A THEORY OF COMPLEXES ^{*}
It is vain to do with more What can be done with fewer. Entities must not be multiplied Beyond necessity. William of Occam
It is vain to try to do with fewer What requires more. Entities must not be reduced to the point of inadequacy. Karl Menger
ABSTRACT: In ‘A Theory of Complexes’, the simple form of the pure theory of identity found in logic books is subordinated to a complex form of the theory whose background ontology is one of structured individuals, or complexes. In the complex form:
The axioms of the simple form proceed from principles more basic.
The semantic difference between ‘ a = b’ and ‘a = a’ supervenes on features of a and b. ^{1}
Identicals such as nine and the number of planets differ in their modal properties and relations. ^{2}
'A Theory of Complexes' puts into question: the privileging of FOL individuals, the expressive completeness of FOL, and ontologyfree logic.
^{*} Epistemologia 19.1 (1996): 85112 ^{1} See "The Paradox of Identity." Epistemologia 19.2 (1996): 207226. ^{2} “Let X = X But Not Necessarily,” unpublished ms.
1
1.1 Introduction ^{3}
In his review of Errol Harris's An Interpretation of the Logic of Hegel, ^{4} John E. Smith highlights what is mainly at issue between the Hegelian conception of logic and the formalist conception favored by modern empiricism and many forms of analytic philosophy. The Hegelian holds logic to be "internally related at every level to the real content it articulates" (463). In contrast, the formalist pegs logic as neutralboth with respect to "the nature of things" and to "what there is" (ibid.).
How fares the logic of identity in this dispute? Is identity neutral, both to "the nature of things" and to "what there is"? Or is the complexity of this relation a legacy of its terms?
From a formalist standpoint, the identityrelation is indifferent to the nature of its terms: what a particular is (qua value of a variable) has no bearing on its relation to itself. Unrelated to the things it relates, identity thus has its nature imposed from withoutby classical axioms which appear in the guise of empirical observations or arbitrary stipulations, or as the inexpugnable avatars of a SelfCertifying Logical Truth. In contrast, from the (broadly) Hegelian standpoint of 'A Theory of Complexes', the properties of identity have their source in the kind of entity over which individual variables range: a particularthe particularcumcomplexwhich, unlike the denatured simple of Russell, Bergmann, Allaire, et al., ^{5} is ontologically differentiated and logically complex. The intrinsic features of this particular ground a minimal identity relation, ^{6} which ramifies classically and nonclassically. ^{7} These features also ground a difference between formal and material identity which sets 'a = a' and 'a = b' apart in cognitive content. Such properties of identity are thus not external to its terms, as in formalist treat ments. Here they are engendered instead by features of the entity which identity selfrelates.
^{3} I am grateful to Paul Schachter, John Olney, and an anonymous referee for comments on earlier versions of this paperand to the College of Humanities of the University of Puerto Rico at Rio Piedras for reductions in load which helped make completion of this paper possible.
^{4} British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, V. 36, No. 4, Dec. 1985: 459465.
^{5} Such a particular is as portrayed by John Baker, in “Particulars: Bare, Naked, and Nude,” (Nous, V. 1, No. 2, May 1967: 211212):
Particulars are nude in that they have no natures, that is, they are not necessarily connected to any specific property or set of properties. A nude particular has no nature, and is to be distinguished from the naked particular which has no properties. Those who claim that there are bare particulars, Russell, Bergmann,
Allaire, et al., claim that they are nude of natures
(211)
^{6} By a minimal identityrelation I understand one whose propertiessymmetry, transitivity, weak reflexivity, indiscernibility for identicals and identity for selfidenical indiscerniblesare criterial for identity.
^{7} The classical relation being strongly reflexive, indiscernibles are identical. In contrast, in the nonclassical relation identity is partially irreflexive, and so some indiscernibles are not identical.
2
A theory of the particularcumcomplex encapsulates a theory of its constituents: haecceities ^{8} and
individuals. ^{9} To HI,
a theory of haecceities and individuals, I now turn.
1.2.0 The Language of HI
HI is developed within a firstorder, multisorted language L. Among its primitive signs, L counts two predicate constants,
(1.1) "ex" for exemplification
