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DD2491 p2 2009

BGP-MPLS VPNs
Olof Hagsand KTH/CSC

Literature

Practical BGP: Chapter 10

JunOS Cookbook: Chapter 14 and 15

MPLS Advantages
Originally, the motivation was speed and cost.
But routers does IP lookup in hardware at very high speeds.
Current advantages:

Label switching can be used for traffic engineering

Aggregating a class of traffic and treating it in a specific way

Control of traffic in a network

Labels can be used to forward using other fields than destination


address
Label switching can be used to support VPNs virtual private
networks
The generalized form of MPLS: GMPLS can be used for optical
networking such as management of wavelengths: lambdas

Where is MPLS used?

MPLS is used as a tunneling technique within an


operator's internal IP network

tunneling characteristics - traffic is isolated

VPNs

traffic engineering - control bandwidths and links

MPLS is not used

in traditional enterprise networks

between operators (inter-AS)

L2 networks

Why MPLS?

MPLS gives a simple tunneling mechanism integrated with


IP
BGP is not needed for transit traffic in interior routers:

A BGP-free core

Another IP-based tunneling protocol could give the same


service

IP in IP

But MPLS has a nice toolbox and is easy to configure

Alternatives

Pure IP networking: manage tunnels yourself

Provider backbone bridging (IEEE 802.1ah)

Typical use: MPLS for transit


BGP

BGP

IGP + MPLS
AS
BGP

Use an IGP to compute internal routes

Setup LSPs between border routers using the IGP

Eg border routers may set up a full-mesh of LSPs

Send transit traffic via LSPs (src and dst outside the AS)

But still send internal traffic via IP (src or dst inside the AS)

External routes need not be distributed to non-border routers, so we


do not need IBGP there

A BGP-free core

Only the border routers need to speak BGP

This is considered an advantage

Protection switching in MPLS

Assume a primary LSP is signalled from A-D via B and C

If a link or node goes down, how is reliability ensured?

There are several issues and techniques:

Detection of failure

IGP re-route

Path protection

Local protection

To think about
Switchover latency
Over-reservation

C
E

MPLS in JunOS

See http://www.juniper.net/techpubs/software/junos/junos94/
swconfig-mpls-apps
Example:

Enable mpls on all forwarding interfaces

Enable icmp in mpls for debugging (traceroute)

Setup LSPs (using explicit path setup: no cspf)


interface so-0/0/0 {
unit 0 {
family mpls; # Enable mpls address family
}
}
protocols mpls {
icmp-tunneling;
# Enable icmp for debugging
interface so-0/0/0.0; # Include interface in mpls forwarding
label-switched-path btoc { # Define an LSP
to 193.10.255.6;
# LSP end-point
no-cspf;
# Enable explicit-path computation
}
rsvp {
interface so-0/0/0.0; # Enable rsvp on interface
}

cspf - Constrained Path LSP Computation

Computes path using bandwidth, load, etc.

Motivation to VPNs

Companies and organizations wish to connect their local


offices, personel working from their home or while
travelling.
Leased lines are expensive, it makes sense to use IP / the
Internet.

VPN Architecture 1
Connect hosts to central
server/LAN.
Main
LAN

Internet

Point-to-point
tunnels

VPN Architecture 2
Connect several LAN islands.

LAN

LAN

Internet

LAN

Addressing and security

The Internet is public and has only one address domain.


You need to separate your private traffic from the global
traffic

You need to secure your traffic

Provider-based VPNs (peer)

You trust your provider

Guarantee resources

Provider adds service more costly

One provider / set of providers only

Customer-based VPNs (overlay)

Do it yourself using IPSEC tunneling

Cheap solution

Best effort

Internet

Provider-based VPNs using MPLS/RSVP/


BGP
Several related variants including

L3VPN RFC 4364

L2VPN pseudowires

VPLS (dynamic L2VPN)

These solutions all use multiprotocol BGP, relays data with


MPLS and have a BGP-free core.

