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The evaluation of impedance functions in the analysis of foundations vibrations using boundary element method

E. C elebi

a

a,*

_ C , S. Frat b, I. ankaya

Faculty of Engineering, Department of Civil Engineering, Sakarya University, 54187 Esentepe-Sakarya, Turkey b Faculty of Technical Education, Department of Construction, Sakarya University, 54187 Esentepe-Sakarya, Turkey Faculty of Technical Education, Department of Electronics and Computer, Sakarya University 54187, Esentepe-Sakarya, Turkey

Abstract The basic step in the substructure approach based on discretization of the soil medium for the soilstructure interaction problems is to determine the impedance functions which are dened as the complex dynamic-stiness coecients of the soil-footing system are used in the analysis of foundations vibrations. In this study, the discrete values of impedance functions over wide ranges of frequency-factors are presented for both surface-supported and embedded foundations. The numerical results are obtained by using the substructure approach in the frequency domain which is formulated on basis of the Boundary Element Method derived from the fundamental solution for a homogeneous, isotropic and linear-elastic continuum. To further demonstrate in practical applications and to show the solutions of this type of problems to civil engineers, a comprehensive parametric analysis and systematic calculations are performed with various controlling parameters to evaluate the dynamic response of the vibrating soilfoundation system. In

0096-3003/$ - see front matter 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.amc.2005.04.006

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addition, the solutions for normalized stiness and damping coecients of foundations in almost all cases of vibration modes are in very good agreement with the published results based on the analytical methods. The obtained numerical results should enable practicing engineers to take into account the linear soilstructure interaction problems over wide ranges of frequency factors. 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Soilstructure interaction; Boundary element method; Three-dimensional frequency domain analysis; Substructuring approach; Embedded foundations; Dynamic excitations

1. Introduction The propagation of the waves through the soil medium generated by earthquake ground motion or human made vibrations such as machine foundations, trac loads or construction blasting may produce excessive ground vibrations which have recently received special attention in the world wide scope, because people are more aware of their life quality, comfort and safety. The increasing both passenger transport and running speed, and the weight of the wave source, such as high speed trains with heavy-axle double-deck wagons, heavyloaded freight tracs or giant lorries would likely produce reasonably strong ground and structural vibrations. The elastic response of engineering constructions under dynamic loads as earthdams or nuclear power installations which present a risk for population and environment is inuenced by deformability of the foundation medium, especially in case of very soft ground conditions. Therefore the xed base structures assumption represents a large approximation to the real conditions. It is widely recognized that the dynamic response of a structure supported on soft soil may be dierent from the response of similarly excited, identical supported on rm ground. The eects of soilfoundation interaction on the dynamic response of building systems have been main theme of numerous investigations and recognized as an important task in the dynamic analysis in recent years. Interest in this subject originates from the eld of structural and geotechnical engineering in association to design of the engineering structures. During the last decade, with development by the appearance of high performance computers, various proposed approaches with dierent accuracy which have to be classied as either numerical methods, analytical methods or (semi-) empirical methods and their coupling procedures for modeling of unbounded media have been carried out to investigate the dynamic response of vibrating foundations founded on deformable soil region. Wolf [1] proposed recently a new extensively detailed approach by using a cone model to develop formulations of impedance functions of massless rigid foundations.

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Nomenclature dimensionless circular frequency half-width in the y-direction (rectangular foundation) shear wave velocity dilatational wave velocity dimensionless damping coecient corresponding to the vibration mode a D embedment depth of foundation e E complex Youngs modulus FN discrete Fourier Transform f dynamic compliance matrix fi body force components dened per unit volume G shear modulus of soil K complex frequency-dependent dynamic stiness matrix K s1j static stiness for the half-space for the vibration mode a Ka impedance function for the vibration mode a ka dimensionless spring coecient corresponding to the vibration mode a L half-length in the x-direction (rectangular foundation) a = x, y, z translational vibration mode in the x-, y-, z-directions a = mx, my, mz rotational vibration mode about x-, y-, z-axis P vector of interaction forces at basement nodes r radius of foundation uox, uoy, uoz displacement components in the directions of x, y and z u displacement vector of the geometric center of the base of the footing a index of mode b damping ratio ui components of constant interpolation function dij Kronecker delta q mass density m Poissons ratio of soil medium ekk kinematical compatibility l, k Lame constants x circular frequency of excitation rij component of stress tensor X elastic domain cox, coy, coz rotations about the x-, y- and z axes ~ f complex force amplitudes k ~ t matrix of complex frequency dependent tractions a0 B cs cp ca