(1.2) "=" for identity
three sorts of variables,
(2.1) variables for individuals: u, v, w, x, y, z, u _{1} , u _{2} ,
,
u _{i} ,
(2.2) variables for haecceities: U, V, W, X, Y, Z, U _{1} , U _{2} ,
(2.3) variables for particulars: u, v, w, x, y, z, u _{1} , u _{2} ,
the usual sentential connectives,
(3.1) ¬,
, &, v,
,u
_{i}
,
,
U
_{i} ,
and the universal and existential quantifiers.
(3.2)
In the metalanguage of L, t _{1} , t _{2} ,
t _{1} , t _{2} ,
,
t _{i} range over individual variables; T _{1} , T _{2} ,
over expressions.
, t _{i} over particular variables; and α, β, γ,
,
T _{i} over haecceity variables;
A formula of L is any expression provided for by the following conditions:
(4.1) t _{i} ex T _{j} , t _{i} = t _{j} and T _{i} = T _{j} are atomic formulas.
(5.1) Every atomic formula is a formula.
(5.2) If α is a formula, ¬α is a formula.
^{8} Pick any particular. Corresponding to your particular is a property that, as established by T46 (see section 1.4.6.1), only your particular has if anything does. This property is a haecceity. My notion of a haecceity and Adams's (1979, 1981) notion of a thisness are compared in note 24.
^{9} A haecceity needs a support, or substratum, if it is to belong to an actual thing. An entity which can be such a support, or substratum, is an individual.
3
(5.3)
If α and β are formulas, (α
(5.4) If β is a formula,
t _{i} β and
1.2.1 Variablebinding in L ^{1}^{1}
β) , (α v β), (α & β)
t _{i} β are formulas. ^{1}^{0}
and (α
β) are formulas.
The logic of L departs from that of conventional, singlesorted, firstorder languages in its definition of variablebinding and formulation of the Quantifier Rules. An occurrence of a variable t _{i} /t _{i} /T _{i} within a formula φ is a bound occurrence of t _{i} /t _{i} /T _{i} in φ if, and only if, it occurs within some part of φ which is a
formula of the form
φ. If a formula
that occurrence of the quantifier
t _{i} β or of the form
t _{i} β. Otherwise, that occurrence is a free occurrence of t _{i} /t _{i} /T _{i} in
t _{i} β occurs within a formula φ (or is the formula φ itself), then the scope in φ of
t _{i} or
t _{i} is the formula
t _{i} β or
t _{i} β itself.
1.2.2 Quantifier Rules in L
The rule of Universal Instantiation sanctions the move from a formula:
(1)
t _{i} Π(
t _{i} /t _{i} /T _{i}
to a formula:
(2) Π(
t _{j} /t _{j} /T _{j}
)
)
12
where (2) results from replacing every occurrence of t _{i} /t _{i} /T _{i} free in:
(3) Π(
t _{i} /t _{i} /T _{i}
)
by occurrences of t _{j} /t _{j} /T _{j} free in (2). UI thus sanctions the move from:
to:
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
v(v ex U
u ex U)
v (v ex U
v(v ex W
v(v ex X
u ex U)
w ex W)
x ex X)
^{1}^{0}
In L, the particular variables u, v, w, x, y, z, u _{1} , u _{2} ,
,
occur only in quantifier expressions, binding
, individual and haecceity variables as indicated in (1.2.1).
^{1}^{1} My treatment of variablebinding in L is an adaptation of the treatment of variablebinding for firstorder predicate logic in Rogers (1971).
^{1}^{2} Π is possibly null.
u
_{i} ,
4
in each of which generically identical, individual and haecceity variables u/U free in,
(8)
v(v ex U
u ex U)
have been replaced by other, or perhaps the same, generically identical, individual and haecceity variables t _{i} /T _{i} free in:
(9)
v(v ex T _{i}
t _{i} ex T _{i} )
UI does not, however, sanction the move from (4) to
(10)
v(v ex W
x ex W),
for (10) results from replacing generically identical, individual and haecceity variables u and U in (5), by the generically distinct x and W in (10).
The rule of Existential Instantiation sanctions the move from a formula:
(11)
t _{i} Π(
to a formula:
t _{i} /t _{i} /T _{i}
(12) Π(
t _{j} /t _{j} /T _{j}
)
)
where (12) results from replacing every occurrence of t _{i} /t _{i} /T _{i} free in:
(13) Π(
t _{i} /t _{i} /T _{i}
)
by occurrences of t _{j} /t _{j} /T _{j} free in (12), which do not occur free in any earlier line of a proof.
1.2.3
The
Postulates of HI
P1P3 describe the relations of haecceities and individuals which determine the properties of identity in the realm of individuals.
P1
wxyz((w ex Y & x ex Y)
(w ex Z
x ex Z))
(If individuals coexemplify any haecceity, they exemplify the same haecceities.)
P2
xy(x = y
z(x ex Z & y ex Z))
(Individuals are identical just in case they coexemplify some haecceity.)
5
P3
xy(x ex Y
y ex Y)
(If x exemplifies Y, y exemplifies Y.)
P4P6 describe relations of individuals and haecceities which determine the properties of identity in the realm of haecceities.
P4 
wxyz((y ex W & y ex X) (z ex W z ex X)) (If haecceities are coexemplified by any individual, they are exemplified by the same individuals.) 

P5 P6 
xy(X = Y z(z ex X & z ex Y)) (Haecceities are identical just in case they are coexemplified by some individual.) xy(x ex Y x ex X) 
(If x exemplifies Y, x exemplifies X.)
1.2.4
Identity
in HI
P1P6 found an identity relation which is weakly reflexive, symmetric, and transitive;
T1* 
x(
y(x = y) (x = x)) ^{1}^{3} (Identity is weakly reflexive.) 

T2* T3* 
xy(x = y y = x) (Identity is symmetric.) xyz((x = y & y = z) x = z) 
(Identity is transitive.)
identicals that are indiscernible; and indiscernibles that are identical if selfidentical.
^{1}^{3} Let α(t _{i} ,T _{j} /T _{i} ,t _{j} ) be the result of replacing t _{i} and T _{j} everywhere in α by T _{i} and t _{j} , and then replacing every resultant occurrence of T _{k} ex t _{l} by t _{l} ex T _{k} . The asterisk ("*") will then be understood to indicate that T1(t _{i} ,T _{j} /T _{i} ,t _{j} ), which makes identity weakly reflexive for haecceities, is also a theorem.
6
T4*
T5*
xyz(x = y
(x ex Z
y ex Z))
(Identicals are indiscernible.)
xy ((x = x & y = y)
z(x ex Z
y ex Z)
x = y))
(Selfidentical indiscernibles are identical.)
P1P6 thus found a minimal identity relation. ^{1}^{4}
From P2 it follows that an individual is selfidentical just in case there is some haecceity it exemplifies; and from P5, that a haecceity is selfidentical just in case there is some individual it is exemplified by.
T6*
x(x = x
y(x ex Y))
Hence, every individual is selfidentical just in case every individual exemplifies; and every haecceity is selfidentical just in case every haecceity is exemplified.
T7*
x(x = x)
y (x ex Y)
From T5*T7*, it also follows, moreover, that indiscernibles are identical just in case every individual exemplifies and every haecceity is exemplified.
T8*
xy(
z(x ex Z
y ex Z)
x = y)
y(x ex Y)
The ontological scaffolding provided by P1P6 thus lends itself to further specification. Is every haecceity exemplified? Does every individual exemplify? In view of T9*, ^{1}^{5} we have here not two ques tions but one.
T9*
x y(y ex X)
y(x ex Y)
(If every haecceity is exemplified, every individual exemplifies.)
1.2.5 Extending HI
1.2.5.1 HI+
A world in which every individual exemplifiesand every haecceity is exemplifiedis described by adding P10 to the postulates of HI, yielding the theory HI+.
P10
x y(y ex X)
^{1}^{4} By a minimal identity relation, I understand an identity relation whose properties are criterial for identity.
^{1}^{5} T9(t _{i} ,T _{j} /T _{i} ,t _{j} ) specifies that every individual exemplifies only if every haecceity is exemplified.
7
(All haecceities are exemplified.)
In HI+, identity is totally reflexive and indiscernibles are identical, and so HI+ is a classical extension of HI.
T10*
x(x = x)
(Identity is totally reflexive.)
T11*
xy (
z(x ex Z
y ex Z)
x = y)
(Indiscernibles are identical.)
1.2.5.2 HI
In contrast, a world in which not every individual exemplifiesand not every haecceity is exemplifiedis described by adding P10' ^{1}^{6} to the postulates of HI.
P10' ¬
x y(y ex X)
(Some haecceity is not exemplified.)
In the resulting theory HI, identity is partially irreflexive and not all indiscernibles are identical. HI is thus a nonclassical extension of HI.
T10'* ¬
x(x = x)
(Identity is partially irreflexive.)
T11'* ¬
xy (
z(x ex Z
y ex Z)
x = y)
(Not all indiscernibles are identical.)
1.2.6 The ontological significance of HI, HI+, and HI
The reciprocal connections of individuals and haecceities in HI scaffold properties of identity which, perhaps because they resist analysis in classical terms, have generally been taken to be selfevidentand ontologyfree. In HI, however, that identity is weakly reflexive, identicals indiscernible, and indiscer nibles identical if selfidentical are propositions which rest upon yet more basic ontological principles. Thus, the notoriously "selfevident" dictum that everything is what it is divulges, upon analysis, ontologi cal conditions whose satisfaction depends not on a logician's fiat but on the way the world is. These
^{1}^{6} α' is the contradictory negation of α.
8
conditions hold in HI+, in which every haecceity is exemplified and every individual exemplifies, so that identity is totally reflexive and indiscernibles are identical. HI posits, in contrast, a world populated by unexemplified haecceities and nonexemplifying individuals, in which identity is not totally reflexive and not all indiscernibles are identical. Which of these worlds is ours? Ask not Logic, for Logic will not decide.
But I promised an account of the properties of the identity relation as this applies to particulars. So far we have seen nought but individuals and haecceities. The road to particulars is from individuals and haecceities by way of complexes. To a theory of complexes I now turn.
9
HI 
HI + 
HI 

Identity is weakly reflexive: T1* 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 

Identity is symmetric: T2* 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 

Identity is transitive: T3* 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 

Identicals are indiscernible: T4* 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 

Indiscernibles are identical if selfidentical: T5* 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 

There are unexemplified haecceities. 
 
No 
Yes 

P10 
P10' 

There are 'bare' individuals. 
 
No 
Yes 

P10 
P10' 

Identity is totally reflexive. 
 
Yes 
No 

T10* 
T10'* 

Indiscernibles are identical. 
 
Yes 
No 

 
T11* 
T11'* 
IMPORTANT THEOREMS
1.3
A
Theory of Complexes
1.3.1 The Language L'
The theory C of complexes is developed within L', a firstorder language which contains L. In addition to the relational constants and variables of L, the symbols of L' include:
(1.3) "emb" for embodiment ^{1}^{7} and "cont" for containment. ^{1}^{8}
(1.4) an operation symbol: .
(2.4) variables for complexes, as specified by the rule: if t _{i} is an individual variable and T _{j} a haecceity variable, t _{i} .T _{j} is a complex variable.
In addition to the atomic formulas of L, L' also includes atomic formulas, as provided for by:
(4.2) t _{i} .T _{j} emb T _{k} , t _{i} .T _{j} cont t _{k} , and t _{i} .T _{j} = t _{k} .T _{l} are atomic formulas.
The definition of variablebinding and formulation of Quantifier Rules in L' is as in L.
1.3.2
The
Theory C
To the postulates of HI, C subjoins P7P9.
P7 
wxyz(w.X = y.Z (w ex X & w ex Z & y ex X)) (w.X and y.Z are identical iff w exemplifies X and Z, and y exemplifies X.) 
P8 P9 
xyz(x.Y emb Z (x ex Y & x ex Z)) (x.Y embodies Z iff x exemplifies Y and Z.) xyz(x.Y cont z (x ex Y & z ex Y)) 
(x.Y contains z iff x and z exemplify Y.)
P7 determines when complexes are identical; P8, when a complex embodies a haecceity; and P9, when a complex contains an individual. In so doing, P7P9 determine, together with P1P6, the properties of identity as this relation applies to complexes.
^{1}^{7} Embodiment relates a particular to an haecceity just in case there is some complex to which the haecceity and constituents of the particular belong (see T48, section 1.4.6.2).
^{1}^{8} Containment relates a particular and an individual just in case there is some complex to which the individual and constituents of the particular belong (see T49, section 1.4.6.2).
10
1.3.3
Identity in C
Identity in C is weakly reflexive, symmetric, and transitive for individuals and haecceities (T1*T3*) and complexes (T12T14); identicals are indiscernible (T4*, T15#); and indiscernibles are identical if self identical (T5*, T16#). C thus grounds a minimal identity relation.
T12 
wx( yz(w.X = y.Z) w.X = w.X) (Identity is weakly reflexive for complexes.) 

T13 T14 
wxyz(w.X = y.Z y.Z = w.X) (Identity is symmetric for complexes.) uvwxyz((u.V = w.X & w.X = y.Z) u.V = y.Z) 
(Identity is transitive for complexes.)
T15#
uvwxy (u.V = w.X
(u.V emb Y
w.X emb Y)) ^{1}^{9}
(Identical complexes are indiscernible.)
T16#
uvwx ((u.V = u.V & w.X = w.X)
y (u.V emb Y
w.X emb Y)
u.V = w.X))
(Selfidentical complexes are identical if indiscernible.) ^{2}^{0}
1.3.4 Reflexivity and Complexes
In HI+, obtained by subjoining P10 to the postulates of HI, identity was totally reflexive for individuals and haecceities. However, subjoining P10 to the postulates of C does not suffice to make identity totally reflexive for complexes. Thus, from P7 it follows that any complex is selfidentical just in case the individual and haecceity which constitute it are such that the individual exemplifies the haecceity:
T18
xy(x.Y = x.Y
x ex Y)
^{1}^{9} Let α(t _{i} ,T _{j} //T _{i}_{,} t _{j} ) be obtained from α by simultaneously replacing t _{i} and T _{j} everywhere in α by T _{i} and t _{j} , "cont" and "emb" by "emb" and "cont", and then T _{k} .t _{l} by t _{l} .T _{k} . The symbol "#" will then be understood to indicate that T15(t _{i} ,T _{j} //T _{i} ,t _{j} ), which makes complexes indiscernible in respect of the individuals they contain, is also a theorem.
^{2}^{0} From T16# it follows that every pair of indiscernible complexes is identical just in case every complex is self identical,
T17#
uvwx(
y (u.V emb Y
w.X emb Y)
u.V = w.X)
uv(u.V = u.V)
a principle which, in view of T5*, holds as well for individuals and haecceities.
11
Hence every complex is selfidentical just in case every individual exemplifies every haecceity:
T19
xy(x.Y = x.Y)
xy (x ex Y)
Moreover, it followsfrom P2, P6 and T4*that every individual exemplifies every haecceity just in case some haecceity is such that every individual exemplifies it:
T20
xy (x ex Y)
y(y ex X)
Therefore, for identity to be totally reflexive for complexes, not only must every haecceity be exem plified, but some haecceity must be universally exemplified:
T21
xy(x.Y = x.Y)
y (y ex X)
Identity in C is thus not totally reflexive for complexes unless no two complexes are distinct.
T22
wx(w.X = w.X)
wxyz(w.X = y.Z)
P10 thus fails to make identity totally reflexive for complexes generally (although it does make identity totally reflexive for individuals and haecceities). But P10 does make identity totally reflexive for
complexes w.W, x.X, y.Y, z.Z,
,
whose constituents correspond.
T23
x( y(y ex X)
x.X = x.X)
T24
x y(y ex X)
x(x.X = x.X)
I will refer to these as Ccomplexes.
1.3.5 Extending C
1.3.5.1 C+
The theory C+ is obtained by subjoining P10 to the deductive apparatus of C. In C+, identity is partially reflexive for complexes,
T25
xy(x.Y = x.Y)
but totally reflexive for individuals and haecceities (T10*), and for Ccomplexes:
T26
x(x.X = x.X)
Therefore, in C+ individuals and haecceities (T11*) and Ccomplexes are identical if indiscernible:
T27#
xy(
z(x.X emb Z
y.Y emb Z)
x.X = y.Y)
12
1.3.5.2 C
In C, obtained by subjoining P10' to the deductive apparatus of C, identity is partially irreflexive for individuals and haecceities (T10'*), and for Ccomplexes and complexes.
T26' ¬
T28' ¬
x(x.X = x.X)
xy(x.Y = x.Y) ^{2}^{1}
Consequently, in C not all individuals and haecceities (T11'*), or Ccomplexes and complexes, are identical if indiscernible.
T27'# ¬
T29'# ¬
xy (
z(x.X emb Z
y.Y emb Z)
x.X = y.Y)
wxyz (
v(w.X emb V
y.Z emb V)
w.X = y.Z)
^{2}^{1} The following is also a theorem of C:
xy(¬(x.Y = x.Y)
wz¬(x.Y = w.Z))
A complex which is not selfidentical is thus diverse from every complex.
13
C 
C+ 
C 

Identity is weakly reflexive: T1*/T12 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 

Identity is symmetric: T2*/T13 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 

Identity is transitive: T3*/T14 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 

Identicals are indiscernible: T4*/T15# 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 

Selfidentical indiscernibles are identi cal: T5*/T16# 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 

Individuals 
 
Yes 
No 

T10* 
T10'* 

Identity is totally reflexive. 
Haecceities 
 
Yes 
No 
T10* 
T10'* 

Ccomplexes 
 
Yes 
^{N}^{o} T26' 

T26 

Complexes 
 
 
^{N}^{o} T28' 

Individuals 
 
Yes 
No 

T11* 
T11'* 

Indiscernibles are identical. 
Haecceities 
 
Yes 
No 
T11* 
T11'* 

Ccomplexes 
 
Yes 
No 

T27# 
T27'# 

Complexes 
 
 
No 

T29'# 
IMPORTANT THEOREMS
1.4
Ccomplexes and Particulars
In classical identity theory, identity is totally reflexive, symmetric and transitive, identicals are indiscernible, and indiscernibles identical. Two other theories suggest themselves here, a restriction of the classical theory, minimal identity theory, in which it cannot be established that identity is totally reflexive or that indiscernibles are identical; and a deviation of the classical theory, which I shall refer to as nonclassical identity theory, in which identity is partially irreflexive and not all indiscernibles are identical.
Classical and nonclassical identity theory both include and extend the minimal theory. They include it because every thesis of the minimal theory is also a thesis of the classical and nonclassical theories: in the minimal, classical and nonclassical theories, identity is symmetric, transitive, and weakly reflexive; identicals are indiscernible, and selfidentical indiscernibles are identical. They extend it because the classical and nonclassical theories each have theses that are not theses of the minimal theory. In the classical but not the minimal theory, identity is totally reflexive and indiscernibles are identical; in the nonclassical but not the minimal theory, identity is partially irreflexive and not all indiscernibles are identical. ^{2}^{2}
Ccomplexes in C provide a model for minimal identity theory: a domain in which identity is symmetric (T13), transitive (T14), and weakly reflexive (T12), identicals are indiscernible (T15#), and selfidentical indiscernibles are identical (T16#).
Ccomplexes in C+ provide a model for classical identity theory: a domain in which identity is symmetric, transitive, and totally reflexive (T26), identicals are indiscernible, and indiscernibles are identical (T27#). Finally, Ccomplexes in C provide a model for nonclassical identity theory: a domain in which identity is symmetric, transitive, and partially irreflexive (T26'), identicals are indiscernible, but not all indiscernibles are identical (T27'#). Ccomplexes may thus be taken as the values of particular variables in each of the aforementioned theories, ^{2}^{3} and C, C+ and C may be enriched, as in the theory P and its extensions, by treating Ccomplexes as particulars. ^{2}^{4}
^{2}^{2} The class of wffs of the classical theory and the nonclassical theory coincide. However, the theorems of these theories differ, the Reflexive Law of Equality and logically equivalent principle of the Identity of Indiscernibles being provable in the former, while their contradictory negations are provable in the latter. Nonclassical identity theory is thus a deviation, as Susan Haack defines "deviation" in her (1974), of classical identity theory.
^{2}^{3} The individual variables of classical identity theory I refer to as particular variables, a particular being construed here as an entity whose constituents are individuals and haecceities.
^{2}^{4} Ccomplexes in C, C+ and C are intended both as realizations of minimal, classical and nonclassical identity theory, and as schematizations of contrasting systems of real relations of particulars and their constituents. C complexes thus constitute a model in both senses Jean Ladrière distinguishes for this term in his (1979). For Ladrière, a model is:
construction idéale, intermédiaire entre une théorie au sens strict (considerée comme ensemble de
une
14
1.4.1
The Language of P
P is developed within L*, a firstorder language obtained by adding to the formation rules of L' the clause
(4.3).
(4.3) t _{i} emb T _{j} , t _{i} cont t _{j} , t _{i} = t _{j} , t _{i} = t _{j} .T _{k} and t _{j} .T _{k} = t _{i} are atomic formulas.
The definition of variablebinding and formulation of the Quantifier Rules in L* is as in L' and L.
1.4.2 The Deductive Apparatus of P
P augments the deductive apparatus of C by the inference rules I1 and I2.
I1: From φ to infer ψ, where ψ results from φ by substituting t for t.T at one or more places of its occurrence.
I2: From φ to infer ψ, where ψ results from φ by substituting t.T for t at one or more places of its occurrence.
I1 and I2 license the translation of an assertion about t.T/t into one about t/t.T. The warrant for I1 and I2 is that the Ccomplex t.T and particular t are one and the same entity.
In HI, the properties of identity are determined by the reciprocal relations of individuals and haecceities. In C, the properties of identity are determined by the reciprocal relations of individuals, haecceities and complexes. In P, particulars are Ccomplexes, and so the properties of identity (as this applies to particu lars) are determined by the reciprocal relations of individuals, haecceities, and Ccomplexes.
1.4.3
Identity
in P
For particulars in P, as for individuals and haecceities in HI and complexes in C, identity is weakly reflexive (T30), symmetric (T31) and transitive (T32); identicals are indiscernible (T33#); and selfidenti cal indiscernibles identical (T34#).
T30
T31
T32
y(x = y)
x = x)
xy (x = y
y = x)
xyz((x = y & y = z)
x = z)
propositions munie d'une structure déductive) et un domaine concret dont il s'agit d'analyser le fonction
nement
(p. 183)
15
T33#
T34#
xyz (x = y
(x emb Z
y emb Z))
xy ((x = x & y = y)
z(x emb Z
y emb Z)
x = y))
As in HI and C, moreover, in P it cannot be established whether identity is reflexive or indiscernibles are identical. For the selfidentity of a particular is bound up in P with the unity of the individual and haecceity which constitute it.
T35
x(x = x
x ex X)
This unity depends in turn upon a haecceity's being exemplified,
T36
x(x ex X
y(y ex X))
so that every particular is selfidentical, and identity totally reflexive if, and only if, every haecceity is exemplified.
T37
x(x = x)
x y (y ex X)
However, whether every, or any, haecceity is exemplified is not specified in P, for P specifies just those relations of individuals and haecceities which ground properties that are criterial for identity. Consequently, whether identity is totally or partially reflexiveor indiscernibles are identicalcannot be established in P. For these properties differentiate species within a genus without being relevant to the genus itself.
1.4.4 Extending P
In discussing the different species of identity, it will be useful to distinguish classical particu lars/individuals/haec ceities/complexes from nonclassical ones.
Definition 1: t _{i} /t _{i} /T _{i} is classical iff
t _{j} (t _{i} /t _{i} /T _{i} = t _{j} /t _{j} /T _{j} )
Definition 2: t _{i} .T _{j} is classical iff
t _{k} t _{i} (t _{i} .T _{j} = t _{k} .T _{i} )
Definition 3: t _{i} /t _{i} /T _{i} is nonclassical iff ¬ t _{j} (t _{i} /t _{i} /T _{i} = t _{j} /t _{j} /T _{j} )
Definition 4: t _{i} .T _{j} is nonclassical iff ¬ t _{k} t _{i} (t _{i} .T _{j} = t _{k} .T _{i} )
From the foregoing it follows that every particular/individual/haecceity/complex is either classical or non classical, and that none is both.
1.4.4.1 P+
P+ is obtained by subjoining P10 to the postulates of P.
16
P10
x y(y ex X)
(Every haecceity is exemplified.)
Theorems of P+ include:
T38
x(x = x)
(Identity is totally reflexive for particulars.)
T39#
xy(
z(x emb Z
y emb Z)
x = y)
(Indiscernible particulars are identical.)
T40 
x

y(x = y) 
(Every particular is classical.) 

T41 
xywz(x.Y = w.Z) 
(Some complex is classical.) ^{2}^{5}
^{2}^{5} A comparison of P and P+ may here be of interest. In P, no haecceity is exemplified (see P10'*). As a result, there are no classical individuals or haecceities. Therefore, in view of P7 there are no selfidentical complexesand hence, because identity is weakly reflexiveno classical complexes. Moreover, every complex in P is non classical for the same reason: its constituents are nonclassical. However, this is not the case in P+, where a complex can be nonclassical for either of two reasons. A complex is nonclassical, by P7, if oneor bothof its constituents are nonclassical. Nonclassical constituents are thus sufficient to make a complex nonclassical. But nonclassical constituents are not a necessary feature of a nonclassical complex.
Consider the particulars Saul Kripke and the author of Waverley. The constituents of Saul Kripke include an individual, saul kripke, and a haecceity, SAUL KRIPKE; and the constituents of the author of Waverley include the author of waverley and THE AUTHOR OF WAVERLEY. Now saul kripke exemplifies SAUL KRIPKE, and the author of waverley exemplifies THE AUTHOR OF WAVERLEY. Therefore, saul kripke and SAUL KRIPKE, and the author of waverley and THE AUTHOR OF WAVERLEY are classical. However, saul kripke does not exemplify THE AUTHOR OF WAVERLEY, for saul kripke and THE AUTHOR OF WAVERLEY are not one in substance. Therefore, although saul kripke and THE AUTHOR OF WAVERLEY are classicalthat is, exist; the complex saul kripke.THE AUTHOR OF WAVERLEY is nonclassicalthat is, does not exist. Although nonclassical constituents are sufficient to make a complex nonclassical, they are thus not necessary.
17
1.4.4.2
P
P is obtained by subjoining P10' to the postulates of P.
P10' ¬
x y(y ex X)
(Not every haecceity is exemplified.)
Theorems of P include:
T38' ¬
x(x = x)
(Identity is partially irreflexive for particulars.)
T39'# ¬
xy(
z (x emb Z
y emb Z)
x = y)
(Not all indiscernible particulars are identical.)
T40' 
¬ 
x
y(x = y) 
(Some particular is nonclassical.) 

T42' 
¬ 
xy wz(x.Y = w.Z) 
(Some complex is nonclassical.)
1.4.5 Extending P+ and P
1.4.5.1 P++
P++ is obtained by subjoining P10* to the postulates of P.
P10*
y(y ex X)
(Some haecceity is such that every individual exemplifies it.)
Theorems of P++ include:
T28
xy(x.Y = x.Y)
(Identity is totally reflexive for complexes.)
T29#
wxyz(
v (w.X emb V
y.Z emb V)
w.X = y.Z)
(Indiscernible complexes are identical.)
18
T42
xy wz(x.Y = w.Z)
(Every complex is classical.)
1.4.5.2 P
P is obtained by subjoining P10'* to the postulates of P.
P10'*
x¬ y(y ex X)
(No haecceity is exemplified.)
Theorems of P include:
T43' ¬
x(x = x)
(Identity is totally irreflexive for particulars.)
T25' ¬ xy(x.Y = x.Y)
(Identity is totally irreflexive for complexes.)
T44' ¬
xy(x = y)
(There are no classical particulars.)
T41' ¬ xywz(x.Y = w.Z)
(There are no classical complexes.)
1.4.5.3 P+
P+ is obtained by subjoining P10'*' to the postulates of P.
P10'*' ¬
x¬ y(y ex X)
(Some haecceity is exemplified.)
Theorems of P+ include:
T43
x(x = x)
(Identity is partially reflexive for particulars.)
19
T25
xy(x.Y = x.Y)
(Identity is partially reflexive for complexes.)
T44
xy(x = y)
(Some particular is classical.)
T41
xywz(x.Y = w.Z)
(Some complex is classical.)
1.4.5.4 P+
P+ is obtained by subjoining P10*' to the postulates of P+.
P10*' ¬ x
y(y ex X)
(No haecceity is exemplified by every individual.)
Theorems of P+ include:
T28'
¬
xy(x.Y = x.Y)
(Identity is partially irreflexive for complexes.)
T29'# ¬
wxyz(
v(w.X emb V
y.Z emb V)
w.X = y.Z)
(Not all indiscernible complexes are identical.)
T42' ¬
xy wz(x.Y = w.Z)
(Some complex is nonclassical.)
1.4.6 The
Primitive Notions and Relations of P
1.4.6.1 Haecceities
and Individuals
P1P9 specify conditions that every individual, haecceity and complex must satisfy. These conditions make haecceities identity properties, ^{2}^{6} for from P1P9 it follows that embodying Y is necessary and
^{2}^{6} Between my haecceity and Robert Adams's (1979, 1981) thisness there are two key differences. First, a thisness depends for its features upon Adams's conception of what a thisness is. In contrast, every feature of a haecceity including its being an identity propertyis engendered by the mutual relations of complexes and their constituents.
20
sufficient for identitywithy:
T46
xy(x emb Y
x = y)
Just as it follows from P1P9 that embodying Y is necessary and sufficient for identity withy, it also follows that containing y is necessary and sufficient for identitywithy:
T47
xy(x cont y
x = y)
Haecceities and individuals, and embodiment and containment, are thus dual with respect to T46 and T47.
1.4.6.2 Embodiment and Containment
A particular embodies a haecceity just in case there is some complex to which the haecceity and constituents of the particular belong:
T48
xy(x emb Y
wz (w.Z emb X & w.Z cont x & w.Z emb Y))
Likewise, a particular contains an individual just in case there is some complex to which the individual and constituents of the particular belong.
T49
xy(x cont y
wz (w.Z emb X & w.Z cont x & w.Z cont y))
1.5 Concluding Remarks
The theory of the particularcumcomplex puts in question: (a) ontologyfree thematizations of the identity relation, (b) the Reflexive Law of Equality (hereafter RLE), ^{2}^{7} and (c) settheoretic monist restrictions on the interpretation of the individual variables of classical identity theory.
(a) The truths of classical identity theory are here engendered by an entity which appropriates for logic the essence of the particularity of particular things. Every particular thing is both a that and a
While the features of a thisness are thus the artefacts of arbitrary legislative postulation, the features of a haecceity are conferred upon it by the role it plays in the system of complexes.
Second, Adams makes it clear that a thisness is not "a special sort of metaphysical component of [a particular]":
I am not proposing to revive this aspect of [Scotus'] conception of a haecceity, because I am not committed to regarding properties as components of [particulars]. (1979: 7) But a haecceity retains this feature of its Scotian progenitor, for any haecceity and individual constitute a complex the existence of which, but not whose being, depends upon the individual and haecceity being one in substance:
T45
xy( wz(x.Y = w.Z)
x ex Y)
^{2}^{7} And therewith, the logically equivalent principle of the Identity of Indiscernibles.
21
what, an existence and a content. And every particular thing manifests both the individual and the universal. So every particular thing suggests the particularcumcomplex as a(n) (onto)logically proper simulacrum for its particularity. But the unity and interconnection of the logically pertinent elements of every particular's particularity, as embodied in the mutual relations of a particularcum complex, are irretrievably lost to ontologyfree thematizations of the identity relation. For the point of departure for such thematizations is the supposition that the nature of a particular is not to have a nature. ^{2}^{8}
(b) From individuals and haecceities one can construct
(i) a classical particularcumcomplex, which demonstrably satisfies the usual axioms of classical identity theory, including RLE;
and,
x (x = x)
(ii) a nonclassical particularcumcomplex, which demonstrably satisfies the other classical axioms, ^{2}^{9} together with a weak reflexivity principle,
y(x = y)
(x = x))
and the contradictory negation of RLE:
¬
x(x = x)
But the validity of RLE depends on its applicability to classical and nonclassical objects. So RLE is not valid.
REMARK. For
come out true under every interpretation. ^{3}^{0} Consequently,
bAwhere b is an individual variable of classical quantification theory
(1) "
x(x = x)" is valid iff "x = x" is valid.
to be valid, A must
For A to be satisfiable, A must come out true under at least one interpretation. Consequently,
^{2}^{8} The conception of a natured particular clashes with a fundamental trait, according to André Lichnerowicz (1972), of contemporary mathematical thought: "l'absence de toute métaphysique de l'identité et de la chose en soi" (p. 1502). A kindred antimetaphysical strain in neopositivist philosophy of logic has perhaps been responsible for the reluctance of linguisticallyoriented analytical philosophers to posit a logical nature for particulars, these tending to be regarded, as Manuel Sacristán points out (1984), as "individuos puntuales sin intrincación ontológica" (p. 249).
^{2}^{9} Except for the strongly classical principle of the Identity of Indiscernibles, to which RLE is logically equivalent.
^{3}^{0} This and the ensuing remarks are based on section 48.0 of Gerald Massey's (1970).
22
(2) "x = x" is valid iff "¬(x = x)" is not satisfiable.
Therefore,
(3) "
x(x = x) " is valid iff "¬(x = x)" is not satisfiable.
But A is satisfiable iff for some domain D, A is satisfiable in D. Moreover, for any
satisfiable in D iff there is a true interpretation of A wherein D is the Universe of Discourse. Consequently,
domain D, A is
(4) "
Universe of Discourse.
x(x = x) " is valid iff for no domain D is there a true interpretation of "¬(x = x)" wherein D is the
But the entities which realize P constitute just such a domain; and with respect to this domainon classical
assumptions, the "empty" domainthere is a true interpretation
classical predicate logic with identity goes by the board, for the contradictory negation of the Reflexive Law of
Equality is satisfiable by means of a construction from individuals and haecceities, of whose mathematical existence there can be little doubt. ^{3}^{1}
of "¬(x = x)". So the vaunted 'soundness' of
(c) Settheoretic restrictions on the interpretation of particular variables exclude objects which do not satisfy RLE, among them nonclassical particulars and other such complexes. But these objects are consistently thinkable. Moreover, they play, as I will show in sequels to this paper, ^{3}^{2} an indispens able role in the unification of identity theory. Complexes thus challenge settheoretic restrictions on the interpretation of particular variables which have held logical semantics in thrall for half a hundred years. ^{3}^{3}
^{3}^{1} The mathematical existence of such entities I take to turn upon the following stipulations of Hilbert (as stated by O. Becker (1927) and cited by Fernando Gil (1971)):
Déf. 1: on appelle mathématiquement existants les objectités dont on fait le thème ("Thema") d'une théorie mathématique et qui peuvent fonctionner sans contradiction dans cette théorie. Déf. 2: on appelle mathématiquement existants les objets qu'avec des moyens déterminés avec précision peuvent être construits à partir de points de départ fondés.
^{3}^{2} The particularcumcomplex will there be shown to make sense of contingent identity and modal discernibility, and provide an ontological foundation for existence and nonexistence as modes of being of particulars.
^{3}^{3} The only argument of which I am aware for these restrictions is Georg Kreisel's argument in his (1969, 1971) that "true in all models" and "true in all settheoretic models" are extensionally equivalent. But Kreisel's argument rests on the "intuitive validity" of the axioms of predicate logic with identity; and as I suggest here, RLE is not valid. For Tory restatements of Kreisel's argument, see John Etchemendy (1990: 144 f) and Daniel Quesada (1985: 154 f). For a contrasting view, see 'The Paradox of Identity,' Appendix One (forthcoming, this journal).
23
P+ 
P++ 
P+  
P 
 
P 
 
P 
+ 

Identity is 
Particulars 
Yes 
(Yes) 
(Yes) 
No 
(No) 
(No) 

totally re 
T38 
T38' 

flexive. 

Complexes 
 
Yes 
No 
No 
(No) 
(No) 

T28 
T28' 
T28' 

Identity is 
Particulars 
Yes 
(Yes) 
(Yes) 
 
No 
Yes 

partially 
T38 
T43' 
T43 

reflexive. 

Complexes 
Yes 
(Yes) 
(Yes) 
 
No 
Yes 

T25 
T25' 
T25 

Identity is partially irreflexive. 
Particulars 
No 
(No) 
(No) 
Yes 
(Yes) 
(Yes) 

T38 
T38' 

Complexes 
 
No 
Yes 
Yes 
(Yes) 
(Yes) 

T28 
T28' 
T28' 

Identity is 
Particulars 
No 
(No) 
(No) 
 
Yes 
No 

totally ir 
T38 
T43' 
T43 

reflexive. 

Complexes 
No 
(No) 
(No) 
 
Yes 
No 

T25 
T25' 
T25 

Indiscern 
Particulars 
Yes 
(Yes) 
(Yes) 
No 
(No) 
(No) 

ible 
T39# 
T39'# 

are 

identical. 

Complexes 
 
Yes 
No 
No 
(No) 
(No) 

T29# 
T29'# 
T29'# 

Every 
Particular 
Yes 
(Yes) 
(Yes) 
No 
(No) 
(No) 

is classi 
T40 
T40' 

cal. 

Complex 
 
Yes 
No 
No 
(No) 
(No) 

T42 
T42' 
T42' 

Every 
Particular 
No 
(No) 
(No) 
 
Yes 
No 

is non 
T40 
T44' 
T44 

classical. 

Complex 
No 
(No) 
(No) 
 
Yes 
No 

T41 
T41' 
T41 
IMPORTANT THEOREMS
BE GLAD IT'S NOT DEVIANT
Mephisto. Thomas.
Thomas. Yes?
Mephisto. Bet you a quarter meaning is reference.
Thomas. Meaning is not reference. If it were, the cognitive value of 'a = a' would become essentially that of 'a =b', provided 'a = b' were true. What sets (true) 'a = b' and 'a = a' apart is not the reference of 'a' and 'b'that is the samebut their sense. Extends hand. Gimme the quarter.
Mephisto, puzzled. What is sense?
Thomas.
content.
Sense
sense
is
whatever
Mephisto. And what's that?
Thomas, truculent. It's
it's sense!
it is about 'a' and 'b'
that sets 'a = b' and 'a = a' apart in cognitive
Mephisto, agitated. I know, I know, I know! I know what sense is! I know what sets true 'a = b' and 'a = a' apart! Thomas rolls eyes.
Mephisto. I do, I do, I do! What sets them apart is they assert different things!
Thomas, incredulous. Assert different things? Sacré Leibniz! How can they?
Mephisto. If they do, they can. Right?
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