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1AC Advantages

Plan: The United States federal government should give necessary funds to the United Mexican States federal government for the purpose of implementing and regulating the Norms on the Responsibilities of Transnational Corporations and Other Business Enterprises with Regard to Human Rights in maquiladoras.

BioD
Contention (): Biodiversity Maquiladoras ignore environmental protection laws-its only getting worse Sierra Club, 05 (Sierra Club is an organization dedicated to environmental
problems in the border region; NAFTAs Impact on Mexico; http://www.sierraclub.org/trade/downloads/nafta-and-mexico.pdf)

Toxins created by the maquiladora factories are leaking into the land and water at alarming rates. According to Mexican government figures, the cost of NAFTA-related environmental damage in 1999 alone was an estimated $47 billion. It is likely that annual pollution damages from 1989 to 1999 exceeded $36
billion per year. This damage dwarfs the value of economic growth from trade, which was only $14 billion per year. 4 Despite

an anticipated rise in pollution levels, NAFTA did nothing to strengthen Mexicos environmental protections. In fact, enforcement of environmental
protections declined noticeably after NAFTA, and is often ignored by both corporations and the Mexican government. For example: While Mexican law requires that hazardous waste created by foreign-owned factories in the maquila zone be shipped back to the country of origin for treatment, only

12% of 8 million tons of hazardous waste receives adequate treatment, and only 30% is returned to the country of origin.5 Total environmental inspections plummeted by 45% after 1993, and inspections in the maquila zone decreased by 37%.6 In a
recent survey of maquiladora managers, 45% said that they were dissatisfied with the availability of environmental training and 50 to 70% of respondents indicated that they were not rewarded or given financial incentives for environmental improvement, demonstrating the lack of importance given to environmental protection among corporations operating in the maquiladora sector. 7 Although, spending on environmental protection in Mexico grew between 1988 and 1993, it fell by nearly half between 1994 and 1999. The
cost of environmental damage has averaged 10% of the Mexican GDP since 1999,

equivalent to $64.7 billion dollars in 2004, whereas spending for environmental protection amounted to 0.6% of GDP, or 4.1 million dollars. Investment

in environmental protection would need to be 14.6 times greater to keep up with the level of degradation and natural resource destruction.

The Tijuana River is ecologically threatened by maquiladoras NERR 10


(Tijuana River Comprehensive Management Plan- National Estuarine Research Reserve. National Estuarine Research Reserve. August 2010. http://www.nerrs.noaa.gov/Doc/PDF/Reserve/TJR_ MgmtPlan.pdf) The Reserve is an ecological oasis situated in an urban environment on an international border. The contrasts make it a stunning natural jewel within the highly-populated, highly developed coastline. Its intact natural systems defy the resource-degrading activities that surround it and threaten it. The Reserve management team faces many challenges in protecting and enhancing the health of this coastal wetland. The Reserve has suffered from: Accelerated sedimentation from erosion on both sides of the border, smothering salt marsh and altering the estuarys natural hydrologic processes; Continued encroachment of exotic plant species that displace native habitat. The three primary species targeted for eradication are tamarisk, castor bean and arundo; Flow of trash from across the international border, particularly tires and plastics; Chronic pollution from domestic and industrial discharges, and continuous freshwater flows that have threatened native species and their habitat; and Potential vandalism of signs,

benches, research equipment, and facilities resulting from the Reserve's location in an urban environment.

Tijuana is key to important habitats, species and wetlands NERR 10


(Tijuana River Comprehensive Management Plan- National Estuarine Research Reserve. National Estuarine Research Reserve. August 2010. http://www.nerrs.noaa.gov/Doc/PDF/Reserve/TJR_ MgmtPlan.pdf) The Tijuana River National Estuarine Research Reserve (TRNERR) is unique in a local, regional, national, and international context. It offers one of the best and largest remaining examples of Californias coastal wetland habitat, a habitat that has been largely lost due to urban development or seriously degraded elsewhere in southern California. This section includes a brief description of the importance of estuarine habitats and the natural resources protected within the Reserve. I. THE NEED TO PROTECT ESTUARIES A. DEFINITION Estuaries are a hydrological and biological crossroads, defined as the portion of the earth's coastal zone where there is interaction of ocean water, freshwater, land, and atmosphere. The specific plant and animal habitats that may be supported by an estuarine system are determined by conditions in the watershed and in the adjacent ocean. The rate at which fresh water enters the estuary, the amount and type of waterborne and bottom sediments, the degree of tidal flushing, and water depth (hence temperature and degree of sunlight), all combine to produce diverse biological communities in a dynamic and complex system. A

significant physical change in any of those factors can trigger traumatic changes in the estuarine biologic community , greatly enlarging or reducing the size of various species' populations. B. ESTUARINE FUNCTIONS Estuarine wetlands provide a number of valuable ecological functions, or socalled ecosystem services. Most broadly, there are sources of recreational and aesthetic benefits, as witnessed by the boom in industries such as eco-tourism. Also, they offer critical buffers between the sea, land, and freshwater. They can protect inland areas from ocean-borne waves and storm activity. Also, they also can help protect the ocean from watershed inputs, filtering and helping to purify water. In a healthy estuarine system, the interaction of tides, unpolluted fresh water, and sediments creates some of the most productive systems on the planet. Sheltered shallow waters and soft mud or sand flats, regularly flooded by the tides, provide ideal conditions for abundant life. Among the most important estuarine species are microscopic photosynthetic organisms called phytoplankton. Phytoplankton, like green plants, make the energy of sunlight available to animals as food. Phytoplankton are consumed by microscopic and minute animals called zooplankton. These animals include small crustaceans such as copepods, and the larvae of fish, crabs, clams, and other species. These organisms themselves are part of the food supply for adults of their own or other species. Marsh plants and eelgrass growing in shallow estuarine waters are critically important to estuarine animal life. Marsh vegetation not only provides cover for many animals, but also, as it dies back each season, creates detritus that feeds and houses the species on which

larger species depend. The blades of eelgrass are homes for algae, snails, and other food for larger animals. Juveniles of many species reach adulthood by hiding among estuarine vegetation. In an undisturbed estuary, the wealth of food can support huge populations of immature and adult fish, crabs, shrimp, and other species. Those animals provide essential food for populations of birds and mammals, including people. C. MODIFICATION OF ESTUARIES Estuaries-characteristically flat land that offers sheltered access to the sea, and a profusion of fish and other seafood--offer attractive conditions for human habitation, agricultural production, and transportation. Estuaries on the west coast of the U.S. supported native peoples for thousands of years and, more recently, settlers from other parts of the globe. Prior to the 1970s, the value and finite nature of estuaries were not fully appreciated. It was not recognized that estuaries are integral to ecological and human well-being. Destruction of estuaries was disastrously affecting water quality, commercial and recreational fisheries, and overall ecosystem health. Estuary-dependent plants and animal populations began to dwindle with lost habitat, food sources, and reproductive sites. Affected species included not only salmonids, crab, and clams, but also birds such as eagles and falcons, which feed on the tideflats. Increasing awareness of the value of estuaries triggered current efforts to preserve, conserve, and restore these fragile systems.

Wetlands are key to the hydro-cycle the impact is extinction Ramsar Convention, 96, Ramsar Convention on
Wetlands, Wetlands and Biodiversity, Executive Summary, http://www.ramsar.org/about/about_biodiversity.htm, ACC: 12.20.08, p. online Wetlands - including (inter alia) rivers, lakes, marshes, estuaries, lagoons, mangroves, seagrass beds, and peatlands - are among the most precious natural resources on Earth. These highly varied ecosystems are natural areas where water accumulates for at least part of the year. Driven by the hydrological cycle, water is continuously being recycled through the land, sea and atmosphere in a process which ensures the maintenance of ecological functions. Wetlands support high levels of biological diversity: they are, after tropical rainforests, amongst the richest ecosystems on this planet, providing essential life support for much of humanity, as well as for other species. Coastal wetlands, which may include estuaries, seagrass beds and mangroves, are among the most productive, while coral reefs contain some of the highest known levels of biodiversity (nearly onethird of all known fish species live on coral reefs). Other wetlands also offer sanctuary to a wide variety of plants, invertebrates, fishes, amphibians, reptiles and mammals, as well as to millions of both migratory and sedentary waterbirds. Wetlands are not only sites of exceptional biodiversity, they are also of enormous social and economic value, in both traditional and contemporary societies. Since ancient times, people have lived along water courses, benefiting from the wide range of goods and services available from wetlands. The development of many of the great civilisations was largely based on their access to, and

management of, wetland resources. Wetlands are an integral part of the hydrological cycle, playing a key role in the provision and maintenance of water quality and quantity as the basis of all life on earth. They are often interconnected with other wetlands, and they frequently constitute rich and diverse transition zones between aquatic ecosystems and terrestrial ecosystems such as forests and grasslands.

Tijuana River Estuary is uniquely key to international biodiversity Romo 2-13


Oscar Romo. Oscar Romo, Ph.D., is a former United Nations diplomat and now the watershed coordinator at the Tijuana River National Estuarine Research ReserveAlpha Forma, LLC. Detection, Mapping and Communication of Solid Waste Pollution Sources in the Tijuana River Valley. Febuary 13 2013.http://www.waterboards.ca.gov/sandiego/board_info/a gendas/2013/Feb/item7/Item7_sup_doc_1.pdf) The Tijuana River National Estuarine Research Reserve (TRNERR) preserves one of the largest remaining examples of coastal wetland habitats in the southern California subregion, including beach, dune, mud flat, salt marsh, riparian, coastal sage and upland habitats. The 2,293 acre Tijuana River Reserve is located in Imperial Beach, Calif., situated in a highly urbanized location, 15 miles south of San Diego and immediately adjacent to Tijuana, Mexico. Three quarters of the reserves watershed is in Mexico, so reserve programs apply an international perspective to critical issues of habitat restoration, endangered species management, and trash and sediment flows from Mexico (TRNERR management plan). The reserve is recognized as a wetland of international importance by the Ramsar Convention. The Tijuana River Estuary is one of the few salt marshes remaining in Southern

California, where over 90% of wetland habitat has been lost to development. The site is an essential breeding, feeding, nesting ground and key stopover point on the Pacific Flyway for over 370 species of migratory and native birds, including the endangered Light-footed clapper rail, California least tern, Least Bells vireo, and white and brown pelicans

Biodiversity key to life on earth, especially now Albert-Ludwigs-Universitt Freiburg 11


Albert-Ludwigs-Universitt Freiburg (2011, August 14). Biodiversity key to Earth's life-support functions in a changing world. ScienceDaily http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/08/110811084513.htm The biological diversity of organisms on Earth is not just something we enjoy when taking a walk through a blossoming meadow in spring; it is also the basis for countless products and services provided by nature, including food, building materials, and medicines as well as the self-purifying qualities of water and protection against erosion. These socalled ecosystem services are what makes Earth inhabitable for humans. They are based on ecological processes, such as photosynthesis, the production of biomass, or nutrient cycles. Since biodiversity is on the decline, both on a global and a local scale , researchers are asking the question as to what role the diversity of organisms plays in maintaining these ecological processes and thus in providing the ecosystem's vital products and services. In an international research group led by Prof. Dr. Michel Loreau from Canada, ecologists from ten different universities and research institutes, including Prof. Dr. Michael Scherer-Lorenzen from the University of Freiburg, compiled findings from numerous biodiversity

experiments and reanalyzed them. These experiments simulated the loss of plant species and attempted to determine the consequences for the functioning of ecosystems, most of them coming to the conclusion that a higher level of biodiversity is accompanied by an increase in ecosystem processes. However, the findings were always only valid for a certain combination of environmental conditions present at the locations at which the experiments were conducted and for a limited range of ecosystem processes. In a study published in the current issue of the journal Nature, the research group investigated the extent to which the positive effects of diversity still apply under changing environmental conditions and when a multitude of processes are taken into account. They found that 84 percent of the 147 plant species included in the experiments promoted ecological processes in at least one case . The more years, locations, ecosystem processes, and scenarios of global change -- such as global warming or land use intensity -- the experiments took into account, the more plant species were necessary to guarantee the functioning of the ecosystems . Moreover, other species were always necessary to keep the ecosystem processes running under the different combinations of influencing factors. These findings indicate that much more biodiversity is necessary to keep ecosystems functioning in a world that is changing ever faster. The protection of diversity is thus a crucial factor in maintaining Earth's life-support functions.

Labor Laws
Contention (): Human Rights Status quo maquiladora labor laws go unenforced Shah (Mitali, Mount Holoyke College, "Cons of maquiladoras" pg online @ http://www.mtholyoke.edu/~shah20m/classweb/c ons.html)
The abuse and mistreatment of maquiladora workers is the main social problem of maquiladoras. Although the Mexican law provides sufficient protections for the employees, the factory managers often ignore it. Earning significantly less than the United State's minimum wage, a maquiladora worker only receives about $3.40 an hour, which is not nearly enough to support a family. Industrial accidents and toxic exposures are common in the plants. Often workers are not given adequate training or provided with safety equipment. Physical risks such as noise, heat, vibrations, poor ventilation, and awkward posture have a high occurrence in maquiladoras. Women are further subjected to unfair discrimination in the maquiladoras. The
Mexican government fails to protect women from pregnancy testing and other violating treatment. Reports find that female workers are routinely subjected to mandatory urine testing and may be forced to resign if they become pregnant. In a letter to Human Rights Watch, Zenith Corporation said, "It is common practice among Mexican and maquiladora employers in Matamoros and Reynosa to inquire about pregnancy status as a pre-existing medical condition." The

report concluded that Zenith admitted to screening out pregnant women from its applicant pools in order to avoid company-funded maternity benefits. This treatment of women creates separate hiring criteria than men, which is a violation of Mexian federal labor law. In 2002 Seafood Workers in Santa Rosala
denounced the Maquila Hanjin and Brumar for numerous violations to labor law,

child labor law, and basic human rights. 96 of them were subsequently fired for trying to form a union. Six years later

the struggle grows , a lawsuit has been filed

and workers continue to establish their union. The following video clip shows their struggle.

IMPACT A: VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN Maquila women are subjected to sexual violence, psychological trauma, and infanticide Pantaleo 2006 Katie California University of Pennsylvania
Katie Pantaleo graduated with honors from California University of Pennsylvania in 2006. She was also the president of the Ssociology Club. Katie is currently pursuing a masters degree in social policy at Duquesne University. Sociological Viewpoints GENDERED VIOLENCE: MURDER IN THE MAQUILADORAS Fall 2006 http://www.pasocsociety.org/article2.pdf Herm One of the problems that many Mexican women face while working in maquiladoras has less to do with discrimination in hiring and more to do with discriminating practices in the workplace. While there is no discrimination against women working in maquiladoras, there is pregnancy discrimination in the workplace. Women who are pregnant are turned away immediately, while those who are hired can be subject to established practices designed to discourage and prevent pregnancy. These practices are as follows: pregnancy testing, proof of menstruation, and physical harm. First of all, women can be forced to undergo pregnancy testing throughout their work term (Abell 1999). This occurs randomly and without notice and usually consists of a urine test. A second practice is more painful for the women, psychologically and emotionally. Each month, women may be mandated to demonstrate

proof of their menstruation by showing sanitary napkins to managers. Also a series of intrusive questions are asked to each female employee, such as the date of her last period, what kind of contraception she uses, and when the last time was she had sex (Koerner 1999). The third practice adds physical harm to the existing emotional and psychological stress. Women may be deliberately punched in the stomach and abdomen by managers to make sure that they are not pregnant or to damage any unborn child. Because of these practices, female maquiladora workers suffer numerous consequences. In relation to reproduction in general, maquiladora workers are likely to have irregular menstruation, miscarriages, fertility problems, and to bear children with birth defects such as premature births or low birth weight (Abell 1999).

Sexual violence against individuals constitutes a war against whole communities and peoples, a war which dehumanizes and robs individuals of their individuality, and is a D-Rule for the aff.
Chowdhury 2002 (Rumna Chowdhury, Former Program Manager of the Battered Womens Legal Advocacy Project, Winter 2002, Kadic v. Karadzic - Rape as a Crime Against Women as a Class, Law and Inequality, 20 Law & Ineq. J. 91, p. L/N) Feminist scholars have long recognized sexual violence as a tool used by men to manipulate and control women through fear. n52 [*100] In fact, some assert that rape , identified by psychologists as " the most intrusive of traumatic events ," n53 itself constitutes a war against women. n54 Internationally, there is a long history of rape and violent

sexual abuse of women during times of armed conflict. n55 From the founding of the city of Rome n56 to the Gulf War, n57 history is replete with examples of such violence. n58 [*101] The repercussions of rape for an individual woman may last far beyond the actual attack or attacks, often affecting her for the rest of her life. n59 Beyond the physical pain and degradation, fear remains long after an attack. n60 For those who survive an attack, there is the risk of sexually transmitted diseases and infections, infertility, and pregnancy, n61 in addition to other physical and psychological disorders. n62 Pregnancy poses a particular problem because it forces women to face the possibility that they may bear their attacker's child. n63 People from the woman's own community may see her child as proof of her immoral behavior and, in the case of rape committed by enemy forces, collaboration with that enemy. n64 Abortion is often not an option because of scarce medical resources or strict religious teachings. n65 In some communities, infertility, disease, and loss of virginity leave women unmarriageable. n66 Many women commit suicide because they are unable to bear the trauma and shame associated with their attack . n67 The effects of rape likewise reach beyond the individual woman attacked and undermine the well-being and security of her family and community. n68 In addition to the basic medical care needed following a violent attack, a woman facing disease or pregnancy will require additional medical attention, which may place a strain on an already ailing community. n69 Psychological trauma may move beyond the individual to affect spouses, parents, [*102] and children. n70 Oftentimes, "the harm inflicted ... on a woman by a rapist is an attack on her family and culture, as in many societies women are viewed as repositories of a community's cultural

and spiritual values." n71 A traumatized individual may not be able to fulfill her obligations to her family or community, resulting in a gradual halting of everyday activities. n72 Shame that often leads to suicide or exile (whether forced by the community or voluntary) leaves children without mothers and leaves the community in a more advanced state of trauma: such a community has to face not only the attack of its women, but their absence as well. n73 To compound this devastation, the fear that a woman feels after an attack spreads to other women in the community who were not personally attacked but who are aware that they may be the next target. n74 The effects of sexual violence on both individual women and on their communities are not an incidental byproduct of the violence of war. On the contrary, the effects of sexual violence are precisely the purpose for the violence, because it causes widespread fear and trauma. Sexual violence is used not only to control and manipulate individual women, but also to exert power over entire communities, as was the case in the former Yugoslavia. n75 Law professor Christine Chinkin writes: Rape in war is not merely a matter of chance, of women victims being in the wrong place at the wrong time. Nor is it a question of sex. It is rather a question of power and control which is structured by male soldiers' notions of their masculine privilege, by the strength of the military's lines of command and by class and ethnic inequalities among women. n76 Sexual violence during times of armed conflict forwards the goal of having power and control over individual women as well as entire communities. Recognition of the widespread community effects of violence against women is crucial to disassembling the public/private dichotomy. Because the effects of sexual violence are not simply private, the crime is also not simply private, and therefore deserves public attention. **103+ Radhika

Coomaraswamy, United Nations Special Rapporteur n77 on Violence Against Women, identifies several reasons for sexual violence against women during armed conflict. n78 Coomaraswamy maintains that violence against an individual woman may be directed towards her social group because "to rape a woman is to humiliate her community." n79 The raping of women in a community is a declaration to the men of that community that they have been defeated, for they have failed at their most basic task: to ostensibly protect "their" women. n80 Law professor Catharine MacKinnon makes the assertion that the systematic sexual violence against women during the conflict in the former Yugoslavia would not have happened unless rape was acceptable as an everyday phenomenon. n81 She notes: One result is that these rapes are not grasped either as a strategy in genocide or as a practice of misogyny, far less as both at once. What is happening to Bosnian and Croatian women at the hands of the Serbian forces is continuous both with this ethnic war of aggression and with the gendered war of aggression of everyday life. For most women, this is to everyday rape what the Holocaust was to everyday anti-Semitism: without the everyday, you could not have the conflagration... n82 This acceptance of everyday rape and its relegation to the "private" realm allow for the use of rape as a tool of war while maintaining the private categorization and avoidance of liability for egregious violence against women. The Kadic action, which held Karadzic liable for his ordered violence against women, is an example of the removal of rape from its private categorization. n83 Rape is not a private crime against individual women; rather, it is a crime committed against women as a class. The sheer number of women who are sexually violated every year supports [*104] this argument. n84 Having considered the "public" effects of "private" sexual

violence, it is clear that rape is a problem that deserves much more attention than it has traditionally received.

Maquiladora workers are especially vulnerable to rising femicide on the border Olivia Kirkpatrick 3/27/13 From the Central American
Womens Network for the Latin American Bureau http://lab.org.uk/femicide-in-mexico-the-cotton-field-caseand-its-sequels
We are here today because the search for our daughters in unstoppable, femicide and disappearances force us to continue fighting without respite to demand justice, to raise awareness and to show solidarity, to join forces and denounce together. These were the words of the Committee of Mothers and Relatives of Disappeared Daughters in Ciudad Jurez, dozens of women who came together to give a press conference on March 11th 2013. This year it will be two decades since this phenomenon began, they said, 20 years of impunity, of pain for the mothers and families of Ciudad Jurez. (Click here for the full report). In

1993 young women from Jurez started disappearing and turning up in fields and rubbish dumps, mutilated, sexually abused and murdered. Many of the victims were factory workers who disappeared while travelling to or from work. Others were teenage students, migrants and other vulnerable young women. According to data from El Colegio de la Frontera Norte, 47 per cent of
victims (1993-2004) were aged between 10-19 years and 27.8 per cent between 2029 years). Such

murders of women in Mexico have continued to escalate in recent years, in the complete absence of effective investigations and justice. Womens organisations use the term femicide or feminicide to describe the brutal killings of women by men, often preceded by intense sexual violence and torture. Femicide occurs not only in Ciudad Jurez, but
country-wide: at least 34,000 women were murdered in Mexico between 1985 and 2009, according to figures produced by the UN and local rights groups. In 2010 alone, Amnesty reported that 2,418 women were killed nationwide, 320 of them in Ciudad Jurez. Between June 2011 and June 2012 almost 4,000 women and girls were reported as disappeared. Ciudad

Jurez is a border town in Chihuahua with an estimated population of 1.4 million. It is a

free-trade zone for exports to the USA, established following the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), and hosts about three hundred assembly plants (called maquilas). Young women from all over Mexico and Central America come to Ciudad Jurez to find work in these factories. They are especially vulnerable to exploitation by their employers and to acts of violence because they lack the social networks that exist in their home communities. In the
past five years a number of laws have been approved and institutions established to protect women from discrimination and violence. One of the most important is the General Law of Access for Women to a Life Free from Violence (GLAWLFV) which recognizes femicide as a crime and lays responsibility both on the perpetrator and on the State for failing in its duty to safeguard womens lives. However, a

lack of political will and dedicated resources means that many of these measures are useless in practice. Not only has the State continued to neglect its duty to protect women and tackle the causes of extreme VAW, but femicide rates have increased in the past few years with little being done to prevent these crimes or bring the perpetrators to justice.