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~ ti x; x frequency dependent traction boundary conditions ~ tik x; n; x full-space fundamental solutions for the traction components ~ u matrix of complex frequency dependent displacements ~ complex displacement amplitudes uk ~ ui x; x frequency dependent displacement boundary conditions ~ u ik x; n; x full-space fundamental solutions for displacement components C1, C2 boundaries of elastic domain

Numerical models using the nite and boundary element method (BEM) are under development for the analysis of wave propagation problems in solids with emphasis on dynamic soilstructure interaction (SSI) due to dynamic excitations [24]. However, the relatively complicated formulation and intensive computation to obtain the exact solution for this problem restrict its common application to traditional engineering practice up to now. BEM in elastodynamics is appropriate and eective numerical tool to study such interaction eects. In this approach the energy radiation condition towards innity is correctly taken into account by the integral equations and the space discretization is reduced to only the boundary of the adjacent medias. The most important contributions were published by Dominguez and Roesset [5] based on the frequency domain BEM to compute the impedance functions for surface supported rectangular foundations. Also, Veletsos and Wei [6] and Luco and Westman [7] solved exactly the mixed boundary value problem of a rigid disk resting on elastic half-space for vertical, sliding, rocking and torsional harmonic motions. Apsel and Luco [8] obtained dynamic Greens functions for a layered half-space. Gazetas and Tassouslas [9,10] investigated the dynamic response of arbitrarily shaped rigid foundations embedded in a uniform half-space for low frequency ranges. Integral solution techniques assuming welded contact condition for circular foundations embedded in an incompressible soil have also been presented by Apsel and Luco [8] and Mita and Luco [11]. Most of numerical results for surface and embedded rigid basemat published to date are presented for low to moderate frequencies (0 6 ao 6 4) and are restricted for certain values of Poissons ratio (0.25 6 m 6 0.45) and for certain types of foundation geometry due to the cost of computation, practical assumptions and limitations of rigorous analysis techniques. By using special fundamental solutions for m = 0.5, Bu [12], Bu and Lin [13] proposed rigorous boundary element solutions for impedance functions of square foundations (2-D model) embedded in a perfectly incompressible half-space at high frequency ranges. They described new theoretical methods of calculation and improved available numerical procedures. In the most of

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these contributions the authors illustrated their methods with the help of one example and/or compared with results previously published references. At this point, numerical results or empirical relations, which are derived from the systematic parametric calculations, indicate decreasing tendency. Consequently, the engineer has only the results for few cases in order to assess dynamic SSI for practical purposes. In this study, the numerical results are obtained by using the substructure approach in the frequency domain which is formulated on basis of the BEM based on the fundamental solution for a homogeneous, isotropic, linear-elastic continuum. To further demonstrate in practical applications and to show the solutions of this type of problems to civil engineers, a comprehensive parametric analysis and systematic calculations are performed with various controlling parameters to evaluate the dynamic response of the vibrating soilfoundation system.

2. General denition of the impedance functions for rigid foundations The properties of the dynamic reciprocal-interaction between foundation of superstructure and the supporting soil can be investigated using either a steadystate analysis in the frequency domain or a direct time domain substructure approach. In the frequency domain analysis research concern is focused mainly on the revelation of soil impedances and the interpretation of the frequencydependent nature of SSI problems. The evaluation of the impedance-compliance functions which are dened as the complex dynamic stiness-exibility coecients at the interface points of the soilfoundation system plays a significant role in the analysis of SSI problems. By using the substructure method the system has been divided into two substructures. The governing equations, describing the dynamic response of the nite superstructure or its foundation and the unbounded soil, can be analyzed independently with respect to the degree of freedom at the common interface nodes. By supplying equilibrium and compatibility conditions at all interaction points the complete structure is reassembled and a solution for the whole system can be realized. The eect of the unbounded soil on the behavior of the structure is represented by a boundary condition joined at those degrees of freedom associated with the nodes at the interface between the two substructures. In the present paper this boundary condition is of the form of a displacementforce relationship computed by using fundamental solution for a homogeneous half-space. The substructure technique allows a coupling of the basemat of superstructure and the underlying soil at the common interaction nodes. The impedance matrix of the soil is dened by the dynamic stiness matrix of nodes on the interface between foundation and soil. As shown in Fig. 1, the rectangular foundation (of dimension 2B along the x direction) is assumed to be a massless