Provider-based VPNs

CE - Customer Edge

PE - Provider Edge (BGP)

P - Provider (no BGP)

More than one customer: red and


blue

More than two sites per customer

CE is either router or L2 device


CE

CE
PE
PE

CE

P
P
CE

CE
PE

PE

L3VPN

L3VPN is a peer-type and dynamic VPN using BGP and


MPLS
Each customer may use the same adress space, eg 1918
addresses
Each customer site is modelled as a separate AS
customer interior routing runs independently at each site
An address conversion scheme makes each customer VPN
route unique within the provider's network
Multiple routing and forwarding tables are supported on
each PE separating different customer routing information
BGP is used as a signalling protocol to setup VPN
connections between customer sites.
RSVP (or LDP) is used to setup the MPLS paths
MPLS multistacking is used to keep provider's network
free of customer routing information
Encryption by other means, security by trusting the
provider

L3VPN

192.16.100.0/24

CE

CE

192.16.100.0/24

PE
AS 65100

PE

CE
10.2.1.0/24

P
P
CE
10.1.1.0/24

CE
PE

PE
10.1.1.0/24

View from one customer


Provider network acts as a
distributed router
192.16.100.0/24

AS 65100

10.2.1.0/24

10.1.1.0/24

CE to PE routing

The local PE learns routes from the local


customer CE
Static routing, eBGP, RIP, or some other IGP

Customer should be able to decide

Often the customer wants a separate routing


protocol for the CE-PE peering (eg. so OSPF
link-state is not propagated to the provider)

The PE router takes the routes and propagates


them over the provider network to the remote
PE:s
The remote PE:s announce the client routes to
matching remote CE sites
The remote CE sites can then access the local CE

CE to PE routing

I
192.16.100.0/24

192.16.100.0/24

OSPF

B
static
routing

AS 65100

C
F

G
10.1.1.0/24

eBGP

RIP

J
10.1.1.0/24

Overlapping addresses:
Route Distinguisher

How does the provider keep the different client prefixes


unique?

A new address class is used, where a unique prefix is


prepended to the IPv4 route

Eg: Red and blue VPN both have 10.1.1.0/24

This unique prefix is called a route distinguisher (RD)

The new route is written:

<route distinguisher>::<IPv4addr>/<prefixlen>
8 bytes

Route Distinguisher

4 bytes

IPv4 address

Route Distinguisher
I T Type[Subtype]
1 byte

1 byte

Data
6-7 bytes

The route distinguisher has the same format as the BGP


extended community (see earlier lecture) which is 8 bytes.

Two variants Type 0 and Type 1

Type 0 used in the book

Can be better to identify VPNs, or if many AS

Type 1 used primarily in the lab

Easier to see the origin of the routes


8 bytes

4 bytes

Route Distinguisher
2 bytes

Type 0:

Type/Subtype
2 bytes

Type 1:

Type/Subtype

2 bytes

IPv4 address
4 bytes

AS#

Number
4 bytes

IP#

IPv4 address

2 bytes

Number

IPv4 address

Route distinguisher type 0

Example:

65100:3::192.16.100.0/24 announced by B

65100:4::192.16.100.0/24 announced by D

I
192.16.100.0/24

192.16.100.0/24

B
RD: 65100:3

AS 65100

RD: 65100:4

C
F
RD: 65100:2

G
10.1.1.0/24

RD: 65100:1

J
10.1.1.0/24

Route distinguisher type 1

Example:

192.30.200.3:1::192.16.100.0/24 announced by B

You can see where the routes come from

And you can see which VPN they belong to (1=blue, 2=red)
I
192.16.100.0/24

192.16.100.0/24

B
RD: 192.30.200.3:1

AS 65100

RD: 192.30.200.4:2

C
F
RD: 192.30.200.2:2

G
10.1.1.0/24

RD: 192.30.200.1:1

J
10.1.1.0/24

Routing table example


Example: Routing table in a PE router (prefix + nexthop)
VPN-IPv4 address family (bgp.l3vpn in JunOS)
192.30.200.3:1::192.168.100.0/24

192.30.200.2:2::10.1.1.0/24

192.30.200.1:1::10.1.1.0/24

192.30.200.4:2::192.168.100.0/24

IPv4 address family:


192.30.200.3
192.30.200.2
192.30.200.1
192.30.200.4

Operation

A CE announces a prefix to a PE

The PE prepends the route distinguisher and announces it


to the other PE:s

Eg 192.30.200.3:1::192.168.100.0/24

The PEs receive it, strips the route distinguisher and


announces it to the local matching CE

Eg 192.168.100.0/24 to B by H

Eg 192.168.100.0/24 to J by E

The CE network can reach 192.168.100.0/24

Operation: announcing prefixes

19
2.
16
.1
192.16.100.0/24
H 00.0
/2
4

192.16.100.0/24

B
RD: 192.30.200.3:1

65100
1AS
92
19 .
2. 30
16 .2
.1 00 C
00 .3
.0 :1
/2 ::
4F

RD: 192.30.200.2:2

G
10.1.1.0/24

RD: 192.30.200.4:2

RD: 192.30.200.1:1

19
J
2
E .16
.1
00
.0
/2
4

10.1.1.0/24

Virtual Routing and Forwarding - VRF

A virtual router is a subset of a physical router.


A virtual router has its own routing processes, routing tables,
forwarding tables and its own interfaces,
Typically interfaces of virtual routers are virtual (eg VLANs)
The virtual routers are partitioned into several disjoint virtual
routers.
Similar in concept to VLANs and VLAN bridges, but in L3.

Virtual
Physical

..
.

VRF in a PE
Example: A router with two customers instances: VRF1 and
VRF2.

VRF table

VRF1

VRF1

VRF_
main

VRF2

VRF_
main

Local BGP
table

VRF table

VRF2

VRF Importing and exporting

Local BGP Table:


import 192.30.200.1:1::10.1.1.0/24

192.168.100.0/24

10.1.1.0/24
192.168.100.0/24

export

192.30.200.3:1::192.168.100.0/24

RD: 192.30.200.3:1

RD: 192.30.200.1:1

10.1.1.0/24

VRF:

Routing instances in JunOS


Routing Instance:
main
RIBs

Routing Instance: other


RIBs

inet.0
Routing protocol
3

RI
B
inet.0

IPv4 unicast routes

inet6.0

IPv6 unicast routes

inet.1

IPv4 multicast
forwarding cache

inet.2

IPv4 multicast RPF


table
IPv4 routes learnt from
MPLS-TE path
exploration
VPN-IPv4 routes

inet.3
bgp.l3vp
n

mpls.0

MPLS label-switch table

Example:
main.inet.0
__juniper_private1__.inet.0

Logical routers, VPNs, virtual routers,


etc, use routing instances.

BGP signaling

How does BGP carry the extended VPN-IPv4 extended


adress family?

By using the multiprotocol extension (see earlier lecture)

MP_REACH and MP_UNREACH

VPN-IPv4 is AFI= 1, SAFI = 128

The NLRI is

The 12 byte route: distinguisher::IPv4 adress

An MPLS forwarding label

The next-hop is the CE nexthop

Using MPLS and RSVP


Establish LSP:s between border routers
Use double stacking:

outer tag: LSP PE<-->PE

inner tag: VPN label

Internal nodes (P-nodes) are only aware of outer tags (PE to


PE)
With RSVP you set up the outer tag

and can also traffic engineer the LSP:s


outer:
LSP label

inner:
VPN label

VRF1

VRF1
2

23

VRF_
main

VRF_
main
23

VRF2

VRF2

LSP label 20

Double push
Swap

LSP label 10Pop


IP: dst10.1.1.23

Route

MPLS: 10 IP: dst10.1.1.23

MPLS: 9 MPLS: 10 IP: dst10.1.1.23

MPLS: 8 MPLS: 10 IP: dst10.1.1.23

IP: dst10.1.1.23

Local routing
table

VRF

Local BGP
table

MPLS table

MPLS table

Local BGP
table

VRF

Local routing
table

MPLS Forwarding

E
J

Pop+route

Route target

We still have not described how the VPNs are constructed


how PE:s know which CE:s are a part of which VPNs.
The purpose of the route target (RT) extended community
is to tag the VPN-IPv4 routes with this information
The route target has the same format as the routedistinguisher

AS#:number (type 0)

IP#:number (type 1)

The route target is used to color the routes

In our example red and blue

Route target example

Example:

RT 65100:100 <-> blue VPN

RT 65100:3 <-> red VPN

Tag the routes when exporting to BGP


I
192.16.100.0/24

192.16.100.0/24

B
RD: 192.30.200.3:1
RT: 65100:100

AS 65100

RD: 192.30.200.4:2
RT: 65100:3

C
F
RD: 192.30.200.2:2
RT: 65100:3

G
10.1.1.0/24

RD: 192.30.200.1:1
RT: 65100:100

10.1.1.0/24

Importing and exporting routes

Routes are exported from the VRF to BGP

And imported from BGP to the VRF

Rules are defined using route targets

How to export routes

How to import routes

Typically, every VRF has a set of import and export rules


Every export rule corresponds to tagging the announced
VPN-IPv4 route with a route target attribute
Every import rule corresponds to matching targets with
incoming route target attributes

Import and export

Same as previous example using export and import rules


This is the default policy (full mesh) and can be
accomplished in JunOS without export/import using:

set vrf-target target:<route target>


I

192.16.100.0/24

192.16.100.0/24

B
RD: 192.30.200.3:1
import: 65100:100
export: 65100:100

AS 65100

RD: 192.30.200.4:2
import: 65100:3
export: 65100:3

F
RD: 192.30.200.2:2
import: 65100:3
export: 65100:3
10.1.1.0/24

RD: 192.30.200.1:1
import: 65100:100
export: 65100:100

10.1.1.0/24

More elaborate examples

More elaborate examples (apart from full mesh) can be


made by using import and export rules in various ways

The book has several examples

Extranets

Hub-and-spoke

Extranet

The Extranet is defined between the upper two customer


sites

Note that the prefixes have been changed to be unique

And the route targets are unique per PE


I

192.16.101.0/24

192.16.102.0/24

B
RD: 192.30.200.3:1
import: 65100:12
65100:21
export: 65100:22

AS 65100

RD: 192.30.200.4:2
import: 65100:11
65100:22
export: 65100:12

F
RD: 192.30.200.2:2
import: 65100:12
export: 65100:11
10.1.1.0/24

RD: 192.30.200.1:1
import: 65100:22
export: 65100:21

10.1.1.0/24

Hub-and-spoke VPN

All traffic passes via a HUB

Filtering / security purposes

Note the two peerings at A


I
10.1.3.0/24

10.1.4.0/24

B
RD: 192.30.200.3:1
import: 65100:200
export: 65100:100

AS 65100
C

RD: 192.30.200.2:2
export: 65100:200

F
A

import: 65100:100
Filtering

iBGP

RD: 192.30.200.4:2
import: 65100:200
export: 65100:100

RD: 192.30.200.1:1
import: 65100:200
export: 65100:100

10.1.1.0/24

Summary of protocols in L3VPN

IP basic information carrier

MPLS tunnels (LSPs) through the provider network

RSVP or LDP label distribution to setup MPLS LSPs (outer


labels)
OSPF or ISIS Find shortest paths through provider
network for RSVP and BGP
BGP Distribition of reachability information (prefixes),
VRF information and inner VPN labels
CE-PE routing protocol. RIP?

L3VPN JunOS example


protocols {
bgp {
local-address 192.30.200.3;
group internal {
type internal;
family inet-vpn unicast;
neighbor 192.30.200.1;
}
}
}
routing-instances {
VRF1_BLUE {
instance-type vrf;
interface fe-0/0/0.0;
route-distinguisher 192.30.200.3:1;
vrf-target target:65100:100;
vrf-table-label;
protocols {
bgp {
group siteB {
type external;
peer-as 1;
neighbor 192.16.100.1; # H
}
}
}
}

L3VPN Summary

L3VPN is a peer-type and dynamic VPN using BGP and


MPLS

This way of creating VPNs have quickly become popular.