This contributes to anti-feminist sentiment


Nidya Sarria 8/3/2009 Research Associate for the Council on Hemispheric Relations FEMICIDES OF JUREZ: VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN IN MEXICO http://www.coha.org/femicides-of-juarez-violence-againstwomen-in-mexico/ Mexican-owned as well as joint venture industries have not prospered post-NAFTA, except for maquiladoras, a unique from of production that grew out of these new economic policies. Maquiladoras flourished as a result of the Mexican government being
largely responsible for their growth. They used presidential decrees to enact programs to attract foreign investment, such as the Border Industrialization Programme (BIP) in 1965. The peso was devalued at the end of 1980s and 1990s, and programs were created to encourage export industries, as well as trade agreements, such as NAFTA. As a whole, these policies, at least for a time, have

made maquiladoras the most dynamic industrial sector in Mexico. Within

the maquiladoras, globalization has caused the deregulation of different workplace dynamics; women are usually preferred as workers because it is assumed that they will more flexible accept new shifts in production, such as job changes and changeable hours. The young women of Jurez are also favored by the maquila bosses for their nimble fingers and obedience. Many of the femicide victims were women employed by maquiladoras. Thus, as a result of the decade-long history of femicides in Jurez, large maquilas began to provide bus service to and from the maquila, but this has not been an effective preventive security measure. Female Workers of Maquiladoras
According to the Organization of American Statess Inter-American Commission on Human Rights: The victims of these

crimes have preponderantly been the state of young women, between 12 and 22 years of age. Many were students, and most were maquiladora workers. A number were relative newcomers to Ciudad Jurez who had migrated
from other areas of Mexico. The victims were generally reported missing by their families, with their bodies found days or months later abandoned in vacant lots, outlying areas or in the desert. In

most of these cases there were signs of sexual violence, abuse, torture or in some cases mutilation. At least 18 girls have been identified missing in the past 14 months. These women share some similar characteristics: pretty
and slender, with dark, shoulder-length hair, at least nine of them vanished while shopping downtown or looking for work. Most of these women also come from impoverished families residing in the outskirts of the city. This is not a new phenomenon; in 2003, Amnesty International issued a report, Intolerable Killings: 10 years of abductions and murders of women in Ciudad Jurez and Chihuahua, which discussed the pattern of killings and abductions of women in Ciudad Jurez and the City of Chihuahua. This report concluded that 370 women had been murdered in Jurez, with about a third having suffering sexual violence before being murder. Approximately half of the cases have remained unresolved; the perpetrators have yet to be brought to justice, with most remaining at large, and with the local authorities seemingly remaining indifferent. Why Have Women Been Targeted as Murder Victims? Some people see the femicides as a product of a cultural image of women in Latin America. A

female worker in a maquiladora is can be looked upon as a form of variable

capital; the labor value of a Mexican maquiladora worker declines over time because, according to her managers, her value as a worker is used up after years of endless, exhausting hours of factory work. Men, on the other hand, are seen as trainable and
intelligent. They are valued higher than female workers due to their alleged ability to constantly learn and produce value over a protracted period of time. In

essence, women are filtered into the lesser skilled jobs at these factories and simultaneously are left vulnerable to sexual harassment and assault. The intrinsic value of a victim of femicide is usually questioned following her death. Members of the media and the community alike try to categorize these women as either good girls, fitting the archetype of a good daughter or worker, or as fallen women, usually described as prostitutes, sluts, or barmaids. By putting emphasis on the identity of the women, onlookers seem to be placing a higher value on the lives of well-behaved women as well as providing a twisted justification for overlooking or minimize the crimes at hand. For instance, in 1995,
the then-governor of Chihuahua, Francisco Barrio, advised parents to keep an eye on their daughters and not allow them to go out at night. The implication was that good girls did not go out at night and since the unfortunate victims typically disappeared during the night, it followed that by objective standards they were found to not be very good girls. Likewise, when speaking to the family members of the murdered women, the police often explained the disappearance of the victims by pointing out how common it *was+ for women to lead double lives.

Patriarchy causes extinction Warren and Cady Professor @ Macalester U 96 (Karen,.,


and Duane, Professor @ Hamline, Bringing peace home: feminism, violence, and nature, 1996, p.12-13) Operationalized, the evidence of patriarchy as a dysfunctional system is found in the behaviors to which it gives rise, (c) the unmanageability, (d) which results. For example, in the United States, current estimates are that one out of every three or four women will be raped by someone she knows; globally,

rape, sexual harassment, spouse-beating, and sadomassochistic pornography are examples of behaviors practiced, sanctioned, or tolerated within patriarchy. In the realm of environmentally destructive behaviors, strip-mining, factory farming, and pollution of the air, water, and soil are instances of behaviors maintained and sanctioned within patriarchy. They, too, rest on the faulty beliefs that it is okay to rape the earth, that it is mans God-given right to have dominion (that is domination) over the earth, that nature has only instrumental value that environmental destruction is the acceptable price we pay for progress. And the presumption of warism, that war is a natural, righteous, and ordinary way to impose dominion on a people or nation, goes hand in hand with patriarchy and leads to dysfunctional behaviors of nations and ultimately to international unmanageability. Much of the current unmanageability of contemporary life in patriarchal societies, (d) is then viewed as a consequence of a patriarchal preoccupation with activities, events, and experiences that reflect historically male-gender-identified beliefs, values, attitudes, and assumptions. Included among these real-life consequences are precisely those concerns with nuclear proliferation, war, and environmental destruction, and violence towards women, which many feminists see as the logical outgrowth of patriarchal thinking. In fact, it is often only through observing these dysfunctional behaviorsthe symptoms of dysfunctionalitythat one can truly see that and how patriarchy serves to maintain and perpetuate them. When patriarchy is understood as a dysfunctional system, this unmanageability can be seen for what it isas a predictable and thus logical consequence of patriarchy. The theme that global environmental crises, war, and violence generally are predictable and logical consequences of sexism and

patriarchal culture is pervasive in ecofeminist literature. Ecofeminist Charlene Spretnak, for instance, argues that a militarism and warfare are continual features of a patriarchal society because they reflect and instill patriarchal values and fulfill needs of such a system. Acknowledging the context of patriarchal conceptualizations that feed militarism is a first step toward reducing their impact and preserving life on Earth. Stated in terms of the foregoing model of patriarchy as a dysfunctional social system, the claims by Spretnak and other feminists take on a clearer meaning: Patriarchal conceptual frameworks legitimate impaired thinking (about women, national and regional conflict, the environment) which is manifested in behaviors which, if continued, will make life on earth difficult, if not impossible. It is a stark message, but it is plausible. Its plausibility lies in understanding the conceptual roots of various woman-nature-peace connections in regional, national, and global contexts.

IMPACT B: HUMAN RIGHTS


Maquiladoras are a source of inhumane conditions and violence Frank and Spehar (Anja K. Frank and Andrea Spehar, " Women's labour migration in the context of globalisation" pg online @ http://www2.weedonline.org/uploads/women_s_labour_migration_in _the_context_of_globalisation.pdf, published by the WIDE network)
Declining real wages despite higher productivity, avoiding profit sharing and requiring overtime, often without

commensurate pay, are wage issues that reflect a broader concern. In their heady drive for short-term profits, most maquiladoras operate
without a social conscience. Health, safety and sexual harassment issues are endemic to maquiladoras.

Noise, loud and constant; inadequate ventilation; exposure to toxic materials;67 and unprotected work environments under temperature extremes, all behind locked doors, are examples of inhumane conditions in all too many maquiladoras. Chronic work-related illnesses and injuries should be no surprise. Examples include musculoskeletal, 13respiratory, reproductive, circulatory, hearing and vision loss and persistent headaches. The American Friends
Service Committee states thatstress related to work is a major ailment perhaps exacerbated due to the high accident rate. 68 Data relating to poor health and safety conditions in maquiladoras are largely gathered through interviews, usually in secret and under the seal of confidentiality.

Retribution against whistle blowers generally is harsh and swift. The result is that information tends to be in the form of case studies or anecdotes. Such data are dismissed by companies and governments as biased and unscientific. Yet maquiladora owners do
not permit independent health and safety assessments of their factories and government officials are not keen to conduct inspections and fine violators.69 Workers do have strong legal rights to workplace safety, at least on paper. For example, Mexican laws were written to protect workers from hazardous waste and unsafe working conditions in non-discriminatory work environments. The

trouble is that governmental agencies regard worker safety laws as optional, at the discretion of maquiladora management. An example of a crass violator to Mexican labour laws and the intent of NAALC is US Breed Technologies. Numerous complaints failed to get the Mexican government to implement its health and safety laws at Breeds Auto Trim plant in Matamorus and Custom Trim factory in
Valle Hermoso.

More than 20 complaints were filed to the US NOA against Breed between 1994 and May 2002. Not a single one has produced significant results, aside from a bit of publicity.70 A US agency that was assigned to investigate the charges against Breed confirmed unsafe and unhealthy working conditions in violation to Mexican law.71 Yet

the US Secretary of Labor has refused to take action. Her stonewalling is legally allowed,

however morally repugnant. Cases brought into the NAALC system have
no deadlines for which some action must be taken or judgement made. As with health and safety, sexual

harassment is another abuse of human rights largely ignored in maquiladoras. While forced pregnancy tests are violations of the law, other abusive practices may not be. The problem is compounded in Mexican factories because sexual harassment is not prohibited by law.72 Investigative reporter Debbie Nathan maintains that a climate of sexism is promoted. Women wear different coloured uniforms than men. Supervisors freely flirt, fondle and ask younger, single women for dates. More attractive workers are encouraged to compete in Miss Maquiladora beauty contests. Sexualization allies workers with management and alienates them from one another . . .
(where) the job becomes a fantasy world.73

Maquiladora reform sets an international standard for worker rights


Joe Bandy 2002 Department of Sociology/Anthropology, Bowdoin College, Brunswick, Maine So What Is to Be Done?:Maquila Justice Movements, Transnational Solidarity, and Dynamics of Resistance http://www.academia.edu/1353488/So_What_Is_To_Be_Don e_Maquila_Justice_Movements_Transnational_Solidarity_An d_Dynamics_Of_Resistance Endeavors of labor networks to empower maquila workers have had mixed results. Given the repression they face, their limited resources, and continuing internal conflicts, the very survival of cross-border labor networks for maquila justice has been a positive result. Beyond survival, however, some episodes of labor conflict have resulted in changes that workers have regarded as progressive. There have been

corporatere forms to toxic dumping and abusive labor relations; workers have received precedent-setting legal verdicts and settlements in both national and international tribunals ; labor rights education has informed countless citizens; and as we will see, workers have had qualified successes in unionization and collective bargaining. In these efforts, coalition has functioned to magnify the strengths of individual organizations, and each success has fortified hopes in a growing transnational civil society that can help to institute a more democratic form of development. In many instances, however, workers goals have not been achieved and the hopes of regulating transnational capital are dim. In these cases, corporations have fired and intimidated activists; Mexican government leaders and official unions have obstructed independent unionization and harassed workers; activists have had limited resources to devote to organizing; or workers coalitions have conflicted over strategy, organizational development, or identity issues such as nationality, disrupting their unity and power. Indeed, at this moment in history, the forces of economic liberalization appear far stronger than those of democratic regulation, prompting social movements worldwide to ask, not unlike Lenin (1929), what is to be done?To this question there may be as many answers as there are movements. Yet, among labor organizations, each episode of conflict with corporations and government has facilitated the development of common, coordinated strategies of resistance. To understand the most current phase of labor movement activism and the power dynamics between labor and capital in the maquilas, it will be helpful to discuss two of the most recent and prominent cases of labor mobilizations in the maquilas that at the HanYoung plant in Tijuana, Baja

California from 1997 to 1999, and that against the 3Kukdong/Mexmode maquila in Atlixco, Puebla from 2000 to 2002. Clearly, there have been many precedent-setting labor struggles in Mexican maquilas since the late 1970sthat could be discussed here Solidev, Sony, ALCOA, GE, Maxiswitch, or Duro yet Han Young and Kukdong are arguably the most instructive. Each movement was able to achieve new precedents of unionization, one government recognition, the other a labor contract. Further, each demonstrates slightly different paradigms of resistance to export processing, with distinct strategic opportunities, regional influences, and outcomes. HanYoung represents at once one of the greatest successes and failures of maquila labo rmovements, while many regard that of Kukdong/Mexmode to be a new model for laborinternationalism in North America. Thus, a comparative analysis of these cases willprovide insights into the industrial conflict in the maquila sector. This discussion is grounded in ten extended (2-3 hour) interviews of the lead activists and workers participating in each conflict, conducted during 1997-8 for the Han Young case and during 2001 for Kukdong. Additionally, government reports and movement documents communiqus, monitoring reports, action alerts, protest faxes/letters, media packages,etc. will be discussed. Lastly, this research was conducted as part of a much larger study of U.S.-Mexico labor coalitions involving over onehundred interviews with activists, maquila managers, and government officials, as well as over six years of selective participation in workers movements, providing many other relevant insights. Driving Hyundai to the Brink: The Case of Han Young

The continued progression of human rights is key to prevent nuclear war and environmental degradation Sohn 82 (Louis Sohn, emeritus professor of intl law at
Harvard, professor of international law at the University of Georgia, Fall 1982, American University Law Review, 32 Am. U.L. Rev. 1, p. 62-4) Whatever the merits of the contentions of those who disparage the new rights, two points must be made; one relates to the interdependence of all human rights, the other concerns the present importance of these rights. With respect to the first point, it must be noted that various international institutions have specially emphasized the interdependence, complementarity, and indivisibility of human rights. By 1968, the Teheran International Conference on Human Rights had already stated in its Declaration that [s]ince human rights and fundamental freedoms are indivisible, the full realization of civil and political rights without the enjoyment of economic, social and cultural rights, is impossible. The achievement of lasting progress in the implementation of human rights is dependent on sound and effective national and international policies of economic development. In a similar spirit the crucial 1977 General Assembly Resolution 32/130 on alternative approaches to the improvement of United Nations effectiveness in promoting human rights noted, inter alia: (a) All human rights and fundamental freedoms are indivisible and interdependent; equal attention and urgent consideration should be given to the implementation, promotion and protection of both civil and political, and economic, social and cultural rights; (d) Consequently, human rights questions should be examined globally, taking into account both the overall context of the various societies

in which they present themselves, as well as the need for the promotion of the full dignity of the human person and the development and well-being of the society . . . . It should not surprise anyone if the truth about the current relevance of the new human rights were somewhere between the two extreme views. Like the economic, social, and cultural rights, the new rights, even if not immediately attainable, establish new goals that can be achieved progressively, by one laborious step after another. They are vast and overwhelming, but so are our problems. The damage to humanity that might be inflicted by a nuclear war or an environmental catastrophe is almost beyond comprehension; we need to grasp any tool that is available to stem an engulfing tide that is of horrifying proportions. Perhaps these new concepts can be the equivalent of the Dutch boy's finger that at the last minute plugged the hole in the dike. We are in a desperate situation; we need to be brave. As Virgil said, "audentes fortuna juvat": fortune helps the daring. In the field of human rights we have had two successful revolutions; we should have the courage to begin a third.

US incorporation of customary international law prevents extinction


Rhonda Copelon, Professor of Law and Director of the International Womens Human Rights Law Clinic, 1999, 3 N.Y. City L. Rev. 59, p. L/N The indivisible human rights framework survived the Cold War despite U.S. machinations to truncate it in the international arena. The framework is there to shatter the myth of the superiority [*72] of the U.S. version of rights, to rebuild popular expectations, and to help develop a culture and

jurisprudence of indivisible human rights. Indeed, in the face of systemic inequality and crushing poverty, violence by official and private actors, globalization of the market economy, and military and environmental depredation, the human rights framework is gaining new force and new dimensions. It is being broadened today by the movements of people in different parts of the world, particularly in the Southern Hemisphere and significantly of women, who understand the protection of human rights as a matter of individual and collective human survival and betterment. Also emerging is a notion of third-generation rights, encompassing collective rights that cannot be solved on a state-by-state basis and that call for new mechanisms of accountability, particularly affecting Northern countries. The emerging rights include human-centered sustainable development, environmental protection, peace, and security. 38 Given the poverty and inequality in the United States as well as our role in the world, it is imperative that we bring the human rights framework to bear on both domestic and foreign policy.

Econ
Contention (): Econ Mexico is on track to a rebounding economy, needed reforms still hamper its growth Villarreal, U.S Mexican Relations 2012 (U.S.-Mexico
Economic Relations: Trends, Issues, and Implications, M. Angeles Villarreal, Specialist in International Trade and Finance, August 9, 2012, http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/row/RL32934.pdf) D.R The Mexican economy grew by 3.9% in 2011 and is expected to grow by 3.7% in 2012 and 3.8% in 2013.25 The economy has recovered since 2009, when the global financial crisis, and the subsequent downturn in the U.S. economy, resulted in the sharpest economic contraction in the Mexican economy in 20 years. Mexicos economy is estimated to have contracted by 6.6% in 2009, while the Mexican peso depreciated against the dollar by 25%.26 Trends in Mexicos GDP growth generally follow U.S. economic trends, as shown in Figure 2. Mexico experienced the deepest recession in the Latin America region following the crisis. This is largely due to its high dependence on manufacturing exports to the United States, though other factors have also contributed. Other Latin American countries experienced negative economic consequences from the global financial crisis, but to a lesser extent. Mexico outperformed Brazil in economic growth in 2011 (3.9% compared to 2.7%) and is forecast to do the same in 2012. The Economist Intelligence Unit reports that Mexicos sound macroeconomic fundamentals, solid banking sector, and

competitive export sector are helping Mexicos economy and its ability to weather external conditions. However, Mexicos economic growth has been limited by a need for structural reforms in the labor , education, energy, and fiscal sectors.

Maquiladoras are slowly relocating to China Rapiey 11[Stanley Joseph Rapiey, government
employee/analyst, Maquiladoras and National Security: Design Theory as a Guide,25/10/11, http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a555400.pdf, KP] The number of maquiladoras dramatically increased in Mexico in the 1980s as the Mexican economy shifted to a near-complete focus on export. With the advent of NAFTA, there was a sharp rise in the number of maquiladoras in the 1990s, with the total reaching over 3000 in the following decade.10 NAFTA changed the way Mexico treated imports from countries other than the United States and Canada. Under NAFTA rules (specifically Article 303), only raw materials imported from NAFTA countries receive the benefit of no import taxes. Foreign businesses who use Mexican maquiladoras to fabricate products for import into the U.S. do not receive this benefit.11 The number of maquiladora factories stayed relatively stable until the economic downturn in 2008, when many maquiladoras closed and unemployment in the Mexican northern states rose dramatically.12 In Cd. Juarez, Chihuahua and Tijuana, Baja, two cities with major numbers of export assembly plants, unemployment rose over 21% between 2007 and 2009.13 There are indications that the maquiladoras are slightly rebounding, but these data are difficult to calculate because

the Mexican government now combines maquiladoras data along with other manufacture-for-export entities under an umbrella program called IMMEX.14 In the last decade, China has appeared on the scene as a competitor to the maquiladoras, by significantly undercutting Mexican labor costs, boosting productivity, and providing similar just in time delivery costs.15 Within the last ten years, many businesses have relocated plants from Mexico to Asia. For example, Philips North America shut down a computer screen assembly plant in Juarez and moved the operation to Suzhou, China, and Canon closed an aging inkjet printer factory near the U.S. border and moved its operations to Southeast Asia.16

Maquiladoras are key to the Mexican Economy


-Jobs, Exports, Leadership Expertise,Foreign Exchange

Shah (Mitali, Mount Holoyke College, "Pros of maquiladoras" pg online @ http://www.mtholyoke.edu/~shah20m/classweb/ pros.html)
Maquiladoras employ over 900,000 people who would otherwise be unemployed. The rate of unemployment is lower along the border than it is anywhere else in Mexico. Maquiladoras are leading the country to unrestrained growth. Exports from maquiladoras make up 50% of all exports from Mexico. When the rest of Mexico was suffering from recession in the 80s, the border regions earned enough foreign exchange to stay afloat. Additionally, during the currency crisis of 1994, as other businesses went bankrupt, the maquiladora industry boomed.
Mexico has made incredible strides over the past few decades to improve their reputation as a first class economy. The World Bank ranks Mexico with the 12th largest Gross Domestic Product in the world, and with a population of over 100 million people, it has the 3rd largest per capita income in Latin America. Additionally,

maquiladoras have helped build a network of successful

Mexican businessmen who are skilled in managing multinational companies, allowing them to take charge. Maquiladoras ensure that Mexico will have a firm position in the global economy.

Collapses the US and global economy.


Enrique Rangel, Monterrey Bureau, November 28, 1995, The Dallas Morning News, Pressure on the Peso All year long, thousands

of foreign investors have nervously watched Mexicos volatile financial markets as the Clinton administration and
congressional leaders debated the pros and cons of bailing out a battered currency. With the exception of 1982 - when Mexico defaulted on its foreign debt and a handful of giant New York banks worried they would lose billions of dollars in loans few people abroad ever cared about a weak peso. But now its different, experts say. This time, the world

is keeping a close eye on Mexicos unfolding financial crisis for one simple reason: Mexico is a major international player. If its economy were to collapse, it would drag down a few other countries and thousands of foreign investors. If recovery is prolonged, the world economy will feel the slowdown. It took a peso devaluation so that other countries could notice the key role that Mexico plays in todays global economy, said economist Victor Lpez Villafane of the Monterrey Institute of Technology. I hate to say it, but if Mexico were to default on its debts, that would trigger an international financial collapse not seen since the Great Depression, said Dr. Lpez, who has conducted comparative studies of the Mexican economy and the economies of some Asian and Latin American countries. Thats why its in the best interests of the United States and the industrialized world to help Mexico weather its economic crisis, he said. The crisis began last December when
the Mexican government devalued the currency. Last March, after weeks of debate, President Clinton, the International Monetary Fund and a handful of other countries and international agencies put together a $ 53 billion rescue package for Mexico. But despite the help - $ 20 billion in guarantee loans from the United States - Mexicos financial markets have been volatile for most of the year. The peso is now trading at about 7.70 to the dollar, after falling to an all-time low of 8.30 to the dollar Nov. 9.

The road has been bumpy, and that has made many - particularly U.S. investors nervous. No

country understands better the importance of Mexico to the global economy than the United States, said Jorge Gonzlez Dvila, an economist at Trinity University in San Antonio.
Despite the rhetoric that you hear in Washington, I think that most people agree even those who oppose any aid to Mexico - that when

Mexico sneezes, everybody catches a cold, Mr. Gonzlez said. Thats why nowadays any talk
of aid to Mexico or trade with Mexico gets a lot of attention, he said. Most economists, analysts and business leaders on both sides of the border agree that the

biggest impact abroad of a prolonged Mexican fiscal crisis may be on the U.S. economy, especially in Texas and in cities bordering Mexico.

Economic crisis causes war Royal, 2010, (Director of the DODs Cooperative Threat
Reduction Program, 10 Jedediah Royal, Director of Cooperative Threat Reduction at the U.S. Department of Defense, 2010, Economic Integration, Economic Signaling and the Problem of Economic Crises, in Economics of War and Peace: Economic, Legal and Political Perspectives, ed. Goldsmith and Brauer, p. 213-215) Less intuitive is how periods of economic decline may increase the likelihood of external conflict. Political science literature has contributed a moderate degree of attention to the impact of economic decline and the security and defence behaviour of interdependent slates. Research in this vein has been considered at systemic, dyadic and national levels. Several notable contributions follow. First, on the systemic level. Pollins (2008) advances Modelski and Thompson's (19%) work on leadership cycle theory, finding that rhythms in the global economy are associated with the rise and fall of a preeminent power and the often bloody transition from one preeminent leader to the next. As such, exogenous shocks such as economic crises could usher in a redistribution of relative power (sec also Gilpin. 1981) that leads to uncertainty about

power balances, increasing the risk of miscalculation (Fearon, 1995). Alternatively, even a relatively certain redistribution of power could lead to a permissive environment for conflict as a rising power may seek to challenge a declining power (Werner, 1999). Separately. Pollins
(1996) also shows that global economic cycles combined with parallel leadership cycles impact the likelihood of conflict among major, medium and small powers, although he suggests that the causes and connections between global economic conditions and security conditions remain unknown. Second, on a dyadic level. Copeland's (1996. 2000) theory of trade expectations suggests that 'future expectation of trade' is a significant variable in understanding economic conditions and security behaviour of states. He argues that interdependent states are likely to gain pacific benefits from trade so long as they have an optimistic view of future trade relations. However, if the expectations of future trade decline, particularly for difficult lo replace items such as energy resources, [lie likelihood for conflict increases. as states will be inclined to use force to gain access to those resources. Crises could potentially be the trigger for decreased trade expectations either on its own or because il triggers protectionist moves by interdependent states.4 Third, others have considered the link between economic decline and external armed conflict at a national level. Blomberg and Hess (2002) find a strong correlation between internal conflict and external conflict, particularly during periods of economic downturn. They write, The linkages between internal and external conflict and prosperity are strong and mutually reinforcing. Economic conflict tends to spawn internal conflict, which in turn returns the favour. Moreover, the presence of a recession lends lo amplify the extent to which international and external conflicts self-reinforce each other. (Blomberg & I less. 2002. p. 89) Economic decline has also been linked with an increase in the likelihood of terrorism (Blomberg. Hess. & Wccrapana. 2004). which has the capacity to spill across borders and lead to external tensions. Furthermore, crises generally reduce the popularity of a silting government. "Diversionary theory' suggests that, when facing unpopularity arising from economic decline, sitting governments have increased incentives to fabricate external military conflicts to create a 'rally around the flag' effect. Wang (1996), DcRoucn (1995), and Blomberg. Mess, and Thacker (2006) find supporting evidence showing that economic decline and use of force are at least indirectly correlated. Gelpi (1997), Miller (1999), and Kisangani and Pickering (2009) suggest that the tendency towards diversionary tactics are greater for democratic states than autocratic states, due to the fact that democratic leaders are generally more susceptible to being removed from office due to lack of domestic support. DcRoucn (2000) has provided evidence showing that periods of weak economic performance in the United States, and thus weak Presidential popularity, are statistically linked to an increase in the use of force. In summary, recent economic scholarship positively correlates economic integration with an increase in the frequency of economic crises, whereas political science scholarship links economic decline with external conflict at systemic, dyadic and national levels.5 This implied connection between integration, crises and armed

conflict has not featured prominently in the economic-security debate and deserves more attention. This observation is not contradictory to other perspectives that link economic interdependence with a decrease in the likelihood of external conflict, such as those mentioned in the first paragraph of this chapter. Those studies tend to focus on dyadic interdependence instead of global interdependence and do not specifically consider the occurrence of and conditions created by economic crises. As such, the view presented here should be considered ancillary to those views.