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rigid block of negligible thickness partially embedded on the soil under harmonic excitation represented by a homogeneous elastic half-space. The soil properties can be dened by the mass density, q, Poissons ratio, m, and the shear modulus of elasticity, G. Due to deformability of foundation medium, the motion of the foundation basement may be described by the six displacement degrees of freedom, namely, two horizontal translations (uox, uoy) and vertical translation (uoz) of the footing, two rocking rotations (cox, coy) and the torsional rotation (coz) of the footing with respect to the center of the lower soilstructure interface at point (O). In this representation, the equivalent springs account for the exibility of the soil, whereas the equivalent dashpots account for the eect of energy dissipation by radiation due to innity of the soil region. Since the foundation stiness and damping are dependent on the frequency of excitation, it is most convee ox ; P e oy and the vertical force nient to relate the interaction shear forces P e e e P oz , interaction overturning moments M ox ; M oy and the torsional moment e oz to the resulting foundation translations and rotations in the FourierM transformed frequency domain. The dynamic forcedisplacement relationship for the foundation can be expressed as follow: 9 8 3 e ox > 2 Kxx x P > 0 0 0 Kx;my x 0 > > > > > 6 > e > > > P oy > 0 Kyy x 0 Ky ;mx x 0 0 7 > > 7 6 > > > > 7 6 < P e oz = 6 0 0 Kzz x 0 0 0 7 7 6 6 7 f > > 0 K 0 K 0 0 M mx;y x mx x > > 7 6 ox > > > 6 > 7 > > f > > 5 4 K x 0 0 0 K x 0 > my ;x my > > M oy > > > ; : 0 0 0 0 0 Kmz x f M oz 9 8 ~ uox > > > > > > > > > ~oy > > >u > > > > <~ uoz = . 1a > ~ cox > > > > > > > > > > ~ coy > > > > > ; : ~ coz When considered 3-D system, the impedance matrix K of order 6 6 obtained for a rigid massless foundation is the relation between the applied harmonic load P and the harmonic response u where designates the displacement vector of the geometric center of the base of the footing. The diagonal terms of the matrix are non-zero, and other terms in the matrix which represent the coupling between the degrees of freedom are zero. If the foundationsoil system has two planes of symmetry, the vertical and torsion motion are also decoupled. Only swaying and rocking are coupled in each plane of symmetry.

642

For surface foundations the coupling between swaying and rocking may be neglected. Generally, in the case of harmonic vibration the load, the impedance and the resulting response are complex quantities. This relation can be rewritten in a more general way as P K u. 1b The physical meaning of the dynamic stiness can be easily interpreted from the dynamic compliance f of the system foundation and subsoil. The compliance function which is also called displacement function transfers the input (load) to the output (displacement). The dynamic exibility matrix calculated at the soilfoundation interface is obtained by inverting the impedance matrix u K 1 P f P . 2

where x is the circular frequency of excitation (in rad/s), cs is the propagation velocity of shear waves in the soil. The radius of a circular foundation or half the width of a rectangular foundation is assigned by B. With the boundary element solution of this mixed boundary-value problem, the foundation impedances to dynamic loads can be determined by integrating the corresponding distribution of tractions on the soilfoundation interface. The dynamic stinesses of the system are described to the centre of the basemat and can be expressed in the following form: K a x K s1a k a ao iao ca ao 1 2ib 4 Static stiness may be describe as for each degree of freedom or vibration mode previously mentioned. The internal damping of soil is also taken into consider-

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ation and is characterized by the damping ratio b. The real parts of the impedance functions signify force components in phase with the displacements and can be termed as dynamic stiness for the foundation. On the other hand, the imaginary parts are force components in phase with the velocities and can be interpreted as energy dissipation by radiation of waves away from the foundation into the soil. Therefore, they may be termed as foundation damping coecients. In order to compare the results of analytical approaches, the rectangular footing is replaced by an equivalent circular footing in which the radius r is obtained by writing that it has respectively the same area for the translation movements and the same moment of inertia for the rotation movements. Static stiness is calculated by using the values relating to the circular surface footing. Dynamic impedances of the foundation can be written as Horizontal vibration mode (a = xx, yy): r 8Gr 4BL K a x k a iao ca ; r . 2m p Vertical vibration mode (a = zz): 4Gr K a x k a iao ca ; 1m r 4BL . r p s s 3 3 4 16B L 4 16BL ; rmy . 3p 3p 5b

5a

5c

Torsional vibration mode (a = mz): s 2 2 4 8BLB L 16Gr3 k a iao ca ; r . K a x 3p 3 Coupling terms (a = mx, y; my, x):

5d

r 8Gr2 4BL ; 5e K a x k a iao ca ; r p 2m p where i is equal 1, ka is the dimensionless spring coecient and ca is the corresponding damping coecient depending on ao and the Poissons ratio m. For the terms of the main diagonal of the matrix K, a = xx (translation along x axis), yy (translation along y axis), zz (translation along z axis); mx (rocking about x axis), my (rocking about y axis), mz (rocking about z axis). The coupling between swaying and rocking is dened by the indices of a = x,my, y,mx, mx,y and my,x.

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3. Theory of wave propagation in elastodynamic and frequency domain BEM analysis The BEM is important computational technique solving the boundary integral equations numerically for the modeling of wave propagation problems appear when dealing with the problems concerning innite, semi-innite or very large domains. The BEM formulation is based on the fundamental solution of the dierential equation of motion for a homogeneous, isotropic and linearelastic media proposed by Dominguez [14]. The dynamic response for the points of the linear elastic body, X, bounded by the surface, C, subjected to the body force components dened per unit volume, fi. Starting from equilibrium considerations, one obtains in components form of the dierential equation of Lame Navier can be derived as; ui ; rij;j fi q 6

i is the force due to inertia. where rij is the component of stress tensor and qu The commas and overdots indicate partial space and time derivatives of the displacement components ui(x, t), respectively. As the linear relation between the components of the stress tensor and the components of the strain tensor for elastic isotropic solid known as constitutive law of Hook and it leads to rij kdij ekk 2leij ; eij 1=2ui;j uj;i ; 7a 7b

where k and l are the Lame constants and dij is the Kronecker delta. The kinematical compatibility which is also called as volume dilatation can be expressed as follow ekk = e11 + e22 + e33 for k = 1, 2, 3. Replacing (7) into (6) conducts to the well known equation of the wave motion for the small displacement theory of linear elastic materials; uk ; k lui;ik luk;ii fk q 8 where a Cartesian coordinate system (i = 1, 2, 3) is used. The propagation velocities of the dilatational (or and p distortional (or shear) waves p pressure) are given by cp k 2l=q and cs l=q for the case of plane strains as well as for three dimensional problems, and the soil density is dened by q. In the case of time dependent excitations, the time dependence can be removed by transforming the governing Eq. (8) by means of the transform techniques. Applying a Fast Fourier Transform, the wave equation can be written in the frequency domain as follow:

2 ~ . qc2 ui;ik c2 uk;ii x2 ~ uk f k p c s ~ s~

~ k denote the complex displacement and ~k and f Above mentioned equation u force amplitudes, respectively, of a harmonic motion with circular frequency

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x. When body forces are neglected and homogeneous initial conditions carry out for all points x of the body X, then the so called Betti-Maxwell reciprocal theorem can be used to nd the boundary integral equation. This law leads to Z Z ~ ~ ~ cik ui 10 uik ti @ C ~ ui @ C ; tik ~

C C

~ where ~ tik x; n; xand u ik x; n; x are the full-space fundamental solutions given by Cruse and Rizzo [15] for the traction and displacement components, in the direction i at point x due to a unit load in direction k at point n. The considered elastic domain X is surrounded by the boundary C = C1 [ C2. The factors cik includes the integral free terms, which are dependent on the smoothness in the vicinity of the source point n. Rectangular Cartesian coordinates is employed. As schematically illustrated by Fig. 2, on the body surface the displace~ ment boundary conditions ui x; x and the traction boundary conditions ~ ti x; x are prescribed, respectively. The frequency domain formulation allows to incorporate damping by using e E1 i2b with hysteretic damping coea complex Youngs modulus E cient b. For the numerical solution of the boundary integral equation, a discretization of the body surface with boundary elements is required. After discretization used approximated solutions for the displacement and traction, P Pk e e e ue k u u and t u t i1 i i i1 i i , the obtained algebraic formulation of this integral Eq. (10) can be written as follow: cun

E Z X e 1 Ce

E Z X ~ ~ t @ C ue . u @ C t e

e 1 Ce

11a

The hemispherical surface of the half-space need not be discretized since eld quantities over this innite boundary are zero (Sommerfeld conditions). Based on the assumption of welded contact, the boundary conditions are zero traction on the free surface of the half-space model and the corresponding

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displacement eld at the soilfoundation contact area. Using this discretization scheme and parametric representation the boundary integral equation reduces to the following matrix form; " e~ eu ~ or U tT U11 U21 U12 U22 #" t1 t2 # " T11 T21 T12 T22 #" u1 u2 # ; 11b

where ~ u and ~ t are the complex frequency dependent displacements and tractions of all nodal points at the boundary. The inuence matrices for each boundary elements Ce e U where 2 u 11 u 12 u 22 u 32 u 13 3 2 t 11 t 12 t 22 t 32 t 13 3 13 6 ~ u 6 4 u21 u 31 6 7 7 ~ 6 u 23 5 and t 4 t 21 u 33 t 31 7 7 t 23 5. t 33

E Z X e 1 Ce

~ u @ C

and

e cij T

E Z X e 1 Ce

~ t @C ;

12

Dierent types of shape functions ui for approximated solution on which the accuracy of the solution may depend can be chosen. For the underlying half-space elements with constant space interpolation functions are used since they require less computational time and memory but are able to represent well the behavior of the half-space. Substitution of known boundary conditions yields the remaining unknowns using standard matrix solution procedures. The impedance function is then obtained by integrating the resulting tractions developed over the soilfoundation interfaces. The calculated displacements and tractions in the frequency domain have to be transformed with Discrete Inverse Fast Fourier Transform back into the time domain [16]. For a function f and its transform F, the formulas for the Discrete Fast Fourier Transform and the Inverse Fast Fourier Transform are given as FN fk

N 1 T X nk fk ei2p N ; N k 0

14a n 0; 1; 2; . . . ; N 1; 14b

N 1 1 X nk F n ei2p N T n0

where N is the number of the chosen time steps and T is the period.

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4. Numerical results In this study, the discrete values of impedance functions over wide ranges of frequency-factors for both surface-supported and embedded foundations are presented by using the substructure approach in the frequency domain which is formulated on base of the BEM. It is demonstrated that the practical applications so as to provide the user an adequate aid in the majority of cases, a comprehensive parametric analysis and systematic calculations of the idealized three dimensional model are performed with various controlling parameters to estimate the dynamic response of the vibrating soilfoundation system. In all investigations accomplished in this parametric analysis, the complex stiness is computed for the dimensionless frequency factors ao [0.5:0.5:8]. As shown in Fig. 3, the numerical model deals with the case of rectangular footings supposedly rigid and massless with a length 2L (in the y direction) and a width 2B (in the x direction). The foundation base is uniformly discretized with 144 square elements. The basic dimension of a boundary element is taken to be equal 1.0 m, which should be enough to consider the minimum wavelength. Typically, four or ve aligned elements per shortest wavelength are sufcient. The maximum area of the mesh of the soil surface (Lx Ly) that can be taken into the analysis with acceptable computational time and memory requirements, are considered as a size of 24 m 24 m. The boundary element with the constant approximation is used. The algorithm works for constant space interpolation as well as for elements with higher order space interpolation functions. A mass density (q) of 20 kN/m3 and a material damping ratio (b) of 0.0 characterize the supporting soil. Perfect bond between the foundation and the soil is assumed. The impedance functions of the rigid square foundation resting on soil under horizontal, vertical, rocking and torsional excitations are determined and normalized with the corresponding static-stiness coecients. The normalized spring and damping coecients for foundations under previously mentioned vibrational modes are shown in Fig. 4. The results are then compared with the reported results [17,18,6]. The graphs for the normalized spring coecient and damping coecient for horizontal and rocking vibration modes, as shown in Fig. 4(a) and (c), are reasonably asymptotic with the reported solutions at lower and higher frequency range. In addition, the variation of damping coefcients for vertical and torsional modes is good agreement with the corresponding results obtained by the reported analysis. For moderate and high frequency parameters, the normalized spring coecient for torsional mode is discrepant then the reported results, but the dierence is within 15%. The comparisons show that considerable discrepancies exist in the vertical vibrational mode for spring coecient at high frequency range (ao P 6.5). This distinction

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y

Ly

x e

Lx

2B

2L

2L

Fig. 3. Boundary element mesh of soilsubstructure.

can be attributed to the truncation scheme and dierence between quadratic and constant elements. In order to indicate the variation of the foundation dimensions and evaluation of the inuence on its dynamic response, the comparison is performed in terms of the ve dierent values of length to width ratio (L/B = 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5). For dierent rigid rectangular foundations founded on soil, dynamic analysis is made in the case of three varied Poissons ratios (m = 0, 0.25, 0.50). On the basis of investigation, made on several examples the inuence of Poissons ratio on dynamic response of a square surface supported foundation

2B

= 1/3, L/B = 1

1 0.9

649

1.4

= 1/3, L/B = 1

1.2

0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0

real K xx (Veletsos and Wei)

0.8

0.6

K real (BEM) xx

0.4

real (Luco and Gazetas) K zz

K real (BEM) zz

0.2

C zz C zz

= 1/3, L/B= 1

1 0.9 (Veletsos and Wei) K real mx C mx (BEM) K real (BEM) mx

1 0.9 0.8

= 1/3, L/B = 1

0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 (Luco and Gazetas) K real mz C mz (BEM) C mz (Luco and Gazetas)

real K mz (BEM)

Fig. 4. Comparison of reported results with normalized dynamic impedance functions related to dimensionless frequency for surface square foundation located on elastic half-space region.

(L/B = 1), is analyzed. Five dierent Poissons ratios (m = 0, 0.125, 0.25, 0.33 and 0.50) are used for the elastic half-space. The varied embedment depth of the foundation into the ground modies its dynamic behavior. The dynamic response of a rectangular massless foundation for dierent embedment ratios D/B = 0, 1/3, 2/3, 1 and 4/3 is investigated. The other parameters are dened as, L/B = 1, 2, 3 with Poissons ratio m = 1/3. The results of the response of the vertical, horizontal, rocking and torsional vibrations for rectangular foundations resting on, or embedded in, a half-space are separated and given as real and imaginary part of the functions. Discrete values of dynamic impedances obtained are given in Figs. 511 as function of ao. Additionally system parameters are varied and its inuence on the dynamic behavior of the foundation is claried.

650

Fig. 5. Comparison of impedance functions (with the real and imaginary part) of surface supported rectangular foundation with varied L/B related to dimensionless frequency parameters in the case of m = 0.

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Fig. 5 (continued )

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Fig. 6. Comparison of impedance functions (with the real and imaginary part) of surface supported rectangular foundation with varied L/B related to dimensionless frequency parameters in the case of m = 0.25.

653

Fig. 6 (continued )

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Fig. 7. Comparison of impedance functions (with the real and imaginary part) of surface supported rectangular foundation with varied L/B related to dimensionless frequency parameters in the case of m = 0.50.

655

Fig. 7 (continued )

656

Fig. 8. Comparison of impedance functions (with the real and imaginary part) of surface supported square foundation with various Poissons ratios related to dimensionless frequency parameters.

657

Fig. 8 (continued )

658

Fig. 9. Comparison of impedance functions (with the real and imaginary part) of foundation with varied embedded depth resting on a half-space related to dimensionless frequency parameters in the case of L/B = 1 and m = 1/3.

659

Fig. 9 (continued )

660

Fig. 10. Comparison of impedance functions (with the real and imaginary part) of foundation with varied embedded depth resting on a half-space related to dimensionless frequency parameters in the case of L/B = 2 and m = 1/3.

661

Fig. 10 (continued )

662

Fig. 11. Comparison of impedance functions (with the real and imaginary part) of foundation with varied embedded depth resting on a half-space related to dimensionless frequency parameters in the case of L/B = 3 and m = 1/3.

663

Fig. 11 (continued )

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5. Discussion of results Numerical results of this study show certain features of practical importance. The following trends can be noticed: 1. Dynamic behaviors of square and rectangular foundations indicate dierences in the resulting curves regarding the surface foundation for several vibrational modes. Especially, stiness and damping coecients of foundations for horizontal and torsional vibration modes increases with increasing ao as the ratio of L/B rised. On the contrary, in the case of vertical excitations, the geometry of foundation doesnt inuence the dynamic impedance values, especially, from lower frequency range to moderate frequency range as dened 0 6 ao 6 5. In addition, stiness and damping coecients for rocking vibration mode vary with the direction of harmonic eect. Spring coecient, however, increases remarkably with the ratio L/B at higher frequency range (ao P 5). 2. In general, the variation of Poisson ratio on the spring stiness for surface square foundations has superior eects according to geometrical damping. This tendency becomes pronounced in the higher frequency values. This eects presency cannot be seen for all modes unless the Poisson ratio is equal to 1/3. Particularly, for the value of Poisson ratio is 1/2, translation, rocking and coupling between translation-rocking stinesses appear to decreasing trend to the higher frequency values. 3. The stiness coecients, which are obtained for all vibrational modes of embedded square foundations, varied depending mainly on dimensionless frequency parameters. This tendency increases at the higher frequency values only for the case of surface foundations (D/B = 0). Only for the surface foundation horizontal translation stiness, Kxx, and horizontal translationrocking stiness, Kmy,x, do not change with frequency. Furthermore, in the lateral vibration mode, spring stiness coecients of embedded foundations to compare surface foundations, take lower values in the middle and higher frequency interval. These results contradict the general rule that embedment increases the impedance functions. The decreases of stiness coecients with increasing of frequency parameter ao may create a serious case for vertical vibrations then for horizontal ones. 4. The decrease of the exibility coecients which connects the lateral displacement to moment while embedding increase show that, from the stiness point of view, coupling between these two degrees of freedom increase inversely with the embedding. For the surface foundations this coupling term remains small so that it can be neglected. In addition, this interaction term Kmy,x may take negative values at the higher frequencies for the embedded foundation cases. Similar case has also been obtained for the cases where circular foundations founded on half-space soil model [6]. It has been seen

665

that the embedment mostly aects the moment-rocking and momenttorsional relations. 5. For the embedded foundations (D/B = 4/3) vertical spring stiness decreases remarkably for the lower frequency parameter values (ao < 3) while for the surface foundations variation of this stiness is leaded towards a constant value. Although Pais and Kausel [19] and Tsai et al. [20] used the assumption that vertical stiness is independent from frequency for these two foundation types. This assumption is not feasible for the deep foundation samples applied for the incompressible soil at the middle and higher frequency interval. 6. As embedding ratio of foundations to soil increase both the real and imaginary parts of stiness coecients increase. In other words the elements of exibility matrix which is the inverse of the stiness matrix can be proportionally smaller as the foundation becomes deeper. The increase of building foundation and its surface contact area with embedment promote the higher damping eect. That is, waves propagating from the superstructure into the ground are not turn back due to boundless soil medium and this causes an energy loss. As the energy loss depends on the frequency this leads to an additional viscous damping eect. This indicates that spring eect, describing the soil stiness in the embedded foundations and geometrical damping eect, corresponding to equivalent radiation damping, is more pronounced with respect to surface foundation for all vibrational modes.

6. Conclusions In this study, the discrete values of impedance functions over wide ranges of frequency-factors are presented for both surface-supported and embedded foundations. The numerical results are obtained by using the substructure approach in the frequency domain which is formulated on basis of the BEM derived from the fundamental solution for a homogeneous, isotropic and linear-elastic continuum. The numerical model is validated in almost all cases of vibration modes for its ability to represent the foundations on elastic half-space medium by comparing the results with the analytical solutions of reported analysis. This paper presented that in almost all vibration modes of impedance functions of three-dimensional surface supported and embedded foundation models over wide ranges of frequency-factors so as to provide the user with an adequate aid in the majority of cases. It has been demonstrated that in practical applications and to show the solutions of this type of problems to civil engineers, a comprehensive parametric analysis and systematic calculations have been performed with various controlling parameters to evaluate the dynamic

666

response of the vibrating soilfoundation system. The obtained numerical results should enable practicing engineers to take into account the linear SSI problems for wide ranges of frequency factors. The civil engineers who have to design signicant constructions on soft ground imposed to dynamic loads will therefore be delighted by the appearance of these clear and easily understandable diagrams of dynamic impedance functions. Acknowledgement This project is supported by the Turkish State Planning Organization (DPT, 2003 K 120 970) is greatly acknowledged. Also, the rst author would like to express his sincere thanks to the Deutsche Akademische Austauschdienst (DAAD) for the nancial support of his research stay at the Ruhr University Bochum (DAAD, contact number: A/03/21308). In particular, the author wishes to thank Gu nther Schmid for using the numerical simulations and programming and for his intensive interest and helpful comments. References

[1] J.P. Wolf, Springdashpotmass models for foundation vibrations, Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics 26 (1997) 931949. [2] O. Estor, E. Kausel, Coupling of boundary and nite elements for soilstructure interaction problems, Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics 18 (1989) 10651075. [3] J.P. Wolf, C. Song, Finite Element Modelling of Unbounded Media, John Wiley & Sons, London, 1997. [4] C. Bode, R. Hirschauer, S.A. Savidis, Soilstructure interaction in the time domain using halfspace Greens functions, Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering 22 (4) (2002) 283 295. [5] J. Dominguez, J.M. Roesset, Dynamic stiness of rectangular foundations, MIT Research Report, R. 78-20, 1978. [6] A.S. Veletsos, Y.T. Wei, Lateral and rocking vibration of footings, Journal of Soil Mechanics and Foundations, ASCE 97 (1971) 12271248. [7] J.E. Luco, R.A. Westman, Dynamic response of a rigid footing bonded to an elastic halfspace, Journal of Applied Mechanics, ASME 94 (1972) 527534. [8] R.J. Apsel, J.E. Luco, Impedance functions for foundations embedded in a layered medium: an integral equation approach, Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics 15 (1987) 213231. [9] G. Gazetas, J.L. Tassoulas, Horizontal stiness of arbitrarily shaped embedded foundations, Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, ASCE 113 (1987) 440457. [10] G. Gazetas, J.L. Tassoulas, Horizontal damping of arbitrarily shaped embedded foundations, Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, ASCE 113 (1987) 458475. [11] A. Mita, J.E. Luco, Dynamic response of a square foundation embedded in an elastic halfspace, Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering 8 (1987) 5467. [12] S. Bu, Impedance functions of square foundations embedded in an incompressible half-space, Engineering Analysis with Boundary Element 22 (1998) 111.

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[13] S. Bu, C.H. Lin, Coupled horizontal-rocking impedance functions for embedded square foundations at high frequency factors, Journal of Earthquake Engineering 3 (4) (1999) 561 587. [14] J. Dominguez, Boundary Elements in Dynamics, Computational Mechanics Publications, 1993. [15] T.A. Cruse, F.J. Rzzo, A direct formulation and numerical solution of the general transient elastodynamic problem I, Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications 22 (1968) 244 259. [16] E. Brigham, FFT Schnelle Fourier Transformation, 6. Auage, Oldenburg Verlag, Mu nchen, 1995. [17] J.E. Luco, Impedance functions for a rigid foundation on a layered medium, Nuclear Engineering and Design 33 (1974) 204217. [18] G. Gazetas, Analysis of machine foundation vibrations: state of the art, Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering 2 (1) (1983) 242. [19] A. Pais, E. Kausel, Approximate formulas for dynamic stinesses of rigid foundations, Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering 7 (1988) 213227. [20] N.C. Tsai, D. Nieho, M. Swatta, A.H. Hadjian, The use of frequency independent soil structure interaction parameters, Nuclear Engineering and Design 31 (1974) 168183.

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