Easy to configure (but hard to understand)

Drawback:

Customer routing tables are imported into the provider's


network (PE:s)

Suppose each customer has its own full BGP routing table
(~200K routes)

The providers routing tables will explode

Typical encapsulation in provider's network:


MPLS MPLS

IP

L2VPN pseudo-wire

Static, multipoint overlay solution


Setup point-to-point L2 connections between every site in
the VPN

Pseudo-wires

Using MPLS/RSVP/BGP in a similar way as L3VPN

L2 frames are encapsulated using IP and MPLS

Can transform between different link-layers

Typical encapsulation in provider's network:

MPLS MPLS ETH

IP

Customer view: Switches as CE:s


Provider network acts as a set of
wires.
Learning and spanning tree can
be made by attaching learning
bridges as CE:s to create a large
LAN

Customer view: Routers as CE:s


Routers can communicate backto-back over an L2VPN

Provider view: L2VPN

Access circuits between CE/PE

MPLS LSPs between PEs using RSVP

BGP signals L2 circuits between sites

CE
Site 1
PE
I

CE

Site 2
P
P

PE
PE
Site 3
CE

CE-PE issues

Since CE-PE communication needs to distinguish between


different circuits, it is common to use virtual connections,
as CE-PE circuits, such as VLANs. You assign one VLAN
per wire.
There are many link-layers. You need to configure which
encapsulation you use. We use 'ethernet-vlan', but it is
possible to use other encapsulation types and translate
between them using 'translational cross-connects'

Configuring L2VPN

Setup the backbone: ISIS, MPLS, RSVP, iBGP as before

but enable 'l2vpn signaling' as bgp protocol family

Setup CE-PE circuits (VLANs)

Use ethernet interface with units > 0

Set RFC1918 addresses on the VLANs

Setup an l2vpn routing instance:

Set route distinguisher

Setup Sites and setup LSPs by connecting remote sites

<PE loopback>:<vpnid>
Bind vlans to remote sites using vlanids

Setup encapsulation

'ethernet-vlan'

Set no-control-word (used for other link-layers)

Setup vpn import/export rules

use vrf-target

Configuring VLAN example


CE side:
fe-1/0/0 {
vlan-tagging;
unit 15 {
vlan-id 15;
family inet {
address 10.10.11.1/30;
}
}
}
PE side: no IP address, configure encapsulation vlan-ccc

L2VPN JunOS example


routing-instances {
l2vpn {
description "experimental L2VPN";
instance-type l2vpn;
interface fe-0/0/0.512;
route-distinguisher 192.168.4.2:10;
vrf-target target:1000:10;
protocols {
l2vpn {
encapsulation-type ethernet-vlan;
no-control-word;
site red1 {
site-identifier 1;
interface fe-0/0/0.512 {
remote-site-id 2;
}
}
}
}
}
}

Virtual Private LAN Services (VPLS)

Dynamic, multipoint peer solution

VPN services for L2 (eg switched networks)

Backbone over IP

Interconnects a switched L2 network

In VPLS an IP network works as a distributed switch

MPLS is used together with BGP to create pseudo-wires


between the LAN islands.
VPLS: Dynamic establishment of pseudo-wires

Bridging (learning) enabled

STP

MP-BGP is used for distributing mac adress learning

Disadvantage (similar to L3VPN)

Provider imports MAC learning tables into network

View from one customer


Customer
B

Provider network acts as a


distributed switch
Provider network
performs learning (and
STP)

Customer
B

Customer
B

Lab: L3VPN and L2VPN

First build a backbone

Core routers are pre-configured

Then configure L3VPN

Finally configure L2VPN

LAB backbone

Backbone

RTC1

RTB3

RTB4

RTC2

RTB1

RTB2

RTC3

RTC4

L3VPN lab setup: customer view


(Yellow)

Provider Edge (PE)


.1
10.1.2.0/30

.2
RTD3

.1
10.1.1.0/30

.2
RTA3

.1
10.1.3.0/30

.2
Customer Edge (CE)
RTE3

L2VPN lab setup: customer view (RED)

10.1.3.0/30
VLANID: 514
10.1.1.0/30 10.1.2.0/30
VLANID: 512 VLANID: 513

.1 .2

.1 .1

.2

.2
Customer Edge (CE)

RTD2

RTA2

RTE2

LAB Netmap
Backbone

RTB3

RTB4

RTC1

RTC2
RTC2

RTA2 RTA3

RTC2

RTA4 RTE1

RTE2 RTE3

RTE4
L3VPN #4

L3VPN #3

L2VPN #2

L1VPN #1

L3VPN #4

L3VPN #3

RTA1

RTB2

L2VPN #2

L3VPN #3

L2VPN #2

L2VPN #1

RTD4

L2VPN #1

RTD2 RTD3

L3VPN #4

RTD1

RTB1