Mexican collapse causes total U.S. withdrawal from the international system Westhawk 08 private investor. Formerly, the global
research director and portfolio manager for a large, private, U.S.-based investment firm. Former U.S. Marine Corps officer: infantry company commander, artillery battalion staff officer December 21, 2008, "Now that would change everything," http://westhawk.blogspot.com/2008/12/now-that-wouldchange-everything.html) Yes, the rapid collapse of Mexico would change everything with respect to the global security environment. Such a collapse would have enormous humanitarian, constitutional, economic, cultural, and security implications for the U.S. It would seem the U.S. federal government, indeed American society at large, would have little ability to focus serious attention on much else in the world. The hypothetical collapse of Pakistan is a scenario that has already been well discussed. In the worst case, the U.S. would be able to isolate itself from most effects emanating from south Asia. However, there would be no running from a Mexican collapse.

Hegemony prevents multiple nuclear conflicts Brooks, Ikenberry, and Wohlforth 13

(Stephen, Associate Professor of Government at Dartmouth College, John Ikenberry is the Albert G. Milbank Professor of Politics and International Affairs at Princeton University in the Department of Politics and the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, William C. Wohlforth is the Daniel Webster Professor in the Department of Government at Dartmouth College Dont Come Home America: The Case Against Retrenchment, International Security, Vol. 37, No. 3 (Winter 2012/13), pp. 751) A core premise of deep engagement is that it prevents the emergence of a far more dangerous global security environment. For one thing, as noted above, the United States overseas presence gives it the leverage to restrain partners from taking provocative action. Perhaps more important, its core alliance commitments also deter states with aspirations to regional hegemony from contemplating expansion and make its partners more secure, reducing their incentive to
adopt solutions to their security problems that threaten others and thus stoke security dilemmas. The contention that engaged

U.S. power dampens the

baleful

effects of anarchy

is consistent with influential variants of realist theory.

Indeed, arguably the scariest portrayal of the war-prone world that would emerge absent the American Pacifier is provided in the works of John

Mearsheimer, who forecasts dangerous multipolar regions replete with security competition, arms races, nuclear proliferation and associated preventive war temptations, regional rivalries, and even runs at regional hegemony and full-scale great power war. 72 How do retrenchment
advocates, the bulk of whom are realists, discount this benefit? Their arguments are complicated, but two capture most of the variation: (1) U.S. security guarantees are not necessary to prevent dangerous rivalries and conflict in Eurasia; or (2) prevention of rivalry and conflict in Eurasia is not a U.S. interest. Each response is connected to a different theory or set of theories, which makes sense given that the whole debate hinges on a complex future counterfactual (what would happen to Eurasias security setting if the United States truly disengaged?). Although a certain answer is impossible, each of these responses is nonetheless a weaker argument for retrenchment than advocates acknowledge. The first response flows from defensive realism as well as other international relations theories that discount the conflict-

generating potential of anarchy under contemporary conditions. 73 Defensive realists maintain that the high expected costs of territorial conquest, defense dominance, and an array of policies and practices that can be used credibly to signal benign intent, mean that Eurasias major states could manage regional multipolarity peacefully without the American pacifier. Retrenchment would be a bet on this scholarship, particularly in regions where the kinds of stabilizers that nonrealist theories point tosuch as democratic governance or dense institutional linkages are either absent or weakly present. There are three other major bodies of scholarship, however, that might give decisionmakers pause before making this bet. First is regional expertise. Needless to say, there is no consensus on the net security effects of U.S. withdrawal. Regarding each region, there are optimists and pessimists. Few experts expect a return of intense great power competition in a post-American Europe, but many doubt European governments will pay the political costs of increased EU defense cooperation and the budgetary costs of increasing military outlays. 74 The result might be a Europe that is incapable of securing itself from various threats that could be destabilizing within the region and beyond (e.g., a regional conflict akin to the 1990s Balkan wars), lacks capacity for global security missions in which U.S. leaders might want European participation, and is vulnerable to the influence of outside rising powers. What about the other parts of Eurasia where the United States has a substantial military presence? Regarding the Middle East, the balance begins to swing toward pessimists concerned that states currently backed by Washington notably Israel, Egypt, and Saudi Arabiamight take actions upon U.S. retrenchment that would intensify security dilemmas. And concerning East Asia, pessimism regarding the regions prospects without the American pacifier is pronounced. Arguably the principal concern expressed by area experts is that Japan and South Korea are likely to obtain a nuclear capacity and increase their military commitments, which could stoke a destabilizing reaction from China. It is notable that during the Cold War, both South Korea and Taiwan moved to obtain a nuclear weapons capacity and were only constrained from doing so by a still-engaged United States. 75 The second body of scholarship casting doubt on the bet on defensive realisms sanguine portrayal is all of the research that undermines its conception of state preferences. Defensive realisms optimism about what would happen if the United States retrenched is very much dependent on its particularand highly restrictiveassumption about state preferences; once we relax this assumption, then much of its basis for optimism vanishes. Specifically, the prediction of post-American tranquility throughout Eurasia rests on the assumption that security is the only relevant state preference, with security defined narrowly in terms of protection from violent external attacks on the homeland. Under that assumption, the security problem is largely solved as soon as offense and defense are clearly distinguishable, and offense is extremely expensive

Burgeoning research across the social and other sciences, however, undermines that core assumption: states have preferences not only for security but also for prestige, status, and other aims,
relative to defense. and they engage in trade-offs among the various objectives. 76 In addition, they define security not just in terms of territorial protection but in view of many and varied milieu goals. It follows that even states that are relatively secure may nevertheless engage in highly competitive behavior. Empirical studies show that this is indeed sometimes the case. 77 In sum, a bet on a benign postretrenchment Eurasia is a bet that leaders of major countries will never allow these nonsecurity preferences to influence their strategic choices. To the degree that these bodies of scholarly knowledge have predictive leverage, U.S. retrenchment would result in a significant deterioration in the security environment in at least some of the worlds k ey regions. We have already mentioned the third, even more alarming body of scholarship.

Offensive realism predicts that pacifier

the withdrawal of competitive


regional

the

America n

will yield

either a

multipolarity

complete with

associated insecurity, arms racing,

crisis instability,

nuclear proliferation, and

the like, or bids for regional hegemony, which

may be beyond the capacity of local great powers to contain (and which in any case would generate intensely competitive behavior, possibly including regional

great

power war ). Hence it is unsurprising that retrenchment advocates are prone to


focus on the second argument noted above: that avoiding wars and security dilemmas in the worlds core regions is not a U.S. national interest. Few doubt that the Uni ted States could survive the return of insecurity and conflict among Eurasian powers, but at what cost? Much of the work in this area has focused on the economic externalities of a renewed threat of insecurity and war, which we discuss below. Focusing on the pure security ramifications, there are two main reasons why decisionmakers may be rationally reluctant to run the retrenchment experiment. First, overall higher levels of conflict make the world a more dangerous place. Were Eurasia to return to higher levels of interstate military competition, one would see overall higher levels of military spending and innovation and a higher likelihood of competitive regional

proxy wars and arming of client states all of which

would be concerning, in part because it would promote a faster diffusion of military power away from the United States. Greater regional insecurity could well feed proliferation cascades, as states such as Egypt, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, and Saudi Arabia all might choose to create nuclear forces. 78 It is unlikely that proliferation decisions by any of these actors would be the end of the game: they would likely generate pressure locally for more proliferation. Following Kenneth Waltz, many retrenchment advocates are proliferation optimists, assuming that nuclear deterrence solves the security problem. 79 Usually carried out in dyadic terms, the debate over the stability of proliferation changes as the numbers go up. Proliferation optimism rests on assumptions of rationality and narrow security preferences. In social science, however, such assumptions are inevitably probabilistic. Optimists assume that most states are led by rational leaders, most will overcome organizational problems and resist the temptation to preempt before feared neighbors nuclearize, and most pursue only security and are risk averse. Confidence in such probabilistic assumptions declines if the world were to move from nine to twenty, thirty, or forty nuclear states. In addition, many of the other dangers noted by analysts who are concerned about the destabilizing effects of nuclear proliferation including the risk of accidents and the prospects that some new nuclear powers will not have truly survivable forcesseem prone to go up as the number of nuclear powers grows. 80 Moreover, the risk of unforeseen crisis that could

dynamics

spin out of control

is also higher as the number of nuclear

powers increases. Finally, add to these concerns the enhanced danger of nuclear leakage, and a world with overall higher levels of security competition becomes yet more worrisome. The argument that maintaining Eurasian peace is not a U.S. interest faces a second problem. On widely accepted realist assumptions, acknowledging that U.S. engagement preserves peace dramatically narrows the difference between retrenchment and deep engagement. For many supporters of retrenchment, the

optimal strategy for a power such as the United States, which has attained regional hegemony and is separated from other great powers by oceans, is offshore balancing: stay over the horizon and pass the buck to local powers to do the dangerous work of counterbalancing any local rising power. The United States should commit to onshore balancing only when local balancing is likely to fail and a great power appears to be a credible contender for regional hegemony, as in the cases of Germany, Japan, and the Soviet Union in the midtwentieth century. The problem is that Chinas rise puts the possibility of its attaining regional hegemony on the table, at least in the medium to long term. As Mearsheimer notes, The United States will have to play a key role in countering China, because its Asian neighbors are not strong enough to do it by themselves. 81 Therefore, unless Chinas rise stalls, the United States is likely to act toward China similar to the way it behaved toward the Soviet Union during the Cold War. 82 It follows that the United States should take no action that would compromise its capacity to move to onshore balancing in the future. It will need to maintain key alliance relationships in Asia as well as the formidably expensive military capacity to intervene there. The implication is to get out of Iraq and Afghanistan, reduce the presence in Europe, and pivot to Asia just what the United States is doing. 83 In sum,

the argument that U.S.


for peace

security

commitments are unnecessary

is countered by a

lot of scholarship , including highly influential realist scholarship. In


addition, the argument that Eurasian peace is unnecessary for U.S. security is weakened by the potential for a large number of nasty security consequences as well as the need to retain a latent onshore balancing capacity that dramatically reduces the savings retrenchment might bring. Moreover, switching between offshore and onshore balancing could well be difcult. Bringing together the thrust of many of the arguments discussed so far underlines the degree to which

the case for


the

retrenchment misses the

underlying

logic of

deep

engagement strategy. By supplying reassurance, deterrence, and active management, the United States lowers security competition in the worlds key regions, thereby preventing the emergence of a hothouse atmosphere for growing new military capabilities. Alliance ties dissuade partners from ramping

up and also provide leverage to prevent military transfers to potential rivals. On top of all this, the United States formidable military machine may deter entry by potential rivals. Current great power military expenditures as a percentage of GDP are at historical lows, and thus far other major powers have shied away from seeking to match top-end U.S. military capabilities. In addition, they have so far been careful to avoid attracting the focused enmity of the United States. 84 All of the worlds most modern militaries are U.S. allies (Americas alliance system of more than sixty countries now accounts for some 80 percent of global military spending), and the gap between the U.S. military capability and that of potential rivals is by many measures growing rather than shrinking. 85

Solvency
U.S. financial assistance improves maquiladoras Rapiey 11[Stanley Joseph Rapiey, government
employee/analyst, Maquiladoras and National Security: Design Theory as a Guide,25/10/11, http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a555400.pdf, KP] First of all, the United States government must encourage American companies to continue business with Mexican companies in the northern border states in order to guarantee economic stability and help the maquiladoras transform into more complex entities. The President should work with the Secretary of Commerce and the U.S. Trade Representative to develop a program by which U.S. companies are provided fiscal motivation to continue working with Mexican maquiladoras, instead of shifting their assembly operations to Asia. The incentives will most likely be in the form of tax benefits and should be tied to relationships with Mexican maquiladoras that meet strict criteria. Because this is connected to altering the tax code, Congress must pass related legislation. The two most important criteria for the maquiladoras associated with this program are that they pay a living wage to their local employees and that they are engaged in a program designed to increase the complexity of their production. These factories will be able to pay better wages because of the continued investment from U.S. companies who will receive the tax benefit, and these wages will help stabilize the local economy. The U.S. Department of Commerce can assist the Government of Mexico with concrete plans to improve the maquiladoras, in concert with current Mexican goals to

revitalize its export industry through increased government

financing.42 Because the Mexican Government has

already come to the realization that the simple assembly model must evolve into something more technologically complex, these plans can quickly be organized. 43 In order to effectively advocate this course of action, the focus should be placed on the stimulation of the U.S. economy through tax relief to American companies and the need to preserve a secure environment along the border.

Incentives promote labor standards Pellicer (Claudia, "Trade Linkage policy applied: U.s. latin america" pg online @ http://www.nyu.edu/clubs/jpia.club/PDF/S10_Pell icer.pdf)
Roberto Mangabeira Ungers commentary affirms that as far as the promotion of labor standards is concerned, both the American model of arms length regulation of business by government and the Northeast Asian model of formulation of unitary trade and industrial policy by a bureaucracy have proven unsuitable (Reddy and Barry, 2008; p. 139). As outlined in the Reddy-Barry proposal, the merits of trade linkage are thatin exchange for increased access to developed-countries markets and their technologies developing countries would rapidly conform to ILO labor standards. In order to incentivize linkage and create the necessary leverage necessary to enforce labor standards, more-developed countries such

as the U.S ., Canada, Brazil, Venezuela, or Chile would have to increase or tailor the financial support they currently provide to less-developed countries of the region. Otherwise, given the global trend of trade liberalization, less-developed countries might not effectively promote most or perhaps any of these standards. In broad terms, this issue has become particularly important in view of labor rights violations in Colombia, Mexico, and Peru and regarding the development and track record of maquiladoras just South of the U.S. border.

The Norms program effectively regulates workers rights and environmental issues Rapiey 11[Stanley Joseph Rapiey, government
employee/analyst, Maquiladoras and National Security: Design Theory as a Guide,25/10/11, http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a555400.pdf, KP] In August of 2003, the United Nations Commission on Human Rights adopted draft Norms on the Responsibilities of Transnational Corporations and Other Business Enterprises with Regard to Human Rights (Norms).195 The Norms state that within their respective spheres of activity and influence, transnational corporations have the obligation to promote, secure the fulfillment of, respect, ensure respect of, and protect human rights recognized in international as well as national law.196 In addition to general human rights regarding the right to equal opportunity197 and the right to the security of persons,198 the Norms require transnational corporations to recognize and uphold workers rights. In regard to the rights of workers,

the Norms obligate transnational corporations to provide a safe and healthy working environment,199to pay workers at a level that ensures an adequate standard of living for them and their families,200 and to recognize the right of workers to associate and to bargain collectively without outside interference.201There are three general means by which the provisions of the Norms are to be implemented. Transnational corporations are to adopt, disseminate, and implement internal rules of operation that comply with the Norms.202 These corporations are also subject to periodic monitoring and verification by the United Nations and its existing monitoring bodies.203 Additionally, nation-states are expected to create and reinforce the necessary legal and administrative framework for ensuring corporate compliance with the Norms.204 Towards this end, the UN Human Rights Commission also instructs that the Norms be applied by national and international tribunals, pursuant to national and international law.205

The plan will be modeled globally Rapiey 11[Stanley Joseph Rapiey, government
employee/analyst, Maquiladoras and National Security: Design Theory as a Guide,25/10/11, http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a555400.pdf, KP] While they are not yet binding international law, the Norms are evidence of a widely accepted international contention that may soon take the form of a binding, jus cogens obligation.206 The emergence of resolutions such as the Norms, which oblige transnational corporations to comply with international human rights regulations, seems to bode well for the future of workers rights in Mexicos maquiladora sector. By holding these corporations accountable,

regardless of the developing nation in which they choose to establish an assembly plant, enforceable international declarations and conventions deny corporations the ability to race to the bottom in pursuit of less stringent labor and human rights standards. If the corporations themselves are the focus of international regulation, it will not matter where they choose to incorporate, as their international erga omnes207obligations will be due the entire world over.

2AC Cards

Addons

Bio-Terror
Mexican economic decline causes a flood of refugees, resulting in terrorism. Michael Brown 9, Undersecretary of Emergency
Preparedness and Response in the Department of Homeland Security, Border Control: Collapse of Mexico Is A Homeland Security & National Security Issue, 1/14, http://michaelbrowntoday.com/journal/2009/1/15/bor der-control-collapse-of-mexico-is-a-homeland-securitynat.html By failing to secure the borders and control immigration, we have opened ourselves up to a frightening scenario. The United States could face a flood of refugees from Mexico if it were to collapse, overwhelming state and local governments along the U.S.-Mexico border. During a time of economic duress, the costs would be overwhelming and would simply add to the already burgeoning costs at the federal level. Immigration and border control never was nor
should it ever be about racism. Immigration and border control are national security and homeland security issues. Sleeper cells

from numerous terrorist groups could, and probably already have, infiltrated the United States, just
laying in wait to attack at an appropriately vulnerable time.

US-Mexican border terrorism results in bioterror attacks Ken Timmerman 10, Newsmax correspondent, FBI
Director Mueller: Al-Qaida Still Wants Nuclear Bomb, 3/18,

http://newsmax.com/Newsfront/mueller-fbi-alqaidanuclear/2010/03/18/id/353169 FBI Director Robert Mueller warned Congress on Wednesday of ongoing al-Qaida efforts to acquire weapons of mass destruction to attack the United States. Al-Qaida remains committed to its goal of conducting attacks inside the United States, Mueller told a House appropriations subcommittee. Further, al-Qaidas continued efforts to access chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear material pose a serious threat to the United States. To accomplish its goals of new attacks on the American homeland, al-Qaida seeks to infiltrate overseas operatives who have no known nexus to terrorism into the United States using both legal and illegal methods of entry, Mueller said. In February, Sheikh Abdullah al-Nasifi, a known al-Qaida recruiter in Kuwait, boasted on al Jazeera television that Mexicos border with the United States was the ideal infiltration point for terrorists seeking to attack America. Four pounds of anthrax in a suitcase this big carried by a fighter through tunnels from Mexico into the U.S., are guaranteed to kill 330,000 Americans within a single hour if it is properly spread in population centers there, al-Nasifi said.

Bioterror leads to extinction Anders Sandberg 8, is a James Martin Research Fellow at


the Future of Humanity Institute at Oxford University; Jason G. Matheny, PhD candidate in Health Policy and Management at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health and

special consultant to the Center for Biosecurity at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center; Milan M. Dirkovid, senior research associate at the Astronomical Observatory of Belgrade and assistant professor of physics at the University of Novi Sad in Serbia and Montenegro, 9/8/8, How can we reduce the risk of human extinction?, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists,http://www.thebulletin.org/webedition/features/how-can-we-reduce-the-risk-of-humanextinction
The risks from anthropogenic hazards appear at present larger than those from natural ones. Although great progress has been made in reducing the number of nuclear weapons in the world, humanity

is still threatened by the possibility of a global thermonuclear war and a resulting nuclear winter. We may face even greater risks from emerging technologies. Advances in synthetic biology might make it possible to engineer pathogens capable of extinction-level pandemics. The knowledge, equipment, and materials needed to engineer
pathogens are more accessible than those needed to build nuclear weapons. And unlike

other weapons, pathogens are selfreplicating, allowing a small arsenal to become exponentially destructive. Pathogens have been implicated in the extinctions of many wild species. Although most pandemics "fade out" by reducing the density of susceptible
populations, pathogens with wide host ranges in multiple species can reach even isolated individuals. The intentional or unintentional release of engineered lethality might

pathogens with high transmissibility, latency, and be capable of causing human extinction. While such an event seems unlikely
today, the likelihood may increase as biotechnologies continue to improve at a rate rivaling Moore's Law.

Air Pollution

Water Pollution
Maquiladoras release toxic chemicals into river water Bullard, 02 (Robert D. Bullard, Ph.D., Edmund Asa Ware Distinguished
Professor of Sociology and Director of the Environmental Justice Resource Center at Clark Atlanta University, leader in environmental justice; POVERTY, POLLUTION AND ENVIRONMENTAL RACISM: STRATEGIES FOR BUILDING HEALTHY AND SUSTAINABLE COMMUNITIES ; 11/22/2002; http://www.ejrc.cau.edu/PovpolEj.html) U.S.-Mexico Border Ecology. The conditions

surrounding the more than 1,900 maquiladoras, assembly plants operated by American, Japanese, and other foreign countries, located along the 2,000-mile U.S.-Mexico border may further exacerbate the waste trade. The industrial plants use cheap Mexican labor to assemble imported components and raw material and then ship finished products back to the United States. Over a half million Mexican workers are employed in the maquiladoras. All along the Lower Rio Grande River Valley maquiladoras dump their toxic wastes into the river, from which 95 percent of the region's residents get their drinking water. [22] In the border cities of Brownsville, Texas and Matamoras, Mexico, the rate of anencephaly--babies born without brains---is four times the national average. Affected families filed lawsuits against 88 of the area's 100 maquiladoras for exposing the community to xylene, a cleaning solvent that can cause brain hemorrhages, and lung and kidney damage. The Mexican environmental regulatory agency is understaffed and ill-equipped to adequately enforce its laws. Many of the Mexican border towns have now become cities
with skyscrapers and freeways. More important, the "brown pallor of these southwestern skies has become a major health hazards." [23]

That destroys the Mexican economy. Page and Rabinowitz, 93 (G. William, Ph.D., professor in
the Department of Planning, University of Buffalo, the State University of New York *AND Harvey, former professor, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Autumn 1993, Groundwater contamination: Its effects on property values and cities, American Planning Association, Journal of the American Planning Association Volume 59, Issue 4, ProQuest, Hensel) Toxic chemical contamination of groundwater is a national problem. Groundwater contamination is the most serious problem at the majority of sites in the federal government's $15.2 billion Superfund program (U.S. Government Accounting Office 1991b). The program, which deals with the worst cases of contamination, as identified by the national priorities list, has insufficient funds to clean up all contamination; thus, the 1,200 Superfund sites are only a small portion of the contaminated sites in the United States. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), which operates the Superfund, sets the standards for levels of contamination. At the local level, where remediation is conducted, groundwater contamination is having significant impacts on property markets and on local government. Groundwater contamination and other forms of pollution impose many costs on society. Extensive research has measured the negative externalities of various types of pollution, but little has been done to determine the costs resulting from the contamination of groundwater with toxic chemicals. Groundwater supplies about 40 percent of the U.S. population with drinking water, is used extensively by agriculture and industry, and is critical to sensitive surface water ecosystems. Contaminated groundwater is extremely expensive and difficult to clean up. Toxic chemical

contamination in groundwater is an increasingly serious problem for local government, which is responsible for protecting the public health, the environment, and the tax base, which pays for government services, and for stimulating local economic development. Local governments often have to take remedial action to clean up groundwater because the polluter cannot be identified or found legally liable. The health risks, high costs of remedial action to clean up groundwater contamination, and the legal liability issues create serious financial problems and moral dilemmas for municipalities. Policy planners at all levels of government must be aware of the full social and environmental costs of groundwater contamination to be able to create policies that efficiently allocate resources for remediation incentives and to be able to devise adequate penalties to deter sufficiently potential polluters. Property owners must also be aware of the full costs of groundwater contamination as well as of their own liability for such contamination. Under EPA policy, current owners of property may be liable even if they did not cause the pollution. Mortgagees, lessees, and managers of property are also often drawn into the net of potentially responsible parties (PRPs) who could be found liable for contamination. The nature of groundwater flows complicates the contamination issue. Toxic chemicals in groundwater are not static; they move in a plume of contamination. Contaminants degrade much less efficiently in groundwater than in surface waters. Neither the direction nor the rate of movement of plumes of toxic chemicals in groundwater is predictable without a thorough and costly hydrogeological investigation; and even the most thorough investigations may produce inaccurate predictions about contamination movement because of the complexity of and the difficulties in monitoring groundwater systems. The plume of

contaminated groundwater will continue to flow and may pollute municipal water supply wells or private wells in the same or nearby communities, or it may discharge into wetlands, rivers, lakes, or coastal waters. Owners of property near sites containing contamination also should know if real or perceived concerns about contamination will affect the value of their property.

Generic Stuff

Solvency
While economic problems are fixable, a lack of funding shouldnt get in the way of rights Rapiey 11[Stanley Joseph Rapiey, government
employee/analyst, Maquiladoras and National Security: Design Theory as a Guide,25/10/11, http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a555400.pdf, KP] While it is undeniable that the economic conditions in Mexico complicate the matter of enforcing and upholding labor rights, womens rights, and human rights in general, these conditions negate neither the obligation nor the ability of the Mexican government to do so. In order to appreciate the ability of the Mexican government to enforce such rights in the face of harsh economic conditions, one must understand the difference between positive and negative rights. Positive rights are those rights that a state has an affirmative duty to respect, protect, and fulfill.191 With regard to positive rights, the key inquiry is whether the state is affirmatively acting to meet its obligations. Negative rights can be described as prohibitions against state interference.192 For negative rights, the key inquiry is whether the state is leaving its citizens alone to exercise their rights.193 In the context of maquiladoras, an example of a positive right which the Mexican government owes to its workers is the protection against occupational safety hazards and dangerous work environments. An example of a negative right in this context is the prohibition against government interference with labor unions. The poor condition of the Mexican economy may make it difficult for the government to provide regulatory

schemes that enforce the positive rights of its workers,194 but that does not preclude the governments recognition of its workers negative rights. While developing a social or administrative network to regulate occupational safety issues may create significant costs for the government, simply limiting its own involvement in independent labor unions requires the government to shoulder no conspicuous financial burden. In fact, limiting its involvement in this aspect of the private sector may even reduce the operating and administrative costs of the Mexican government. Thus, a claim of economic hardship will not excuse the Mexican government from recognizing such negative rights owed to its workforce. But what about the Mexican governments fear of losing jobs to other developing nations? What about the race to the bottom? It certainly is conceivable that holding Mexico to higher labor standards than other developing nations could result in multinational corporations leaving Mexico in search of less stringent policies. However, an international regulatory scheme that focuses on nation-states is not the only option.

Enforcement of the Norms Program Weissbrodt et. Al 3 [David Weissbrodt and Muria Kruger;
Professor David S. Weissbrodt is a distinguished and widely published scholar of international human rights law. He teaches international human rights law, administrative law, immigration law, and torts. October 2003, http://www.jstor.org/stable/pdfplus/3133689.pdf Norms on the Responsibilities of Transnational Corporations and Other Business Enterprises with Regard to Human Rights, KP+

The Norms as adopted are not a voluntary initiative of corporate social responsibility. The many implementation provisions show that they amount to more than aspirational state- ments of desired conduct. Further, the SubCommission's Resolution 2003/16 called for the creation of a mechanism for NGOs and others to submit information about businesses that are not meeting the minimum standards of the Norms. The nonvoluntary nature of the Norms therefore goes beyond the voluntary guidelines found in the UN Global Compact, the ILO Tripartite Declaration, and the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises. Although not voluntary, the Norms are not a treaty, either. Treaties constitute the primary sources of international human rights law. The UN Charter is both the most prominent treaty and the repository of seminal human rights provisions in Articles 1, 55, and 56. The United Nations has further codified and more specifically defined international human rights law in subsequent treaties, which impose legal obligations on those nations that are party to them. The legal authority of the Norms derives principally from their sources in treaties and cus- tomary international law, as a restatement of international legal principles applicable to companies.7 The United Nations has promulgated dozens of declarations, codes, rules, guide- lines, principles, resolutions, and other instruments, in addition to treaties, that interpret the general human rights obligations of member states under Articles 55 and 56 of the Charter and may reflect customary international law. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights is the most prominent of those instruments; it not only serves as an authoritative, compre- hensive, and nearly contemporaneous interpretation of the human rights obligations under the Charter, but also contains provisions

that have been recognized as reflective of custom- ary international law.7

Lack of enforcement right now is due to lack of incentives


http://en.maquilasolidarity.org/FAQ/sweatshops Yes. Governments should regulate good working conditions and enforce those regulations. Actually, many garmentproducing nations have good legislation in this regard. The problem is that it isn't enforced properly. A major reason is that many countries where garments and sportswear are produced try to create an environment that is attractive to foreign investment. Incentives for foreign investors include not only low wages and taxes, but also the suspension of certain workplace and environmental regulations. If a government does attempt to strictly enforce these regulations, many investors will quickly pack their bags for another country that is even less strict and is more accommodating. As a result, all these countries compete against one another in a "race to the bottom." Bad working conditions are an international problem that will not be solved on a national level alone. But it's also wrong to assume that governments have absolutely no control over foreign investments. And not all companies pack up and leave at the first signs of government regulations. So it is valuable to encourage governments to pressure companies to take responsibility for their labour policies and ensure compliance.

What norms entails University of Minnesota 03[Commentary on the Norms


on the Responsibilities of Transnational Corporation and Other Business Enterprises with Regard to Human Rights, U.N. Doc. E/CN.4/Sub.2/2003/38/Rev.2 (2003). http://www1.umn.edu/humanrts/links/commentaryAug2003.html, KP]
(a)

Transnational corporations and other business


in the light of the relationship between the environment and

enterprises shall respect the right to a clean and healthy environment


human rights; concerns for intergenerational equity; internationally recognized environmental standards, for example

with regard to air pollution,

water pollution, land use, biodiversity and hazardous wastes; and the wider goal of sustainable development, that is, development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. (b) Transnational corporations and other business enterprises shall be responsible for the environmental and human health impact of all of their activities, including any products or services they introduce into commerce, such
as packaging, transportation and by-products of the manufacturing process. (c) Consistent with paragraph 16 (i), in decision-making processes and on a periodic basis (preferably annually or biannually), transnational corporations and other business enterprises shall assess the impact of their activities on the environment and human health including impacts from siting decisions, natural resource extraction activities, the production and sale of products or services, and the generation, storage, transport and disposal of hazardous and toxic substances. Transnational corporations and other business enterprises shall ensure that the burden of negative environmental consequences shall not fall on vulnerable racial, ethnic and socioeconomic groups.(d) Assessments shall, inter alia, address particularly the impact of proposed activities on certain groups, such as children, older persons, indigenous

peoples and communities (particularly in regard to their land and natural resources), and/or women. Transnational corporations and other business enterprises shall distribute such reports in a timely manner and in a manner that is accessible to the United Nations Environmental Programme, the ILO, other interested international bodies, the national Government hosting each company, the national Government where the business maintains its principal office and other affected groups. The reports shall be accessible to the general public.

(e) Transnational corporations and other business enterprises shall respect the prevention principle, for example by preventing and/or mitigating deleterious impacts identified in any assessment. They shall also respect the precautionary principle when dealing, for example, with preliminary risk assessments that may indicate unacceptable effects on health or the environment. Further, they shall not use the lack of full scientific certainty as a reason to delay the introduction of cost-effective measures intended to prevent such effects. (f) Upon the expiration of the useful life of their products or services, transnational corporations and other business enterprises shall ensure effective means of collecting or arranging for the collection of the remains of the product or services for recycling, reuse and/or environmentally responsible disposal.(g) Transnational corporations and other business enterprises shall take appropriate measures in their activities to reduce the risk of accidents and damage to the environment by adopting best management practices and technologies. In particular, they shall use best management practices and appropriate technologies and enable their component entities to meet these environmental objectives through the sharing of technology, knowledge and assistance, as well as through environmental management systems, sustainability reporting, and reporting of anticipated or actual releases of hazardous and toxic substances. In

addition, they shall educate and train workers to ensure their compliance with these objectives.

Worse than average card


http://blogs.hbr.org/cs/2012/10/mexico_is_the_perfect_dicta tor.html Part of the problem is that much-needed structural reforms such as tax hikes, changes in labor laws, and education reforms weren't implemented. The increasing lack of security, corruption, and a weak law enforcement system also limited much-needed foreign investment. As Calderon recently admitted in a WSJ interview: "Mexico needs a lot of work." Above all, as I have written earlier, the Maquiladora Syndrome has been hurting Mexico in recent times. More than 50% of the country's exports come from manufacturing operations in free trade zones, and some claim that Mexico, like China, has become one of the world's manufacturing superpowers. As a result, the desire for any kind of innovation, or investment in innovation has simply evaporated.

Inherency
LOL, Mexican labor laws suck Rapiey 11[Stanley Joseph Rapiey, government
employee/analyst, Maquiladoras and National Security: Design Theory as a Guide,25/10/11, http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a555400.pdf, KP] One explanation for the lack of enforcement of Mexicos labor laws in the maquiladora sector is that no one is holding the Mexican government accountable. Despite the defeat of the PRI in 2000,179 accusations of government corruption and exploitation of the workforce are still common.180 Due to its limitations, the NAALC has been ineffective in creating an impetus for the enforcement of Mexican labor laws. While Mexico is a signatory to international conventions and resolutions by the United Nations and the International Labour Organization articulating the importance of womens and workers rights,181 the ability of these organizations to bind Mexico to any such international obligations has also been somewhat limited.182 Despite the statutes Mexico has passed and international treaties it has ratifiedevidencing a desire to comport with international standards relating to labor and womens rightsthe Mexican government still remains unwilling to circumscribe its own state sovereignty in the name of these international legal standards.183 Many of the reasons cited by Mr. Dvalos for the deficient union presence in Tijuana184 may also explain the lack of enforcement of Mexican labor laws within the maquiladoras. These explanations include: workers who do not know their rights,185 labor unions that fail to hold employers

accountable for violations of Mexican labor laws,186 and foreign companies that either ignore or do not comprehend their obligations within the Mexican legal system.187 While these justifications amount to, at best, an ignorance of the law, they cannot exculpate the Mexican government or maquiladora employers from their failure to enforce workers rights. The final, and perhaps most compelling, explanation for the Mexican governments failure to enforce its labor laws within maquiladoras is that the government focuses on creating and maintaining jobs rather than affirming human rights.188 In a nation where the unemployment rate has been estimated by some observers to be as high as 25 percent,189 attracting and retaining opportunities for permanent employment must be a paramount objective of the government. Can people really be worried about such concepts as human rights when they are struggling to put food on the table? As Professor Gerhard Erasmus puts it, *it+ will be difficult to convince people in poor countries of the value of any human rights if basic needs are not fulfilled.190

Case 2AC

AT: One Size Fits All Bad


Normal means is distinguishing the needs of individual companies. That solves. Weissbrodt et. Al 3 [David Weissbrodt and Muria Kruger;
Professor David S. Weissbrodt is a distinguished and widely published scholar of international human rights law. He teaches international human rights law, administrative law, immigration law, and torts. October 2003, http://www.jstor.org/stable/pdfplus/3133689.pdf Norms on the Responsibilities of Transnational Corporations and Other Business Enterprises with Regard to Human Rights, KP+ Some have argued that the Norms create a one-size-fits-all approach that cannot adequately accommodate the diversity of business types, sizes, and activities. [FN62] In fact, however, the Norms deftly establish a system of relative application based on the strength, size, and other varying factors of a business that bear on its ability to affect human rights. This nuanced approach does not lower the standards for any business; it simply ensures that those with greater power and influence will also have greater responsibilities.The responsibility to promote and secure human rights applies in varying degrees to the private sector; for example, there are principles directly affecting employees, principles involving public and private business partners and their employees, principles affecting the community and the general human rights environment of that community, principles that can implicate the relationship of a business with public institutions, and principles that can involve concerns for individual human rights, the environment, or the relevant community. [FN63] The degrees of responsibility

suggest that principles for businesses should not just address issues for which a business assumes obvious direct responsibility, such as corporate labor standards, but should also include areas in which it can assume further responsibility, through practices such as outsourcing of products and services. In addition, such principles should address situations in which at least larger businesses can influence governmental actions, through, for example, encouraging the government to improve the human rights environment of a community. A set of human rights principles for businesses can be helpful in all of these contexts. No company, however, no matter how influential, can be asked to replace governments in their primary responsibility for the protection of human rights. [FN64]

AT: Enforcement Bad


Enforcement is hella key
-This person is probably gonna be a key cp author http://www.law.nyu.edu/idcplg?IdcService=GET_FILE&d DocName=ECM_DLV_015856&RevisionSelectionMetho d=LatestReleased. While clarification and coordination are important in the mean time, other actions are necessary before the Norms is adopted. Deva suggests that an enforcement mechanism should be put in place before the Norms being adopted and that mechanism must not only preempt human rights violations but also offer speedily an adequate remedy to the victims in cases of violation. I suggest that enforcement should not come from only one mechanism. Although the UN could create a special rapporteur or even a distinct organ specifically for enforcement of the Norms, and one or more NGOs could be devoted to the Norms as well, there are simply too many interested parties to focus the huge task of enforcement on one actor. However, enforcement mechanisms should be made clear to states and TNCs before the Norms are adapted, specifying which obligations each should expect to have.

AT: Border 2020


We cant wait that long Sanchez 12 [ROBERTO A. SANCHEZ, Senior Research Fellow,
El Colegio de la Frontera Norte, Health and Environmental Risks of the Maquiladora in Mexicali, http://lawlibrary.unm.edu/nrj/30/1/12_sanchez_health.pdf, KP] Finally, it is important to stress the urgent need for short term actions to control hazardous waste from the maquiladoras. The problem is not only growing quantitatively but also qualitatively. The type and toxicity of hazardous waste from the maquiladoras in Mexicali is increasing as the on-coming maquiladoras diversify their products. Further delays to take effective action to control hazardous waste from the maquiladoras in Mexicali could lead, in a very short time, to dangerous situations for the environment and public health on both sides of the border.

Advantage Cards

Warming

Squo
Maquiladoras are polluting and causing birth defects Fox 96
(Steve Fox, Nov. 26, 1996. TED Case Studies: NAFTA and the environments. http://www1.american.edu/ted/Maquila.HTM) More than 3,000 maquiladora operations are currently in operation along the 2,000 mile border that stretches from California to Texas -- and their numbers continue to grow. These duty-free industrial plants now focus on using cheap domestic labor to assemble mostly foreign components in a number of different industries. Concentrated development along the border as well as the nature of the industrial development has polluted much of the water supply along the border and created serious environmental issues that have yet to be addressed by the three countries that are party to NAFTA (the United States, Mexico and Canada). There is increasing evidence that pollution of the air and water supply along the border during NAFTA's first two-and-a-half years, is exacerbating health problems on both sides of the border. The most dramatic evidence of health problems has occurred on the Texas-Mexico border. Clusters of babies being born with anencephaly -- a rare neural tube birth defect in which a full-term baby is born with incomplete or missing brains or skulls -- was originally identified in both Brownsville, Texas and Matamoris, Mexico in the late 1980s. The incidents of anencephaly, along with other neural tube birth defects have increased since NAFTA was implemented in January, 1994. In Cameron County, where Brownsville is located, the

Texas Department of Health reported 15 cases in 1994, up from 36 percent in 1993, when 11 were reported. The state also discovered in late 1994, a new cluster of anencephaly cases, along with cases of spina bifida, in Maverick County. In 1992, just two cases of neural tube defects were reported. That jumped to four in 1994 and in a three-month period between December, 1994 and February, 1995, the county reported a startling one case per month. A 1995 study that attempted to correlate 12 years of industrial activity in Matamoros, Mexico with the anencephaly rates in Brownsville, found that the prevalence of anencephaly is strongly correlated to the level of activity found in the nearby Matamoris maquila zone. The report states: "As maquila activity has waxed and waned, so has the anencephaly rate increased and decreased in Cameron, but not in Hidalgo or Nueces [two other counties studied -- but farther from Matamoros.]" The exact cause of anencephaly has not been determined, yet there is a growing body of evidence indicating that various toxic emissions from factories play a part in the tragic birth defect. A study by the American Journal of Epidemiology which analyzed mortality data from the state of Texas indicated that men working in certain occupations with high chemical exposure have a greater risk of fathering a child with anencephaly. While few anencephalic babies are autopsied, one conducted in Brownsville in 1991 revealed that the baby had the pesticides DDE, DDT and Lindane -- all banned in the United States -- in its tissue. Phenylglyoxilic acid, a breakdown product of styrene and ethylene -- chemicals used to manufacture plastics, were found in the body of the autopsied baby at levels that were three times the legal occupational exposure for adults in the United States. Lax environmental regulations combined with low wages

continue to make the the maquiladora region attractive to multinational companies and NAFTA has been unable to counterattack with any success so far. Data provided by the Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy in 1993 showed that General Motors was then the largest private sector employer in Mexico and that each of the top 100 corporations in the U.S. had at least one plant operating in Mexico. The reason was found in the wages. The Institute reported that the average hourly wage in the U.S. then was $10.97 an hour compared to the average of 75 cents an hour earned by maquiladora factory workers. Despite the growing evidence that flourishing maquiladora industries are polluting the environment and endangering the quality of life of citizens on both sides of the border, neither governmet nor NAFTA officials have sought accountability from any of the industries operating along the border. The companies have steadfastly admitted no wrongdoing. There is evidence, however, that companies don't want information getting out about their operations and health problems in the region. A number of companies, including GM, have made out-of-court settlements with families who live along the border and claimed that the operations of the companies caused their babies to be born with neural tube defects. GM was the last of 88 companies to settle in lawsuits filed originally in March of 1993 by a Brownsville attorney. He and the families involved accused the companies of polluting the atmosphere with chemicals, resulting in a high number of rare birth defects in Cameron County in the early 1990s. Martinez said that in two years he reached settlements with corporations whose payments ranged between $100,000 and $2 million.

Maquiladoras cause pollution and affects humansbirth defects World Savvy 09


World Savvy. August 2009. Mexico: Maquiladoras. http://worldsavvy.org/monitor/index.php?option=com_conte nt&view=article&id=684&Itemid=1147 Working conditions at maquiladoras can be very poor, in rundown, dirty facilities that are poorly ventilated, with long hours and few breaks, although in recent years conditions have been slowly improving. Companies have also been criticized for improper handling of toxic waste, exposing workers to hazards that would not be tolerated in other countries. Areas close to the maquiladoras are filled with litter and sometimes sewage, because waste is not removed properly. Rivers have become contaminated with toxic waste, and air pollution levels are high. As a result, people living in the towns have developed health problems like skin rashes, breathing problems, allergies, and birth defects. Some have tried to fight for a cleanup of the toxic waste that has been dumped, but have been unsuccessful so far.

Maquilas are toxic Tox Town, 6/10 (Sub-department of The National Library of Medicine
dedicated to health concerns and toxic chemicals; What is a maquiladora?, June 10, 2013; http://toxtown.nlm.nih.gov/text_version/locations.php?id=35)

The high concentration of maquiladoras combined with less rigorous environmental regulations, limited capacity to enforce environmental laws, and the expense of exporting hazardous waste has created an incentive for illegal dumping and has polluted the surrounding land, water, and air. Inside

the maquiladoras, occupational

hazards relating to toxic chemical exposure and workplace safety also affect human health.
Occupational hazards are of particular concern in Mexico since first-time violators are rarely punished and since penalties are typically incurred only for imminent dangers and failures to address previously highlighted violations.

Maquilas are a leading source of pollution Godoy, 11 (Emilio, Mexico-based correspondent who covers the
environment, human rights and sustainable development; MEXICO: Maquiladora Factories Manufacture Toxic Pollutants; Aug 23, 2011; http://www.ipsnews.net/2011/08/mexico-maquiladora-factories-manufacture-toxicpollutants/) Since the 1960s, maquiladoras or export assembly plants have

been the cornerstone of Mexicos strategy to attract foreign direct investment and boost exports. But the environmental and social costs have been high. Maquiladoras, which in Mexico mainly
produce clothing, cars and electronic equipment, consume huge volumes of water,

generate hazardous waste products like alcohols, benzene, acetone, acids and plastic and metal debris, and emit polluting gases. The plants, which take advantage of Mexicos low wages, tax exemptions, and flexible labour laws while in return providing jobs, cause significant environmental damages. Government oversight is poor. There arent enough inspectors. There is no obligatory inspection scheme, only a voluntary one, and inspections are arranged in advance, with no surprise visits, Magdalena Cerda, the Tijuana representative for the Environmental Health Coalition (EHC), told IPS. We have seen gradual deterioration in the urban communities where the factories are located. About 3,000 maquiladoras operate in free trade
zones in Mexico, employing some 1.5 million people, according to the National Council of the Maquiladora Export Industry (CNIMME). Most are located in the northern cities of Tijuana and Ciudad Jurez, on the U.S. border. The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), which entered into force between Canada, Mexico and the United States in 1994, prompted the installation of dozens of maquiladoras in Mexico to supply the U.S. market and profit from the Latin American countrys low labour costs. Related IPS Articles Average monthly wages in maquiladoras in the

border zone are between 500 and 600 dollars. NAFTA

includes provisions on labour conditions and environmental protection, but these have not been enforced with sufficient rigour to correct harmful
employment and environmental practices, experts say. In 1983, the Mexican and U.S. governments signed the Border Environment Cooperation Agreement (BECA) on the management of toxic substances, with provisions for monitoring and preventing pollution in the border area. But NAFTA eliminated the BECA requirement that foreign companies return toxic waste to their countries of origin, because Mexican environmental law permitted companies to store their hazardous waste material. The maquiladora sector, however, is willing to change its practices if it can continue to turn a profit, Francisco Lpez, the head of Valle Verde Ecoempresas, a consultancy advising companies on environmental responsibility, told IPS. The Valle Verde consultancy emerged from a process that began in 2009 and involved academics, business executives and government officials working together to come up with measures the manufacturing sector could use to save electricity and boost energy efficiency. In March, Valle Verde launched a programme based on environmental education and energy efficiency, and promoted it among some 50 electronic assembly factories. Maquiladoras

have been criticised for their

use of dangerous substances. For instance, in order to increase smoothness and strength in fabrics for making clothes, they are treated with chemicals such as formaldehyde, caustic soda, sulphuric acid, bromine and sulphamide, all of which are health hazards, according the U.S. Organic Consumers Association. The industrial processes of cleaning, spinning, weaving or knitting and finishing an item of apparel generate an average of 1.4 kg of carbon dioxide (CO2), one of the main greenhouse gases responsible for global warming, according to The Story of Stuff Project,
developed by U.S. author and web host Annie Leonard.

Maquiladoras pollute regional communities

AU, 13 (American University, private doctoral institution, research done on the


effects of Maquiladoras; Border Waste Trade: U.S. and Mexico; last modified: July 20, 2013; http://www1.american.edu/TED/border.htm) 1. The Issue One

of the most critical and longstanding international pollution issue facing the border lands is the discharge of municipal sewage and industrial wastes into

the rivers flowing from Mexico to the United States. All the communities on the Mexican side of the border lack adequate municipal wastewater collection and treatment systems. Industrial effluents also contribute to surface water pollution. Many Mexican industries, as well as Maquiladoras owned by U.S. companies have no on site treatment facilities, and industrial wastes including toxic substances are dumped, illegally of course, into river systems. 2. Description The U.S.-Mexico border extends
approximately 2,000 miles from the Pacific Ocean in the west to the Gulf of Mexico in the east. This region lies within the political jurisdiction of four U.S. States and six Mexican States. Along the border, there has been the development of "twin cities" located along the border between both countries. Although this region belongs to the jurisdiction of each individual state, these states share common air and water resources. Responsibility for resource management falls within the political authority of two nations with different legal systems, national objectives, and most importantly, different priorities and levels of development. The

major environmental problem is the shortage and poor quality of surface and underground water, and the increasing levels of pollution in urban areas. One of the most concentrated problems resides in the pollution that is found in the ground and surface waters of the border region. When the surface waters are no longer sufficient for a nation to develop, underground water reservoirs, commonly called aquifers, are resorted to in order to satisfy needs. Nevertheless,
the uncontrolled mining of groundwater creates further problems for the future. First, aquifers may become irreversibly depleted if pumping exceeds the very slow rate of natural replenishment by rainfall and percolation. Moreover, the

increased mining of groundwater creates the risk of aquifer contamination. Excessive over drafting of an aquifer lowers the water table and allows highly saline surface waste waters from agricultural and industrial activities to enter and infect the entire underground water supply. This situation has worsened as aquifers are not self cleansing, but instead
store contaminants indefinitely. Because cleaning and monitoring of underground pollutants are difficult and expensive, aquifer

contamination can go undetected for years. In addition, many of Maquiladora

plants have been illegally dumping the toxic waste generated by their manufacturing process into the local communities' waters, but officials in both countries have failed to track the
sources, amount and destination of these contaminated waters.

Environmental degradation because of dumping on the Maquila Border is rampantWilliams '95 (Edward J. Williams, Ph.D., National Law Center for Inter-American Free Trade, A paper delivered at a conference on "International Boundaries and Environmental Security: Frameworks for Regional Cooperation, http://beatl.barnard.columbia.edu/urbs3525/200 7/OtherCities/MexicoCity/maquil-stats.htm)
The maquiladora industry contributes indirectly and directly to environmental degradation in the Mexican-United States Borderlands. Indirectly, the program forms part of a larger panoply of influences pulling migrants from central and southern Mexico to the Borderlands, creating an overload on the region's urban infrastructure and its fragile ecology. Directly, the assembly plants blight the Borderlands environment through undisciplined and illegal disposal of their waste material. Irregular dumping of hazardous and toxic wastes defines the most egregious example of the transgression. Population has burgeoned in the
binational Borderlands, particularly on the Mexican side. While Mexico's rate of growth equaled 22 percent in the 1980-1990 decenio, the eight most important Borderlands cities almost doubled that rate at 43 percent. Tijuana may well be the world's most rapidly burgeoning large city, having grown 61 percent in the 1980-90 period.3 A number of influences have pushed and pulled central and southern Mexicans to the region, most importantly its relative wealth compared with the rest of the country. In turn, the Mexican Borderland's relative wealth derives from several influences, most importantly economic spillover from the United States. The maquiladora program forms the richest (save the drug industry?) manifestation of U.

S. economic spillover. Potential employment in the maquiladoras defines a significant pull factor encouraging Mexican migrants to crowd the Borderlands.

In that sense, the assembly plants explain an indirect contribution to the area's environmental problems. They contribute to a situation composed of too many people massing into a fragile area in a poor country whose government has neither the financial nor human resources to construct and maintain sufficient infrastructure and services. More directly, the maquiladora industry's production and irregular disposal of waste material blights the region. The assembly plants dump everything from raw sewage through toxic metals into the local environment.4 Numerous reports document the industry's unsafe and illegal disposal practices . They include
a case of children being intoxicated at a dump in Ciudad Jurez by sniffing green rocks covered with a solvent containing toluene; and a maquiladora that closed and left in an abandoned building a dozen 55-gallon drums of hazardous material. In 1991, the Texas Water Commission claimed that

only sixty percent of the

hazardous wastes going from the U. S. to Mexico were being accounted for and returned to the U. S. The other 40 percent may be stored on the Mexican side or disposed of illegally.
In 1995 the Mexican Federal Attorney for Environmental Protection asserted that the

final disposition of 25 percent, or 13,000 tons, of hazardous and toxic wastes produced by the maquiladora industry were not accounted for. A study conducted by an
environmental action group in several Borderlands cities provides additional evidence. In 1990-91 the National Toxics Campaign Fund - Citizens' Environmental Laboratory sampled waterways in several Borderlands cities adjacent to or near suspected assembly plants. In Tijuana, Nogales, and Matamoros on the Mexican side the sample

detected pollution by petroleum, naphthalene, total xylene, chromium, copper, and other materials.5 Chronologically, the most serious problems with hazardous and toxic wastes derive from relatively recent times. The

composition (quality) of the industry has changed and the numbers of plants (quantity) have multiplied,
thereby creating new conditions giving rise to new problems dating from the mid-1980s. The apparel industry defined the single major component of the maquiladora industry from its foundation in 1965 through the mid-1970s. A problem with jean washing contributing to water pollution surfaced in El Paso/Ciudad Juarez in the late 1970s, but the apparel industry never constituted a serious threat to the physical environment of the Borderlands. Beginning in the 1980s, however, electronics, chemical, and furniture industries moved to the area, posing the threat of environmental pollution. The electronics plants multiplied rapidly, and by the early 1980s electronics eclipsed apparels as the largest component of the industry. From 1979 through 1985, the number of apparel plants in the industry shrunk by 10 percent to 108, while the numbers of electronic equipment and electronic component plants increased by 40 and 60 percent, respectively, to a combined total of 274. By the early 1990s, the electronics industry came to dominate the Borderlands assembly plants. In a study of Tijuana, Ciudad Jurez, and Monterrey, electronics installations accounted for 65 percent of all maquiladoras and fully 80 percent of all assembly plant employment in those three important cities.6 The electronics component of the maquiladora industry introduced significant new threats of environmental degradation. The

industry employs large volumes of industrial solvents in its productive process, the most serious menace to surface and ground water in the binational Borderlands.7 Though never
looming so large as electronics, the chemical industry also moved to the Borderlands in the late 1980s. Only three plants existed in 1985, growing to 51 by 1989 and more than doubling to 110 by 1992 and continuing to grow thereafter. From January 1992 to January 1995, employment in the chemical plants grew from just over 8000 to more than 11,600. The

chemical industry poses obvious environmental dangers, eliciting damnation and vigilance from environmental activists in the Borderlands.8 Finally,
significant segments of California's furniture industry moved to the Mexican Borderlands. The U. S.-owned furniture plants fled newly enacted restrictions on the use of solvent-based paints and requirements to install spray chambers to contain fumes.9

WarmingExtinction
Air pollution causes extinction Driesen 3 (David, Associate Professor Syracuse Univeristy
Law, 10 Buff. Envt'l. L.J. 25, Fall/Spring, Lexis) Air pollution can make life unsustainable by harming the ecosystem upon which all life depends and harming the health of both future and present generations. The Rio Declaration articulates six key principles that are relevant to air pollution. These principles can also be understood as goals, because they describe a state of affairs that is worth achieving. Agenda 21, in turn, states a program of action for realizing those goals. Between them, they aid understanding of sustainable development's meaning for air quality. The first principle is that "human beings. . . are entitled to a healthy and productive life in harmony with nature", because they are "at the center of concerns for sustainable development." 3 While the Rio Declaration refers to human health, its reference to life "in harmony with nature" also reflects a concern about the natural environment. 4 Since air pollution damages both human health and the environment, air quality implicates both of these concerns. 5

Left unchecked, warming will cause extinction Sify 2010 Sydney newspaper citing Ove Hoegh-Guldberg,
professor at University of Queensland and Director of the Global Change Institute, and John Bruno, associate professor of Marine Science at UNC (Sify News, Could unbridled climate changes lead to human extinction?, http://www.sify.com/news/could-unbridled-climate-changes-

lead-to-human-extinction-news-internationalkgtrOhdaahc.html The findings of the comprehensive report: 'The impact of climate change on the world's marine ecosystems' emerged from a synthesis of recent research on the world's oceans, carried out by two of the world's leading marine scientists. One of the authors of the report is Ove Hoegh-Guldberg, professor at The University of Queensland and the director of its Global Change Institute (GCI). 'We may see sudden, unexpected changes that have serious ramifications for the overall well-being of humans, including the capacity of the planet to support people. This is further evidence that we are well on the way to the next great extinction event,' says Hoegh-Guldberg. 'The findings have enormous implications for mankind, particularly if the trend continues. The earth's ocean, which produces half of the oxygen we breathe and absorbs 30 per cent of human-generated carbon dioxide, is equivalent to its heart and lungs. This study shows worrying signs of ill-health. It's as if the earth has been smoking two packs of cigarettes a day!,' he added. 'We are entering a period in which the ocean services upon which humanity depends are undergoing massive change and in some cases beginning to fail', he added. The 'fundamental and comprehensive' changes to marine life identified in the report include rapidly warming and acidifying oceans, changes in water circulation and expansion of dead zones within the ocean depths. These are driving major changes in marine ecosystems: less abundant coral reefs, sea grasses and mangroves (important fish nurseries); fewer, smaller fish; a breakdown in food chains; changes in the distribution of marine life; and more frequent diseases and pests among marine organisms. Study co-author John F Bruno, associate professor in marine science at The University of North

Carolina, says greenhouse gas emissions are modifying many physical and geochemical aspects of the planet's oceans, in ways 'unprecedented in nearly a million years'. 'This is causing fundamental and comprehensive changes to the way marine ecosystems function,' Bruno warned, according to a GCI release. These findings were published in Science.

And warming is real and anthropogenic Rahmstorf 8 Professor of Physics of the Oceans at
Potsdam University (Richard. Global Warming: Looking Beyond Kyoto. Edited by Ernesto Zedillo. Anthropogenic Climate Change? Page 42-49) It is time to turn to statement B: human activities are altering the climate. This can be broken into two parts. The first is as follows: global climate is warming. This is by now a generally undisputed point (except by novelist Michael Crichton), so we deal with it only briefly. The two leading compilations of data measured with thermometers are shown in figure 3-3, that of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and that of the British Hadley Centre for Climate Change. Although they differ in the details, due to the inclusion of different data sets and use of different spatial averaging and quality control procedures, they both show a consistent picture, with a global mean warming of 0.8C since the late nineteenth century. Temperatures over the past ten years clearly were the warmest since measured records have been available. The year 1998 sticks out well above the longterm trend due to the occurrence of a major El Nino event that year (the last El Nino so far and one of the strongest on record). These events are examples of the largest natural climate variations on multiyear time scales and, by releasing heat from the ocean, generally cause positive anomalies in global mean temperature. It is remarkable that the year 2005 rivaled

the heat of 1998 even though no El Nino event occurred that year. (A bizarre curiosity, perhaps worth mentioning, is that several prominent "climate skeptics" recently used the extreme year 1998 to claim in the media that global warming had ended. In Lindzen's words, "Indeed, the absence of any record breakers during the past seven years is statistical evidence that temperatures are not increasing.")33 In addition to the surface measurements, the more recent portion of the global warming trend (since 1979) is also documented by satellite data. It is not straightforward to derive a reliable surface temperature trend from satellites, as they measure radiation coming from throughout the atmosphere (not just near the surface), including the stratosphere, which has strongly cooled, and the records are not homogeneous' due to the short life span of individual satellites, the problem of orbital decay, observations at different times of day, and drifts in instrument calibration.' Current analyses of these satellite data show trends that are fully consistent with surface measurements and model simulations." If no reliable temperature measurements existed, could we be sure that the climate is warming? The "canaries in the coal mine" of climate change (as glaciologist Lonnie Thompson puts it) ~are mountain glaciers. We know, both from old photographs and from the position of the terminal moraines heaped up by the flowing ice, that mountain glaciers have been in retreat all over the world during the past century. There are precious few exceptions, and they are associated with a strong increase in precipitation or local cooling.36 I have inspected examples of shrinking glaciers myself in field trips to Switzerland, Norway, and New Zealand. As glaciers respond sensitively to temperature changes, data on the extent of glaciers have been used to reconstruct a history of Northern Hemisphere temperature

over the past four centuries (see figure 3-4). Cores drilled in tropical glaciers show signs of recent melting that is unprecedented at least throughout the Holocene-the past 10,000 years. Another powerful sign of warming, visible clearly from satellites, is the shrinking Arctic sea ice cover (figure 3-5), which has declined 20 percent since satellite observations began in 1979. While climate clearly became warmer in the twentieth century, much discussion particularly in the popular media has focused on the question of how "unusual" this warming is in a longer-term context. While this is an interesting question, it has often been mixed incorrectly with the question of causation. Scientifically, how unusual recent warming is-say, compared to the past millennium-in itself contains little information about its cause. Even a highly unusual warming could have a natural cause (for example, an exceptional increase in solar activity). And even a warming within the bounds of past natural variations could have a predominantly anthropogenic cause. I come to the question of causation shortly, after briefly visiting the evidence for past natural climate variations. Records from the time before systematic temperature measurements were collected are based on "proxy data," coming from tree rings, ice cores, corals, and other sources. These proxy data are generally linked to local temperatures in some way, but they may be influenced by other parameters as well (for example, precipitation), they may have a seasonal bias (for example, the growth season for tree rings), and high-quality long records are difficult to obtain and therefore few in number and geographic coverage. Therefore, there is still substantial uncertainty in the evolution of past global or hemispheric temperatures. (Comparing only local or regional temperature; as in Europe, is of limited value for our purposes,' as regional variations can be much larger than global ones and can have

many regional causes, unrelated to global-scale forcing and climate change.) The first quantitative reconstruction for the Northern Hemisphere temperature of the past millennium, including an error estimation, was presented by Mann, Bradley, and Hughes and rightly highlighted in the 2001 IPCC report as one of the major new findings since its 1995 report; it is shown in figure 3_6.39 The analysis suggests that, despite the large error bars, twentieth-century warming is indeed highly unusual and probably was unprecedented during the past millennium. This result, presumably because of its symbolic power, has attracted much criticism, to some extent in scientific journals, but even more so in the popular media. The hockey stick-shaped curve became a symbol for the IPCC, .and criticizing this particular data analysis became an avenue for some to question the credibility of the IPCC. Three important things have been overlooked in much of the media coverage. First, even if the scientific critics had been right, this would not have called into question the very cautious conclusion drawn by the IPCC from the reconstruction by Mann, Bradley, and Hughes: "New analyses of proxy data for the Northern Hemisphere indicate that the increase in temperature in the twentieth century is likely to have been the largest of any century during the past 1,000 years." This conclusion has since been supported further by every single one of close to a dozen new reconstructions (two of which are shown in figure 3-6). Second, by far the most serious scientific criticism raised against Mann, Hughes, and Bradley was simply based on a mistake. 40 The prominent paper of von Storch and others, which claimed (based on a model test) that the method of Mann, Bradley, and Hughes systematically underestimated variability, "was [itself] based on incorrect implementation of the reconstruction procedure."41 With correct implementation, climate field reconstruction

procedures such as the one used by Mann, Bradley, and Hughes have been shown to perform well in similar model tests. Third, whether their reconstruction is accurate or not has no bearing on policy. If their analysis underestimated past natural climate variability, this would certainly not argue for a smaller climate sensitivity and thus a lesser concern about the consequences of our emissions. Some have argued that, in contrast, it would point to a larger climate sensitivity. While this is a valid point in principle, it does not apply in practice to the climate sensitivity estimates discussed herein or to the range given by IPCC, since these did not use the reconstruction of Mann, Hughes, and Bradley or any other proxy records of the past millennium. Media claims that "a pillar of the Kyoto Protocol" had been called into question were therefore misinformed. As an aside, the protocol was agreed in 1997, before the reconstruction in question even existed. The overheated public debate on this topic has, at least, helped to attract more researchers and funding to this area of paleoclimatology; its methodology has advanced significantly, and a number of new reconstructions have been presented in recent years. While the science has moved forward, the first seminal reconstruction by Mann, Hughes, and Bradley has held up remarkably well, with its main features reproduced by more recent work. Further progress probably will require substantial amounts of new proxy data, rather than further refinement of the statistical techniques pioneered by Mann, Hughes, and Bradley. Developing these data sets will require time and substantial effort. It is time to address the final statement: most of the observed warming over the past fifty years is anthropogenic. A large number of studies exist that have taken different approaches to analyze this issue, which is generally called the "attribution problem." I do not discuss the exact share of the anthropogenic

contribution (although this is an interesting question). By "most" I imply mean "more than 50 percent. The first and crucial piece of evidence is, of course, that the magnitude of the warming is what is expected from the anthropogenic perturbation of the radiation balance, so anthropogenic forcing is able to explain all of the temperature rise. As discussed here, the rise in greenhouse gases alone corresponds to 2.6 W/tn2 of forcing. This by itself, after subtraction of the observed 0'.6 W/m2 of ocean heat uptake, would Cause 1.6C of warming since preindustrial times for medium climate sensitivity (3"C). With a current "best guess'; aerosol forcing of 1 W/m2, the expected warming is O.8c. The point here is not that it is possible to obtain the 'exact observed number-this is fortuitous because the amount of aerosol' forcing is still very' uncertain-but that the expected magnitude is roughly right. There can be little doubt that the anthropogenic forcing is large enough to explain most of the warming. Depending on aerosol forcing and climate sensitivity, it could explain a large fraction of the warming, or all of it, or even more warming than has been observed (leaving room for natural processes to counteract some of the warming). The second important piece of evidence is clear: there is no viable alternative explanation. In the scientific literature, no serious alternative hypothesis has been proposed to explain the observed global warming. Other possible causes, such as solar activity, volcanic activity, cosmic rays, or orbital cycles, are well observed, but they do not show trends capable of explaining the observed warming. Since 1978, solar irradiance has been measured directly from satellites and shows the well-known eleven-year solar cycle, but no trend. There are various estimates of solar variability before this time, based on sunspot numbers, solar cycle length, the geomagnetic AA index, neutron monitor data, and,

carbon-14 data. These indicate that solar activity probably increased somewhat up to 1940. While there is disagreement about the variation in previous centuries, different authors agree that solar activity did not significantly increase during the last sixty-five years. Therefore, this cannot explain the warming, and neither can any of the other factors mentioned. Models driven by natural factors only, leaving the anthropogenic forcing aside, show a cooling in the second half of the twentieth century (for an example, See figure 2-2, panel a, in chapter 2 of this volume). The trend in the sum of natural forcings is downward. The only way out would be either some as yet undiscovered unknown forcing or a warming trend that arises by chance from an unforced internal variability in the climate system. The latter cannot be completely ruled out, but has to be considered highly unlikely. No evidence in the observed record, proxy data, or current models suggest that such internal variability could cause a sustained trend of global warming of the observed magnitude. As discussed, twentieth century warming is unprecedented over the past 1,000 years (or even 2,000 years, as the few longer reconstructions available now suggest), which does not 'support the idea of large internal fluctuations. Also, those past variations correlate well with past forcing (solar variability, volcanic activity) and thus appear to be largely forced rather than due to unforced internal variability." And indeed, it would be difficult for a large and sustained unforced variability to satisfy the fundamental physical law of energy conservation. Natural internal variability generally shifts heat around different parts of the climate system-for example, the large El Nino event of 1998, which warmed, the atmosphere by releasing heat stored in the ocean. This mechanism implies that the ocean heat content drops as the atmosphere warms. For past decades, as discussed, we observed the atmosphere

warming and the ocean heat content increasing, which rules out heat release from the ocean as a cause of surface warming. The heat content of the whole climate system is increasing, and there is no plausible source of this heat other than the heat trapped by greenhouse gases. A completely different approach to attribution is to analyze the spatial patterns of climate change. This is done in so-called fingerprint studies, which associate particular patterns or "fingerprints" with different forcings. It is plausible that the pattern of a solar-forced climate change differs from the pattern of a change caused by greenhouse gases. For example, a characteristic of greenhouse gases is that heat is trapped closer to the Earth's surface and that, unlike solar variability, greenhouse gases tend to warm more in winter, and at night. Such studies have used different data sets and have been performed by different groups of researchers with different statistical methods. They consistently conclude that the observed spatial pattern of warming can only be explained by greenhouse gases.49 Overall, it has to be considered, highly likely' that the observed warming is indeed predominantly due to the human-caused increase in greenhouse gases. ' This paper discussed the evidence for the anthropogenic increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration and the effect of CO2 on climate, finding that this anthropogenic increase is proven beyond reasonable doubt and that a mass of evidence points to a CO2 effect on climate of 3C 1.59C global-warming for a doubling of concentration. (This is, the classic IPCC range; my personal assessment is that, in-the light of new studies since the IPCC Third Assessment Report, the uncertainty range can now be narrowed somewhat to 3C 1.0C) This is based on consistent results from theory, models, and data analysis, and, even in the absence-of any computer models, the same result would

still hold based on physics and on data from climate history alone. Considering the plethora of consistent evidence, the chance that these conclusions are wrong has to be considered minute. If the preceding is accepted, then it follows logically and incontrovertibly that a further increase in CO2 concentration will lead to further warming. The magnitude of our emissions depends on human behavior, but the climatic response to various emissions scenarios can be computed from the information presented here. The result is the famous range of future global temperature scenarios shown in figure 3_6.50 Two additional steps are involved in these computations: the consideration of anthropogenic forcings other than CO2 (for example, other greenhouse gases and aerosols) and the computation of concentrations from the emissions. Other gases are not discussed here, although they are important to get quantitatively accurate results. CO2 is the largest and most important forcing. Concerning concentrations, the scenarios shown basically assume that ocean and biosphere take up a similar share of our emitted CO2 as in the past. This could turn out to be an optimistic assumption; some models indicate the possibility of a positive feedback, with the biosphere turning into a carbon source rather than a sink under growing climatic stress. It is clear that even in the more optimistic of the shown (non-mitigation) scenarios, global temperature would rise by 2-3C above its preindustrial level by the end of this century. Even for a paleoclimatologist like myself, this is an extraordinarily high temperature, which is very likely unprecedented in at least the past 100,000 years. As far as the data show, we would have to go back about 3 million years, to the Pliocene, for comparable temperatures. The rate of this warming (which is important for the ability of ecosystems to cope) is also highly unusual and unprecedented probably for an even longer time.

The last major global warming trend occurred when the last great Ice Age ended between 15,000 and 10,000 years ago: this was a warming of about 5C over 5,000 years, that is, a rate of only 0.1 C per century. 52 The expected magnitude and rate of planetary warming is highly likely to come with major risk and impacts in terms of sea level rise (Pliocene sea level was 25-35 meters higher than now due to smaller Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets), extreme events (for example, hurricane activity is expected to increase in a warmer climate), and ecosystem loss. The second part of this paper examined the evidence for the current warming of the planet and discussed what is known about its causes. This part showed that global warming is already a measured andwell-established fact, not a theory. Many different lines of evidence consistently show that most of the observed warming of the past fifty years was caused by human activity. Above all, this warming is exactly what would be expected given the anthropogenic rise in greenhouse gases, and no viable alternative explanation for this warming has been proposed in the scientific literature. Taken together., the very strong evidence accumulated from thousands of independent studies, has over the past decades convinced virtually every climatologist around the world (many of whom were initially quite skeptical, including myself) that anthropogenic global warming is a reality with which we need to deal.

Warming risks extinction, turns every impact Cummins and Allen 10 (Ronnie, Intl. Dir. Organic
Consumers Association, and Will, Policy Advisor Organic Consumers Association, Climate Catastrophe: Surviving the 21st Century, 2-14, http://www.commondreams.org/view/2010/02/14-6)

The hour is late. Leading climate scientists such as James Hansen are literally shouting at the top of their lungs that the world needs to reduce emissions by 20-40% as soon as possible, and 80-90% by the year 2050, if we are to avoid climate chaos, crop failures, endless wars, melting of the polar icecaps, and a disastrous rise in ocean levels. Either we radically reduce CO2 and carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e, which includes all GHGs, not just CO2) pollutants (currently at 390 parts per million and rising 2 ppm per year) to 350 ppm, including agriculture-derived methane and nitrous oxide pollution, or else survival for the present and future generations is in jeopardy. As scientists warned at Copenhagen, business as usual and a corresponding 7-8.6 degree Fahrenheit rise in global temperatures means that the carrying capacity of the Earth in 2100 will be reduced to one billion people . Under this hellish scenario, billions will die of thirst, cold, heat, disease, war, and starvation. If the U.S. significantly reduces greenhouse gas emissions, other countries will follow. One hopeful sign is the recent EPA announcement that it intends to regulate greenhouse gases as pollutants under the Clean Air Act. Unfortunately we are going to have to put tremendous pressure on elected public officials to force the EPA to crack down on GHG polluters (including industrial farms and food processors). Public pressure is especially critical since "just say no" Congressmenboth Democrats and Republicans-along with agribusiness, real estate developers, the construction industry, and the fossil fuel lobby appear determined to maintain "business as usual."

Prefer our impactmost likely because its scientifically backed


Sullivan 7 (Gen. Gordon, Chair of CNA Corporation Military Advisory Board and Former Army Chief of Staff, in "National Security and the Threat of Climate Change", http://securityandclimate.cna.org/report/National%20Securit y%20and%20the%20Threat%20of%20Climate%20Change.pdf) We seem to be standing by and, frankly, asking for perfectness in science, Gen. Sullivan said. People are saying they want to be convinced, perfectly. They want to know the climate science projections with 100 percent certainty. Well, we know a great deal, and even with that, there is still uncertainty. But the trend line is very clear. We never have 100 percent certainty, he said. We never have it. If you wait until you have 100 percent certainty, something bad is going to happen on the battlefield. Thats something we know. You have to act with incomplete information. You have to act based on the trend line. You have to act on your intuition sometimes. In discussing how military leaders manage risk, Gen. Sullivan noted that significant attention is often given to the low probability/high consequence events. These events rarely occur but can have devastating consequences if they do. American families are familiar with these calculations. Serious injury in an auto accident is, for most families, a low probability/high consequence event. It may be unlikely, but we do all we can to avoid it. During the Cold War, much of Americas defense efforts focused on preventing a Soviet missile attackthe very definition of a low probability/high consequence event. Our effort to avoid such an unlikely event was a central organizing principle for our diplomatic and military strategies. When asked to compare the risks of climate change with those of the Cold War, Gen. Sullivan said, The Cold War was a specter, but

climate change is inevitable. If we keep on with business as usual, we will reach a point where some of the worst effects are inevitable. If we dont act, this looks more like a high probability/high consequence scenario, he added. Gen. Sullivan shifted from risk assessment to risk management. In the Cold War, there was a concerted effort by all leadership political and military, national and internationalto avoid a potential conflict, he said. I think it was well known in military circles that we had to do everything in our power to create an environment where the national command authoritythe president and his senior adviserswere not forced to make choices regarding the use of nuclear weapons.

Even 1% risk outweighs Strom 7 (Robert, Prof. Emeritus Planetary Sciences @ U.


Arizona and Former Dir. Space Imagery Center of NASA, Hot House: Global Climate Change and the Human Condition, Online: SpringerLink, p. 246) Keep in mind that the current consequences of global warming discussed in previous chapters are the result of a global average temperature increase of only 0.5 'C above the 1951-1980 average, and these consequences are beginning to accelerate. Think about what is in store for us when the average global temperature is 1 C higher than today. That is already in the pipeline, and there is nothing we can do to prevent it. We can only plan strategies for dealing with the expected consequences, and reduce our greenhouse gas emissions by about 60% as soon as possible to ensure that we don't experience even higher temperatures. There is also the danger of eventually triggering an abrupt climate change that would accelerate global warming to a catastrophic level in a short period of time. If that were to happen we would not stand a chance. Even if that possibility had only a 1% chance

of occurring, the consequences are so dire that it would be insane not to act. Clearly we cannot afford to delay taking action by waiting for additional research to more clearly define what awaits us. The time for action is now.

Makes nuke war inevitable Campbell et al 2007 *Kurt, The Age of Consequences: The
Foreign Policy and National Security Implications of Global Climate Change, CSIS, November, p. 3, http://www.csis.org/media/csis/pubs/071105_ageofconsequ ences.pdf] In the case of severe climate change, corresponding to an average increase in global temperature of 2.6C by 2040, massive non-linear events in the global environment give rise to massive nonlinear societal events. In this scenario, addressed in Chapter IV, nations around the world will be overwhelmed by the scale of change and pernicious challenges, such as pandemic disease. The internal cohesion of nations will be under great stress, including in the United States, both as a result of a dramatic rise in migration and changes in agricultural patterns and water availability. The flooding of coastal communities around the world, especially in the Netherlands, the United States, South Asia, and China, has the potential to challenge regional and even national identities. Armed conflict between nations over resources, such as the Nile and its tributaries, is likely and nuclear war is possible. The social consequences range from increased religious fervor to outright chaos. In this scenario, climate change provokes a permanent shift in the relationship of humankind to nature.

WetlandsExtinction
Wetlands are key to the hydro-cycle the impact is extinction Ramsar Convention, 96, Ramsar Convention on
Wetlands, Wetlands and Biodiversity, Executive Summary, http://www.ramsar.org/about/about_biodiversity.htm, ACC: 12.20.08, p. online Wetlands - including (inter alia) rivers, lakes, marshes, estuaries, lagoons, mangroves, seagrass beds, and peatlands - are among the most precious natural resources on Earth. These highly varied ecosystems are natural areas where water accumulates for at least part of the year. Driven by the hydrological cycle, water is continuously being recycled through the land, sea and atmosphere in a process which ensures the maintenance of ecological functions. Wetlands support high levels of biological diversity: they are, after tropical rainforests, amongst the richest ecosystems on this planet, providing essential life support for much of humanity, as well as for other species. Coastal wetlands, which may include estuaries, seagrass beds and mangroves, are among the most productive, while coral reefs contain some of the highest known levels of biodiversity (nearly onethird of all known fish species live on coral reefs). Other wetlands also offer sanctuary to a wide variety of plants, invertebrates, fishes, amphibians, reptiles and mammals, as well as to millions of both migratory and sedentary waterbirds. Wetlands are not only sites of exceptional biodiversity, they are also of enormous social and economic value, in both traditional and contemporary societies. Since ancient times, people have lived along water courses, benefiting from the wide range of goods and services

available from wetlands. The development of many of the great civilisations was largely based on their access to, and management of, wetland resources. Wetlands are an integral part of the hydrological cycle, playing a key role in the provision and maintenance of water quality and quantity as the basis of all life on earth. They are often interconnected with other wetlands, and they frequently constitute rich and diverse transition zones between aquatic ecosystems and terrestrial ecosystems such as forests and grasslands.

A2 Warming Not Anthro/Real


Warming happening now rising water temperatures prove USA Today 11 leader in news, the widest circulated print
newspaper in the United States (Wendy Koch, 1/29/11, " Arctic waters are warmest in 2000 years: Study ", http://content.usatoday.com/communities/greenhouse/post/ 2011/01/arctic-waters-warmest-2000-years/1) Water flowing into the Arctic Ocean from the North Atlantic is now the warmest in at least 2,000 years, reports a new international study that's bad news for climate change as well as polar bears needing sea ice for survival. Waters of the Fram Strait, which runs between Greenland and the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard, have warmed about 3.5 degrees Fahrenheit over the past 100 years, according to the study published in the Jan. 28 issue of the journal Science. Temperatures are about 2.5 degrees higher than during the Medieval Warm Period, a time of elevated warmth from A.D. 900 to 1300. "Such a warming of the Atlantic water in the Fram Strait is significantly different from all climate variations in the last 2,000 years," study lead author Robert Spielhagen of the Academy of Sciences, Humanities and Literature in Mainz, Germany, said in announcing the findings. "Cold seawater is critical for the formation of sea ice, which helps to cool the planet by reflecting sunlight back to space," said study co-author Thomas Marchitto, a paleoclimatologist at the University of Colorado at Boulder. The Arctic lost sea ice larger than the state of Alaska between 1979 and 2009 and could become ice-free during the summers within the next several decades, according to UC's National Snow and Ice Data Center.

Warming is real, anthropogenic and accelerating prefer reverse biased sources Robinson, 11 [10/25/11. Eugene, opinion, Washington Post,
Citing extensively Muller a physicist at UC Berkely, The scientific finding that settles the climate-change debate, http://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/the-scientificfinding-that-settles-the-climate-changedebate/2011/03/01/gIQAd6QfDM_story.html] For the clueless or cynical diehards who deny global warming, its getting awfully cold out there. The latest icy blast of reality comes from an eminent scientist whom the climate-change skeptics once lauded as one of their own. Richard Muller, a respected physicist at the University of California, Berkeley, used to dismiss alarmist climate research as being polluted by political and activist frenzy. Frustrated at what he considered shoddy science, Muller launched his own comprehensive study to set the record straight. Instead, the record set him straight. 99 percent bogus Global warming is real, Muller wrote last week in The Wall Street Journal. Rick Perry, Herman Cain, Michele Bachmann and the rest of the neo-Luddites who are turning the GOP into the anti-science party should pay attention. When we began our study, we felt that skeptics had raised legitimate issues, and we didnt know what wed find, Muller wrote. Our results turned out to be close to those published by prior groups. We think that means that those groups had truly been careful in their work, despite their inability to convince some skeptics of that. In other words, the deniers claims about the alleged sloppiness or fraudulence of climate science are wrong. Mullers team, the Berkeley Earth Surface Temperature project, rigorously explored the specific objections raised by skeptics and found them groundless.

Muller and his fellow researchers examined an enormous data set of observed temperatures from monitoring stations around the world and concluded that the average land temperature has risen 1 degree Celsius or about 1.8 degrees Fahrenheit since the mid-1950s. This agrees with the increase estimated by the United Nations-sponsored Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Mullers figures also conform with the estimates of those British and American researchers whose catty e-mails were the basis for the alleged Climategate scandal, which was never a scandal in the first place. The Berkeley groups research even confirms the infamous hockey stick graph showing a sharp recent temperature rise that Muller once snarkily called the poster child of the global warming community. Mullers new graph isnt just similar, its identical. Muller found that skeptics are wrong when they claim that a heat island effect from urbanization is skewing average temperature readings; monitoring instruments in rural areas show rapid warming, too. He found that skeptics are wrong to base their arguments on the fact that records from some sites seem to indicate a cooling trend, since records from at least twice as many sites clearly indicate warming. And he found that skeptics are wrong to accuse climate scientists of cherry-picking the data, since the readings that are often omitted because they are judged unreliable show the same warming trend. Muller and his colleagues examined five times as many temperature readings as did other researchers a total of 1.6 billion records and now have put that merged database online. The results have not yet been subjected to peer review, so technically they are still preliminary. But Mullers plain-spoken admonition that you should not be a skeptic, at least not any longer has reduced many deniers to incoherent grumbling or stunned silence. Not so, I predict, with the blowhards such as

Perry, Cain and Bachmann, who, out of ignorance or perceived self-interest, are willing to play politics with the Earths future. They may concede that warming is taking place, but they call it a natural phenomenon and deny that human activity is the cause. It is true that Muller made no attempt to ascertain how much of the warming is due to humans. Still, the Berkeley groups work should help lead all but the dimmest policymakers to the overwhelmingly probable answer. We know that the rise in temperatures over the past five decades is abrupt and very large. We know it is consistent with models developed by other climate researchers that posit greenhouse gas emissions the burning of fossil fuels by humans as the cause. And now we know, thanks to Muller, that those other scientists have been both careful and honorable in their work. Nobodys fudging the numbers. Nobodys manipulating data to win research grants, as Perry claims, or making an undue fuss over a naturally occurring warm-up, as Bachmann alleges. Contrary to what Cain says, the science is real. It is the knownothing politicians not scientists who are committing an unforgivable fraud.

Warming is real prefer recent and rigorous scientific study Muller, 11 *OCTOBER 21, 2011 The Case Against GlobalWarming Skepticism There were good reasons for doubt, until now., Mr. Muller is a professor of physics at the University of California, Berkeley, and the author of "Physics for Future Presidents" (W.W. Norton & Co., 2008)., http://online.wsj.com/article/SB100014240529702044224045 76594872796327348.html] As many as 757 stations in the United States recorded net surface-temperature cooling over the past century. Many are

concentrated in the southeast, where some people attribute tornadoes and hurricanes to warming. The temperaturestation quality is largely awful. The most important stations in the U.S. are included in the Department of Energy's Historical Climatology Network. A careful survey of these stations by a team led by meteorologist Anthony Watts showed that 70% of these stations have such poor siting that, by the U.S. government's own measure, they result in temperature uncertainties of between two and five degrees Celsius or more. We do not know how much worse are the stations in the developing world. Using data from all these poor stations, the U.N.'s Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change estimates an average global 0.64C temperature rise in the past 50 years, "most" of which the IPCC says is due to humans. Yet the margin of error for the stations is at least three times larger than the estimated warming. We know that cities show anomalous warming, caused by energy use and building materials; asphalt, for instance, absorbs more sunlight than do trees. Tokyo's temperature rose about 2C in the last 50 years. Could that rise, and increases in other urban areas, have been unreasonably included in the global estimates? That warming may be real, but it has nothing to do with the greenhouse effect and can't be addressed by carbon dioxide reduction. Moreover, the three major temperature analysis groups (the U.S.'s NASA and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the U.K.'s Met Office and Climatic Research Unit) analyze only a small fraction of the available data, primarily from stations that have long records. There's a logic to that practice, but it could lead to selection bias. For instance, older stations were often built outside of cities but today are surrounded by buildings. These groups today use data from about 2,000 stations, down from roughly 6,000 in 1970, raising even

more questions about their selections. Enlarge Image On top of that, stations have moved, instruments have changed and local environments have evolved. Analysis groups try to compensate for all this by homogenizing the data, though there are plenty of arguments to be had over how best to homogenize long-running data taken from around the world in varying conditions. These adjustments often result in corrections of several tenths of one degree Celsius, significant fractions of the warming attributed to humans. And that's just the surface-temperature record. What about the rest? The number of named hurricanes has been on the rise for years, but that's in part a result of better detection technologies (satellites and buoys) that find storms in remote regions. The number of hurricanes hitting the U.S., even more intense Category 4 and 5 storms, has been gradually decreasing since 1850. The number of detected tornadoes has been increasing, possibly because radar technology has improved, but the number that touch down and cause damage has been decreasing. Meanwhile, the short-term variability in U.S. surface temperatures has been decreasing since 1800, suggesting a more stable climate. Without good answers to all these complaints, global-warming skepticism seems sensible. But now let me explain why you should not be a skeptic, at least not any longer. Over the last two years, the Berkeley Earth Surface Temperature Project has looked deeply at all the issues raised above. I chaired our group, which just submitted four detailed papers on our results to peerreviewed journals. We have now posted these papers online at www.BerkeleyEarth.org to solicit even more scrutiny. Our work covers only land temperaturenot the oceansbut that's where warming appears to be the greatest. Robert Rohde, our chief scientist, obtained more than 1.6 billion measurements from more than 39,000 temperature stations

around the world. Many of the records were short in duration, and to use them Mr. Rohde and a team of esteemed scientists and statisticians developed a new analytical approach that let us incorporate fragments of records. By using data from virtually all the available stations, we avoided data-selection bias. Rather than try to correct for the discontinuities in the records, we simply sliced the records where the data cut off, thereby creating two records from one. We discovered that about one-third of the world's temperature stations have recorded cooling temperatures, and about two-thirds have recorded warming. The two-to-one ratio reflects global warming. The changes at the locations that showed warming were typically between 1-2C, much greater than the IPCC's average of 0.64C. To study urbanheating bias in temperature records, we used satellite determinations that subdivided the world into urban and rural areas. We then conducted a temperature analysis based solely on "very rural" locations, distant from urban ones. The result showed a temperature increase similar to that found by other groups. Only 0.5% of the globe is urbanized, so it makes sense that even a 2C rise in urban regions would contribute negligibly to the global average. What about poor station quality? Again, our statistical methods allowed us to analyze the U.S. temperature record separately for stations with good or acceptable rankings, and those with poor rankings (the U.S. is the only place in the world that ranks its temperature stations). Remarkably, the poorly ranked stations showed no greater temperature increases than the better ones. The mostly likely explanation is that while low-quality stations may give incorrect absolute temperatures, they still accurately track temperature changes. When we began our study, we felt that skeptics had raised legitimate issues, and we didn't know what we'd

find. Our results turned out to be close to those published by prior groups. We think that means that those groups had truly been very careful in their work, despite their inability to convince some skeptics of that. They managed to avoid bias in their data selection, homogenization and other corrections. Global warming is real. Perhaps our results will help cool this portion of the climate debate. How much of the warming is due to humans and what will be the likely effects? We made no independent assessment of that.

Feedbacks are net positivemust act now to prevent runaway warming Hansen, 8 head of NASA Goddard Institute and professor
of Environmental Sciences, Columbia University (James E. Hanson. Head of the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies in New York City and adjunct professor in the Department of Earth and Environmental Science at Columbia University. Al Gores science advisor. Introductory chapter for the book State of the Wild. Tipping point: Perspective of a Scientist. April. http://www.columbia.edu/~jeh1/2008/StateOfWild_2008042 8.pdf) Fast feedbackschanges that occur quickly in response to temperature changeamplify the initial temperature change, begetting additional warming. As the planet warms, fast feedbacks include more water vapor, which traps additional heat, and less snow and sea ice, which exposes dark surfaces that absorb more sunlight. Slower feedbacks also exist. Due to warming, forests and shrubs are moving poleward into tundra regions. Expanding vegetation, darker than tundra, absorbs sunlight and warms the environment. Another slow feedback is increasing wetness (i.e., darkness) of the Greenland and West Antarctica ice sheets in the warm

season. Finally, as tundra melts, methane, a powerful greenhouse gas, is bubbling out. Paleoclimatic records confirm that the long-lived greenhouse gases methane, carbon dioxide, and nitrous oxideall increase with the warming of oceans and land. These positive feedbacks amplify climate change over decades, centuries, and longer. The predominance of positive feedbacks explains why Earths climate has historically undergone large swings: feedbacks work in both directions, amplifying cooling, as well as warming, forcings. In the past, feedbacks have caused Earth to be whipsawed between colder and warmer climates, even in response to weak forcings, such as slight changes in the tilt of Earths axis.2 The second fundamental property of Earths climate system, partnering with feedbacks, is the great inertia of oceans and ice sheets. Given the oceans capacity to absorb heat, when a climate forcing (such as increased greenhouse gases) impacts global temperature, even after two or three decades, only about half of the eventual surface warming has occurred. Ice sheets also change slowly, although accumulating evidence shows that they can disintegrate within centuries or perhaps even decades. The upshot of the combination of inertia and feedbacks is that additional climate change is already in the pipeline: even if we stop increasing greenhouse gases today, more warming will occur. This is sobering when one considers the present status of Earths climate. Human civilization developed during the Holocene (the past 12,000 years). It has been warm enough to keep ice sheets off North America and Europe, but cool enough for ice sheets to remain on Greenland and Antarctica. With rapid warming of 0.6C in the past 30 years, global temperature is at its warmest level in the Holocene.3 The warming that has already occurred, the positive feedbacks that have been set in motion, and the

additional warming in the pipeline together have brought us to the precipice of a planetary tipping point. We are at the tipping point because the climate state includes large, ready positive feedbacks provided by the Arctic sea ice, the West Antarctic ice sheet, and much of Greenlands ice. Little additional forcing is needed to trigger these feedbacks and magnify global warming. If we go over the edge, we will transition to an environment far outside the range that has been experienced by humanity, and there will be no return within any foreseeable future generation. Casualties would include more than the loss of indigenous ways of life in the Arctic and swamping of coastal cities. An intensified hydrologic cycle will produce both greater floods and greater droughts. In the US, the semiarid states from central Texas through Oklahoma and both Dakotas would become more drought-prone and ill suited for agriculture, people, and current wildlife. Africa would see a great expansion of dry areas, particularly southern Africa. Large populations in Asia and South America would lose their primary dry season freshwater source as glaciers disappear. A major casualty in all this will be wildlife.

The peer reviewed studies corroborating our warming claims are bestprefer them over hackery cloaked as skepticism Davies 8 6/11, Author and Geophysicist at the Australian
National University *Dr. Geoff Davies, June 11 2008, Science Alert, Why listen to scientists?, <http://www.sciencealert.com.au/opinions/2008110617474.html>] Professor Don Aitkins recent promotion (PDF 258KB) of the sceptical view of global warming and the ensuing heated

debates on several web sites bring to the fore the question of what authority attaches to the published conclusions and judgments of climate scientists. Professor Aitkin, who is not a scientist, is in no doubt himself that the more outspoken climate scientists have a quasi-religious attitude. That is the mild end of the spectrum of opinions of sceptics/denialists/contrarians. Most of the media and many politicians seem to have the view that scientists are just another interest group, and that scientists opinions are just opinions, to be heard or discarded like any others. The Australian government seems to credit only the very conservative end of climate scientists warnings, because it is acting as though we have many decades in which to adjust, and many years before anything serious needs to be under way. The big difference between scientists professional conclusions and those of others is that science has a pervasive and well-developed quality-control process. The first stage is called peer review. Any paper that is published in a reputable scientific journal must be given the OK by several other scientists in the same field. Furthermore, after publication a paper will be read critically by many more scientists, and it is not uncommon for conclusions to be challenged in subsequent publications. For a paper to become widely acknowledged it must survive such scrutiny for a reasonable period, typically several years. All of this is on top of the fact that a scientific paper is based on observations of the world and on a large accumulation of well-tested regularities, such as the laws of physics. Few other groups have any comparable process. Certainly the media, politicians and climate sceptics have no such process. Most of the studies referred to by sceptics have either not been published in a relevant peer-reviewed scientific journal or have subsequently been challenged and found wanting in other

peer-reviewed studies. The peer-review process is far from perfect, but it yields a product distinctly less unreliable than all the other opinions flying around. The process of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) adds another layer of caution. Basically the IPCC gets a large number of relevant scientists to step back from the front-line disputes and ask What can most of us agree on?. Sceptics who dismiss all of the science because there are many disputes miss or obfuscate this basic aspect of IPCC assessments. There is a degree of judgment involved in the IPCC process, and in virtually any public summary by a climate scientist. Some would claim judgment is not the job of scientists; it is the job of politicians and others. But scientists are the best placed to judge the state of knowledge in their field. If their conclusions are potentially of great import, then they have a responsibility to state their best professional judgment. The claim by Professor Aitkin and many other sceptics that climate scientists dont discuss the uncertainties in their conclusions and judgments simply misrepresents or misperceives the abundant information on uncertainties. Even the IPCCs most terse summary statements clearly acknowledge uncertainty when they say, for example, Most of the observed increase in global average temperatures since the mid-20th century is very likely due to the observed increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations *emphasis in original+. The term very likely is specifically defined in the IPCC summaries to mean the assessed likelihood, using expert judgment, is greater than 90 per cent. Clive Hamilton contrasts the scientific and IPCC processes with those of many sceptics (see Atkins response here). He traces connections from relatively nave people like Professor Aitkin back to people and web sites funded by ExxonMobil and others. Sceptics love to question the motives

of climate scientists, but rarely mention the motives of the very powerful multi-trillion-dollar fossil fuel industry, parts of which are actively promoting doubt and disinformation in exactly the manner used by the tobacco industry for many years. Observations from the past two or three years, too recent to have been included in the 2007 IPCC Reports, show disturbing signs that the Earths response to our activities is happening much faster than expected. The most dramatic sign is a sudden acceleration of the rate of shrinkage of Arctic sea ice. Prominent NASA climate scientist Dr James Hansen is perhaps the most vocal, but far from alone, in arguing that the Earth may be very close to a tipping point beyond which large, unstoppable and irreversible climate change could occur. Scientific issues are not settled by appeals to authority, nor by a vote. That is not the issue here. The issue is whether scientists professional judgments have weight. Those in strategic positions in our society, like politicians and journalists, who treat scientists collective professional judgments as no better than any other opinion are being seriously irresponsible. You can ignore the IPCC if you want, but you should realise that its most recent assessment may have seriously understated the global warming problem. You can ignore James Hansen if you want, but you should know that his judgments from two or three decades ago are being broadly vindicated.

Water Pollution

Squo
Maquiladoras release toxic chemicals into residential water Bullard, 02 (Robert D. Bullard, Ph.D., Edmund Asa Ware Distinguished
Professor of Sociology and Director of the Environmental Justice Resource Center at Clark Atlanta University, leader in environmental justice; POVERTY, POLLUTION AND ENVIRONMENTAL RACISM: STRATEGIES FOR BUILDING HEALTHY AND SUSTAINABLE COMMUNITIES ; 11/22/2002; http://www.ejrc.cau.edu/PovpolEj.html) U.S.-Mexico Border Ecology. The conditions

surrounding the more than 1,900 maquiladoras, assembly plants operated by American, Japanese, and other foreign countries, located along the 2,000-mile U.S.-Mexico border may further exacerbate the waste trade. The industrial plants use cheap Mexican labor to assemble imported components and raw material and then ship finished products back to the United States. Over a half million Mexican workers are employed in the maquiladoras. All along the Lower Rio Grande River Valley maquiladoras dump their toxic wastes into the river, from which 95 percent of the region's residents get their drinking water. [22] In the border cities of Brownsville, Texas and Matamoras, Mexico, the rate of anencephaly--babies born without brains---is four times the national average. Affected families filed lawsuits against 88 of the area's 100 maquiladoras for exposing the community to xylene, a cleaning solvent that can cause brain hemorrhages, and lung and kidney damage. The Mexican environmental regulatory agency is understaffed and ill-equipped to adequately enforce its laws. Many of the Mexican border towns have now become cities
with skyscrapers and freeways. More important, the "brown pallor of these southwestern skies has become a major health hazards." [23]

Maquiladoras poison the air and water of local residential communities Bullard, 02 (Robert D. Bullard, Ph.D., Edmund Asa Ware Distinguished
Professor of Sociology and Director of the Environmental Justice Resource Center at Clark Atlanta University, leader in environmental justice; POVERTY, POLLUTION AND ENVIRONMENTAL RACISM: STRATEGIES FOR BUILDING HEALTHY AND SUSTAINABLE COMMUNITIES ; 11/22/2002; http://www.ejrc.cau.edu/PovpolEj.html) Toxics on the U.S.-Mexico Border. All

along the Lower Rio Grande River Valley maquiladoras dump their toxic waste into the river, from which over 95 percent of the region's residents get their drinking water. Shantytowns or colonias are home to 1 of every 5
residents of the 14 Texas counties along the U.S.-Mexico border. Of the 11 million border inhabitants, about 50% live in the three twin cities of: Ciudad Jurez -- El Paso; Mexicali -- Calexico; and Tijuana -- San Diego. In 1998, about 3,000 maquiladoras were in operation within the country of Mexico, of which 2,400 were situated in the border region. In 1997,maquiladoras

employed more than 900,000 people working at more than 3,000 plants, mainly along the border. Heavy exposure to toxics is not limited to workers. The maquiladoras produce large quantities of hazardous waste, little of which finds it way back to the country of origin for proper disposal. In addition, the air and water of local residential communities is fouled by toxic emissions in the air and untreated industrial waste.

Water PollutionExtinction
Litany of impacts housing market, agriculture, ecosystems, disease, and the overall economy are affected by groundwater contamination Page and Rabinowitz, 93 (G. William, Ph.D., professor in
the Department of Planning, University of Buffalo, the State University of New York *AND Harvey, former professor, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Autumn 1993, Groundwater contamination: Its effects on property values and cities, American Planning Association, Journal of the American Planning Association Volume 59, Issue 4, ProQuest, Hensel) Toxic chemical contamination of groundwater is a national problem. Groundwater contamination is the most serious problem at the majority of sites in the federal government's $15.2 billion Superfund program (U.S. Government Accounting Office 1991b). The program, which deals with the worst cases of contamination, as identified by the national priorities list, has insufficient funds to clean up all contamination; thus, the 1,200 Superfund sites are only a small portion of the contaminated sites in the United States. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), which operates the Superfund, sets the standards for levels of contamination. At the local level, where remediation is conducted, groundwater contamination is having significant impacts on property markets and on local government. Groundwater contamination and other forms of pollution impose many costs on society. Extensive research has measured the negative externalities of various types of pollution, but little has been done to determine the costs resulting from the

contamination of groundwater with toxic chemicals. Groundwater supplies about 40 percent of the U.S. population with drinking water, is used extensively by agriculture and industry, and is critical to sensitive surface water ecosystems. Contaminated groundwater is extremely expensive and difficult to clean up. Toxic chemical contamination in groundwater is an increasingly serious problem for local government, which is responsible for protecting the public health, the environment, and the tax base, which pays for government services, and for stimulating local economic development. Local governments often have to take remedial action to clean up groundwater because the polluter cannot be identified or found legally liable. The health risks, high costs of remedial action to clean up groundwater contamination, and the legal liability issues create serious financial problems and moral dilemmas for municipalities. Policy planners at all levels of government must be aware of the full social and environmental costs of groundwater contamination to be able to create policies that efficiently allocate resources for remediation incentives and to be able to devise adequate penalties to deter sufficiently potential polluters. Property owners must also be aware of the full costs of groundwater contamination as well as of their own liability for such contamination. Under EPA policy, current owners of property may be liable even if they did not cause the pollution. Mortgagees, lessees, and managers of property are also often drawn into the net of potentially responsible parties (PRPs) who could be found liable for contamination. The nature of groundwater flows complicates the contamination issue. Toxic chemicals in groundwater are not static; they move in a plume of contamination. Contaminants degrade much less efficiently in groundwater than in surface waters. Neither the direction nor the rate of

movement of plumes of toxic chemicals in groundwater is predictable without a thorough and costly hydrogeological investigation; and even the most thorough investigations may produce inaccurate predictions about contamination movement because of the complexity of and the difficulties in monitoring groundwater systems. The plume of contaminated groundwater will continue to flow and may pollute municipal water supply wells or private wells in the same or nearby communities, or it may discharge into wetlands, rivers, lakes, or coastal waters. Owners of property near sites containing contamination also should know if real or perceived concerns about contamination will affect the value of their property.

Wetlands

BioD-Tijuana River

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Tijuana Rivers health and biodiversity is crucial to maintaining global biodiversity Atkinson et al. 09
(Emily E. Atkinson, Department of Geography, Master of Science. August 2009. Dr. Kathleen A. Farley, Dr. Kate Swanson, Dr. David Carruthers. Linking Land Use and Policy in the Tijuana River Watershed. San Diego University. www.emilyeatkinson.com/documents/atkinson_thesis_final.p df) The California Floristic Province, stretching from southwest Oregon to northern Baja California, is internationally recognized as one of the worlds 25 biodiversity hotspots (Conservation International, 2008; Myers et al., 2000). It encompasses the South Coast Floristic Region, an area along the U.S.-Mexico border known for supporting the highest number of endemic plant species in the California Floristic Province. In the center of this floristic region lies the Tijuana River Watershed, a 4,532 km2 basin comprised of portions of northern Baja California and southern San Diego County (Ganster, 2005) (Figure 1). Figure 1. Map of the U.S.-Mexico border between southern California and northern Baja California, including the Tijuana River Watershed and the location of the city of San Diego and Tijuana. Aside from being part of the California Floristic Province, the Tijuana River Watershed has several key physical characteristics that make it unique. First, it is a bi-national watershed with one-third of its area in the United States and two-thirds in Mexico (Wright, 2005a). The headwaters of the river begin in eastern San Diego County and travel south across the border into the city of Tijuana, eventually returning to San Diego where the

river drains into the Pacific Ocean. The Tijuana River is one of the many examples of shared resources, including water and ecological resources, which are bisected by an international border. Second, the watershed contains one of the last coastal wetlands in Southern California, the Tijuana River Estuary (Ganster, 2005; Roullard, 2005). The 1,000hectare publicly owned reserve is located north of the city of Tijuana in San Diego County and is the endpoint for rivers and streams in the watershed as they travel through the estuary into the Pacific Ocean. The estuary also serves as an important rest stop for migratory birds traveling south along the Pacific Flyway (Roullard, 2005). Finally, the Tijuana River Watershed supports a significant number of native plant communities, including a variety of species of coastal sage scrub and chaparral (O'Leary, 2005). These globally rare plant communities provide habitat to a number of threatened and endangered wildlife species (O'Leary, 2005).

Maquiladoras are polluting the Tijuana Pauw 97


(Theodore Pauw. 1/11/97. TED Case Studies: Tijuana River Pollution. http://www1.american.edu/ TED/TIJUANA.HTM.) Sewage from Tijuana has been flowing into the Pacific Oceanfor over six decades. This became a serious problem in the 1960s with the rise of the maquiladora program in 1965, which encouraged migration to the Tijuana area. The Pacific coast and the Tijuana River Estuary have suffered as a consequence. Trade is related to this case in several ways. The maquiladoras directly and indirectly generate waste and sewage that pollutes the environment. The pollution also affects the tourist industry in San Diego; the beaches and the

estuary are unseemly places to visit at times. The important question in this and other cases related to the U.S.-Mexico border is whether free trade will encourage Mexico to clean up its environment or whether it will degrade the environment further. The problem in this case is directly related to the economy of Tijuana. The concept of the maquiladora industry began in965 with the creation of the Border Industrialization Plan (BIP). The idea came from the success of "export processing zones" in South Korea and Taiwan. The attractiveness of the maquiladora industry is that companies have access to relatively low-cost labor and remain close to the U.S. market. During the 1960s, the sewage problem became unmanageable as a result of the influx of people seeking work. Both industrial and human waste comprise the excess sewage. This problem has grown over the years along with the growth of the population of Tijuana and the growth of the maquiladora industry. The severity of the problem dramatically increased when the number of maquiladoras increased dramatically. In 1983, the number of maquiladoras numbered 140; in 1989, there were approximately 450 maquiladoras in the Tijuana area. The number of workers was 19,239 and 60,000, respectively. By January 1995, there were 529 maquiladoras employing 81,599 employees. (The City of Tecate, also in the Tijuana watershed, has 92 maquiladoras employing 19,772 employees.) The Tijuana treatment system is not able to process all of the waste that is being produced. Consequently, approximately 13 million gallons of raw sewage spills into the Pacific Ocean and flows up to San Diego County beaches. During the 1960s, the City of San Diego responded to this problem by treating as much of the waste as it could. In 1965 it signed an agreement to treat the sewage. The agreement expired in 1985. Annex I

of The Border Environmental Agreements, signed in 1985, was designed to replace the old arrangement. The new agreement called for the construction of two new facilities. Mexico decided to build a treatment facility in La Joya and the U.S. decided to build a pipeline system and a treatment facility on the U.S. side to support the La Joya facility in the event of a breakdown. The facilities were supposed to have been built within 5 years but the second plant is not finished. The 1987 amendments to the Clean Water Act allowed government officials to take vigorous steps to address the problem (see CLEAN case). Consequently, a multi-phased plan was drawn up, outlining construction of the requisite facilities. The EPA and the City of San Diego are also planning to construct facilities in San Diego County to improve treatment. The Mexican plant was completed in October 1991. The plant consisted of a treatment plant, conveyance channel, pressure line, and pumping plant. The second plant in San Diego, the South Bay International Wastewater Treatment Plant (ITP), which will cost approximately $400 million to build, was supposed to be finished by 1995 but now the completion date is set for February 1997. (The completion date was changed in June 1995; the previous completion date was December, 1996.) When it is finished, it will serve the Tijuana-San Diego area; it will be able to handle up to 25 million gallons per day. In addition, a 3.5 mile tunnel will be constructed to dispose of the treated waste in the ocean, which is scheduled for completion in May 1998. (The completion date was changed in June 1995; the previous completion date was February 1998.) When completed, the treatment processing facilities will be able to process the 13 million gallons of untreated sewage that enters the Pacific ocean everyday. However, the treatment plants will not be able to stop sewage from overflowing into the Tijuana River Estuary when there is an

excessive discharge of sewage or when the river rises (see Tijuana case). The project to clean up the Tijuana River is part of a larger border clean up plan that addresses water, land, and air pollution. The plan to clean up the entire U.S.-Mexico border is estimated to be completed by 2003 and could cost between $6.5 billion to $20 billion (see Table 147-1). Table 147-1 Financing the San Diego Plant U.S. federal government $239 million Mexico $16 million City of San Diego $88-$140 million State of California $5.3 million As a result of NAFTA, the maquiladora program will cease on January 1, 2001 (see NAFTA case). Existing duties on imported parts and other trade restrictions will be eliminated. In addition, the number of companies choosing to locate in the border area will increase because of the relative advantages associated with being situated near the border. The San Diego- Tijuana area in particular expects to see an increase in the number of manufacturing companies. JVC is building a plant in San Diego County on the border so that it can take advantage of low wages yet be subject to U.S. jurisdiction. There are several trade-related issues in this case. The primary issue is the extent to which tourism in the City of San Diego is impacted by the pollution in the Tijuana River Estuary and the Pacific Ocean. The second is the extent to which companies choose to locate in Tijuana to exploit the lax enforcement of environmental laws. The third is the effect of the temporary halt in the project on trade. The severity of the problem is deceptively large. The beaches in San Diego County were closed almost the entire summer of 1993 and Imperial Beach was closed for 200 days in 1993. The health risks are severe. Anyone venturing into the Tijuana River Estuary must be extremely careful as one risks getting salmonella, shigella, fibrial, cholera, hepatitis A, and malaria. The City of Tijuana also suffers from a lack of proper sanitation services. For

example, Loma Taurina, a poor neighborhood, has health hazards created by the untreated sewage. During severe storms untreated sewage spills into the streets. Unfortunately, properly treating this problem will require an amount of money far beyond the capacity of the City of Tijuana. \

Tijuana River is being massively polluted by the maquiladoras Good 05


David Good. Dave Good is an award-winning journalist and author for the San Diego Reader. Sept. 12, 2005. Showdown on the Rio Alamar.http://www.sandiegoreader.com/news/2012/sep/05 /cover-showdown-rio-alamar/?page=2& Before NAFTA, (the North American Free Trade Agreement of 1994) says Mendez, people could fish and bathe in the Rio Alamar. Before the maquilas came in 1986, you could actually drink the water. It is no longer news to anyone in San Diego that during winter storms, sewage-laden floodwaters from the Tijuana River overwhelm both the Tijuana estuary, one of the most important salt-marsh ecosystems left in the U.S., and the Pacific Ocean. The winter waters off Imperial Beach become a hellish broth of contaminants and raw sewage, and area beaches are known to remain closed to the public throughout the season. This sewage spill has a name: the Tijuana River plume, and it is tracked by the Southern California Coastal Ocean Observing System.A TED (the acronym stands for Trade and Environmental Database) case study, #147, titled Tijuana River Pollution, placed a

substantial portion of the blame for all that pollution on the maquiladora program. NAFTA, they say, provided paychecks, but in turn encouraged the migration of thousands upon thousands of job-seekers to Tijuana in advance of any sort of infrastructure. In other words, humans outnumbered toilets. Much of the workforce simply squatted in makeshift encampments on the banks of the Alamar. The maquilas themselves, some 3000 factories and assembly plants, generate additional toxic waste and sewage.Mendez says that practicing environmentalism in the midst of such thirdworld abuse is difficult. You never really know where the Mexican government is at, what theyre doing, or why theyre doing it. Its hard to get documents.He takes one last look around the pitiful arroyo and the Alamar before we leave, but one senses that he sees something aside from the results of years of dumping. It is a great opportunity, he finally says, to clean the air with all these trees.Tijuana is a coast city. Were a river city.Margarita Daz is the director of Proyecto Fronterizo de Educacin Ambiental A.C. (Border Environmental Education Project) in Tijuana. Proyecto Fronterizo is one of a list of binational environmental agencies, governmental agencies, and nonprofits that have a stake in the outcome of the Rio Alamar project.She calls from her office in Playas. But the *Mexican+ government doesnt see it that way, she says, and even we dont see ourselves as a river city. I tell people that we have a river running through the middle of our city. Thats not a river, they say. Thats a tunnel.The Tijuana River originates in Mexico and crosses the international boundary into the United States near San Ysidro. The majority of the river was channelized and run into a concrete straitjacket during the late 1960s. The channelization of creeks and rivers and seeps and above-ground springs is an old-school engineering

solution to seasonal flooding that dates back to the 1930s and possibly earlier. Channelization does exactly what it is supposed to do: it provides a concrete fast track through which large volumes of water can move out of a given area at a high rate of speed. On paper, it seems like a good solution, if, that is, one doesnt mind the total loss of nature that comes with the process.But channelization has also been identified as a major source of ocean pollution. Along with water, urban channels transport anything and everything that happens to be in them, including, sometimes, humans. In spite of the best engineering intentions, people have drowned in such culverts during storm events.Channelization is always bad for a river, says Travis Pritchard, a chemist who monitors water quality for San Diego Coastkeeper. Six months ago I went down to Tijuana and met with Margarita Daz. They observed what remained of the Rio Alamar. Its super sad. I felt like I was watching the death of a river before my eyes.

Tijuana Key
Tijuana is key to international biodiversity and human well-being NERR 10
(Tijuana River Comprehensive Management Plan- National Estuarine Research Reserve. National Estuarine Research Reserve. August 2010. http://www.nerrs.noaa.gov/Doc/PDF/Reserve/TJR_ MgmtPlan.pdf) The Tijuana River National Estuarine Research Reserve (TRNERR) is unique in a local, regional, national, and international context. It offers one of the best and largest remaining examples of Californias coastal wetland habitat, a habitat that has been largely lost due to urban development or seriously degraded elsewhere in southern California. This section includes a brief description of the importance of estuarine habitats and the natural resources protected within the Reserve. I. THE NEED TO PROTECT ESTUARIES A. DEFINITION Estuaries are a hydrological and biological crossroads, defined as the portion of the earth's coastal zone where there is interaction of ocean water, freshwater, land, and atmosphere. The specific plant and animal habitats that may be supported by an estuarine system are determined by conditions in the watershed and in the adjacent ocean. The rate at which fresh water enters the estuary, the amount and type of waterborne and bottom sediments, the degree of tidal flushing, and water depth (hence temperature and degree of sunlight), all combine to produce diverse biological

communities in a dynamic and complex system. A significant physical change in any of those factors can trigger traumatic changes in the estuarine biologic community , greatly enlarging or reducing the size of various species' populations. B. ESTUARINE FUNCTIONS Estuarine wetlands provide a number of valuable ecological functions, or socalled ecosystem services. Most broadly, there are sources of recreational and aesthetic benefits, as witnessed by the boom in industries such as eco-tourism. Also, they offer critical buffers between the sea, land, and freshwater. They can protect inland areas from ocean-borne waves and storm activity. Also, they also can help protect the ocean from watershed inputs, filtering and helping to purify water. In a healthy estuarine system, the interaction of tides, unpolluted fresh water, and sediments creates some of the most productive systems on the planet. Sheltered shallow waters and soft mud or sand flats, regularly flooded by the tides, provide ideal conditions for abundant life. Among the most important estuarine species are microscopic photosynthetic organisms called phytoplankton. Phytoplankton, like green plants, make the energy of sunlight available to animals as food. Phytoplankton are consumed by microscopic and minute animals called zooplankton. These animals include small crustaceans such as copepods, and the larvae of fish, crabs, clams, and other species. These organisms themselves are part of the food supply for adults of their own or other species. Marsh plants and eelgrass growing in shallow estuarine waters are critically important to estuarine animal life. Marsh vegetation not only provides

cover for many animals, but also, as it dies back each season, creates detritus that feeds and houses the species on which larger species depend. The blades of eelgrass are homes for algae, snails, and other food for larger animals. Juveniles of many species reach adulthood by hiding among estuarine vegetation. In an undisturbed estuary, the wealth of food can support huge populations of immature and adult fish, crabs, shrimp, and other species. Those animals provide essential food for populations of birds and mammals, including people. C. MODIFICATION OF ESTUARIES Estuaries-characteristically flat land that offers sheltered access to the sea, and a profusion of fish and other seafood--offer attractive conditions for human habitation, agricultural production, and transportation. Estuaries on the west coast of the U.S. supported native peoples for thousands of years and, more recently, settlers from other parts of the globe. Prior to the 1970s, the value and finite nature of estuaries were not fully appreciated. It was not recognized that estuaries are integral to ecological and human well-being. Destruction of estuaries was disastrously affecting water quality, commercial and recreational fisheries, and overall ecosystem health. Estuary-dependent plants and animal populations began to dwindle with lost habitat, food sources, and reproductive sites. Affected species included not only salmonids, crab, and clams, but also birds such as eagles and falcons, which feed on the tideflats. Increasing awareness of the value of estuaries triggered current efforts to preserve, conserve, and restore these fragile systems.

Tijuana River Estuary is uniquely key to biodiversity Romo 2-13


(Oscar Romo. Oscar Romo, Ph.D., is a former United Nations diplomat and now the watershed coordinator at the Tijuana River National Estuarine Research ReserveAlpha Forma, LLC. Detection, Mapping and Communication of Solid Waste Pollution Sources in the Tijuana River Valley. Febuary 13 2013.http://www.waterboards.ca.gov/sandiego/board_info/a gendas/2013/Feb/item7/Item7_sup_doc_1.pdf) The Tijuana River National Estuarine Research Reserve (TRNERR) preserves one of the largest remaining examples of coastal wetland habitats in the southern California subregion, including beach, dune, mud flat, salt marsh, riparian, coastal sage and upland habitats. The 2,293 acre Tijuana River Reserve is located in Imperial Beach, Calif., situated in a highly urbanized location, 15 miles south of San Diego and immediately adjacent to Tijuana, Mexico. Three quarters of the reserves watershed is in Mexico, so reserve programs apply an international perspective to critical issues of habitat restoration, endangered species management, and trash and sediment flows from Mexico (TRNERR management plan). The reserve is recognized as a wetland of international importance by the Ramsar Convention. The Tijuana River Estuary is one of the few salt marshes remaining in Southern California, where over 90% of wetland habitat has been lost to development. The site is an essential breeding, feeding, nesting ground and key stopover point on the Pacific Flyway for over 370 species of migratory and native birds, including the endangered Light-footed clapper rail, California least tern, Least Bells vireo, and white and brown pelicans

Maquiladoras are polluting the Tijuana because of lack of funding and law enforcement. Saldaa 94
(Lori Saldaa. A regular contributor to Earth Times, is a writer, public speaker and photographer who specializes in conservation and environmental issues. June 1994. Tijuana River: a controversy runs through it. San Diego Earth Times. http://www.sdearthtimes.com/et0694/et0694s1.html) Technically, some of these industrial wastes should be disposed of in their country of origin, and that may in fact be the United States. Under the La Paz Treaty of 1983, signed by President Reagan and Mexican President de la Madrid, hazardous wastes produced by an industry operating in one country must be returned for disposal to the country that owns that business, or disposed of in an approved hazardous waste site in Mexico. Thus, the treaty requires that American-owned industries operating in Mexico (commonly known as "maquiladoras") manage their toxic waste in an environmentally safe way. However, because of lax enforcement, operators often dispose of these wastes illegally in landfills in Mexico. This is the belief of Martha Rocha Rodriquez. She lives in the Playas neighborhood of Tijuana and for the last five years has worked with an environmental organization known as MEBAC, the "Movimiento Ecologista de Baja California." Last year, MEBAC forced a company to dismantle and remove a proposed waste incinerator plant scheduled to operate just south of Tijuana, arguing that it would create a health risk for nearby neighborhoods. However, another division of the plant owned by Chemical Waste Management de Mexico, and located less than a mile from the Pacific Ocean - continues to

recycle solvents from maquiladoras. Rodriguez believes it is possible to reduce the amount of wastes now being produced by American-owned maquiladoras in Tijuana, but that high program costs and a lack of enforcement of existing laws by SEDESOL (Mexico's Secretariat of Social Development, similar to the United State's EPA) have made this unlikely.

Tijuana supports thousands of crucial species NERR 10


(Tijuana River Comprehensive Management Plan- National Estuarine Research Reserve. National Estuarine Research Reserve. August 2010. http://www.nerrs.noaa.gov/Doc/PDF/Reserve/TJR_ MgmtPlan.pdf) The tidal flushing of the Tijuana Estuary maintains a variety of habitats, which in turn support a broad range of organisms. A listing of plant and animal species with state or federal listing as threatened or endangered is provided in Appendix 3. The following provides an overview of habitats and describes the status of regionally significant resources . a. Habitat Overview The Tijuana River National Estuarine Research Reserve includes the following coastal habitats (McIlwee, 1970): Sand dunes and beaches - Sand deposits are continually shifted during floods and sea storms, thus creating relatively unstable habitat. In recent years, the dune system has become very unstable, allowing sand to be blown into the tidal channels. Open tidal channels and mudflats Sand, silty clay, and mixed substrates create a variety of subtidal habitats and intertidal mudflats (Zedler, Winfield, and

Mauriello, 1978). Loss of this habitat due to elevation increases caused by fill and sedimentation represent a major management concern. Salt marshes - Salt marshes have been estimated to comprise approximately 410 acres of the Reserve, including low marsh, middle marsh, and high marsh. These classes correspond to the shifts in species composition, community structure, soil salinity and texture, and tidal conditions that occur along the onemeter elevation gradient. Fresh-brackish marshes - Freshwater brackish marshes occur throughout the Reserve and are dominated by bulrushes and cattails. Riparian habitats These encompass the entire span of habitats upstream from mean high tide, including freshwater marshes and upland areas. Coastal sage scrub - The bluffs adjacent to the international border along the southern boundary of the Reserve are classified as coastal sage scrub. This community is considered sensitive habitat throughout San Diego County and Southern California. Vernal pools - A few small vernal pools can be found in the Reserve. These shallow pools, which hold a few inches of water during the wet months, host the San Diego fairy shrimp, a federally endangered species. Vegetation communities are shown in Figure 6. A key to vegetation communities is provided in Figure 6. The northwestern part of the Reserve is generally considered to be healthier than the southern or eastern regions. Tidal exchange in the north is generally better and more mudflats are exposed at low tide at the northern end. In contrast, channel banks are steep, tidal flushing is restricted, and low elevation communities are rare in the Reserve's southern end (Crooks, pers. obs.). b. Vegetation The estuary's vegetation communities were important in the designation of the Reserve (U.S. Department of Commerce and California Coastal Commission,

1981). In addition to having regionally significant species, the Tijuana Estuary includes most of the plant communities found in other southern California wetlands (Zedler, 1982). The plant communities also have been monitored for over 30 years, giving long-term perspectives on patterns and changes in the ecosystem (Zedler and West 2007 and references therein). Distributions of species at Tijuana Estuary are similar to those found in large marshes in southern California, such as Sweetwater Marsh (Mudie, 1970), Mission Bay (Macdonald, 1967), Upper Newport Bay (Vogl, 1966; Massey and Zembal, 1979), Anaheim Bay (Massey and Zembal, 1979), and Mugu Lagoon. The vegetation communities of the southern salt marshes are considered distinct from marshes north of Point Conception, because of much more limited rainfall and hypersaline soils affecting plant growth rates and species composition (Zedler, 1983a). Cordgrass (Spartina foliosa) forms robust stands along tidal channels in the northern reaches of the Reserve. Large stands of this species are rare in the other more disturbed southern California wetlands, and they are of particular importance as habitat for the endangered lightfooted clapper rail (Jorgensen, 1975). Above the cordgrass-dominated community are found several succulents, including pickleweed (Sarcocornia pacifica) and saltwort (Batis maritima) as dominants, and annual pickleweed (Salicornia bigelovii) and sea blite (Suaeda esteroa). Alkali heath (Frankenia salina) is another dominant high-marsh plant. At higher elevations, these succulents grade into a dense matted cover of shoregrass (Monanthochloe littoralis). At the highest elevations, another species of pickleweed (Salicornia subterminalis) becomes codominant with shoregrass. The low-growing, open canopies of vascular plants in southern California marshes allow light penetration to the soil surface and subsequent development

of lush algal mats (Zedler, 1982d). Filamentous bluegreen and green algae and dozens of species of diatoms form mats up to one centimeter thick on moist soils. These occur at all intertidal elevations. The early studies on the composition of these marsh algal mats were performed at Tijuana River Estuary in the 1970s. These algal mats are about as productive as the overstory salt marsh plants (Zedler, 1980) and actually play a more important role as a food source in the estuarine food chain (Williams, 1981; Zedler, 1982c). Reduced tidal circulation, natural flooding, prolonged excessive freshwater input, compaction by off-road vehicles, and the introduction of exotic species can cause changes in both salt marsh community structure and function (Zedler, 1982d). Of particular concern is the invasion of Tamarix spp. into high marsh habitats. Salt marsh bird's beak (Cordylanthus maritimus) was once a common plant of the upper marsh but is now listed as endangered under the Federal Endangered Species Act. This plant likely owes its endangered status to the filling and destruction of upper marsh habitat in California. At the Tijuana River Estuary, salt marsh bird's beak occurs near areas with slightly disturbed soil surfaces, such as along the edges of paths and roads, sparsely vegetated openings, and depressions. c. Invertebrates Invertebrates, which include intertidal organisms such as aquatic insects, worms, clams, and crabs, and terrestrial insects and spiders, are likely major consumers in the salt marsh food chain and in turn are an important food source for the fishes and birds of the marsh (Zedler, 1982d). Crabs are perhaps the most conspicuous invertebrates in southern California coastal salt marshes. This is also true of the Tijuana Estuary. Burrows of several species of crab occur throughout the lower marsh. Another common and conspicuous inhabitant of the estuary's tidal channels is the horn snail. Many other

invertebrate species are just as numerous but less obvious because of their size or location within the sediments. These include several species of clams and mud worms. Continuing recent studies have helped characterize the benthic community at the Tijuana Estuary. The species composition and dominance change with the distance from the River's mouth. Captellid and spionid polycheates are found in both the estuary's northern and southern arms. Protothaca staminea and Tagelus californianus are the most common bivalves in the tidal channels (Williams et al 1996). California horn snail (Cerithidea californica) is abundant especially in the winter. Relatively little research has been done on the terrestrial invertebrates of the estuary and their ecological role, except for recent work on invasive Argentine ants conducted by a NERRS Graduate Research Fellow from 20042007. This non-native species forms extremely aggressive colonies, forcing out native ants and depleting the key food source of the horned lizard, which does not eat Argentine ants. Installation of new irrigation lines has been blamed for Argentine ant invasion, as the ants require a year-round water source. In general, as in other salt marshes, most insects here probably feed on vascular plants, algae, and decaying plants, while others are carnivores. They serve as a food source for birds and other marsh vertebrates. Marsh insects are also important to the pollination of marsh flowering plants. The endangered salt marsh bird's beak, for example, is pollinated by native bees (Zedler, 1982d). Rove beetles (Staphylinidae spp.) burrow in mud and salt flats. They are abundant in the estuary and appear to play a role in aerating soils and in reversing soil compaction resulting from off-road vehicles. Studies suggest that the largest population of the wandering skipper (Panoquina errans) in the United States may be at the Tijuana Estuary (Zedler, 1982d). The estuary

also supports a diverse and abundant population of coastal tiger beetles (Cicindela sp.), of which four species may be threatened (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1982). The Reserve is also a location for the globose dune beetle (Coelus globosus), a federal Category 2 species. At least eleven species of salt marsh mosquitoes breed in the saline and brackish pools of the estuary (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, California Department of Parks and Recreation, and Department of the Navy, 1983). Three species (Aedes taeniorhynchus, Anopheles hermsi, and Culex tarsalis) are of particular concern because of their potential as pests and possible disease vectors. Currently, biochemical control methods (BTI) are being used to combat larvae and adults in areas where there is a high concentration of these mosquitoes. These methods are further discussed in Chapter 5. d. Fish The small tidal creeks and channels of the estuary support a relatively diverse population of fish including at least 29 species representing 19 families (U.S. Department of Commerce and California Coastal Commission, 1981; US. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1982, Zedler et al. 1992). Since 1987, fish assemblages have been sampled in the estuary. Catches are often dominated by topsmelt (Atherinops affinis), longjaw mudsucker (Gillichthys mirabilis), arrow goby (Clevelandia ios), and California killifish (Fundulus parvipinnis). Adult striped mullet (Mugil cepalus) are also common. Abundance varies year to year, but total density tends to peak in the summer and declines in the winter. The tidal channels have been shown to function as a nursery for commercially important fish, such as the California halibut. Nordby (1982) found abundant eggs of the croaker family, topsmelt, and northern anchovy. Hence, the estuary appears to be providing nursery habitat for marine fishes; it may, therefore, be important for sport and commercial fisheries.

Game fish such as kelp and sand bass, opaleye, and white croaker have also been found in the estuary (U.S. Department of Commerce and California Coastal Commission, 1981). e. Reptiles and Amphibians The habitats within the Reserve support at least 29 species of reptiles and amphibians (Espinoza 1991, USGS 2001). These include the San Diego horned lizard (Phrynosoma coronatum blainvillei), and the Coronado skink (Eumeces skiltonianus interparietalis). Both are species of special concern. California kingsnakes (Lampropeltis getulus californiae) and San Diego gopher snakes (Pituophis melanoleucus annectens) are common in transition habitats, but are also found in the drier areas of the salt marsh. Side blotched lizards (Uta stansburiana) are abundant on the dry ground of the reconstructed dunes and other sandy areas. Dunes are also home to the San Diego horned lizard and silvery legless lizard (Annielia pulchra pulchra). Riparian area and freshwaterponds are home to the California toad (Bufo boreas halophilus) and the Pacific tree frog (Hyla regilla). Coastal sage scrub is habitat for the San Diego alligator lizard (Gerrhonotus multicarinatus webbi) and the Great Basin fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis biseriatus). Management of reptiles and amphibians focuses on protecting the remaining open space in the Reserve and restricting horse, vehicle, and foot traffic to designated areas. The maintenance of the few freshwater ponds is important to the life cycles of the amphibians (Espinoza 1991). f. Birds Bird populations have been an important factor in the special protective status attributed to the Tijuana Estuary. Over 370 bird species are reported for the area. Birds use the wide array of habitats present in the lower and upper estuary, including the ocean beach and dunes, mudflats, mudbanks, salt marshes, and riparian areas. A complete list of

birds observed at the Reserve can be obtained at the Visitor Center. Six federally listed threatened or endangered birds occur regularly in the Reserve: the lightfooted clapper rail (Rallus longirostris levipes), the California least tern (Sternulae antillarum), least Bell's vireo (Vireo belli pusillus), the California gnatcatcher, the western snowy plover (Charadrius alexandrinus nivosus), and the California brown pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis californicus). Belding's sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis beldingi) is listed as endangered in the State of California. Other regionally or locally rare species include the elegant tern, black skimmer, and northern harrier. The light-footed clapper rail, California least tern, western snowy plover, least Bell's vireo, and Belding's savannah sparrow nest in the estuary. Their requirements and status are discussed further since these are the species most likely to be affected by management of the Reserve.

Wetlands Key
Wetlands are key to stop global warming Ahmed 10
(Shafaat Ahmed. Repoter for Khaleej Times. 3 February 2010. Khaleej Times.Protection of Wetlands Key to Human Survival. http://www.khaleejtimes.com/DisplayArticle.asp?xfile=data/t heuae/2010 /February/ theuae_February90.xml&section=theuae&col=) DUBAI Protection of wetlands is key to human survival and UAE plays a central role in this endeavour, a panel of scientists observed at the World Wetlands Day seminar organised by Dubai Municipality (DM). Being a crucial stopover junction for thousands of migratory birds from across the world, wetlands in the UAE play a key role in the survival of hundreds of avian species as well as other forms of life, environmentalists stressed at the conference themed Caring for wetlands and answer to climate change. The event which took place at the Dubai Municipality Club, Al Jaddaf, hosted eminent scientists and environmental officers including Christophe Tourenq, Emirates Wildlife Societys Fujairah project manager, Dr Saleem Javed from Environment Agency Abu Dhabi and top officials from DMs Environment Department. Speaking on the occasion, Mohammed Abdul Rahman, Head of Marine Environment and Wildlife, at the Environment Department of DM, highlighted his departments effort in protecting and monitoring various natural water bodies and habitats.

He pointed out that the UAEs high priority to conservational efforts paved way to its accession to Ramsar Convention in 2007. Ras Al Khor Wild Life Sanctuarys designation as the UAEs first and worlds 1,715th Ramsar site is a testimony to our work.Wetland is an indispensible tool in enhancing the environment, and every form of life including human beings benefit from its various services. It is the responsibility of all of us to ensure the quality of wetlands by stopping all kinds of pollution, said Abdul Rahman. Highlighting the central role water and water bodies play in supporting and preserving all forms of life, Christophe Tourenq said wetlands and waterbirds can be a tools in mitigating climate change and protecting life. Wetlands support a lot of species which directly or indirectly help human beings in their daily life, he said. The coastal areas and island complex of UAE is very significant to the survival of thousands of birds. A number of areas have been identified as important bird areas and most of these areas are in and around water bodies. Several areas have been declared protected and human activities have been restricted in such places, Tourenq said.He added, Every person is responsible. Small steps go a long way in fighting climate change. For example: economical use of water, making sure you dont pollute water bodies, not littering the beach, switching off lights and unplugging equipment that are not in use etc.Speaking exclusively to Khaleej Times on the sidelines of the conference Dr Javed said, A healthy wetland ecosystem provides pure water and fish among other things. It recharges groundwater and helps in carbon storage and regulation of greenhouse gas emissions.Wetlands attract hundreds of avian species, as we see in the Ras Al Khor Wildlife Sanctuary, which is a crucial stopover junction for thousands of birds from across

the world. Proper care of these wetlands and waterbirds can help us monitor the quality of our environment, said Dr Javed.Highlighting EADs unique methods in conservation and combating global warming Dr Javed said, We use birds as tool in monitoring the quality of our environment by satellite tracking and constant surveillance. They provide us lot indications on whats really happening.If the number of birds is going down than we know that something is wrong and we try to identify the problem. There are problems connected with natural phenomena like climate change which is again related to human behaviour.Warning against ignoring the responsibility towards wetlands he added, There needs to be more awareness and we need to take greater care of our nature. If we continue our destructive practices with regards to water, we might be submerged in water very soon. One metre rise of sea-level due to global warming will submerge most of Abu Dhabis coastline. That seems to be waters way of revenge against humans for their misbehaviour.

Mexico Key
Mexico key to global biodiversity USFWS 12
(US Fish and Wildlife Service. Mexico. June 2012. http://www.fws.gov/international/pdf/factsheet-mexico.pdf). Mexico makes up only one percent of the Earths land area but is home to an amazing one-tenth of all of the species known to science. It is also a major center for plant origins and domestication, and a key plant and faunal dispersal corridor. Its rainforests are among the richest reservoirs of biological material on the planet and its diverse habitats are home to a broad array of wildlife including many seasonal residents that migrate to and from the U.S. and other areas. The U.S. and Mexico share 450 species listed under the Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) and 119 species listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). These species depend on Mexico for their survival, including sea turtles, gray whale, bats, condor, jaguar, manatee, pronghorn, desert sheep, insects (such as the monarch butterfly), and a large variety of migratory birds. This astonishing biodiversity faces increasing threats, such as deforestation , unsustainable land-use practices , and illegal wildlife trade.

BioDExtinction
BioD key to laundry list of impacts MEA 2005
(Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. Ecosystems and human well-being: Biodiversity synthesis. World Resources Institute, Washington, DC. 2005. www.millennuimassessment.org/documents/document.354.a spx.pdf) Biodiversity is essential for ecosystem services and hence for human well-being. Biodiversity goes beyond the provisioning for material welfare and livelihoods to include security, resiliency, social relations, health, and freedoms and choices. Some people have beneted over the last century from the conversion of natural ecosystems to humandominated ecosystems and from the exploitation of biodiversity. At the same time, however, these losses in biodiversity and associated changes in ecosystem services have caused other people to experience declining well-being, with some social groups being pushed into poverty. Main Links among Biodiversity, Ecosystem Services, and Various Constituents of Human Well-being The MA identies biodiversity and the many ecosystem services that it provides as a key instrumental and constitutive factor determining human well-being. The MA ndings support, with high certainty, that biodiversity loss and deteriorating ecosystem services contributedirectly or indirectlyto worsening health, higher food insecurity, increasing vulnerability, lower material wealth, worsening social relations, and less freedom for choice and action. Food

Security Biological diversity is used by many rural communities directly as an insurance and coping mechanism to increase exibility and spread or reduce risk in the face of increasing uncertainty, shocks, and surprises. The availability of this biological safety net has increased the security and resilience of some local communities to external economic and ecological perturbations, shocks, or surprises (C6.2.2, C8.2). In a world where uctuating commodity prices are more the norm than the exception, economic entitlements of the poor are increasingly becoming precarious. The availability of an ecosystem-based food security net during times when economic entitlements are insufcient to purchase adequate nourishment in the market provides an important insurance program (C8.1, C6.7). Coping mechanisms based on indigenous plants are particularly important for the most vulnerable people, who have little access to formal employment, land, or market opportunities (C6). For example, investigations of two dryland sites in Kenya and Tanzania report local communities using wild indigenous plants to provide alternative sources of food when harvests failed or when sudden expenses had to be met (such as a hospital bill). (See Table 2.1.) Another pathway through which biodiversity can improve food security is the adoption of farming practices that maintain and make use of agricultural biodiversity. Biodiversity is important to maintaining agricultural production. Wild relatives of domestic crops provide genetic variability that can be crucial for overcoming outbreaks of pests and pathogens and new environmental stresses. Many agricultural communities consider increased local diversity a critical factor for the long-term productivity and viability of their agricultural systems. For example, interweaving multiple varieties of rice in the same paddy has been shown to increase productivity by

lowering the loss from pests and pathogens. Vulnerability The world is experiencing an increase in human suffering and economic losses from natural disasters over the past several decades. Mangrove forests and coral reefsa rich source of biodiversityare excellent natural buffers against oods and storms. Their loss or reduction in coverage has increased the severity of ooding on coastal communities. Floods affect more people (140 million per year on average) than all other natural or technological disasters put together. Over the past four decades, the number of great disasters has increased by a factor of four, while economic losses have increased by a factor of ten. During the 1990s, countries low on the Human Development Index experienced about 20% of the hazard events and reported over 50% of the deaths and just 5% of economic losses. Those with high rankings on the index accounted for over 50% of the total economic losses and less than 2% of the deaths (C6, R11, C16). A common nding from the various subglobal assessments was that many people living in rural areas cherish and promote ecosystem variability and diversity as a risk management strategy against shocks and surprises (SG11). They maintain a diversity of ecosystem services and are skeptical about solutions that reduce their options. The sub-global assessments found that diversity of species, food, and landscapes serve as savings banks that rural communities use to cope with change and ensure sustainable livelihoods (see Peruvian, Portuguese, Costa Rican, and India sub-global assessments). Health An important component of health is a balanced diet. About 7,000 species of plants and several hundred species of animals have been used for human food consumption at one time or another. Some indigenous and traditional communities currently consume 200 or more

species. Wild sources of food remain particularly important for the poor and landless to provide a somewhat balanced diet (C6, C8.2.2). Overexploitation of marine sheries worldwide, and of bushmeat in many areas of the tropics, has lead to a reduction in the availability of wild-caught animal protein, with serious consequences in many countries for human health (C4.3.4). Human health, particularly risk of exposure to many infectious diseases, may depend on the maintenance of biodiversity in natural ecosystems. On the one hand, a greater diversity of wildlife species might be expected to sustain a greater diversity of pathogens that can infect humans. However, evidence is accumulating that greater wildlife diversity may decrease thespread of many wildlife pathogens to humans. The spread of Lyme disease, the best-studied case, seems to be decreased by the maintenance of the biotic integrity of natural ecosystems (C11, C14). Energy Security Wood fuel provides more than half the energy used in developing countries. Even in industrial countries such as Sweden and the United States, wood supplies 17% and 3% of total energy consumption respectively. In some African countries, such as Tanzania, Uganda, and Rwanda, wood fuel accounts for 80% of total energy consumption (SG-SAfMA). In rural areas, 95% is consumed in the form of rewood, while in urban areas 85% is in the form of charcoal. Shortage of wood fuel occurs in areas with high population density without access to alternative and affordable energy sources. In some provinces of Zambia where population densities exceed the national average of 13.7 persons per square kilometer, the demand for wood has already surpassed local supply. In such areas, people are vulnerable to illness and malnutrition because of the lack of resources to heat homes, cook food, and boil water. Women and children in rural poor communities are

the ones most affected by wood fuel scarcity. They must walk long distances searching for rewood and therefore have less time for tending crops and school (C9.4). Provision of Clean Water The continued loss of cloud forests and the destruction of watersheds reduce the quality and availability of water supplied to household use and agriculture. The availability of clean drinking water is a concern in dozens of the worlds largest cities (C27). In one of the best documented cases, New York City took steps to protect the integrity of watersheds in the Catskills to ensure continued provision of clean drinking water to 9 million people. Protecting the ecosystem was shown to be far more cost effective than building and operating a water ltration plant. New York City avoided $68 billion in expenses by protecting its watersheds (C7, R17). Social Relations Many cultures attach spiritual and religious values to ecosystems or their components such as a tree, hill, river, or grove (C17). Thus loss or damage to these components can harm social relationsfor example, by impeding religious and social ceremonies that normally bind people. (See Box 2.1.) Damage to ecosystems, highly valued for their aesthetic, recreational, or spiritual values can damage social relations, both by reducing the bonding value of shared experience as well as by causing resentment toward groups that prot from their damage (S11, SG10). Freedom of Choice and Action Freedom of choice and action within the MA context refers to individuals having control over what happens and being able to achieve what they value (CF3). Loss of biodiversity often means a loss of choices. Local shers depend on mangroves as breeding grounds for local sh populations. Loss of mangroves translates to a loss in control

over the local sh stock and a livelihood they have been pursuing for many generations and that they value. Another example is high-diversity agricultural systems. These systems normally produce less cash than monoculture cash crops, but farmers have some control over their entitlements because of spreading risk through diversity. High diversity of genotypes, populations, species, functional types, and spatial patches decreases the negative effects of pests and pathogens on crops and keeps open possibilities for agrarian communities to develop crops suited to future environmental challenges and to increase their resilience to climate variability and market uctuations (C11).Another dimension of choices relates to the future. The loss of biodiversity in some instances is irreversible, and the value individuals place on keeping biodiversity for future generationsthe option valuecan be signicant (CF6, C2). The notion of having choices available irrespective of whether any of them will be actually picked is an essential constituent of the freedom aspect of well-being. However, putting a monetary gure on option values is notoriously difcult. We can only postulate on the needs and desires of future generations, some of which can be very different from todays aspirations. Basic Materials for a Good Life and Sustainable Livelihoods Biodiversity offers directly the various goodsoften plants, animals, and fungithat individuals need in order to earn an income and secure sustainable livelihoods. In addition, it also contributes to livelihoods through the support it provides for ecosystem services: the agricultural labor force currently contains approximately 22% of the worlds population and accounts for 46% of its total labor force (C26.5.1). For example, apples are a major cash crop in the Himalayan region in India,

accounting for 6080% of total household income (SG3). The region is also rich in honeybee diversity, which played a signicant role in pollinating eld crops and wild plants, thereby increasing productivity and sustaining ecosystem functions. In the early 1980s, market demand for particular types of apples led farmers to uproot pollinated varieties and plant new, sterile cultivars. The pollinator populations were also negatively affected by excessive use of pesticides. The result was a reduction in overall apple productivity and the extinction of many natural pollinator species (SG3). Naturebased tourism (ecotourism)one of the fastest growing segments of tourism worldwideis a particularly important economic sector in a number of countries and a potential income source for many rural communities (C17.2.6). The aggregate revenue generated by nature-based tourism in Southern Africa was estimated to be $3.6 billion in 2000, roughly 50% of total tourism revenue (SG-SAfMA). Botswana, Kenya, Namibia, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zimbabwe each generated over $100 million in revenue annually from nature-based tourism in 2000. In Tanzania, tourism contributed 30% of the total GDP of the country. Biodiversity also contributes to a range of other industries, including pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and horticulture. Market trends vary widely according to the industry and country involved but many bio-prospecting activities and revenues are expected to increase over the next decades (C10). The current economic climate suggests that pharmaceutical bio-prospecting will increase, especially as new methods use evolutionary and ecological knowledge. Losses of biodiversity can impose substantial costs at local and national scales. For example, the collapse of the Newfoundland cod shery in the early 1990s cost tens of thousands of jobs, as well as at least $2 billion in income

support and retraining. Recent evidence suggests that the preservation of the integrity of local biological communities, both in terms of the identity and the number of species, is important for the maintenance of plant and animal productivity, soil fertility, and their stability in the face of a changing environment (C11). Recent estimates from the MA Portugal sub-global assessment indicate that environmental expenses in that country are increasing at a rate of 3% a year and are presently 0.7% of GDP (SG-Portugal).

Habitat loss and species reduction risks extinction Tobin 90 (Richard Tobin, Associate Professor of Political
Science at SUNY-Buffalo, 1990, The Expendable Future: U.S. Politics and the Protection of Biological Diversity, p. 13-14) Every time a human contributes to a species extinction, a range of choices and opportunities is either eliminated or diminished. The demise of the last pupfish might have appeared inconsequential, but the eradication of other species could mean that an undiscovered cure for some cancers has been carelessly discarded. The extinction of a small bird, an innocent amphibian, or an unappealing plant might disrupt an ecosystem, increased the incidence and areal distribution of a disease, preclude the discovery of new industrial products, prevent the natural recycling of some wastes, or destroy a source of easily grown and readily available food. By way of analogy, the anthropo-genic extinction of a plant or animal can be compared to the senseless destruction of a priceless Renaissance painting or to the burning of an irreplaceable book that has never been opened. In an era when many people believe that limits to development are being tested or even breached, can humans

afford to risk an expendable future, to squander the infinite potential that species offer, and to waste natures ability and willingness to provide inexpensive solutions to many of humankinds problems? Many scientists do not believe so, and they are fearful of the consequences of anthropogenic extinctions. These scientists quickly admit their ignorance of the biological consequences of most individual extinctions, but widespread agreement exists that massive anthropogenic extinctions can bring catastrophic results. In fact, when compared to all other environmental problems, human-caused extinctions are likely to be of far greater concern. Extinction is the permanent destruction of unique life forms and the only irreversible ecological change that humans can cause. No matter what the effort or sincerity of intentions, extinct species can never be replaced. From the standpoint of permanent despoliation of the planet, Norman Meyers observes, no other form of environmental degradation is anywhere so significant as the fallout of species. Harvard biologist Edward O. Wilson is less modest in assessing the relative consequences of human-caused extinctions. To Wilson, the worst thing that will happen to earth is not economic collapse, the depletion of energy supplies, or even nuclear war. As frightful as these events might be, Wilson reasons that they can be repaired within a few generations. The one process ongoingthat will take millions of years to correct is the loss of genetic and species diversity by destruction of natural habitats. David Ehrenfeld succinctly summarizes the problem and the need for a solution: We are masters of extermination, yet creation is beyond our powers Complacency in the face of this terrible dilemma is inexcusable. Ehrenfeld wrote these words in the early 1970s. Were he to write today he would likely add a

note of dire urgency. If scientists are correct in their assessments of current extinctions and reasonably confident about extinction rates in the near future, then a concerted and effective response to human-caused extinctions is essential. The chapters that follow evaluate that response in the United States.

Keystone species are key to biodiversity which is key to survival Young 10 Ruth, PhD Coastal Marine Ecology (Biodiversity:
what it is and why its important, 2-9-10, http://www.talkingnature.com/2010/02/biodiversity/biodiver sity-what-and-why/) Different species within ecosystems fill particular roles, they all have a function, they all have a niche. They interact with each other and the physical environment to provide ecosystem services that are vital for our survival. For example plant species convert carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere and energy from the sun into useful things such as food, medicines and timber. Pollination carried out by insects such as bees enables the production of of our food crops. Diverse mangrove and coral reef ecosystems provide a wide variety of habitats that are essential for many fishery species. To make it simpler for economists to comprehend the magnitude of services offered by biodiversity, a team of researchers estimated their value it amounted to $US33 trillion per year. By protecting biodiversity we maintain ecosystem services Certain species play a keystone role in maintaining ecosystem services. Similar to the removal of a keystone from an arch, the removal of these species can result in the collapse of an ecosystem and the subsequent removal of ecosystem services. The most well known example of this occurred during the 19th century when sea

otters were almost hunted to extinction by fur traders along the west coast of the USA. This led to a population explosion in the sea otters main source of prey, sea urchins. Because the urchins graze on kelp their booming population decimated the underwater kelp forests. This loss of habitat led to declines in local fish populations. Eventually a treaty protecting sea otters allowed the numbers of otters to increase which in turn controlled the urchin population, leading to the recovery of the kelp forests and fish stocks. In other cases, ecosystem services are maintained by entire functional groups, such as apex predators (See Jeremy Hances post at Mongabay). During the last 35 years, over fishing of large shark species along the US Atlantic coast has led to a population explosion of skates and rays. These skates and rays eat bay scallops and their out of control population has led to the closure of a century long scallop fishery. These are just two examples demonstrating how biodiversity can maintain the services that ecosystems provide for us, such as fisheries. One could argue that to maintain ecosystem services we dont need to protect biodiversity but rather, we only need to protect the species and functional groups that fill the keystone roles. However, there are a couple of problems with this idea. First of all, for most ecosystems we dont know which species are the keystones! Ecosystems are so complex that we are still discovering which species play vital roles in maintaining them. In some cases its groups of species not just one species that are vital for the ecosystem. Second, even if we did complete the enormous task of identifying and protecting all keystone species, what back-up plan would we have if an unforseen event (e.g. pollution or disease) led to the demise of these keystone species? Would there be another species to save the day and take over this role? Classifying some species as keystone implies that the

others are not important. This may lead to the non-keystone species being considered ecologically worthless and subsequently over-exploited. Sometimes we may not even know which species are likely to fill the keystone roles. An example of this was discovered on Australias Great Barrier Reef. This research examined what would happen to a coral reef if it were over-fished. The over-fishing was simulated by fencing off coral bommies thereby excluding and removing fish from them for three years. By the end of the experiment, the reefs had changed from a coral to an algae dominated ecosystem the coral became overgrown with algae. When the time came to remove the fences the researchers expected herbivorous species of fish like the parrot fish (Scarus spp.) to eat the algae and enable the reef to switch back to a coral dominated ecosystem. But, surprisingly, the shift back to coral was driven by a supposed unimportant species the bat fish (Platax pinnatus). The bat fish was previously thought to feed on invertebrates small crabs and shrimp, but when offered a big patch of algae it turned into a hungry herbivore a cow of the sea grazing the algae in no time. So a fish previously thought to be unimportant is actually a keystone species in the recovery of coral reefs overgrown by algae! Who knows how many other species are out there with unknown ecosystem roles! In some cases its easy to see who the keystone species are but in many ecosystems seemingly unimportant or redundant species are also capable of changing niches and maintaining ecosystems. The more biodiverse an ecosystem is, the more likely these species will be present and the more resilient an ecosystem is to future impacts. