a great deal of dissatisfaction, since
men performing the same duties in different fields were promoted by different
standards. On 1 December 1946, the new designations of rank went into
effect. Branch titles such as commissary were abolished but the old titles
such as first sergeant or platoon sergeant could be used when applicable in
informal conversation.

The table below illustrates the change in SNCO rank structure:

Pay Grade Old Rank New Rank


1 Sergeant Major Master Sergeant
First Sergeant
Master Gunnery Sergeant
Master Technical Sergeant
Quartermaster Sergeant
Paymaster Sergeant
Master Steward
Master Cook
2 Gunnery Sergeant Technical Sergeant
Drum Major
Supply Sergeant
Steward 1st Class
Technical Sergeant
3 Platoon Sergeant Staff Sergeant
Chief Cook
Steward 2nd Class
Cook 2nd Class
Staff Sergeant

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 3-10 Study Unit 3, Lesson 1


The SNCO Rank Structure, Continued

Policy Change Between 1946 and 1958, there were three major changes in the SNCO rank
structure. First, the Career Compensation Act of 12 October 1949 turned the
pay-grade numbering system upside down by placing privates in pay grade E-
1 and master sergeants in grade E-7.

Second, the Marine Corps announced in December 1954 the establishment of


two additional titles within grade E-7. The rank of sergeant major was to take
precedence over the newly redesignated first sergeant, which was placed
above the master sergeant.

Third, the job of first sergeant or sergeant major was too important to be
classed merely as an administrative specialty. This re-emphasis on the role of
the senior noncommissioned officers was followed by a sweeping revision of
enlisted grades and ranks of the Marine Corps in 1958, after Congress
amended the Career Compensation Act of 1949 and authorized two new pay
grades, E-8 and E-9.

1963 to Present With another revision new technical leadership was considered introduced
into the top SNCO levels, in recognition of ever-increasing complexity of
waging modern warfare, by permitting E-8 and E-9 billets to be filled also by
occupational specialists. Since technical adeptness was required of others
besides the technical sergeant, this title ceased to have value and was deleted.

The rank of master sergeant was moved up to E-8 and the void was filled with
the reintroduction of gunnery sergeant at the E-7 level. The rank of master
gunnery sergeant was revived to provide leadership in occupational fields at
E-9.

The Chevron of Master Gunnery Sergeant and Sergeant Major would become
3 stripes with three rockers and a bursting bomb or star in the middle. The
Master Sergeant chevron would be identical except for crossed rifles in the
center vice a bursting bomb and one less rocker. First Sergeant would have
the same number of stripes and rockers but with a diamond in the center vice
crossed rifles.

MCI Course 8102 3-11 Study Unit 3, Lesson 1


Lesson 1 Exercise

Estimated 15 minutes
Study Time

Directions Complete items 1 through 4 by performing the action required. Check your
answers against those listed at the end of this lesson.

Item 1 Provisions in the year ________ from the Act Establishing and Organizing
the Marine Corps, allowed the Commandant to appoint the first SNCO rank.

a. 1770
b. 1776
c. 1798
d. 1832

Item 2 In 1798 the Commandant appointed an enlisted staff consisting of a sergeant


major, a

a. quartermaster sergeant, a drum major, and a fife major.


b. quartermaster sergeant, a drum major, and a first sergeant.
c. master sergeant, a fife major, and a first sergeant.
d. drum major, a fife major and a first sergeant.

Item 3 The grade of gunnery sergeant was authorized on

a. 10 November 1775.
b. 5 May 1898.
c. 5 May 1901.
d. 6 June 1944.

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 3-12 Study Unit 3, Lesson 1 Exercise


Lesson 1 Exercise, Continued

Item 4 The first group of staff sergeants received their warrants in the spring of
________ to fill the gap between sergeant and quartermaster sergeant.

a. 1923
b. 1925
c. 1926
d. 1935

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 3-13 Study Unit 3, Lesson 1 Exercise


Lesson 1 Exercise, Continued

Solutions The table below lists the answers to the exercise items, refer to the reference
page.

Item Number Answer Reference


1 c 3-4
2 a 3-4
3 b 3-6
4 a 3-7

Summary In this lesson, you learned about the origins of the SNCO and the history of
the multiple ranks and grades of past and present.

In the next lesson, you will learn about the evolution of the Marine Corps and
how it was initially employed.

MCI Course 8102 3-14 Study Unit 3, Lesson 1 Exercise


LESSON 2
EVOLUTION OF THE MARINE CORPS
Introduction

Estimated 20 minutes
Study Time

Lesson Scope This lesson is designed to focus on the evolution of the Marine Corps. You
will read about how the need for a rapidly deployable force from both sea and
land provides a continuing mission for our Corps and ensures its survival as
well.

Learning After completing this lesson, you should be able to


Objectives
· Identify Gooch’s Marines.

· Identify the date of the first amphibious landing by Continental Marines.

· Identify the year of the act that approved establishment and organization
of a Marine Corps.

In This Lesson This lesson contains the following topics:

Topic See Page


Introduction 3-15
Marines In History 3-16
Continental Marines 3-18
Marines Under Way 3-20
Establishment Of The United States Marine Corps 3-23
Lesson 2 Exercise 3-26

MCI Course 8102 3-15 Study Unit 3, Lesson 2


Marines In History

Introduction The following lesson will give you information on the first known use of
Marines and will provide information on how our lineage led to the
establishment of the Marine Corps as a permanent organization.

Roman The first documented use of Marines by an organized Army dates back to the
Marines Roman Empire. Rome had special legions of “milites classiarri” or soldiers
of the fleet. These special legions served at sea aboard ships and act as
landing parties if needed.

Royal Marines The British Royal Marines were formed on 26 October 1664 during the early
stages of the second Dutch War. King Charles II sanctioned a decree in
council for the formation of The Duke of York and Albany’s Maritime
Regiment of Foot. The1200 man regiment had the specific designation for
service afloat and fell under the command of the navy.

Gooch’s In 1740, England had raised four colonial battalions of 3,000 men for service
Marines against Spain. Alexander Spottswood of Virginia was their first commander
however, he died just a couple of weeks after assuming command. Command
of the Marines then transferred to Colonel William Gooch. These men would
later be known as Gooch’s Marines, after their leader. In July 1741, Gooch’s
Marines secured Guantanamo Bay, Cuba as a forward base for the British
Navy.

Colonial and Although no formal organization of Continental Marines was authorized


State Marines prior to 10 November 1775, it was common practice to have Marine
detachments aboard warships of all types. Records dated 3 May 1775 show
the existence of American Marines on the payroll of the Massachusetts sloop
Enterprise. Before there were any Continental warships, numerous Marines
were serving aboard vessels belonging to the colonial or state navies. All
states had navies except New Jersey and Delaware which sent out only
privateers.

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 3-16 Study Unit 3, Lesson 2


Marines In History, Continued

The Original The first recorded reference to American Marines is in a letter dated 25 May
Eight 1775 that eight well spirited and equipped Connecticut State Marines
escorting money for troops to Albany, New York. These troops were
dispatched by the Governor of Connecticut in response to a request of “men
and money needed” by the garrison at Fort Ticonderoga. These Marines are
often referred to as the “Original Eight.”

MCI Course 8102 3-17 Study Unit 3, Lesson 2


Continental Marines

Introduction It is probable that at no period in naval history were Marines more important
than they were during the Revolutionary War. In many instances, Marines
displayed their steadfastness and discipline whether under fire or maintaining
order aboard the vessel.

The Need for In the 1770s, no one argued against the shipboard use of Marines. They were
Marines as much a part of the ships’ furniture as were its sails or guns. The Marines
preserved order and discipline and manned shipboard cannons. The rule of
thumb was “one gun, one Marine,”

Two Battalions On 30 October 1775, Congress named a naval committee with John Adams of
of Marines Massachusetts as one of its seven members. The exact location of the
Established meeting place is not certain however; tradition has it that the committee met
on the second floor of Peg Mullin’s Beef-Steak House at the corner of King
Street and Tun Alley in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Accordingly, the
committee put together a resolution, and on 10 November 1775, that
resolution was passed by the Congress:

Resolved, that two Battalions of Marines be raised consisting of one Colonel,


two lieutenant Colonels, two Majors and officers as usual in other regiments,
that they consist of equal number of privates with other battalions; that
particular care be taken that no person be appointed to office or inlisted into
said Battalions, but such are good seaman, or so acquainted with maritime
affairs as to be able to serve to advantage by sea, when required. That they be
inlisted and commissioned for and during the present war between Great
Britain and the colonies, unless dismissed by order of Congress. That they be
distinguished by names of the first and second battalions of American Marines,
and that they be considered a part of the number, which the continental army
before Boston is ordered to consist of.

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 3-18 Study Unit 3, Lesson 2


Continental Marines, Continued

Recruiting On 28 November 1775, John Hancock, president of Congress, signed a


captain’s commission for thirty-one-year-old Samuel Nicholas, better known
for his fishing and fox-hunting skills than for his maritime prowess. Captain
Nicholas immediately began organizational efforts in Philadelphia. Fifers and
drummers were sent out to gather up recruits for the two battalions by
parading through the towns and playing music. The drums, as Benjamin
Franklin noticed, were painted with the coiled rattlesnake and the motto
“Don’t Tread on Me.”

The recruiting rendezvous was Tun Tavern, but it is more likely that it was
the Conestoga Wagon, a tavern owned by the Nicholas family. Five
companies, approximately 300 Marines, were recruited by early December
1775 with muskets and accouterments provided by Pennsylvania’s Public
Safety Committee.

Continental The Continental Marines had no set regulation regarding colors at the
Colors beginning of the Revolutionary War. Many different colors varying in shape,
size, and color were used. Below is an example of one variation that was
carried by Continental Marines:

MCI Course 8102 3-19 Study Unit 3, Lesson 2


Marines Under Way

Introduction While Captain Nicholas was assembling his Marines, the Continental Navy
was putting together its first squadron of ships. Throughout the month of
November, a number of merchant ships for use by the Continental Navy had
been purchased for conversion at a wharf in Philadelphia.

First Raid Commodore Esek Hopkins was placed in charge of the fleet which put to sea
on 17 February 1776. Altogether, there were about fifteen hundred men in
eight ships, including three hundred Continental Marines with Captain
Samuel Nicholas serving as the senior Marine officer.

On 3 March 1776, Captain Nicholas lead a force of two-hundred Marines and


fifty sailors ashore in two captured sloops. Under the cover of 12 guns from
the sloop of war Providence, the landing party went ashore unopposed and
marched against Fort Montagu, New Providence Island. This was the first
amphibious landing by Continental Marines.

The Marines took possession of all useful stores belonging to the Crown with
the only retaliation being 3 shots from the fort’s 12 pound guns. After
spiking the cannons, the defenders withdrew and the Marines pushed forward
by occupying the fort. Captain Nicholas ran up the Grand Union flag, not yet
called the Stars and Stripes, and occupied the fort for the night. The next day
the landing force took Fort Nassau and arrested the British Governor.

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 3-20 Study Unit 3, Lesson 2


Marines Under Way, Continued

War for During the War for Independence, the Continental and State Marines saw
Independence duty ashore during land campaigns but they spent the majority of the war
aboard naval vessels manning the ships guns or as landing forces.

After the Trenton-Princeton campaign of 1777, Captain Nicholas’ battalion


was reduced to an ineffective fighting force. Reduced by transfers, casualties,
and desertions, the three original companies joined General Washington’s
army in its winter quarters at Morristown and disappeared as a distinct unit.
The responsibility for recruiting Marines fell to the individual Marine officers
assigned to various Continental ships from that point forward.

Mid-War The Marines spent the next year of the war taking part in multiple ship to ship
encounters, river operations along the Mississippi, and making a second
landing in New Providence, Bahamas. The newly adopted Stars and Stripes,
authorized by Congress on 14 June 1777, was raised over a foreign
fortification for the first time at New Providence Island in the Bahamas.
Also, a Marine detachment under the command of John Paul Jones made two
raids against Great Britain near Whitehaven taking the war to the Crown’s
homefront.

Several other engagements took place in foreign waters. In July 1779,


Continental and Massachusetts State Marines stormed Banks Island, Maine,
then a province of Massachusetts. The outnumbered British Marines
withdrew and two days later, the Americans launched their main assault
against the British position on Bagaduce. Leading the attack were
Continental Marines.

The Last Years In the last years of the war, Marines aboard naval shipping found it difficult
to venture out in search of combat due to so few American ships still being in
service and British ships becoming more numerous.

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 3-21 Study Unit 3, Lesson 2


Marines Under Way, Continued

Continental Following the signing of the Treaty of Paris in 1783, four of the five
Marines remaining ships in the regular Navy were sold to help pay for war debt. This
Disbanded left only the Continental frigate Alliance in active service with the regular
navy.

On 3 June 1785 Congress authorized the Board of Treasury to sell the


Alliance, the last vessel of the Continental Navy, for economic reasons. With
the selling of the frigate, the small Marine guard commanded by Lieutenant
Thomas Elmwood turned in its equipment and the last of the Continental
Marines were mustered out and officially disbanded.

The Alliance’s Below is an example of the Naval Ensign that flew from the frigate Alliance
Ensign in October 1779.

MCI Course 8102 3-22 Study Unit 3, Lesson 2


Establishment of The United States Marine Corps

Introduction The ratification of the Constitution in 1790 established the legal basis for the
armed forces of the new United States. In 1794, Congress took action to
reactivate the Navy. As in the Revolutionary War, if there were to be Navy
ships, Marines would be needed to preserve order and discipline and man
shipboard cannons.

Six Frigates The necessity of defending the nation’s sea-borne commerce finally moved
Authorized Congress to create a naval force in the spring of 1794. With the beginning of
the wars of the French Revolution of 1793, British warships began interfering
with American trade with France, and French Warships with American trade
with Great Britain. Another threat was from Algerian Corsairs who were also
seizing American vessels. To deal with the shipping issues, the building of
six frigates was authorized under the Naval Act of 27 March 1794.

At the beginning of 1796 the United States negotiated peace with Algiers.
The act authorizing the six frigates was put on hold even though the President
urged an extension of the act to complete the construction of the frigates. Of
the six frigates, only three were partially completed.

Quasi-War France had been America’s major ally in our war for independence. The new
With France government of Revolutionary France viewed the 1794 commercial agreement
with Great Britain as a violation of France’s 1778 treaties with the United
States. In retaliation the French increased their seizures of American ships
that were trading with the British. Congress authorized vessels of the United
States to capture armed French vessels off the coast of the United States,
initiating an undeclared quasi war with France. Authorization was given to
resume work on the three frigates and production began on the remaining
three that were originally authorized so that an effective navy could be
established.

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 3-23 Study Unit 3, Lesson 2


Establishment of The United States Marine Corps, Continued

A Marine On 11 July 1798 President John Adams received and approved “An act
Corps establishing and organizing a Marine Corps.” The year 1775 had seen the
creation of the Continental Marines. Now there would be United States
Marines. William Ward Burrows was appointed Major Commandant of the
Corps. There were Marine quotas for the new ships instead of detachments
since there was no corps yet established from which they could be detached.
Senate amendments had taken out the provision for battalion organization
therefore, Marines would be governed by Articles of War when ashore and
Naval regulations while afloat.

The Revolutionary War was a learning experience in shore establishment and


in operational forces. Problems arose in procurement, provisioning, manning
of ships, delegation of authority, and planning for an extensive campaign.
Despite all these problems, the newly reestablished Navy/ Marine Corps team
succeeded in achieving its goals of implementing national policy.

New Uniforms The new Corps was issued uniforms left over from General “Mad Anthony”
Wayne’s legion from the Revolutionary War. The uniform jackets were blue
with red facings, a round hat trimmed in yellow with the brim turned up on
the left side, tight blue trousers with a thin scarlet stripe, and leather stocks.
The uniform would remain in effect until 1804 and this version of it would be
the beginning of our familiar “dress blue.”

1798 Uniform Below is a photo of a reproduction Marine uniform from 1798.

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 3-24 Study Unit 3, Lesson 2


Establishment of The United States Marine Corps, Continued

Establishment In June of 1800 the capital was moved from Philadelphia to Washington. On
of Marine 31 March 1801, President Jefferson and Major Commandant Burrows rode
Barracks out in search of a location of the new Marine Barracks. They decided upon a
Washington square in Southeast Washington bordered by Eighth, Ninth, G, and I Streets,
because “it lay near the Navy Yard” and was within easy marching distance
of the Capitol. The barracks would be laid out in typical nineteenth-century
barracks style with the Commandant’s house on the North side. The barracks
was remodeled in 1900 and retains the same appearance today. The barracks
is often referred to today as “8th and I.”

MCI Course 8102 3-25 Study Unit 3, Lesson 2


Lesson 2 Exercise

Estimated 10 minutes
Study Time

Directions Complete items 1 through 4 by performing the action required. Check your
answers against those listed at the end of this lesson.

Item 1 The four battalions of Marines recruited by England in 1740 for service
against Spain became known as ___________ Marines.

a. Hardy’s
b. Casey’s
c. Gilham’s
d. Gooche’s

Item 2 The first amphibious landing by Continental Marines took place on


_________ when they landed at New Providence.

a. 3 March 1776
b. 4 July 1776
c. 10 November 1775
d. 3 March 1775

Item 3 President____________ approved an act establishing and organizing a


Marine Corps.

a. George Washington
b. John Adams
c. William Burrows
d. Thomas Jefferson

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 3-26 Study Unit 3, Lesson 2 Exercise


Lesson 2 Exercise, Continued

Item 4 The President signed an act establishing and organizing a Marine Corps on.

a. 10 July 1798.
b. 11 July 1798.
c. 31 March 1801.
d. 10 July 1801.

Item 5 On 31 March 1801 Major Commandant _________ and


President___________ rode out in search of a location for the new Marine
barracks in Washington.

a. Burrows, Jefferson
b. Nicholas, Washington
c. Mullins, Adams
d. Hardy, Nichols

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 3-27 Study Unit 3, Lesson 2 Exercise


Lesson 2 Exercise, Continued

Answers The table below lists the answers to the exercise items. If you have any
questions, refer to the reference page listed for each item.

Item number Answer Reference


1 d 3-16
2 a 3-20
3 b 3-24
4 b 3-24
5 a 3-25

Summary This lesson has shown you the events leading up to and the establishment of
the United States Marine Corps. The following lesson will highlight the
Corps significant actions and changes in the 19th century.

MCI Course 8102 3-28 Study Unit 3, Lesson 2 Exercise


LESSON 3
MARINE CORPS HISTORY IN THE 19th CENTURY
Introduction

Estimated 30 minutes
Study Time

Lesson Scope The purpose of this lesson is to explain by example how Marines were used
and the doctrine they enforced during the 19th century.

Learning Upon completion of this lesson you should be able to


Objectives
· Identify the Marines’ first priority mission during the War of 1812.

· Identify when the first American forces set foot on Mexican soil during
the War with Mexico.

· Identify why Marines were tasked with the Harper’s Ferry mission

· Select the date the Confederate States Marine Corps came into existence.

· Select how the Marine battalion was used at the battle of First Manassas.

· Select the lessons learned at Fort Fisher.

· Identify the date the first Marine Brigade was formed.

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 3-29 Study Unit 3, Lesson 3


Introduction, Continued

In This Lesson This lesson contains the following topics:

Topic See Page


Introduction 3-29
Early 1800s 3-31
War of 1812 3-32
War with Mexico 3-35
War Between the States 3-38
1866 to the 1890s 3-44
Spanish-American War 3-45
Lesson 3 Exercise 3-47

MCI Course 8102 3-30 Study Unit 3, Lesson 3


Early 1800s

General The early 1800s saw the Marine Corps continue to grow in proficiency and
ability to enforce international policy. This was accomplished with small
parties of Marines serving in other countries, shipboard defense, and the
establishment of additional barracks.

Service in The four Barbary States of North Africa--Morocco, Algiers, Tunis, and
Tripoli Tripoli--had plundered seaborne commerce for centuries. Surviving by
blackmail, they received large sums of money, ships, and arms yearly from
foreign powers in return for allowing the foreigners to trade in African ports
and sail without interference, through Barbary waters. They demanded
money, seized ships, and held crew for ransom or sold them into slavery.
After the war for independence, American merchant ships were being seized
by pirates and the crews enslaved. In 1799, the United States entered into an
agreement with Tripoli to pay $18,000 a year for unhindered shipping in the
Barbary area. Agreements were also reached with the three other Barbary
states.

Pirates in As the demands increased from the Pacha of Tripoli, the United States
Tripoli became less willing to accommodate them and ultimately refused to do so.
On 14 May 1801, the Bashaw of Tripoli declared war on the United States for
the refusal of payment. The result was a United States naval blockade of the
coast, gunboat actions, and the bombardment of coastal defenses.

Some of the more highlighted actions were the liberation/ burning of the
American frigate Philadelphia in 1804 and the storming of the Barbary
pirates’ harbor fortress at Derne. Lt. Presley O’Bannon’s Marines were the
first United States forces to raise the national colors in the country during this
engagement. It is from this engagement that the phrase “to the shores of
Tripoli” came into being. In June of 1805, a peace settlement was reached.

Continued After the Barbary Pirate War, Marine action was limited mostly to ship to
Actions at Sea ship conflicts with British vessels. They did see small engagements with
Spain and set up posts in Charleston South Carolina, New Orleans Louisiana,
and Cumberland Island off the coast of Georgia.

MCI Course 8102 3-31 Study Unit 3, Lesson 3


War of 1812

General The British Navy maintained their ranks by forcing sailors into service,
mostly from captured vessels, a practice referred to as impressment. By 1812
the number of impressed American seamen had grown to six thousand. To
obtain the release of these seamen, President Madison was forced to ask
Congress for a declaration of war which was approved on 18 June 1812.

Frigate Duels The second war with Great Britain started off with intense frigate duels.
Within the first four months, in actions taking place from Newfoundland to
Bermuda, the United States had sunk three British frigates.

The Lake Due to a small and inefficient force of Marines on Lake Ontario, the Marine
Squadrons Corps closed down the barracks at Charleston, South Carolina and marched
the Marines to Sackets Harbor on Lake Ontario. A similar Marine march
took place from Washington, D.C. to Lake Erie.

On Lake Ontario, Marines took part in the defense of the naval base at
Sackets Harbor. Additionally, Marines were attached to a brigade of Army
regulars in the campaign along the Niagra. The additional taskings on land
left several ships without Marines, causing borrowed men from Army
infantry units to serve as Marines aboard ships on Lake Champlain.

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 3-32 Study Unit 3, Lesson 3


War of 1812, Continued

Defending On 19 August 1814, a British landing took place at Benedict, Maryland.


Washington Upon landing the British organized forces and set out for Washington with
and Baltimore the intent to divide the country and give Britain claim to New England.

The American forces defending Washington consisted mainly of unorganized


militia. Among this organization was a battalion of 114 Marines organized
by LtCol. Wharton from the ranks of the Marine Barracks in Washington.

The two forces met at Bladensburg, Maryland on 24 August 1814. The


American Militia put up little resistance and scattered. This left only a small
contingent of Marines and sailors to defend the road to Washington. The
Marines and sailors made a valiant stand and held off three successive British
charges. After delaying the British for two hours, the almost encircled
contingent was forced to withdraw to avoid being completely surrounded.

The Battle of At New Orleans, Major Daniel Carmick’s Marines, approximately 300 strong,
New Orleans had been fighting Creole pirates. On 16 September 1814, Carmick’s Marines
burned the pirate stronghold at Baratataria. With the threat of British attack,
the Marines were attached to Major General Andrew Jackson’s forces in the
defense of New Orleans.

The American forces took up a defensive line behind the Rodriguez canal.
One flank tied in to the Mississippi River and the other with a swamp. The
Carmick’s Marines defended the center of the line.

The main British attack came on 8 January 1815. The British launched a
5,300 man frontal assault towards the American line. Waiting behind
fortifications were some 3,500 Americans with another 1000 in reserve.
After 20 minutes of fighting the British suffered over 2,036 casualties. The
Americans, by some accounts, had as few as 21 total casualties.

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 3-33 Study Unit 3, Lesson 3


War of 1812, Continued

The War is The treaty of Ghent was signed on 24 December 1814. The war was over
Over before the battle of New Orleans ever started. Even so, New Orleans was not
the last engagement of the war. Ships at sea could not be informed of the
treaty, so isolated actions at sea continued for another six months.

Expeditionary The Marines’ first priority had been to provide detachments to Navy ships
Forces and then to the lake squadrons, but the Marines never had the needed
manpower to accomplish this assignment. Company-sized units fought at
Bladensburg and New Orleans but no thought was given to forming an
expeditionary force or a permanent battalion structure.

MCI Course 8102 3-34 Study Unit 3, Lesson 3


War with Mexico

General War with Mexico was the inevitable result of America’s westward and
southwestern expansion against the frontiers of the southern republic. In
April 1846, Mexican troops crossed the Rio Grande and attacked a
detachment of United States Cavalry. Congress therefore declared war on
Mexico on 13 May 1846.

First U.S. On 18 May 1846 the invasion of Mexico commenced. The first American
Troops on forces to set foot on Mexican soil were Marine skirmishers from the frigates
Mexican Soil Cumberland and Potomac, commanded by Captain John H. Aulick, USN.

Action on the From May to October 1846 Marines made over 12 landings along the coast of
West Coast California and Mexico to launch offensive operations against Mexican
occupied towns. During that same time period, 26 Mexican ships were
captured by U.S. warships with Marines stationed aboard.

Operations in The immediate naval problem in the Gulf of Mexico was to establish a
the Gulf of blockade and provide secure sea-borne communications for the task force
Mexico operating in the area. Advance naval bases along the coast would need to be
secured to help accomplish the mission.

A landing force was put together by combining all the ships Marine
detachments that were operating in the area. Captain Alvin Edison was put in
command of the 200-man Marine Battalion.

The Marine Battalion, augmented by sailors, made several raids against


secondary Mexican ports. In March 1847, a landing force brigade was
organized by the Army. The core of this force was the Marine battalion and
the combined force was successfully employed in securing the Mexican
towns of Alvarado and Tuxpan.

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 3-35 Study Unit 3, Lesson 3


War with Mexico, Continued

San Juan In June 1847, the naval Brigade landed at San Juan Bautista, the last
Bautista remaining port of entry for a river campaign. On June 14th, the force
advanced 40 miles upstream with no contact, but the following day enemy
opposition was encountered in strength.

The naval force encountered a riverine obstruction covered by sniper fire and
enemy batteries. The landing force put ashore and began the task of clearing
the enemy batteries. The Marines and sailors advanced under naval gun fire
that followed them up the river. By late afternoon, the landing force had
captured 12 pieces of artillery and approximately 600 muskets and had run off
all Mexican defenders from San Juan Bautista.

The capture and neutralization of San Juan Bautista was the last major
amphibious operation of the Gulf Squadron. Conducted smoothly and
expertly, the campaign reflected a high degree of amphibious technique and
mutual co-ordination between the fleet and its landing force.

Assault on To seize Mexico City, Chapultepec Castle, which dominated all avenues of
Chapultepec approach, would have to be taken first. The battle plan called for the main
Castle assault to storm the western face of Chapultepec Castle while another division
attacked the southern face. The leading units were comprised of hand picked
forces to be used as storming parties. The lead wave of the southern element
was lead by Marine Captain John G. Reynolds, and was comprised of 40
army and Marine volunteers. The remainder of the Marine Battalion was
assigned the task of supporting the storming party and leading the entire
division in the attack.

On 13 September 1847 at 0805, the storming party moved out under the cover
of an artillery barrage. Within 20 minutes, the storming party was up and
over the walls of the castle and engaged in hand-to-hand combat with the
enemy. Marine casualties numbered 24 during the assault.

While the assault was going on, the right flank of the support, which was
comprised of company C of the Marine force, outflanked and overran the
Mexican artillery that was positioned on the Veronica Causeway. The
Marines continued to pursue the fleeing enemy and in doing so broke up a
counter attack launched by a unit of Mexican Lancers.

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 3-36 Study Unit 3, Lesson 3


War with Mexico, Continued

Into the Gates At the San Cosme Gate, the Marines went in with 26 men from the U.S. 4th
of Mexico City Infantry. The combined force took the gateway and forced entry into Mexico
City, being the first U.S. troops to set foot into the city.

The following morning, the main body of Marines was assigned the task of
clearing the Palicio Nacional of enemy. On top of the Palace of the
Motezumas, a Marine cut down the Mexican colors and hoisted the United
States flag. As the Army commander arrived on the grounds, he found the
surrounding streets guarded by United States Marines.

A New Motto Until 1848, the Marine Corps standard bore only the traditional motto, To the
Shores of Tripoli. Upon the Marines’ return to Washington, D.C., the people
of the city presented General Henderson with a blue and gold standard with a
new motto: From Tripoli to the Halls of the Montezumas.

Following the close of the Mexican War came the first verse of the Marines’
Hymn. According to tradition, this verse was written by a Marine on duty in
Mexico. The author transposed the phrases in the motto on the Marine Colors
so that the first two lines of the Marines’ Hymn would read: “From the Halls
of Montezuma, To the shores of Tripoli.”

Treaty of After the fall of Mexico City, no organized Mexican government existed.
Guadalupe After Manuel de la Pena, the President of the Supreme Court, became acting
Hidalgo president of Mexico, the United States negotiated the Treaty of Guadalupe
Hidalgo. After the signing of the treaty on 2 February 1848, the United States
gained land that encompasses present day California, Arizona, New Mexico
and portions of Utah, Nevada, and Colorado.

Service in After the war with Mexico, the Marines continued to make various landings
China and in China and Japan to protect American lives and property. Even though the
Japan Corps was few in numbers, Marines were involved in several events which
gained respect throughout the world for our country.

MCI Course 8102 3-37 Study Unit 3, Lesson 3


War Between the States

General The principles and loyalties that divided the nation in 1861 were also felt in
the Marine Corps. Several of the Corps’ most experienced Marines were
natives of the South and resigned to join the Confederate States Forces, but
even with the loss of manpower to the Confederate States, the United States
Marines were among the few active duty troops available to respond when
war was declared.

Events Before As states began to secede from the Union, Federal navy yards and forts
the War became targets for the native forces of the Southern States. In January of
1861, Marines were sent to Charleston, South Carolina in an attempt to
bolster defenses at Fort Sumter. During the same month, Marines garrisoned
Fort Washington and Fort McHenry, Maryland. In April, 110 Marines were
sent to Fort Pickens, Florida to reinforce the last defenses remaining in Union
hands.

Harpers Ferry At 8 p.m. October 16, 1859, John Brown, disguising himself as a Mr. Smith,
led a raiding party of 21 men toward Harpers Ferry, where they captured the
night watchman and cut the town’s telegraph lines. Encountering no
resistance, Browns raiders seized the federal arsenal, an armory, and a rifle
works along with several million dollars worth of arms and munitions. Upon
completion of all these tasks, Brown sent out several small detachments to
round up hostages and liberate slaves.

The church bell began to toll at some point during the night, warning local
families of a problem at the arsenal. Local townspeople arose from their beds
and gathered in the streets of Harpers Ferry and within a few hours, Brown’s
party was forced to retreat to the Arsenal firehouse finding themselves
surrounded and all avenues of escape cut off.

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 3-38 Study Unit 3, Lesson 3


War Between the States, Continued

Quick Reaction Marine First Lieutenant Israel Green, future Adjutant and Inspector of the
Force Confederate Marine Corps, was assigned the task of leading 86 Marines with
two 12 pound Dahlgren howitzers from the Marine Barracks in D.C. to
Harpers Ferry. Although 150 soldiers from Fort Monroe were ordered to the
Arsenal, The Marines were the only available force who could react with the
speed needed. Upon arrival, Lieutenant Green reported to the on site
commander, Army LtCol. Robert E. Lee.

Marines The following morning, Lt. James E. B. Stuart, an aide to Lt.Col. Lee,
Assault the presented a demand to Brown for his surrender. At this point Lt. Stuart
Arsenal recognized “Mr. Smith” as being the infamous John Brown, having dealt with
Brown during his service in Kansas. Upon Brown’s refusal, Stuart waved his
hat as a signal for the Marines to commence their assault. Lt. Green led the
24-man assault party, armed with sledge hammers, a heavy ladder, and
bayonet tipped muskets.

Lieutenant Green, with sword drawn, was the first inside a small opening
created in the right door. Lieutenant Green located Brown and made a stab at
him; however, the blade bent against the thick leather of Brown’s belt. Green
then grasped the sword by the blade and hit Brown in the head knocking him
unconscious. As the rest of the Marines rushed in, two of Brown’s men were
bayoneted and one Marine was shot dead. The melee was over quickly with
the Arsenal in Marine hands and John Brown’s party in custody.

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 3-39 Study Unit 3, Lesson 3


War Between the States, Continued

Early Doctrine After war was declared on 15 April 1861, General Winfield Scott, Senior
Army Commander, proposed his “Anaconda Plan” which called for the
cutting off all imports and exports from Southern ports. This would be
attempted through a blockade and the seizing of major ports and forts on the
Southern coast. Although this sounds like a typical mission for the modern
Marine Corps, the Corps of 1861 was not the fighting force we are today.

Marine Commandant Colonel John Harris felt that “such invasions were
better handled by the Army.” He preferred to keep the Marines at their
standard practice of guarding ships. This policy was continued when Major
Jacob Zeilin became Commandant in 1864. Marines were used in landings,
raids, riverine operations and assaults, but not on any large scale. This was in
part due to the small size of the Corps, which was less than 3000.

Confederate The Confederate States Marine Corps came into existence on March 16,
States Marine 1861, as part of “An act to Organize the Navy” passed on that date by the
Corps Confederate States Congress. Initially destined to form a six-company
battalion, subsequent legislation increased the authorized strength of the
Corps to regimental proportion. Only two SNCO billets were authorized in
the original table of organization, a Sergeant Major and a Quartermaster
Sergeant.

Due to a lack of trained seaman in the Navy, the Corps remained in and
around Richmond until the summer of 1862. Many of the Marines were sent
to the various ships in the Navy for duty. In addition to duty afloat, they were
detailed as guards at the naval stations. Before the end of the war,
Confederate Marines would participate in eleven different land campaigns
and at least seven engagements on board ship. The campaigns do not include
the multiple batteries and Navy Yards manned throughout the South.

These Marines served in small detachments on board ship and on shore


throughout the South. They formed the nucleus of ships’ gun crews, as
trained artillerymen for coastal defense, and as volunteers for hazardous duty
on board ironclad vessels. After the battle of Saylers Creek in 1865, the
Confederate Marine Corps nearly ceased to exis.

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 3-40 Study Unit 3, Lesson 3


War Between the States, Continued

Battle of 1st With the newly formed Confederate Army threatening the outskirts of
Manassas Washington, D.C., a 353-man Marine battalion was formed from the ranks
stationed in Washington. The Marines shipped out to Manassas, Virginia
under the command of Major John G. Reynolds and were assigned to the
Army of Northeastern Virginia under the command of Army Brigadier
General Irvin McDowell. The Marine battalion was assigned as permanent
support to Captain Charles Griffins’s West Point Battery.

The two armies had been engaged in combat since that morning. Late in the
morning, the Marines were sent into the fray with the West Point Battery.
Behind them pressed the 14th and 27th New York State Militias. The
Marines and New Yorkers had performed admirably and subsequently helped
to push back the Confederate line a mile and a half from their original
position.

Henry House As events started to slow down, the West Point Battery and another battery
Hill were deployed in an exposed position on Henry House Hill. The Marines and
a detachment of New York militia were ordered forward to support the
batteries. As the New Yorkers were enroute, J.E.B. Stuart’s Cavalry, of
Harpers Ferry fame, charged into the militia forcing them into a rout. With
no flanking support and 44 casualties, the Marine line also gave way.

This was reported to the Secretary of the Navy as “the first instance in Marine
Corps history where any portion of its members turned their backs to the
enemy.”

The North For the remainder of the war, Federal Marines served at sea in support of the
Carolina Coast Union naval blockade along the Eastern seaboard. Marines participated in
amphibious attacks, raids and landings.

On 28 August 1861, a combined Marine-Army force of 250 men landed in


surfboats, supported by naval gunfire from USS Minnesota, Wabash and
Cumberland, to attack Fort Clark, North Carolina. Within a few hours, the
fort was captured. By noon of the following day, Fort Hatteras had been
captured in subsequent operations ashore.

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 3-41 Study Unit 3, Lesson 3


War Between the States, Continued

The First Orderly Sergeant Christopher Nugent was the first Marine staff
Marine SNCO noncommissioned officer to receive the Medal of Honor, serving on board the
to Receive the USS Fort Henry on Crystal River, Florida on 15 June 1863. Reconnoitering
Medal of Honor on the Crystal River on this date and in charge of a boat from Fort Henry,
Orderly Sergeant Nugent ordered an assault on a Confederate breastwork
fortification. In this assault, the orderly sergeant and his comrades drove a
guard of 11 Confederate soldiers into the swamp, capturing their arms and
destroying their camp equipage while gallantly withholding fire to prevent
harm to a woman among the fugitives. On 30 July 1863, he further proved
his courage by capturing a boat off Depot Key, Florida, containing two men
and a woman with their baggage.

Establishing During January of 1862, a detachment of Marines was sent to Cairo, Illinois
Naval Bases to establish a Naval base of operations. During a similar operation, but on a
much larger scale, on 24 April of 1862 the Federal Navy made its way to the
mouth of the Mississippi to seize New Orleans as a base of operations. First
ashore were the Marines from the USS Pensacola. The Marines seized key
buildings and grounds and set up a base of operations until follow on forces
from the Army arrived.

Amphibious The United States Marines participated in two major amphibious assaults
Assaults during the war. The first was at Charleston, South Carolina. On the night of
8 September 1864, five 100-man divisions (4 Navy and 1 Marine) made an
assault on Confederate held Fort Sumter. The troops received almost no
training or preparation for the assault. The result was catastrophic. Only 150
Marines and sailors ever made it ashore. Of these, 44 Marines were killed,
wounded, or captured. A valuable lesson in the use of mission specific
training and command and control was taught.

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 3-42 Study Unit 3, Lesson 3


War Between the States, Continued

Fort Fisher The second assault took place at Ft. Fisher, North Carolina on 13 January
1864. Under the cover of a naval bombardment, 400 Marines and 1600
sailors landed on the Carolina coast northeast of the fort. The landing forces
mission was to distract the defenders of the fort so a larger Army landing
force could assault the northwestern edge of the fort. Upon landing, the
sailors prematurely assaulted the fort in an uncoordinated attack. The
Marines, after forming into companies, joined in the assault on the fort. Forty
yards short of the fort, the sailors broke and ran. The demonstration had
worked in making the fort’s defenders believe this was the main assault and
the Marines and sailors had left 309 casualties on the beach.

Once again a lack of training, practice, and correct organization on the part of
all forces in an amphibious assault led to unnecessary casualties.

The Last In the last days of the Civil war, an important battle took place at Saylers
Engagement for Creek, Virginia. The Confederate Marines, as part of the Naval Brigade,
the Confederate were assigned to Lieutenant General Ewell’s Corps, Army of Northern
States Marines Virginia. Having lost their flank support, Ewells Corps began receiving fire
from all sides. As the Corps began to crumble under the heavy numbers of
the Federal Army, one unit, the Marines and sailors of the Naval Brigade,
remained firm, withstanding several cavalry charges and murderous enemy
fire. Only after General Ewell had been captured and the rest of the army
destroyed did the Marines lower their flag in surrender. This would be the
last use of Confederate Marines as an effective fighting force.

End of the War With the surrender of the Army of Northern Virginia in April of 1865 and
shortly thereafter the Army of Tennessee, the war for the most part was over.
The majority of the Confederate Marines returned to their homes in the
occupied South and endure years of reconstruction. Their Federal
counterparts would resume peacetime duty aboard ships and barracks
throughout the reunited country.

MCI Course 8102 3-43 Study Unit 3, Lesson 3


1866 to the 1890s

General With the war over and the nation attempting to regain its stability, the Marine
Corps settled down to peacetime service. While some Marines performed
routine duty in the states, others were assigned to the large number of naval
vessels that returned to their foreign stations.

Duty on Board On board naval vessels, Marines served in such places as Egypt, Cuba,
Naval Vessels Mexico, Uruguay, Argentina, Chile, Columbia, Panama, Haiti, China,
Formosa, Alaska, and Korea. The Marines conducted landings in many of
these places but for the most part, the mere presence of Marines and Navy
ships was enough deterrence to protect American lives and interests on
foreign shores.

The First On 2 April 1885, the Commandant of the Marine Corps received orders from
Marine Brigade the Secretary of the Navy to organize and dispatch a battalion of Marines to
is Formed Aspinwall, Panama to protect American interests. Within 24 hours a battalion
of 232 Marines from 5 different barracks was formed and sailed from New
York. On 6 April a second battalion was formed with Marines from various
barracks along the Southeastern coast. Shortly thereafter, a third Marine
battalion was formed from ships detachments and the barracks at Pensacola.
Once all three battalions had reached Panama, they were formed into a single
Marine Brigade, the first ever formed.

Sergeant Major Sergeant Major Thomas F. Hayes, Sergeant Major at Marine Barracks
Thomas F. Washington, D.C. during the later part of the 19th century, had served in the
Hayes British army and was an experienced combat veteran. During his time at 8th
& I, Sergeant Major Hayes, following British custom, was given charge of
initial parade-ground training of new lieutenants at the school of application.
This SNCO, while serving as a subject matter expert, contributed to the
training and development of parade ground drill. Probably because his
successors had not been accustomed to this usage of an SNCO, the practice
died with Sergeant Major Hayes.

MCI Course 8102 3-44 Study Unit 3, Lesson 3


Spanish-American War

General By the 1890s, Spain had lost most of its empire, but in the Caribbean it still
had Cuba and Puerto Rico. In the Pacific it retained Guam and the
Philippines. The war of 1898 was started over Cuba’s efforts to win its
freedom.

The USS Maine On 25 January 1898, the USS Maine arrived in Havana Harbor to protect
American lives and property. On the calm night of 15 February 1898, 20
minutes after taps, the forward portion of the ship was rocked with a
tremendous explosion under the waterline. The battleship sank in the harbor
carrying down 266 crewman, including 28 Marines. Mystery surrounded the
sinking of the Maine. Public outcry called for war against Spain with the
battle cry “remember the Maine.” On 21 April of the same year, under a joint
resolution of Congress, war was declared on Spain.

Guantanamo In April 1898, The U.S. Navy scouted the Guantananamo Bay area as a base
Bay location for the war. A landing force was organized into six companies--five
infantry and one artillery. Additionally an old merchant ship, renamed the
USS Panther, was refitted to serve as a transport specifically for the Marines.
On the 8th of June, 650 Marines landed under the cover of naval gunfire and
set up an advance naval base. The Marines served as the spearhead for the
American forces landing in Cuba.

Four days after the landing, two companies of Marines stepped off on a
mission 2 miles away to destroy the Spanish water point in the Cuzco Valley.
The Marines were again assisted with naval gunfire from the dispatch boat
Dolphin. During the action, sergeant John H. Quick exposed himself
repeatedly to hostile fire to direct the naval gunfire. For his actions that day,
Sgt. Quick would be awarded the Medal of Honor.

Combined During the Spanish-American War, the operations of the Marine Battalion
Arms made important advances. The battalion was part of the Atlantic Fleet,
similar to the modern day FMF. Its organization was no longer part of the
ship’s company, rather it was a self-contained unit built around combined
arms. The mobile base of operations was the Marine transport ship Panther.
The Marine landing force set the standard for employment of U.S. Marines
that would last until the middle of the twentieth century.

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 3-45 Study Unit 3, Lesson 3


Spanish-American War, Continued

The Treaty of On August 12th, one day before the fall of Manila, Spain agreed to get out of
Paris Cuba and to cede Puerto Rico and the island of Guam to the United States.
On December 10, 1898 the Treaty of Paris was signed officially bringing the
war with Spain to an end.

MCI Course 8102 3-46 Study Unit 3, Lesson 3


Lesson 3 Exercise

Estimated 10 minutes
Study Time

Directions Complete items 1 through 7 by performing the action required. Check your
answers against those listed at the end of this lesson.

Item 1 During the War of 1812, the Marines’ first priority was to provide
_____________________and then to the lake squadrons.

a. detachments to Navy ships


b. gun crews to land forces
c. detachments to land forces
d. rapid deploying infantry detachments

Item 2 On __________the invasion of Mexico commenced.

a. 18 May 1846
b. 16 October 1860
c. 18 May 1856
d. 16 October 1856

Item 3 Although 150 soldiers from Fort Monroe were ordered to the Arsenal at
Harpers Ferry, the Marines were the only available force that

a. could bring mounted forces that were needed.


b. could react fast enough with the speed needed.
c. knew the course of action that was needed.
d. had information on John Brown that was needed.

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 3-47 Study Unit 3, Lesson 3 Exercise


Lesson 3 Exercise, Continued

Item 4 The Confederate States Marine Corps came into existence on _________, as
part of “An act to Organize the Navy” passed on that date by the Confederate
States Congress.

a. November 10, 1860


b. October 16, 1860
c. March 16, 1861
d. November 10, 1861

Item 5 During the battle of 1st Manassas, the Marine Battalion was assigned as
_____________ to Captain Charles Griffins’s “West Point Battery.”

a. litter bearers
b. ammunition bearers
c. permanent support
d. information runners

Item 6 At the battle of Fort Fisher, lack of ___________and correct organization on


the part of all forces in an amphibious assault led to unnecessary casualties.

a. training, practice,
b. ships, firepower,
c. rifled muskets,
d. assault boats,

Item 7 The First Marine Brigade was formed in __________ at Aspenwall, Panama.

a. April 1865
b. January 1885
c. April 1885
d. April 1898

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 3-48 Study Unit 3, Lesson 3 Exercise


Lesson 3 Exercise, Continued

Solutions The table below lists the answers to the exercise items. If you have any
questions, refer to the reference page listed for each item.

Item number Answer Reference


1 a 3-35
2 a 3-36
3 b 3-40
4 c 3-41
5 c 3-42
6 a 3-44
7 c 3-45

Summary This lesson has shown you the historical events that displayed the variety
ways that Marines were utilized and the changes in Marine Corps task
organization. The following lesson will continue to cover historical events
that have impacted doctrine, tactics and how the Marine Corps does business.

MCI Course 8102 3-49 Study Unit 3, Lesson 3 Exercise


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MCI Course 8102 3-50 Study Unit 3, Lesson 3 Exercise


LESSON 4
THE TWENTIETH CENTURY MARINE CORPS
Introduction

Estimated 35 minutes
Study Time

Lesson Scope This lesson is designed to focus on the origins, tactics, contributions and
social issues that have caused the Marine Corps to change in the twentieth
century.

Learning Upon completion of this lesson, you should be able to


Objectives
· Identify the mission of the Marine Corps Advance Base School.

· Identify the date of the first Marine aviation detachment commissioning.

· Identify the date and designation of the first enlisted pilots.

· Identify the date the first women Marines were enlisted.

· Identify how Marine Regiments were initially used in the Spring of 1918
during World War I.

· Identify the purpose of the Tentative Landing Operations manual.

· Identify the role of the Landing Vehicle, Tracked (LVT) at Tarawa.

· Identify the helicopter’s mission in Korea.

· Identify the reason the landing at Inchon was conducted.

· Identify the purpose of Operation Pegasus.

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 3-51 Study Unit 3, Lesson 4


Introduction, Continued

In This Lesson This lesson contains the following topics:

Topic See Page


Introduction 3-51
The Boxer Rebellion 3-53
Turn of the Century Advances 3-55
World War I 3-58
The Interim Years 1919-1940 3-63
World War II 3-68
The War in Korea 3-76
Marines in Vietnam 3-81
Beyond 1975 3-87
Lesson 4 Exercise 3-90

MCI Course 8102 3-52 Study Unit 3, Lesson 4


The Boxer Rebellion

Introduction In the late 1890s, many countries were actively involved in Chinese affairs.
The United States wanted an open door policy in which there would be
opportunities for trade and business in China, but resentment against
foreigners and Christians, because they were outsiders, swelled among some
Chinese citizens. Anti-foreign sentiment resulted in the rapid growth of a
Chinese secret society known as the I Ho Ch’uan, (Righteous Harmonious
Fists), but referred to by Westerners as “Boxers.”

Marines are The Boxers initiated hostile actions in and around Peking, including the
Sent In burning of railroad stations. The foreign legations began to fear for their well
being and requested help from their governments. A detachment of U.S.
Marines, under the command of Captain Myers, was among the first troops to
respond.

The Legations The graphic below depicts the locations of foreign legations in Peking.

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 3-53 Study Unit 3, Lesson 4


The Boxer Rebellion, Continued

Multi-National On 31 May 1900, the detachment of Marines boarded a train for Peking.
Force Onboard with the Marines were 79 British Marines, 75 French sailors, 72
Russian sailors, 51 German Marines, 39 Italian sailors, 30 Austrian Marines,
and 24 Japanese Special Naval Landing Force. The problem within the force
was the lack of an overall commander but it would be the predecessor of the
multi-national peacekeeping force. Eventually U.S. Marine Captain John
Myers took charge of the force, organized a chain of command and made sure
that all forces worked in a joint effort. As an SNCO, you may encounter
similar situations while working with local government agencies or with
foreign forces on a combined operation.

The Marines manned the southern section of the Tartar City Wall with their
German counterparts. On 27 June, the Chinese made an attempt to assault the
wall and were wiped out by the accurate rifle fire from the defending Marines
and Germans.

Eventually a relief expedition was formed. It set out from Tientsin and was
able to relieve the multi-national force in Peking. During the 75-day siege of
the Legation Quarter, outnumbered 100 to 1, the Marines performed with skill
and coolness while under fire. Along with the other foreign detachments,
they held the key position on the Tartar Wall that separated the Legation
Quarter from the rest of the city.

Result of the The United States was able to play a significant role in suppressing the
Rebellion Boxers uprising because of the large numbers of ships and troops deployed in
the Philippines as a result of the US conquest of the islands during the
Spanish-American War of 1898 and subsequent Philippine insurgent activity.
As a result of the Boxer Rebellion, many American politicians felt the need to
retain control of the Philippines and maintain a strong US presence in the far
East.

MCI Course 8102 3-54 Study Unit 3, Lesson 4


Turn of the Century Advances

Introduction After the turn of the century, the Marine Corps gained valuable experience in
operating against irregular forces in the Caribbean and highly trained regular
troops in Europe. World War I saw the Marines fighting as part of an
American Expeditionary Force in Europe. Aviation units began to develop,
cooperating with ground forces in preparation for the utilization of the Marine
Corps air/ ground team concept.

Marine Corps In 1910, the Marine Corps Advance Base School was established at New
Advance Base London, Connecticut. The missions of this school were to
School
· Train Marines in the handling, installation, and use of advance base
material.

· Investigate what types of guns, gun platforms, mines, torpedo defenses,


and other equipment might be best suited for advance base work.

· Study such military and naval subjects as pertaining to the selection,


occupation, attack and defense of advance bases, or expeditionary service
in general.

This would be the first institution of its kind ever established, and therefore a
milestone in U.S. Naval history. From this point on, the Marine Corps would
have a professional school to focus thinking on amphibious warfare and the
expeditionary capabilities of the Corps.

Birth of Marine The Aviation Detachment, Advance Base Force was commissioned on 27
Aviation December 1913. The detachment consisted of two officers, seven enlisted
men and two Navy flying boats. The Marine Corps continued to lead the way
by sending the first completely equipped American Aviation unit to depart the
United States for war service in late December 1917. The First Marine
Aeronautic Company reported for anti-submarine duty in the Azores in
January of 1918. In October 1918, Squadron No. 9 of Marine Aviation, as
part of British Aviation group, made the first raid over enemy lines in France
by Marine aviation. Marine pilots conducted independent raids far behind
enemy lines, performed reconnaissance, and conducted bombing and air
droppable re-supply missions.

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 3-55 Study Unit 3, Lesson 4


Turn of the Century Advances, Continued

Enlisted Pilots In 1916, the first class of eight Navy petty officers and two Marine sergeants
received formal pilot instruction at Pensacola, Florida. The first enlisted
pilots to be designated naval aviation pilots and wear naval aviator wings
graduated in 1920.

During the 1920’s, the need for enlisted pilots more than doubled due to a
lack of officer pilots. A law enacted in 1926 by Congress required that 30%,
later lowered to 20%, of the total number of Navy pilots on active duty be
enlisted pilots. By December 1947 some 5000 enlisted men of the Marine
Corps, Navy and Coast Guard had been designated naval aviation pilots. In
the same year Congress repealed the requirement for enlisted pilots. The last
enlisted naval aviation pilot retired from service in 1981.

Advances in In 1903, a standing-collar khaki blouse, cut like the blues blouse, was
Uniforms and adopted. In 1912 it was also realized that a winter field uniform was needed.
Weaponry Drawing on the Corps’ traditional status as light infantry, it was decided to
adopt forest green with bronze hardware as a winter field uniform.
Additionally, the Marine Corps adopted a uniform for tropical climates. This
uniform was called the P1912 Marine Khaki Uniform. It was made of a
medium khaki colored light cotton/ canvas material and cut to the same
pattern as the forest green uniform.

The rifle that the Marines carried in the Spanish War, Boxer uprising and part
of the Philippine insurrection, was the underpowered Lee 6mm. In 1900 the
Marine Corps began conversion to the more powerful .30 caliber Krag-
Jorgensen. In 1906 the Corps upgraded to the 1903 Springfield Rifle.

The first Marine Corps automobile was purchased in 1909. Between 1909
and World War I, the Marine Corps acquired 72 motor vehicles. Two of
these vehicles were King armored cars, laying the ground for the early
beginnings of a shift to mechanized warfare. This was the first use of motor
vehicles in a tactical capacity by any United States service.

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 3-56 Study Unit 3, Lesson 4


Turn of the Century Advances, Continued

Marine Corps Before 1899 the Marine Corps had no real regime of marksmanship training.
Marksmanship As of 1899, 98 Marines were qualified as sharpshooter or marksman, the only
two qualifications in use at the time. Under Sergeant Major Haye’s coaching,
the Marine Corps began preparing a rifle marksmanship team for competition
shooting. In 1901 the team participated in the Hilton Trophy match and
finished sixth. In 1903 the Marine Corps hired its first full time rifle coach, a
56 year old Maryland dentist, who led the Marine team to a fourth place
finish at the National Rifle Matches. The Marine Corps was well on its way
to setting a high standard for itself as expert rifleman which the German
Army would get to know all to well at Belleau Wood.

Women On 12 August 1918, Opha Mae Johnson was the first of 305 women to be
Marines accepted for duty in the Marine Corps Reserve. Most women filled recruiting
billets or clerical positions at Headquarters Marine Corps to release male
Marines to serve in France. On July 30, 1919, orders were issued for
separation of all women from the Marine Corps due to downsizing and
demobilization after the war.

MCI Course 8102 3-57 Study Unit 3, Lesson 4


World War I

Introduction In the summer of 1914, war was spreading all over Europe. The Germans
invaded Belgium, then outflanked the French defensive fortifications and
headed for Paris. The United States tried to retain its neutrality and stay out
of the European war. With the international scene undergoing dramatic
changes, President Woodrow Wilson had no choice but to ask Congress for a
declaration of war in April of 1917.

War Just before asking Congress for a declaration of war, the President increased
Preparations the Corps to 693 officers and 17,400 enlisted men. On 16 April the Marine
Corps Reserve, 3 officers and 33 enlisted men, was mobilized. On 22 May
1917 Congress voted to increase the Marine Corps to 31,197 men to allow it
to be able to accomplish its pre-war missions of the Advance Base Force,
ship’s guards, and security forces for the Fleet and Shore Establishment.

To provide operational training and permit organization of tactical units, a


new 6000 acre base was established at Quantico, Virginia. This new base
would provide all the assets that would be required: training areas, deep-water
approaches for transports, and a main railroad line. Seven regiments would
be raised at Quantico for the war, five infantry and two artillery.

The new 3,600 man Marine infantry regiments were bigger and different from
anything of the kind in the past. The regiment consisted of three 1,100-man
battalions, a regimental machine gun company, and headquarters and supply
companies. There was one automobile, 3 motorcycles, 59 horses, and an
array of mule drawn wagons, water carts, and rolling kitchens.

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 3-58 Study Unit 3, Lesson 4


World War I, Continued

Deploying to The first Marines to be deployed to France as part of the American


France Expeditionary Forces (AEF) were the 5th and 6th Marine Regiments. These
Marines would become some of the first Americans to fight in France
alongside General Pershing’s Army troops. By 23 October 1917 these two
regiments were joined by the 6th Marine Machine Gun Battalion and formed
the 4th Brigade of Marines, AEF.

Initially, during Spring of 1918, the Marine regiments were employed


individually alongside French regiments. Later on, the regiments were
reunited and given a sector of their own supported by the Army’s 12th field
artillery.

The Marines conducted raids, night patrols, and endured artillery barrages and
gas attacks. During the first 53 days of trench warfare, the Marines sustained
almost 900 casualties.

Marine The photograph below depicts a Marine Sergeant Major with one of the first
Sergeant Major trucks that Marines would receive in France.
at Belleau
Wood

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 3-59 Study Unit 3, Lesson 4


World War I, Continued

Bois de Belleau On June 6, 1918, the U.S. Second Division, to which the Marine Brigade was
attached, started offensive operations against the German Army. The Marine
Brigade had captured hill 142 and Bourchesches by the end of June 6th. On
the 8th, 9th and 11th of June, battalions of the 5th and 6th Marines fought
their way up the long axis of Belleau Wood. By nightfall on 12 June, the
Marines had broken through the third and final German line and, except for
some ground around a battered hunting lodge in the Northern most edge of
the wood, the Marines held Bois de Belleau.

On 13 June the Germans launched a counter attack preceded by massed


artillery and Mustard gas. The Marines held fast, maintaining a line at
Bouresches. From 15 to 22 June, to provide rest and refitting of the Marines,
the Army’s 7th Infantry relieved the Marines. Without having any forward
progress, the Marines returned to the lines and commenced offensive
operations on the night of 23 June. After four more days of fighting, Major
Maurice Shearer of the 3rd battalion, 5th Marines reported “Woods now U.S.
Marine Corps’ entirely.”

Map Of Belleau The map below shows the area of Belleau Wood that the Marines fought in.
Wood

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World War I, Continued

Tactics Belleau Wood saw several firsts in the ever-changing Marine Corps policy
and tactics. Large formations of Marines fought against well-trained,
equipped, and led forces. Marines scratched out shallow rifle pits wherever
the front lines lay, and nicknamed them foxholes. World War I would show
the importance of machine guns, aviation, heavy artillery, and the techniques
of trench warfare.

Teufelhunden After a tour of the Marines by the Assistant Secretary of the Navy Theodore
Roosevelt, the wearing of collar emblems was authorized for enlisted
Marines. Additionally, the nickname “devil dog” originated from the battle.
The Germans thought that their defensive position in the woods could not be
taken but they had not planned on the fierce fighting ability of the Marines.
The persistent attacks delivered with unbelievable courage over hazardous
terrain soon had the Germans calling the Marines “Teufelhunden”, referring
to the fierce fighting dogs of legendary origin known as “devil dogs.”

The achievements of the fourth brigade of Marines in the Chateau-Thierry


was twice recognized by the French. The first act of recognition, which
changed the name of the Bois de Belleau to “Bois de la Brigade de Marine,
was a tribute spontaneously made to the successes and to the losses of the
Marine Brigade. It shows the deep effect that the retaking of Belleau Wood
and other near-by positions from the Germans had on the feelings of the
French. The second act of recognition by the French were the citations of the
Fourth Brigade, the Fifth and Sixth Regiments, and the Sixth Machine Gun
Battalion of Marines awarding them the French Fourrage’re.

Gunnery On the morning of 10 June 1918, an attack launched by 2/6 from Lucy Le
Sergeant Daniel Bocage into Belleau Wood ran into heavy German machinegun fire. Gunnery
J. Daly Sergeant Daly worked his way around the flank of the machinegun position to
destroy it unassisted using hand grenades and a .45 pistol. After shouting
words of encouragement, Gunnery Sergeant Daly led his Marines in a frontal
assault, then returned to carry his wounded to safety while under heavy fire.

Already awarded two medals of honor for valor in China and Haiti, Gunnery
Sergeant Daly received the Army Distinguished Service Cross, and the Navy
Cross for his conduct at Belleau Wood.

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World War I, Continued

Other Duties Even though the war raged in Europe, Marines still had to perform their
Abroad prewar missions. Marines saw service in Haiti, Santa Domingo, and Cuba.
Additionally the Marines were defending the newly purchased Virgin Islands
and had detachments at St. Thomas and St. Croix defending U.S. interests
against incursions by German submarines.

Occupation The Marines would see serious fighting for the last two weeks of the war in
Duty the final stages of the Meuse-Argonne offensive. Marines would again
spearhead Army attacks and ultimately contribute to the final capitulation of
the German Army. Although the fighting was over, from 11 November to the
end of 1919 Marines would remain in Germany on occupation duty.

MCI Course 8102 3-62 Study Unit 3, Lesson 4


The Interim Years 1919-1940

Introduction During the years between World War I and World War II, Marines were kept
busy with interventions in

· Vladivostok, 1919
· United States, 1921 to 1927
· Dominican Republic, 1924
· Honduras, 1924/5
· Nicaraugua, 1927 to 1933
· Haiti in 1934.

The Marine Corps would also continue to develop doctrine and begin a
distance education program.

Marines as According to the postmaster general, from April 9, 1920 to April 9, 1921
Mail Guards there were 36 major mail robberies in the United States that netted armed
thieves more than $6,300,000. In April of 1921, over 2,200 Marines were
dispatched to guard trains, trucks, buildings and transfer stations. The
Marines were withdrawn in March of 1922. In October of 1926, there was a
recurrence of armed robbery of the U.S. Mail, and the Postmaster General
asked for 2,500 Marines. President Coolidge issued an executive order once
again placing Marines on mail guard. The Marines remained on guard until
the first Marines were recalled in January of 1927. During both of the
Marines’ tours of guard duty, not a single piece of mail was lost to a robber.
Marines would continue to be counted on throughout the twentieth century as
a force in readiness that could effectively control civil duress.

Marine Corps The Marine Corps Institute (MCI) was opened on 2 February 1920 in
Institute Quantico, Virginia under the name “Post Schools.” The name was changed to
MCI in June of the same year when courses were opened to Marines and their
dependants worldwide. This was the first such institution in the Armed
services to offer a world-wide system of free correspondence training. On 10
November 1920, MCI was moved to Washington, D.C.

Today MCI is responsible for providing nonresident occupational skills


courses and professional military education and for developing and providing
Marine battle skills training and training materials to support the Individual
Training Standards system within the Marine Corps.

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The Interim Years 1919-1940, Continued

Parachute In 1927, Marines pioneered dropping troops by parachute at Anacostia, in


Marines Washington D. C. when 12 Marines jumped from a transport plane during an
exercise. Later that year, successful jumps were made over the Potomac
River. Each parachutist carried a rubber boat, inflating it on the way down
and holding it under him as he landed. This was the first step in the creation
of Airborne forces.

First Combat While serving in Nicaragua, a 37 man Marine detachment stationed at Ocotal,
Dive Bombing capital of Nueva province, was besieged by an 800 man Liberal faction on 17
Attack July 1927. At 1230, in inclement weather, five DH-4, Marine piloted
airplanes armed with four 25 pound bombs and a full compliment of machine
gun ammunition, took off en-route to what would be the first combat dive
bombing attack in history. After a brief reconnaissance by two airplanes to
locate the Marines on the ground, the planes dove on the Liberals from
heights of 1,000 to 1,500 feet expending their ordinance on the surprised
Liberals. Approximately 300 Liberals were killed in the combined firepower
of ground and air elements. This would set the precedence for future use of
close air support in Marine Corps doctrine.

The Marine expeditions in Nicaragua were ideal proving grounds for new
tactics in air support of ground forces. Liaison planes kept in constant touch
with ground patrols and, using panel markers, would attack by dive-bombing
bandit forces encountered by patrols. It soon became normal procedure to
supply patrols with food, clothing, ammunition and equipment by parachute
drops.

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The Interim Years 1919-1940, Continued

Early Training In the early 1920s, a series of land maneuvers were conducted by the
of Advance Base Force stationed at Quantico. In October 1921, the Advance
Expeditionary Base Force conducted exercises at the Wilderness Battlefield in Virginia. The
Forces following year, the whole force hiked from Quantico to Gettysburg,
Pennsylvania to reenact the 59th anniversary of the battle. Several
distinguished guests, including the President, turned out to observe the
Marine maneuvers. These exercises continued through 1924 with similar
exercises held at New Market, Virginia and Sharpsburg, Maryland. Although
not war time maneuvers, the exercises served a useful purpose in exercising
troops and equipment, practicing deployments, and reminding the public that
there was a Marine Expeditionary Force.

The Marine Corps trained abroad as well. In January 1922, a reinforced


expeditionary battalion from Quantico conducted landing exercises at
Guantanamo Bay and Culebra. In March 1923, a detachment of Marines
conducted a small amphibious exercise in Panama. The following summer
saw Marines making practice landings at Cape Cod.

Amphibious In 1923, Major Holland Smith, the first Marine to be assigned to the planning
Training committee of the Joint Board of the Army and Navy, was sent to the West
Indies to find suitable training areas for amphibious training. The eastern end
of Vieques Island, off the coast of Puerto Rico, was found to be ideal.

The maneuvers of early 1924 were conceived on a broad scale involving the
Marine Expeditionary Force, Atlantic Fleet, and some Army forces. The
landings practiced organization and defense of an advance base and an assault
landing. Planners took the mistakes made and applied the lessons learned to
amphibious maneuvers the following year. Additionally, two new
experimental landing craft were tested. One was a troop barge that was 50
feet long, had twin engines, and armor protection. The other was a boxlike
amphibious tank mounting a 75mm gun. Although both vehicles proved to be
substandard in seagoing conditions, many of their features would become
standard equipment on landing craft adopted 20 years later.

On 15 April 1925, the staff and students of Marine Corps Schools at Quantico
became the landing force staff for a maneuver exercise. This was Quantico’s
first amphibious command-post exercise, and the first recorded such exercise
in U.S. history.

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The Interim Years 1919-1940, Continued

Fleet Marine In 1933, Major General John H. Russell, while serving as acting
Force Commandant, made a far-reaching recommendation to the Chief of Naval
Operations regarding the mission of the Marine Corps. The recommendation
stated “the Marine Corps should have a striking force, well equipped, well
armed, and highly trained, working as a unit of the Fleet under the direct
orders of the Commander-in-Chief. This force will be included in the Fleet
organization as an integral part thereof, subject to the orders, for tactical
employment, of the Commander-in-Chief U.S. Fleet.”

On 7 December 1933, the Secretary of the Navy issued General Order 241
creating the Fleet Marine Force, (FMF). Marine Corps Order 66, General
Russell’s implementation order, was issued on the 8th of December. With the
creation of the FMF, a full-time organization of Marines could now begin to
perfect the art of amphibious war.

Amphibious With the creation of the FMF, the Commandant saw the need for a detailed
Doctrine document showing how to conduct amphibious landings. The Commandant
assigned the student body of the Schools at Quantico the task of writing the
manual. The students at the school represented some of the most
experienced Marines in amphibious operations of the time. The manual was
divided into tactics, staff functions, and training and established a two part
Amphibious Task Force, the landing force and the naval support groups
consisting of the transport group. The naval support group , covering group,
air group, and fire support group. After two revisions, the Tentative Landing
Operations Manual was published in July 1935. This manual created
amphibious doctrine as it would be practiced throughout World War II.

A Lack of The Tentative Manual for Landing Operations included an overall description
suitable of the state of the art in landing craft design up to 1934. However, little
Landing Craft progress had been made in the development of craft specifically designed for
landing troops and supplies.

Being fully aware of the unsuitability of existing craft for landings, the
Marine Corps formed an equipment board consisting of eleven members, later
expanded to twenty, who served on a part-time basis to design and
recommend types of equipment for amphibious operations.

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The Interim Years 1919-1940, Continued

Roebling’s In 1937, Donald Roebling field tested a tracked amphibian designed for use in
Alligator the Florida Everglades. Life Magazine covered the field tests and published
an article with pictures showing the “Alligator” moving through swamp,
water and climbing steeps embankments. The Commanding General of the
FMF read the article and forwarded it to the Commandant of the Marine
Corps. After viewing the vehicle and about 400 feet of movie film, the
Navy’s Continuing Board for Development of Landing Craft approved steps
to be taken to procure a pilot vehicle for further testing.

Landing Roebling completed redesigning the vehicle to military specifications in


Vehicle October of 1940. The aluminum hulled vehicle was almost 21 feet long, eight
Tracked feet wide, and weighed about 8,000 pounds. It attained speeds up to 29 mph
on land and almost 10 mph in the water. After several tests, Mr. Roebling
was awarded a contract for 100 Alligators but with the modification that they
be made out of steel vice aluminum. Subsequently Food Machinery
Corporation was awarded the contract for official design of the vehicle, now
officially known as the LVT (1). The development of the amphibian tractor
was one the most important technical contributions to ship to shore operations
and revolutionized amphibious warfare.

MCI Course 8102 3-67 Study Unit 3, Lesson 4


World War II

Introduction The United States was thrust into World War II when the Japanese attacked
Pearl Harbor on 7 December 1941. The Corps would make bold advances in
conducting the business of war.

Pearl Harbor The surprise attack by Japanese Forces at Pearl Harbor devastated the
American Pacific Fleet. By the end of 1941, the Marines at Pearl Harbor had
reorganized and shipped out to reinforce the garrisons at Johnson Island,
Midway, and Palmyra.

Guam Immediately after Pearl harbor, the Japanese attacked other U.S. Islands
manned by Marines. The island of Guam was hit by aerial strikes for two
days before Japanese naval landing forces attacked the island. On 10
December 1941, over 5,500 Japanese troops landed on Guam. After a short
engagement the 153 Marines and 80 man Insular Guard, natives officered by
Marine NCOs, were ordered to cease firing by the Naval governor of the
Island. This would be the first U.S. territory to fall to Japan. The Japanese
would continue their offensive into early 1942 with operations on Wake and
Bataan.

Midway, The The Japanese Fleet launched a pre-dawn attack on 4 June 1942. The fleet
Turning Point approached Midway in two groups, a striking force built around four carriers
in the Pacific and an occupation force of amphibious troops in transports. The Marine
garrison had been reinforcing since late April in anticipation of an
approaching attack. The island had reinforced its coastal defense guns,
doubled the garrison size, and stationed a fighter squadron and dive bomber
on the island. The Japanese had planned to attack, land troops, and hold the
island as a step off location for future offensive operations.

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World War II, Continued

Marine Air The Marines took their first decisive part in the battle at 0616 hours on 4 June
Power during 1942 by attempting to intercept a flight of Japanese bombers from the carrier
Midway forces. The first wave of aircraft hit Midway Island about 0630. Although
outnumbered 4 to1, the 25 outdated Marine fighter planes put up a gallant
stand. After the initial engagement 15 Marine pilots were dead and the
Midway shore installations were in a shambles. While the first attack was
going on 16 Marine dive-bombers attempted to attack the Japanese fleet. The
dive-bombers inflicted little damage to the fleet and lost half their numbers.

Shifting to the As the Japanese planes landed safely back aboard their carriers, carrier based
Offense U.S. Navy planes attacked the Japanese fleet. During this second melee, 3 of
the 4 Japanese carriers were destroyed. Later that evening the final carrier
was severely damaged by an attack made by planes from the U.S.S.
Enterprise. The engagement was a victory for the United States and a disaster
for the Imperial Japanese Navy. From this point on, the Marines would shift
their focus from defensive to offensive actions.

Island Hopping In August 1942, Marines landed on Guadalcanal in the Solomon Islands,
Campaign beginning the long island hopping campaign. Allies began rolling back
Japanese captured islands which would require coordinated air, land and sea
operations by the Army, Navy, Marines and other Allied forces. Offensive
operations continued in the South Pacific with major battles fought in 1943 on
the Solomons and New Guinea. By fall of the same year, US forces moved
Westward capturing Tarawa in the Gilbert Islands. By early 1944, Allied
forces had neutralized Japanese attack bases in the Bismarck, Caroline, and
Marshal Islands. By mid 1944, American forces had closed in on the outer
defenses of Japan and prepared for the final push.

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World War II, Continued

Desegregation On June 25th 1941, President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed executive order
8802 establishing the Fair Employment Practice Commission. This order
prohibited racial discrimination by any government agency. On June 1, 1942
recruitment of black Marines began. On 18 August 1942, Headquarters and
Service Battery of the 51st Composite Defense battalion was activated at
Montford Point, North Carolina. Later on, these Marines would be
nicknamed Montford Point Marines. From July 1942 through the end of the
war, 20,000 black men were trained at Montford Point and served in
segregated units either overseas or at a depot stateside. In the fall of 1949
President Harry S. Truman established a policy of full integration ending
segregated units in the Marine Corps.

Women The Marine Corps Women’s Reserve was established in February 1943.
Marines Women Marines performed in similar capacities as they had in World War I.
Reintroduced In addition to clerical work, their numbers included parachute riggers,
mechanics, radio operators, mapmakers, motor transport support, and
welders. By June 1944, women reservists made up 85% of the enlisted
personnel on duty at Headquarters Marine Corps and almost two-thirds of the
personnel manning all major posts and stations in the United States and
Hawaii. Following the end of World War II, demobilization of the Women’s
Reserve proceeded rapidly.

Raiders With the outbreak of the war in the Pacific, a need had arisen for a highly
trained guerrilla force that could infiltrate occupied territory and assist
resistance groups, perform reconnaissance, conduct raids, and assist landing
forces. On 16 February 1942 the 1st Raider battalion was designated. Three
days later, the 2d Raider Battalion was re-designated.

The raider battalions soon received first priority in the Marine Corps on men
and equipment. Training focused on weapons practice, hand-to-hand
fighting, demolitions, night operations, and physical conditioning. The 1st
Raider Battalion based its table of organization on the eight-man squad, with
a leader, two Browning automatic riflemen, four riflemen, and a sniper. This
would lay the groundwork for later in the war of the standard 4 man fireteam
for all Marine infantry.

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World War II, Continued

Navajo Code In an attempt to remedy a security problem of communications over non-


Talkers secure and non-encrypted lines, the Marine Corps looked to Navajo Indians
for a possible solution. Navajo Indians were recruited as communicators that
would transmit messages in Navajo, hoping the Japanese would not be able to
identify the unwritten Navajo language.

Starting with Guadalcanal, the code talkers participated in all the major
Marine Corps engagements in the Pacific. The Japanese, who were skilled
code breakers, were unable to decipher the language and never cracked the
code used by the Marines.

Lessons While planning for the landing on Betio Island (Tarawa), Marine and Navy
Learned from planners wondered if there would be enough water over Betio’s reef during
Amphibious the time of the assault to permit landing craft to get across. Nautical charts
Warfare and tidal data for the Gilbert Island chain were almost 100 years old. To
answer the question, Marines insisted that the leading assault waves land in
amphibious tractors that could negotiate the reef.

Line of The LOD allows the Naval Commander, through his primary control ship,
Departure (PCS), to control the movement of the waves of landing craft to the beach and
(LOD) thus coordinate their movement with the firing of naval gun fire and air
support.

Role of LOD in Planning for Tarawa used some standardized control measures from previous
Planning for campaigns and refinement of amphibious doctrine to organize the movement
Tarawa of landing craft. Amphibious assaults adopted the “line of departure,” LOD,
as the start line for the dispatch of waves to the beach. At Tarawa the LOD
was 6,000 yards from the beach, ran parallel to the beach to permit a strait
run, and the start point was marked by an anchored control vessel

H-Hour As the leading waves approach the beach, close coordination is important to
ensure that the supporting fires cease just before the landing forces touching
down. At Tarawa this coordination was attempted using a timeline. The
amphibious tractors were scheduled to hit the beach at H-hour, a standardized
term that designates a particular time. If something delays the assault waves
or pushes them ahead of schedule, H-hour is adjusted.

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World War II, Continued

Maintaining the The forming of the initial waves for the assault landing went fairly well,
Timeline despite some initial difficulty in forming of the waves and some last minute
shelling of the beach, but the lead wave was 15 minutes behind schedule.
Due to the late start over the LOD, H-hour was pushed ahead from 0830 to
0845. The next difficulty was the lead waves of amphibious tractors were
older model LVT (1)s which forced the faster LVT (2)s in wave two to slow
down to maintain the 300 yard interval between waves. H-hour was now
shifted to 0900. Due to poor communications of the time, not all fire support
assets were aware of the adjusted timeline. Dust and smoke from the fire
support on the beach concealed the progress of the lead waves in the boat
lane. Naval gunfire ceased at 0855 to allow air support to make their runs just
ahead of the lead wave.

Amphibious One major problem at Tarawa was in communication from the amphibious
Tractor tractors to the fire support assets. The lead wave had fallen behind even more
and was unable to make the 0900 timeline. The first wave touched down at
0910. If the LVT crews had effective communication assets, they would have
been able to communicate the adjustment of the timeline. The last 15 minutes
of movement was conducted unsupported. This allowed for the defenders of
Tarawa time to reoccupy their defenses positions and begin delivering fire
onto the lead waves. The only Marine fire support was the machineguns
mounted on the LVTs just before the operation. Additionally the lightly
armored LVTs had recently been equipped with 3/8 inch boiler plates on the
cab of the vehicle to protect the crew. Earlier operations had shown the cab
of the vehicle could be easily penetrated by small caliber weapons. This
modification would be the predecessor to a fully armored version of the LVT.

After the initial movement of troops to the beaches, LVTs immediately


assumed logistical roles by bringing supplies in from boats at the edge of the
reef and evacuating casualties out to boats at the reef or to ships out at sea.

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World War II, Continued

Landing Craft Only the first three waves that came ashore were in the armored LVTs. The
Vehicle subsequent waves had to come ashore in flat bottomed boats, Landing Craft
Personnel Vehicle Personnel, LCVP. Since there was not enough water over the coral
reef (only a few inches) to float the LCVP, troops had to be dropped off 500
to 800 yards from shore. The Marines waded ashore in chest deep water
while being exposed to a deadly crossfire from the defending Japanese.
Casualties in the follow-on waves ranged from 35 to 70 percent before
reaching shore. In the view of what happened at Tarawa, General Holland M.
Smith made the statement “After Tarawa, I made up my mind that all future
landings would be spearheaded by [the] amphibious vehicle.”

Outcome of Tarawa was the bloodiest fight yet in the history of the Marine Corps. On D-
Tarawa Day plus 3, Betio Island was secured. Of a total of 4,836 Japanese soldiers
and Korean civilian laborers on Betio, only 146 were captured. The
remainder died while conducting a stubborn defense of the island. For the
Marines total casualties were 3,149, about 12 percent of the overall force.
The Marines would take their lessons learned and use them to make the final
refinements to the amphibious doctrine that would be used throughout the
remainder of the war.

The subsequent landings in the Pacific employed doctrine that was revised
due to the outcome of Tarawa. This would lead to success against similar
targets with fewer casualties and in less time. The drive in the Pacific
continued with landings at Peleliu, The Philippines, Iwo Jima and Okinawa.

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World War II, Continued

Why Iwo Jima Iwo Jima was strategically important as an air base for fighter escorts
supporting long-range bombing missions against mainland Japan. Because of
the distance between mainland Japan and U.S. bases in the Mariana Islands,
the capture of Iwo Jima would provide an emergency landing strip for
crippled B-29s returning from bombing runs. The seizure of Iwo Jima would
allow for sea and air blockades, the ability to conduct intensive air
bombardment and to destroy the enemy’s air and naval capabilities.

Preparations By 1945, U.S. forces in the Pacific had grown in strength to permit
for Iwo Jima simultaneous amphibious assaults in the Luzon Islands and on Iwo Jima.
Additionally, Pacific forces were preparing for another major landing at
Okinawa. The American Pacific forces could now overwhelm Japanese air
and naval counterattacks against their amphibious task force by the means of
the attack carrier force.

Other developments were used to benefit the landing at Iwo Jima as well. By
1945, Marine tactical aviation squadrons had carriers of their own and could
provide close air support throughout each remaining amphibious campaign.
The Pacific fleet now had sufficient specialized amphibious landing ships to
deliver needed assets ashore in order to support the landing. The Marines had
recently received Navy Mark I flame throwers for the turrets of eight
Sherman tanks. These would prove an invaluable tactical advantage against
Iwo’s complex cave system. The most overlooked development was the
combat experience that SNCOs that were filling leaderships roles throughout
the Marine Corps had gained during the previous three years.

Results of Iwo The 36-day assault resulted in more than 26,000 American casualties,
Jima including 6,800 dead. Of the 20,000 Japanese defenders, only 1,083
survived. The capture of the island provided an essential base for bomber
operations. By war’s end, several hundred B-29 bombers had made
unscheduled landings on the airfield.

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World War II, Continued

Ending of With the end of the war in sight, the final offensive was planned on mainland
Hostilities Japan that would involve all six Marine Divisions. To speed up the end of the
war and to prevent more American bloodshed, President Harry Truman
ordered the dropping of two atomic bomb devices on Japan. Emperor
Hirohito surrendered at 0615 hours on 14 August 1945 ending the war in the
Pacific theater of operations and beginning another tour of occupation duty
for the Marines.

MCI Course 8102 3-75 Study Unit 3, Lesson 4


War in Korea

General On 25 June 1950, the postwar peace was brought to a close when Communist
troops of North Korea invaded South Korea. The initial U.S. involvement
started with a containment action. The US 7th Fleet moved between China
and Formosa. On 27 June, the United Nations passed resolution
recommending immediate aid in restoring peace in South Korea. The United
States was named executive agent to carry out the UN effort.

First Marines The first Marines to land in Korea were a 5 man demolition team off the
in Korea cruiser Juneau. They went ashore in a whaleboat from the Destroyer
Mansfield to plant two 60 pound demolition charges in a railroad tunnel
South of Chongjin.

The 1st Marine By early July the situation was rapidly deteriorating in South Korea and UN
Provisional forces were being pushed back to an ever-shrinking pocket near Pusan. The
Brigade Joint Chiefs of Staff voted to commit a Marine Regimental Combat Team and
a Marine Air Group to the war in Korea. On 7 July 1950 the 1st Marine
Provisional Brigade, over 6,500 men, was activated. The Marines showed an
amazing ability to pull together and ship out a large Marine combat unit in
only six days. The Brigade would be used until its deactivation on 12
September at which time it would be folded into the 1st Marine Division.

The Pusan The Marine Brigade landed at the port of Pusan on 2 August and stepped off
Perimeter on operations the next day at 0600. Immediately Marine Air elements began
bombing enemy positions. The Brigade’s ground force would be employed
as a reserve ready to fill any weakened part of the line at a moment’s notice.
In just over 30 days the Marines had inflicted an estimated 9,900 enemy
casualties and destroyed masses of enemy equipment. On 11 September the
Brigade was embarked on Naval shipping in preparation for the landing at
Inchon.

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War in Korea, Continued

A Plan to A plan was conceived to conduct a turning movement by making an assault


Relieve Pusan landing at Inchon. With the belief that the North Koreans had committed all
their troops against the Pusan perimeter, planners felt the landing would see
no heavy opposition. With all their forces committed down south, the North
Koreans would be forced to pull forces away from Pusan to deal with the new
threat, thus taking pressure off the forces at Pusan.

Map of Korea The map below shows the position of the Pusan perimeter, the route of the
North Korean Army, and other key locations.

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War in Korea, Continued

The Landing at Preparatory naval gunfire and aerial bombardment for the landing began on
Inchon 13 September 1950. The 1st and 5th Marines performed the initial invasion
on the morning of the 15th. Resistance and casualties were modest, and
initial objectives were quickly secured. Supplies and troops quickly funnled
into the port of Inchon. The Marines pushed forward to Seoul and secured
Kimpo airfield enroute. After days of fighting in a MOUT environment,
Seoul was taken. The UN had termed the campaign as “decisive”.

The morning after the initial landing, the defenders of the Pusan Perimeter
went on the offensive. The rest of the month saw the North Koreans falling
back from Pusan and begining a retreat back North. The plan to take pressure
off of Pusan had worked.

Crossing the A plan was developed for the 8th Army to drive North as far as Pyongyang,
38th Parallel North Korea’s capital, and for the 10th Corps to trap the North Koreans from
retreating from the South. The decision to cross the 38th parallel was a major
turning point in the war. By crossing the 38th Parallel, the UN forces were
brought into direct conflict with the Peoples’ Republic of China. Although
top planners did not believe the Chinese would step in, or if they did step in,
they would be annihilated by massive UN airstrikes.

By late October, Pyongyang had fallen to US forces. Troops were ordered to


close within 30 to 40 miles of the Manchurian border and simultaneously
occupy all of North Korea. This meant the Marines would move into the
Chosin and Fusen Reservoirs.

The Chinese The day after Thanksgiving, 1950, the Marines were ordered to push forward
Enter the Fight and advance until they reached the Yalu River. Senior Marine leaders
realized this new plan would expose both flanks of the Marines. The Chinese
attacked the 8th Army’s right wing and drove back the offensive.

The Marines were attacked on the night of 27 November in 20 degree below


zero weather. Although the Marines held off the attacks, they were ordered to
halt the movement to the Yalu River to allow time for regrouping and the
reopening of supply lines.

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 3-78 Study Unit 3, Lesson 4


War in Korea, Continued

Fighting The entire Marine Force was ordered to withdraw in the face of overpowering
Withdrawal numbers of enemy troops that surrounded them. The break out began at 0800
1 December when 3rd Battalion 5th Marines led the force Southward. With
support from Marine Corsairs, the Marines fought their way to Hagaru,
suffering 1500 casualties the whole time in constant exposure to subzero
weather. Before the withdrawal was complete, the 1st Marine Division would
defeat seven Chinese Divisions in the running fight from Hagaru to Hamhung
and evacuation via the Sea of Japan. By 14 December 22,215 Marines had
been withdrawn and were on board transports heading South to Pusan. The
following days would see the fall of Seoul, Inchon and Wonju. The war in
Korea would continue until the cease fire was signed on 27 July 1953.

Rotary Wing Rotary wing aircraft had come too late to have any effect on tactics in World
Techniques War II. Following the war, the Marine Corps took the lead in developing
techniques and procedures for this new aircraft. Since 1947 the Marine Corps
was pioneering helicopter combat techniques at Quantico. Using this new
found technology, four HO3S-1 helicopter with four OY-2 observation
planes, would make up Marine Observation Squadron 6 (VMO 6) that would
deploy with the Marine Brigade to help form an air-ground team.

The helicopters provided command and control capabilities, communications,


evacuation of wounded, transportation, artillery spotting and perform scouting
missions. In the first month of use in Korea, the helicopters conducted over
580 flights including the first helicopter combat mission.

New Gear and In addition to the use of the helicopter, the Marine Corps saw the introduction
Lessons of of lightweight plastic body armor. This resulted in a startling drop in fatal
Korea abdominal and chest wounds. Another Marine first was the thermal boot
which would help eliminate frostbite on the feet of ground troops and pilots.

Of the lessons learned from Korea, the use of the amphibious landing as the
most powerful tool we have was probably the greatest, considering 71% of
the earths surface is covered by water. Another valuable lesson was the
soundness and superiority of Marine and Navy air support doctrines. The
value of immediately ready, professional expeditionary forces to deploy with
little notice proved a great value at Pusan and Inchon.

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 3-79 Study Unit 3, Lesson 4


War in Korea, Continued

MAGTF The Marine Air Ground Task Force (MAGTF) concept was first tested in
combat with the rapid deployment and highly successful operations of the
First Marine Provisional Brigade in the early days of the Korean War. This
MAGTF was rapidly formed and deployed and was instrumental in stopping
the North Korean offensive to drive United States forces from Korea.

The Marine Corps concept of creating expeditionary combined arms forces


that exploited the synergy of task organized Marine aviation, ground combat
forces and combat service support, was codified by the National Security Act
of 1947. Public Law 416 passed by the 82nd Congress in 1952 further
solidified the nature of the MAGTF. This law ensured that the Marine Corps
would be organized with three aircraft wings and three combat divisions.

MCI Course 8102 3-80 Study Unit 3, Lesson 4


Marines in Vietnam

General In February of 1965, the U.S. military commander in Vietnam, Lieutenant


General William C. Westmoreland, requested two battalions of Marines to
protect the American air base at DaNang against possible attack from 6,000
Viet Cong that had massed in the vicinity.

At 0600 on 8 March 1965, Amphibious Task Force 76, moved into the
Harbor at Da Nang, South Vietnam. Shortly after 0900, the first Marines of
the landing force, the 9th Marine Expeditionary Brigade, splashed ashore and
began the 10 year tour of Marines in Vietnam. The Marine air-ground team
in Vietnam was known as the 3rd Marine Amphibious Force (III MAF) and
was composed of the 1st and 3rd Marine Divisions, the 1st Marine Aircraft
Wing, Force Logistics Command and various supporting elements. This was
the largest field US Marine command deployed on the battlefield up to this
time.

Short Airfield The Short Airfield for Tactical Support (SATS) is a rapidly constructed
for Tactical expeditionary airfield that can be erected near a battle area to provide air
Support, support for amphibious Marine Forces. The expeditionary airfield has
(SATS) aluminum runway matting, arresting gear, and catapults. The need for such a
tactical airstrip in the vicinity of Chu Lai brought about the introduction of
the SATS in Vietnam. The first SATS runway was operational on 1 June
1965 and was landing A-4 Skyhawks.

Combined Building on counterinsurgency experiences of Marines in Haiti and


Action Platoon Nicaragua, innovative Marines created the Combined Action Platoon (CAP)
Program program in South Vietnam in 1965. This program placed small teams of
Marines, led by noncommissioned officers, in the hamlets and villages
throughout the Marines’ area of operations. These Marines earned the trust of
the villagers by living in the village while protecting the people. Marines led
and trained the local people’s defense forces, learned the languages and
customs of the villagers, and were very successful in denying those areas
under their control to the enemy. The CAP program became a model for
success in counter insurgencies

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 3-81 Study Unit 3, Lesson 4


Marines in Vietnam, Continued

Hill 488 One of the most outstanding examples of SNCO leadership of the entire war
was the defense of Hill 488. 1st Platoon, C Company, 1st Reconnaissance
Battalion commanded by Staff Sergeant Jimmie Howard was ordered to hold
an observation post with an 18-man platoon.

At 2200 on 15 June 1965, a North Vietnamese Battalion attacked Hill 488.


After the LP/ OP fell back, the platoon dug in and threw back each enemy
assault. SSgt. Howard was severely wounded but continued to direct his
Marines and call in fire support. With no hand grenades left and in some
cases throwing rocks at the enemy, the Marines held out. At dawn the
following morning, five Marines lay dead and every other man was wounded.
As evacuation helicopters came in, SSgt. Howard continued to call in
airstrikes in order to secure the landing zone. When Howard’s platoon was
finally relieved they were down to only 8 rounds of ammunition. SSgt
Howard would be awarded the Medal of Honor for his actions on Hill 488.

Khe Sanh Khe Sanh was an advance combat base with an airstrip located in the
mountainous jungle of Northwest Vietnam. On the morning of January 21,
1968, NVA forces launched a long awaited attack and began a siege of the
remote outpost.

During the initial NVA attack, the main ammunition dump was hit and
exploded resulting in the loss of a major portion of the bases ammunition.
For 77 days, NVA divisions repeatedly attacked Khe Sanh with artillery,
122mm rockets, mortars, Soviet made PT-76 tanks and human wave attacks.
The base was literally surrounded and could only be resupplied by cargo
planes and helicopters that dropped over 840 tons of ammunition and supplies
to the besieged Marines. The Marines dug-in and prepared to wait out the
siege until reinforcements could be brought up.

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 3-82 Study Unit 3, Lesson 4


Marines in Vietnam, Continued

Operation Operation Pegasus was designed to be a massive, joint allied drive in the Khe
Pegasus Sahn plateau area to give some much needed relief to the defenders of Khe
Sahn. The operation was delayed because of lack of supplies and needed
equipment and because heavy fighting had broke out in Hue City as a result
of the Tet Offensive. Finally, on 25 March Operation Pegasus was begun.

The 4-phase operation was started with a diversionary attack to draw NVA
forces away from the troop buildup areas. On the 1st of April 1968, under the
cover of air and artillery, elements of 1st Battalion 9th Marines began
attacking about 2,500 meters South of the airfield. The Marines assaulted hill
471 and secured the key terrain by 1730 hours the same day. Four days later,
1st Battalion 9th Marines turned back a major counter attack on hill 471 by
NVA trying to dislodge the Marines from the hill.

The next day, a combined Allied task force linked up, relieved the Marines on
Hill 471 and began securing the terrain outside of Khe Sanh. Finally,
Marines were able to continue conducting patrols outside of Khe Sanh. The
siege had ended. Eventually the forward base at Khe Sahn was deactivated
and all the troops were pulled out of the area.

Hue City A major target of the Tet Offensive was the city of Hue. The attack on Hue
City was different from the other targets of Tet because of the city’s revered
status. The enemy planned to capture the city in one swift blow. The
attacking forces believed that once the city’s population realized the
superiority of the NVA and VC, they would immediately join forces against
the Americans.

Late in the evening on 30 January, NVA troops commenced the attack on the
city. VC guerrillas who had earlier infiltrated the city began to occupy most
of the city’s major buildings. NVA troops rushed into city while sapper units
attacked key outposts. Within a short time the city was completely occupied
by enemy forces.

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 3-83 Study Unit 3, Lesson 4


Marines in Vietnam, Continued

Counter attack Requests came from Hue City for immediate reinforcements. Due to poor
into Hue communications and believing the attacks to be only diversionary, only
company-sized relief columns were sent to the relief of the city. The under
strength companies meet heavy resistance and suffered high casualties in
there attempt to reinforce Hue City. Once the gravity of the situation was
realized, relief efforts became more organized and more supported.

South Vietnamese troops and three U.S. Marine battalions counter-attacked


and engaged in the heaviest fighting of the entire Tet Offensive. They took
the old imperial city, house by house, street by street, aided by American air
and artillery strikes. It was a slow and tedious task eliminating the NVA
resistance that had dug into the MOUT environment.

U.S. forces were making headway in their efforts when the NVA
counterattacked at 1300 on 5 February. By 1500 the counterattacks had been
repulsed and the Marines continued to push forward. At 1603, Marines had
made significant advances and the Stars and Stripes were flying over the city.
Several more days of heavy fighting remained before the Southern half of
Hue was secured.

Casualties at The final tally of casualties had enemy dead at 5,113. Marine casualties
Hue totaled just over 1,000 while the South Vietnamese suffer over 2,000
casualties and the U.S. Army close to 600. When the battle ended, the city of
Hue lay ruined. The South Vietnamese government immediately launched a
rehabilitation program designed to provide food, clothing and shelter to the
inhabitants of the city.

Marine With the departure of the last ground combat units, the only Marines still
Advisors fighting the NVA or VC were those serving as advisors to the South
Vietnamese Marine Corps, which the U.S. had been doing since 1954. By
fall of 1971, the advisors in Vietnam spent most of their time training the
South Vietnamese Marine Corps in small unit tactics, the use of U.S.
weapons, and the coordination of air and artillery support. Marine advisors
would remain in Vietnam until the signing of the ceasefire on 28 January
1973.

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 3-84 Study Unit 3, Lesson 4


Marines in Vietnam, Continued

Operation On 26 March 1975, the 9th Marine Amphibious Brigade, about 6,000 men,
Frequent Wind was reactivated as part of a force needed for the evacuation of Americans and
key South Vietnamese from the Vietnamese capital of Saigon. After careful
planning, the Tan Son Nhut air base was chosen as the evacuation site. The
plan called for the evacuees to assemble at a prearranged signal after which
Marine CH-53 helicopters would then pick them up, move them to one of a
dozen ships waiting off the coast and return for another load. The process
would be repeated until all evacuees were processed.

Early on the morning of April 29th, 1975, NVA rockets impacted into the
area of Tan Son Nhut Air Base. After viewing the damage sustained, U.S.
ambassador Graham Martin made a call to the Secretary of State with the
request to close the U.S. Embassy in Saigon. Operation Frequent Wind was
commenced in lieu of the recent events.

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 3-85 Study Unit 3, Lesson 4


Marines in Vietnam, Continued

Evacuation The first group of 12 CH-53s set down at 1506, 29 April 1975. Within
Begins minutes Marines secured the compound, establish a command post and
loaded the first group of evacuees onto the helicopters. Throughout the
evacuation process, artillery shells and rockets impacted in and around the
perimeter.

During the evacuation word was received that more than 2,000 personnel
needed to be evacuated from the downtown embassy building. The plan had
called for all personnel to move to the airfield for evacuation due to the small
size of the embassy compound. To stabilize the situation, three platoons of
Marines were immediately sent to the embassy compound in order to
reinforce the perimeter that was being swarmed by South Vietnamese
civilians wanting to be evacuated.

At 0030 hours evacuation of the airfield was completed and all efforts were
shifted to completion of operations at the embassy. Evacuation continued
throughout the night with helos touching down about every ten minutes and
departing with a full load of evacuees. At 0752 the last personnel, 11
Marines, boarded a CH-46 and headed out to safe shipping.

The End of The departure of the last 11 Marines from the embassy signaled the end of
Marine over 20 years of Marine Corps involvement in Vietnam. During the Marines
Involvement in involvement in Vietnam they had participated in a variety of operations under
Vietnam a wide range of conditions. From amphibious landings to non-combatant
evacuations, whatever the task Marines performed admirably and continued
to improve and develop on tactics and doctrine.

MCI Course 8102 3-86 Study Unit 3, Lesson 4


Beyond 1975

General After Vietnam Marine Corps strategy and tactics continued to change to meet
the demands of an ever-changing world situation. Large-scale combat
operations had become much less frequent extinct and the Corps began to
focus more on rapid deployment to hotspots around the globe.

Rapid The Marine Corps played a key role in the development of the rapid
Deployment deployment force, a multi-service organization created to insure a flexible and
Force and MPS timely military response around the world.

The Marine Corps contributed to the forward deployed, sea-based, naval


expeditionary force with the introduction of the Marine Expeditionary Unit,
MEU. The MEU s a self-sustained, amphibious, combined arms air-ground
task force capable of conventional and selected maritime special operations of
limited duration in support of a combatant commander.

The maritime prepositioning forces (MPF) concept was developed to enhance


the capability by pre-staging equipment needed for combat in the vicinity of
the designated area of operations, and reduce response time as Marines travel
by air to link up with maritime prepositioning ship (MPS) assets.

The MPF concept has been validated with the extremely successful
employment of MPF in combat operations during Operation Desert Shield/
Desert Storm, and in humanitarian assistance operations such as Operation
Sea Angel in Bangladesh, 1991, and Operation Restore Hope in Somlia,
1992-93. This concept has provided the combatant commanders with a very
flexible capability to rapidly deploy and sustain combat and humanitarian
forces throughout the littorals.

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 3-87 Study Unit 3, Lesson 4


Beyond 1975, Continued

Beruit, In August 1982, Marines deployed to Beruit, Lebanon as part of a multi-


Lebanon national peace keeping force in response to a request from the governments in
Lebanon. The Marines’ mission was to provide a presence in Beruit. The
Lebanese government hoped this would help to establish the stability
necessary for the Lebanese government to regain control of their capital. This
mission required the Marines to occupy positions in the vicinity of Beruit
International Airport and establish and maintain close continuous liaison with
the other forces deployed as part of the multi-national peacekeeping force.

On October 23, 1983 a truck bomb supposedly planted by Iranian terrorists,


killed 241 US Marines when the vehicle crashed through gates and exploded
in the Marine barracks at Beruit, Lebanon. Even with the setback of the truck
bombing, the Marine presence remained in Lebanon until 31 July 1984, with
the deactivation of the joint task force.

Persian Gulf In August 1990, Iraqi military forces crossed the Kuwaiti border and began
converging on the capital of Kuwait City. Within a short period of time,
Iraqis had pushed all the way to the border of Saudi Arabia. As a result of
Iraq’s actions, a multi-national peace keeping force was sent to the Persian
Gulf

Between August 1990 and January 1991, more than 92,000 Marines deployed
to the Persian Gulf as part of Operation Desert Shield. Operation Desert
Storm was launched January 16, 1991 with a massive air campaign. While
two Marine Expeditionary Brigades waited off the Kuwaiti Coast, ground
forces stepped off on operations beginning February 24 with the 1st and 2nd
Marine Divisions launching offensive operations into occupied Kuwait. One
hundred hours after the ground offensive began, almost the entire Iraqi Army
in Kuwait was either destroyed or surrounded.

On 28 February 1991, offensive combat operations ceased at the direction of


the President of the United States. During the 100 hours of combat, Marines
had destroyed or captured 608 enemy armored personnel carriers, destroyed
432 artillery pieces, 5 FROG missile sites, totaled up 1,510 enemy killed in
action, and captured over 20,000 prisoners of war.

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 3-88 Study Unit 3, Lesson 4


Beyond 1975, Continued

Humanitarian In the 1990’s Marines demonstrated their flexible, rapid response capabilities
and Diplomatic by conducting noncombatant evacuation operations, NEOs, in Liberia and
Missions Somalia to rescue diplomats and civilians. Marines also conducted
humanitarian missions in Bangladesh, the Philippines, and Northern Iraq.
Marines additionally took part in counter-drug efforts, assisted in battling
wild fires, hurricane and flood relief operations in the United States. Today
Marines are forward deployed and kept in a constant state of readiness to
meet situations worldwide whether keeping peace in Kosovo or fighting
terrorism in Afghanistan.

MCI Course 8102 3-89 Study Unit 3, Lesson 4


Lesson 4 Exercise

Estimated 10 minutes
Study Time

Directions Complete items 1 through 10 by performing the action required. Check your
answers against those listed at the end of this lesson.

Item 1 An element of the Marine Corps Advance Base Schools mission was to

a. investigate what types of guns, gun platforms, mines, torpedo defenses


and other equipment might be suitable for advance base work.
b. provide recruit training and specialized gunnery skills.
c. investigate civilian shipping and study blockading operations.
d. train rapid deploying infantry detachments.

Item 2 The Aviation Detachment, Advance Base Force was commissioned on

a. 18 May 1913.
b. 27 December 1913.
c. 18 May 1926.
d. 27 October 1937.

Item 3 In 1916 the first two Marine Sergeants received formal pilot instruction at
Pensacola, Florida. They were the first Marine enlisted pilots to be
designated

a. Marine Air Corps members.


b. Marine Flying Group.
c. Naval Aviation Pilots.
d. Naval Flight Officers.

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 3-90 Study Unit 3, Lesson 4 Exercise


Lesson 4 Exercise, Continued

Item 4 Women first enlisted in the Marines on

a. 12 August 1917.
b. 12 August 1918.
c. 1 August 1919.
d. 12 August 1919.

Item 5 How were Marine Regiments initially used in the spring of 1918?

a. As support troops only alongside tank companies


b. As ammunition bearers for French artillery regiments
c. Individually alongside French regiments
d. Individually alongside British regiments

Item 6 The purpose of the Tentative Landing Operations Manual was to create

a. individual training standards.


b. vehicle landing formations to be used in the assault.
c. amphibious doctrine.
d. assault boat doctrine.

Item 7 At Tarawa, after the initial movement of troops to the beach, LVTs
immediately assumed

a. mess operations by bringing hot chow ashore to frontline troops.


b. logistical roles by bringing supplies in from boats at the edge of the reef
and evacuating casualties.
c. combat service support roles by bringing supplies in from boats at the
edge of the reef and maintenance items ashore.
d. forward service support roles and relayed message traffic from troops
ashore to navy shipping.

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 3-91 Study Unit 3, Lesson 4 Exercise


Lesson 4 Exercise, Continued

Item 8 The mission of the helicopter during the Korean war was to provide

a. command and control capabilities communications, evacuation of


wounded, transportation, artillery spotting and perform scouting missions.
b. accurate close air support communications, evacuation of wounded,
transportation, artillery spotting and perform scouting missions.
c. a symbol of hope for the South Koreans and provide communications,
evacuation of wounded, transportation, artillery spotting and perform
scouting missions.
d. humanitarian relief operations communications, evacuation of wounded,
transportation, artillery spotting and perform scouting missions.

Item 9 The assault landing at Inchon was made to

a. take pressure off the forces at Pusan.


b. free American POW’s being held in Seoul.
c. liberate civilians being held against their will in coastal towns.
d. liberate the capital city of Seoul.

Item 10 The purpose of Operation Pegasus was to

a. make a final U.S. drive to push all of the NVA out of Vietnam.
b. take key cities along the main supply route into North Vietnam.
c. conduct a joint allied landing along the Eastern Coast of North Vietnam to
give some much needed relief to the South Vietnamese Army along the
coast of the Red Sea.
d. conduct a joint allied drive in the Khe Sahn Plateau area to give some
much needed relief to the defenders of Khe Sahn.

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 3-92 Study Unit 3, Lesson 4 Exercise


Lesson 4 Exercise, Continued

Answers The table below lists the answers to the exercise items. If you have any
questions, refer to the reference page listed for each item.

Item number Answer Reference


1 a 3-55
2 b 3-55
3 c 3-56
4 b 3-57
5 c 3-59
6 c 3-66
7 b 3-72
8 a 3-79
9 a 3-77
10 d 3-83

Summary This lesson has shown you the how the Marine Corps has changed its doctrine
from the time of the Boxer Rebellion to the current war on terrorism in
Afghanistan and way of conducting operations to meet threats both domestic
and on an international level.

MCI Course 8102 3-93 Study Unit 3, Lesson 4 Exercise


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MCI Course 8102 3-94 Study Unit 3, Lesson 4 Exercise


STUDY UNIT 4
CHANGES TO UNIFORMS
Overview

Estimated 1 hour
Study Time

Unit Scope Upon becoming a SNCO, you have gained the privilege of wearing uniforms
that distinguish you from the regular enlisted personnel. Since you have
stepped up to a level that you can now be recognized differently from the
NCOs, this study unit is important to you because it will give you the
understanding of the different items that a Staff Noncommissioned Officer
(SNCO) can wear that a Noncommissioned Officer (NCO) cannot.

Learning After completion of this study unit, you should be able to


Objectives
· Identify the differences between Staff Noncommissioned Officer
uniforms and Noncommissioned Officer uniforms.

· Identify the proper wear of the evening dress uniform.

In This Study This study unit contains the following lessons:


Unit

Topic See Page


Lesson 1 Staff Noncommissioned Officer Uniforms 4-3
Lesson 2 How to Wear the Evening Dress Uniform 4-13

MCI Course 8102 4-1 Study Unit 4


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MCI Course 8102 4-2 Study Unit 4


LESSON 1
STAFF NONCOMMISSIONED OFFICERS UNIFORMS
Introduction

Estimated 20 minutes
Study Time

Lesson Scope This lesson is designed to help you identify items you can wear on the
uniform once obtaining the Staff Noncommissioned Officer rank (SNCO).

Learning Upon completion of this lesson, you should be able to


Objectives
· Identify the uniform changes that are made on promotion from NCO to
SNCO.

· Identify the proper wear of the changed items.

In This Lesson This lesson contains the following topics:

Topic See page


Introduction 4-3
Wearing of the SNCO Rank Insignia 4-4
Optional Uniform Articles 4-8
Lesson 1 Exercise 4-10

MCI Course 8102 4-3 Study Unit 4, Lesson 1


Wearing of the SNCO Rank Insignia

SNCO Rank The rank insignia will be worn with the single point up and centered on the
Insignia outer half of each sleeve. It will be placed four inches below the shoulder
seam (three inches for first sergeant/master sergeant and above) except as
otherwise noted below.

Green Service The rank insignia on the green service coat will be worn as shown in the
Coat illustration below:

· With green on scarlet rank insignia


· Four inches (4”) below shoulder seam (3 inches for 1stSgt/MSgt and
above)
· Centered on the sleeve

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 4-4 Study Unit 4, Lesson 1


Wearing of the SNCO Rank Insignia, Continued

Short Sleeve The rank insignia on the short sleeve khaki dress shirt will be worn as shown
Khaki Shirt in the illustration below:

· With green on khaki rank insignia


· Centered between the shoulder seam and the bottom edge of the seam
(men) or peak of the cuff (women)

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 4-5 Study Unit 4, Lesson 1


Wearing of the SNCO Rank Insignia, Continued

Long Sleeve The long sleeve shirt with the rank insignia will be worn as shown in the
Khaki Shirt illustration below:

· With green on khaki rank insignia


· Four inches (4”) below the shoulder seam (3 inches for 1stSgt/MSgt and
above)
· Centered on the sleeve

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 4-6 Study Unit 4, Lesson 1


Wearing of the SNCO Rank Insignia, Continued

Dress Blue The dress blue coat rank insignia will be worn as shown in the illustration
Coat below:

· With a gold on scarlet rank insignia


· Four inches (4”) below the shoulder seam (3 inches for 1stSgt/MSgt and
above)
· Centered on the sleeve

MCI Course 8102 4-7 Study Unit 4, Lesson 1


Optional Uniform Articles

Items The following uniform items are optional for the SNCO as indicated and may
be purchased from sources other than the Marine Corps supply system,
provided these items bear the USMC identification.

French Cuff The men's khaki shirt with French cuffs will be of the same design and style
Khaki Shirt as the standard shirt except with French cuffs instead of barrel cuffs. Officers
and SNCOs may wear the French cuff shirt optionally for duty, leave, liberty,
parades, and ceremonial occasions at the commander's discretion.

Cuff link The SNCO gold plated Marine Corps emblems superimposed cuff links set
(may include matching tie clasp) will be worn with the French cuff khaki
shirt. Below is an example of the superimposed cuff links:

Waist Plate Enlisted men will wear the white web coat belt with waist plate with the blue
and blue-white dress "A"/"B" uniforms. This belt may also be worn with the
male enlisted blue dress "C" and "D" uniforms when the sword is prescribed.
Enlisted women will wear this belt with the blue dress uniform when armed
with the NCO sword.

The waist plate worn by SNCOs will be the same as the NCO waist plate
except that it has an ornamental stamped design with the Marine Corps
emblem in the center. Below is an example of the SNCO waist plate:

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 4-8 Study Unit 4, Lesson 1


Optional Uniform Articles, Continued

Boatcloak The boatcloak, made of dark blue broadcloth material lined with scarlet wool
broadcloth, is an optional item that may be worn by male officers and SNCOs
with evening dress and blue dress "A"/"B" uniforms for official and social
functions. It will not be worn when the blue dress uniform is worn as the
uniform of the day.

Dress Cape The dress cape, made of dark blue polyester-wool tropical material lined with
scarlet satin rayon cloth, may be worn by female officers and female SNCOs
with the evening dress and blue dress “A” and “B” uniforms for official and
social functions. It will not be worn when the blue dress uniform is worn as
the uniform of the day.

Chukka Boots Chukka boots are authorized for male officers and SNCOs only.

· The Chukka boot is a high top dress shoe.


· This shoe may be worn with all service and dress uniforms.

Officer Service SNCOs are authorized to wear officers' service uniforms. These uniforms are
Uniform authorized at all times to include formations with other Marines. SNCOs who
wear this uniform are not required to maintain equivalent enlisted service
uniforms. Male SNCOs who wear service coats of officer-type fabric must
have the large pockets sewn down in the same manner as the pockets on the
enlisted service coats.

Shirts worn with these uniforms may be of any cloth of adopted standard.
Enlisted branch of service insignia and enlisted grade and service stripes will
be worn with optional officers service uniforms.

MCI Course 8102 4-9 Study Unit 4, Lesson 1


Lesson 1 Exercise

Estimated 10 minutes
Study Time

Directions Complete items 1 through 3 by performing the action required. Check your
answers against those listed at the end of this lesson.

Item 1 What are the uniform changes that are made from NCO to SNCO?

a. Dress cape, officer service uniform.


b. Cuff links, chukka boots, boatcloak.
c. French cuff khaki shirt, waist plate with ornamental stamped design.
d. All the above.

Item 2 The cuff links set will be worn with what kind of shirt?

a. Khaki shirt with barrel cuffs.


b. Khaki shirt with French cuffs.
c. Khaki shirt with French barrel cuffs.
d. None of the above.

Item 3 Who is authorized to wear the chukka boots?

a. All senior SNCOs


b. All SNCOs and officers
c. Only male SNCOs and officers
d. Only male SNCOs and NCOs

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 4-10 Study Unit 4, Lesson 1 Exercise


Lesson 1 Exercise, Continued

Solutions The table below lists the answers to the exercise items. If you have any
questions, refer to the reference page listed for each item.

Item number Answer Reference


1 d 4-8 through 4-9
2 b 4-8
3 c 4-9

Summary This lesson has shown you the proper wear of the rank insignia and the
optional uniform items that are offered to the SNCO. The following lesson
will introduce you to the evening dress and how the uniform is worn.

MCI Course 8102 4-11 Study Unit 4, Lesson 1 Exercise


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MCI Course 8102 4-12 Study Unit 4, Lesson 1 Exercise


LESSON 2
HOW TO WEAR THE EVENING DRESS UNIFORM
Introduction

Estimated 20 minutes
Study Time

Lesson Scope This lesson is designed to help you properly wear and identify the wear of the
Evening Dress uniform.

Learning After completion of this lesson, you should be able to


Objectives
· Identify the proper wearing of the evening dress uniform.

· Identify the occasion to wear the evening dress uniform.

In This Lesson This lesson contains the following topics:

Topic See page


Introduction 4-13
The Wear of the Male Evening Dress Uniform 4-14
The Wear of the Female Evening Dress Uniform 4-17
Lesson 2 Exercise 4-21

MCI Course 8102 4-13 Study Unit 4, Lesson 2


The Wear Of The Male Evening Dress Uniform

Evening Dress The jacket is a round-shell design made of dark blue gabardine fabric. The
Jacket jacket, with rolled collar, shoulder straps with red piping, and peaked cuffs, is
worn open held together with two small uniform buttons with a one-inch (1”)
link.

Collar Insignia Dress collar insignia will be worn in the eyelets provided, with the wing span
horizontally parallel to the deck and eagles facing inboard.

Rank Insignia Distinctive 1890's style gold on scarlet insignia of grade will be worn on the
jacket sleeves, placed three inches below the shoulder seam and centered on
each sleeve, which will be flat pressed.

MCI Course 8102 4-14 Study Unit 4, Lesson 2


The Wear Of The Male Evening Dress Uniform, Continued

Devices When wearing the evening dress uniform the miniature breast insignia and
miniature medals will be worn as shown in the illustration below.

· Miniature breast insignia is centered 1/8 inch above the top row of the
medals.

· Miniature medals will be centered on the left lapel with the top of the
holding bar approximately one inch (1”) below the left lapel notch. If
regulation size holding bars will not fit on the lapel, medals may extend
beyond the lapel edge onto the jacket's left breast.

· The miniature insignia will be centered 1/8 inch above the miniature
medals, or if no medals are authorized, the miniature insignia will be
centered on the lapel at the position prescribed for the top of the medal
bar.

· The miniature service/identification badge will be placed on the left front


panel on an extension of an imaginary line formed by the three front
buttons of the left panel. The badge will be placed midway between the
top button and the point where the imaginary line meets the lapel.

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 4-15 Study Unit 4, Lesson 2


The Wear Of The Male Evening Dress Uniform, Continued

Trouser Evening dress trousers will have a long waist, high back, without hip or side
pockets, buckle straps or belt loops; suspender buttons will be inside the
waistband.

Shirt and The men's white pleated soft-bosom shirt is an evening style shirt with a
Accessories turned-down collar. The shirt has a pleated front with two to three
buttonholes for studs on the front shirt placket and French cuffs. The dress
cuff links and studs sets will be plain gold or gold-plated, of concave design.
Cuff links and studs will be worn with evening dress uniforms. A scarlet
cummerbund, black bow tie and white gloves will also be worn.

Barracks Cover The Barracks cover will be composed of the frame cap with enlisted dress
crown or black leather/synthetic leather (high gloss) chinstrap with two 27-
line gold uniform screw post buttons. It will also include gold branch of
service insignia and a cloth or vinyl white crown.

Occasion For SNCOs may choose to wear the SNCO evening dress uniform in lieu of the
Wear blue dress uniform for social functions (club affairs, dinner parties, dinner
dances and evening celebrations in honor of the Marine Corps Birthday) in
which civilians attending would normally wear the white or black tie.

MCI Course 8102 4-16 Study Unit 4, Lesson 2


The Wear Of The Female Evening Dress Uniform

Jacket The jacket is of black polyester-wool tropical fabric with black rayon lining.
The collar is of scarlet wool tropical without ornamentation. The jacket is
semi-form fitting, waist length, with rolled lapels, peaked cuffs, but without
shoulder straps.

Collar Insignia Dress collar insignia will be worn in the eyelets provided for both men and
women.

Rank Insignia A reduced version (70% of original size) of this insignia will be worn on
female SNCO evening dress jackets, 3 inches below the shoulder seam.

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 4-17 Study Unit 4, Lesson 2


The Wear Of The Female Evening Dress Uniform, Continued

Devices On the women's evening dress jacket the miniature breast insignia, medals
and service/identification badges will be worn as shown in the illustration
below.

· Miniature breast insignia is centered 1/8th inch above the top row of the
medals.

· Miniature medals will be placed centered on the left lapel with the top of
the holding bar at the lapel's widest part. If regulation size holding bars
will not fit centered on the lapel, medals may extend beyond the lapel's
edge onto the jacket's left breast.

· The service/identification badge will be placed centered on the left front


panel with the bottom of badge about two inches higher than the top
button. The placement of the badge may be adjusted slightly to ensure the
proper flat appearance.

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 4-18 Study Unit 4, Lesson 2


The Wear Of The Female Evening Dress Uniform, Continued

Skirt The evening dress skirt is of black polyester-wool tropical material with
center back pleat and fully lined with black rayon lining. There are three
skirts that are currently approved for wear:

· The floor length long black skirt.

· The short evening dress skirt will be knee length and will be of the same
material as the long skirt.

· The old-style long skirt (without center back pleat) may continue to be
worn until replacement is required.

Shirt and The items listed below can be worn with the female evening dress uniform:
Accessories
· The women's white ruffled tuck-in dress shirt with black polyester-wool
necktab and white pearl buttons

· Red cumber

· White gloves which may be worn or carried

· The purse may be carried at the individual's option with the evening dress
uniform

Cover The dress cap will not be worn except when participating in a ceremony.

When participating in a ceremony, women will wear the white vinyl dress cap
with the black synthetic leather (high gloss) chinstrap.

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 4-19 Study Unit 4, Lesson 2


The Wear Of The Female Evening Dress Uniform, Continued

Occasion For SNCOs may choose to wear the SNCO evening dress uniform in lieu of the
Wear blue dress uniform for social functions (club affairs, dinner parties, dinner
dances, and evening celebrations in honor of the Marine Corps Birthday) in
which civilians attending would normally wear the white or black tie.

MCI Course 8102 4-20 Study Unit 4, Lesson 2


Lesson 2 Exercise

Estimated 10 minutes
Study Time

Directions Complete the following items. Check your answers against the correct
answers at the end of this lesson. If you have any questions, refer to the
reference page listed for each item

Item 1 What size medals are worn with the female evening dress uniform and where
are they placed?

a. Standard size medals and 1/8 of an inch above the left beast pocket.
b. Miniature medals and centered on the left breast pocket
c. Miniature medals and centered on the left lapel with to top of the holding
bar one inch below the left lapel notch.
d. Miniature medals and centered with to top of the holding bar at the lapels
widest part.

Item 2 The three types of skirts females can wear with the evening dress uniform are
the

a. long skirt, short skirt, and old-style long skirt.


b. modified version, semi-short skirt, and standard-style long skirt.
c. floor length and short length skirt, and standard-style long skirt.
d. long skirt, short skirt, and modified long skirt.

Item 3 On which occasion is the evening dress uniform worn in lieu of the blue dress
uniform?

a. Retirement ceremonies
b. Marine Corps ball
c. Burial detail
d. Color guard detail

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 4-21 Study Unit 4, Lesson 2 Exercise


Lesson 2 Exercise, Continued

Answers The table below lists the answers to the exercise items. If you have any
questions, refer to the reference page listed for each item.

Item number Answer Reference


1 d 4-18
2 a 4-19
3 b 4-20

Summary This lesson has show you the how to wear the evening dress uniform and the
occasions for wearing it.

MCI Course 8102 4-22 Study Unit 4, Lesson 2 Exercise


MILITARY STUDIES
REVIEW LESSON EXAMINATION
Review Lesson

Introduction The purpose of the review lesson examination is to prepare you for your final
examination. We recommend that you try to complete your review lesson
examination without referring to the text, but for those items (questions) you
are unsure of, restudy the text. When you finish your review lesson and are
satisfied with your responses check them against the answers provided at the
end of this review lesson examination.

Directions Select the ONE answer that BEST completes the statement or that answers
the item. For multiple choice items, circle your response. For matching
items, place the letter of your response in the space provided.

Item 1 A system to promote good order, discipline, and regulate the behavior of the
armed forces of the United States is the definition of

a. military justice.
b. an NJP court-martial.
c. the Uniformed Code of Military Justice.
d. a special court of inquiry.

Item 2 What aided in the establishment of the U.S. Military Justice System?

a. The Constitution
b. The Joint Chief of Staff
c. Congress
d. The Supreme Court

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 R-1 Review Lesson Examination


Review Lesson, Continued

Item 3 Select the proper level of justice for a serious non-capital offense.

a. Nonjudicial punishment
b. Summary Court-Martial
c. Special Court-Martial
d. Court-Martial

Item 4 Identify the level of military justice that conducts simple procedures for
minor offenses.

a. Nonjudicial punishment
b. Summary Court-Martial
c. General Court-Martial
d. Special Court-Martial

Item 5 Select the level of justice that is referred to as “Article 15.”

a. Summary court martial


b. Non-judicial punishment
c. Court-Martial
d. General Court-Martial

Item 6 In cases involving capital offenses and serious offenses what level of justice
would be used?

a. Special Court-Martial
b. Nonjudicial punishment
c. General Court-Martial
d. Capitol Court-Martial

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 R-2 Review Lesson Examination


Review Lesson, Continued

Item 7 Who has the authority to convene a General Court Martial?

a. Captain in the Air Force


b. Colonel in the Marine Corps
c. Only the prosecution for the court
d. Brigadier General in the Army

Item 8 A Marine has _____ days to file an appeal for an Article 15 judgment.

a. 10 hours
b. 12 hours
c. 5 days
d. 2 days

Item 9 What justifies a search?

a. Not a good enough reason to search


b. Probable cause
c. A fact admissible in court
d. Evidence of the crime

Item 10 Which of the following is a legal object of a search found by military police?

a. A Marine found with drug paraphernalia on base.


b. A Marine found with drug paraphernalia off base.
c. A Marine found with an automatic weapon off base.
d. A Marine found with stolen wallet off base

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 R-3 Review Lesson Examination


Review Lesson, Continued

Item 11 What is considered a lawful search?

a. Search authorized by the commanding officer.


b. Search authorized and conducted by the commanding officer.
c. PFC Coors consents to a search after being told, “Things could go easier
for you.”
d. PFC Coors consents to a search after being told, “”We are going to
search anyway, you could make it easier.”

Item 12 What is a source for the laws of land warfare?

a. The Bill of Rights


b. The Articles of Confederation
c. The Hague Rules
d. The Corps Values of 1775

Item 13 A woman with a basket on her head walking down a road in a combat area is
be considered a

a. combatant.
b. enemy.
c. noncombatant.
d. civilian carrying an unknown item.

Item 14 Which of the following is a factor in violating the law of land warfare?

a. Happiness
b. Fatigue
c. Cowardice
d. Corruption

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 R-4 Review Lesson Examination


Review Lesson, Continued

Item 15 The Marine Air Ground Task Force is made up of how many elements?

a. 3
b. 4
c. 5
d. 6

Item 16 The command element

a. conducts ground combat operations.


b. contains organic combat support and combat service support units.
c. facilitates sequencing of additional MAGTFs as necessary because of its
modular design.
d. integrates air-ground combat operations.

Item 17 Which of the following is true of the ground combat element of a Marine Air
Ground Task Force? It

a. conducts air operations and provides air support to the combat service
support element and air combat element.
b. conducts ground combat operations.
c. compliments the combat service support capabilities of the ground combat
element, air combat element, and command element.
d. consists of the commander, staff, and surveillance, reconnaissance,
intelligence group element.

Item 18 The ____________ integrates air-ground combat operations.

a. ground combat element


b. command element
c. air combat element
d. combat service support element

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 R-5 Review Lesson Examination


Review Lesson, Continued

Item 19 The _____________ complements the combat service support capabilities of


the ground combat element, air combat element, and the command element.

a. Marine expeditionary unit


b. Marine expeditionary force
c. Marine expeditionary brigade
d. combat service support element

Item 20 When planning time is adequate, and the force can be tailored. Disaster
relief, humanitarian assistance and noncombatant evacuation operations are
all possible mission of a

a. MAGTF.
b. SPMAGTF.
c. MEF.
d. CSSE.

Item 21 The Marine expeditionary unit is normally the size of a

a. special purpose Marine air ground task force.


b. Marine expeditionary force.
c. Marine platoon.
d. Marine company.

Item 22 Peacekeeping, noncombatant evacuation operations, and disaster relief are all
common missions of a

a. Marine expeditionary force.


b. Marine expeditionary brigade.
c. Battalion landing team.
d. Special purpose Marine air ground task force.

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 R-6 Review Lesson Examination


Review Lesson, Continued

Item 23 For particularly larger crises or contingencies, the Marine Corps’ warfighting
organization is normally the Marine

a. expeditionary unit.
b. expeditionary force.
c. expeditionary brigade.
d. rifle platoon.

Item 24 The size and composition of a deployed MEF can vary greatly depending on
the requirements of the

a. mission.
b. size of the Marine expeditionary force.
c. timeline.
d. attached units.

Item 25 In _______ the Commandant of the Marine Corps appointed the first SNCO
rank.

a. 1770
b. 1776
c. 1798
d. 1832

Item 26 In 1798, enlisted Marine staff consisted of a sergeant major,

a. a quartermaster sergeant, a drum major, and a fife major.


b. a quartermaster sergeant, a drum major, and a first sergeant.
c. a master sergeant, a fife major, and a first sergeant.
d. a drum major, a fife major, and a first sergeant.

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 R-7 Review Lesson Examination


Review Lesson, Continued

Item 27 The grade of gunnery sergeant authorized on

a. 10 November 1775.
b. 5 July 1798.
c. 5 May 1898.
d. 5 May 1901.

Item 28 In what year did the first group of staff sergeants receive their warrants to fill
the gap between sergeant and quartermaster sergeant?

a. 1923
b. 1925
c. 1926
d. 1935

Item 29 In 1740, ___________ Marines was created because of England’s need for
four Battalions of Marines during the war with Spain.

a. Hardy’s
b. Gilham’s
c. Gooche’s
d. Harley’s

Item 30 Where did the Continental Marines land on 3 March 1776?

a. New England
b. New Providence
c. Hampshire, England
d. Sussex, England

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 R-8 Review Lesson Examination


Review Lesson, Continued

Item 31 When did President John Adams approve the act that established and
organized the Marine Corps?

a. 10 November 1776
b. 11 July 1798
c. 31 March 1801
d. 10 March 1801

Item 32 The mission of the Marine Corps during the War of 1812 was to provide

a. detachments to Navy ships and then to Lake Squadrons.


b. advance naval landing parties and protection of the ships captain from
insurrection.
c. gun crews for the ships cannons and sharpshooters for boarding parties.
d. detachments to Navy ships and protection of the ships crew.

Item 33 On what date did the Marines first step foot on Mexican soil during the war
with Mexico?

a. 18 May 1846
b. 18 May 1856
c. 16 October 1856
d. 16 October 1860

Item 34 During John Brown’s raid on the U.S. Arsenal at Harpers Ferry, the Marines
were requested because

a. they were the only available force who could react with the speed
needed.
b. of their artillery attachments.
c. of the highly trained sharpshooters were attached to their force.
d. Lieutenant Israel Greene had negotiator training that was required.

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 R-9 Review Lesson Examination


Review Lesson, Continued

Item 35 On ________________ the Confederate States Congress passed an “An Act


to Organize the Navy” which summarily created the Confederate States
Marine Corps.

a. November 10, 1860


b. October 16, 1860
c. March 16, 1861
d. November 10, 1861

Item 36 What was the mission of the Marine Battalion during the Battle of First
Manassas?

a. General service troops


b. Ammunition handlers
c. Cannoneers
d. Permanent support for an artillery battery

Item 37 During the second assault at Fort Fisher, unnecessary casualties were the
result of poor____________________ and incorrect organization on the part
of the forces that took part in the amphibious assault.

a. ships supporting fires


b. training, practice,
c. proper landing craft
d. execution, administration and logistics

Item 38 When was the first U.S. Marine Brigade formed?

a. Shortly after 2 April 1865 when all remaining Federal forces were
consolidated near Appomattox Court House.
b. Shortly after 2 April 1885 when all three battalions reached Panama.
c. When all Marine companies were consolidated for deployment to Haiti
on 2 April 1875.
d. When all available Marines were placed together in one unit for the War
with Spain on 2 April 1898.

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 R-10 Review Lesson Examination


Review Lesson, Continued

Item 39 The mission of the Marine Corps Advance Base School is to train Marines in

a. the handling, installation, and use of advance base material: to investigate


what types of guns, gun platforms, mines, torpedo defenses and other
equipment might be best suited for advance base work; and to study such
military and naval subjects as pertained to the selection, occupation,
attack, and defense of advance bases, or expeditionary service in general.
b. the handling, installation, and use of advance base material: to investigate
operations and tactics of enemy landing forces.
c. preparing positions that would be utilized to defend harbors, jetties, and
river crossings; and to study such military and naval subjects as pertained
to the selection, occupation, attack, and defense of advance bases, or
expeditionary service in general.
d. maximizing mobility assets of the landing force; to investigate enemy
defensive positions in an opposed landing operation.

Item 40 The aviation detachment Advance Base Force was commissioned on

a. 18 May 1913.
b. 27 December 1913.
c. 18 May 1926.
d. 27 October 1937.

Item 41 In what year did the first Naval Aviation Pilots graduate from formal pilot
training?

a. 1914
b. 1915
c. 1919
d. 1920

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 R-11 Review Lesson Examination


Review Lesson, Continued

Item 42 Who was the first female Marine to be accepted into the Marine Corps
Reserve in August of 1918?

a. Molly Marine
b. Opha Mae Johnson
c. Clara Barton
d. Clara Johnston

Item 43 In the Spring of 1918, Marine Regiments were initially employed as


individual units alongside of French Regiments.

a. True
b. False

Item 44 What manual was published in July 1935 that stated nature amphibious
doctrine would be practiced throughout World War II?

a. The Marine Corps Manual


b. Amphibious Landing and Fire Support Manual
c. Tentative Landing Operations Manual
d. Gilham’s Amphibious Doctrine Manual

Item 45 What mission did the Landing Vehicle Tracked (LVT) have at Tarawa?

a. The movement of supplies from amphibious shipping to a secure


beachhead.
b. Fire support vehicles for the forward observers and subsequently served
as ambulances for the transportation of the wounded.
c. The LVTs were employed as communication vehicles to assist with
command and control from the front lines.
d. The LVTs mission at Tarawa was to transport the initial assault waves of
troops from ship to shore, and then assume a logistical role.

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 R-12 Review Lesson Examination


Review Lesson, Continued

Item 46 What missions did the helicopter perform in Korea?

a. Command and control capabilities, communication, close air support, and


artillery spotting
b. Command and control capabilities, close air support, evacuation of
wounded, transportation, artillery spotting, and scouting missions
c. Transportation of high ranking officers to critical locations in a timely
manner and on call medevacs
d. Command and control capabilities, communications, evacuation of
wounded, transportation, artillery spotting, and scouting missions

Item 47 Which form of offensive maneuver was used at Inchon with the intent of
forcing the enemy out of his position at Pusan without assaulting him?

a. Frontal attack
b. Flanking attack
c. Envelopment
d. Turning movement.

Item 48 The purpose of Operation Pegasus was to

a. be a massive joint Allied drive in the Khe Sanh Plateau area to give some
much needed relief to the defenders of Khe Sanh.
b. get Marine reinforcements into Khe Sahn as quick as possible.
c. be a massive, all Marine drive into the Khe Sahn Plateau area to give
some much needed relief to the defenders of Khe Sahn.
d. be a massive, joint allied drive in the Saigon area to give some much
needed relief to UN forces fighting in the city.

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 R-13 Review Lesson Examination


Review Lesson, Continued

Item 49 How is the rank insignia worn on the green service coat?

a. With gold on scarlet rank insignia 4 inches below the shoulder seam.
b. With green on scarlet rank insignia 4 inches below the shoulder seam.
c. With green on khaki rank insignia centered below the shoulder seam.
d. With gold on khaki rank insignia centered below the shoulder seam

Item 50 Who is authorized to wear the French cuff khaki shirt and the waist plate with
ornamental stamped design?

a. All NCOs
b. All SNCOs
c. Only male SNCOs
d. Only male NCOs

Item 51 The rank insignia worn on the male evening dress uniform is patterned after
the ________style.

a. 1770s
b. 1780s
c. 1860s
d. 1890s

Item 52 Where is the service/identification badge worn on the female evening dress
uniform?

a. Centered on the left front panel with the bottom of the badge 2 inches
higher than the top button
b. Centered on the left front panel with the bottom of the badge 2 inches
below the bottom edge of the miniature medals
c. Centered on the left front panel with the bottom of the badge 2 inches
higher than the bottom button
d. Centered on the left front panel with the bottom of the badge 2 inches
below the top button

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 R-14 Review Lesson Examination


Review Lesson, Continued

Answers The table below lists the answers to the review lesson examination items. If
you have questions about these items, refer to the reference page of the course
text.

Item Number Answer Reference Page


1 a 1-5
2 a 1-6
3 c 1-15
4 b 1-13
5 b 1-10
6 c 1-16
7 d 1-16
8 c 1-12
9 b 1-28
10 a 1-29
11 a 1-31
12 c 1-38
13 c 1-40
14 b 1-45
15 b 2-6
16 a 2-9
17 b 2-10
18 c 2-14
19 d 2-17
20 b 2-18
21 a 2-18
22 d 2-18
23 b 2-25
24 a 2-26
25 c 3-3
26 a 3-3
27 c 3-5
28 c 3-6
29 c 3-16
30 b 3-19

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102 R-15 Review Lesson Examination


Review Lesson, Continued

Answers
continued

Item Number Answer Reference Page


31 b 3-22
32 a 3-33
33 a 3-34
34 a 3-38
35 c 3-39
36 d 3-40
37 b 3-42
38 b 3-44
39 a 3-54
40 b 3-54
41 d 3-56
42 b 3-57
43 a 3-59
44 c 3-66
45 d 3-73
46 d 3-75
47 d 3-76
48 a 3-80
49 b 4-4
50 c 4-8
51 d 4-13
52 a 4-17

Summary Now that you’ve completed the review lesson examination, it’s time to show
that you have mastered this course by completing the final examination. Take
your final examination booklet and the DP-37 to your training NCO or any
authorized proctor so that you can complete the course.

MCI Course 8102 R-16 Review Lesson Examination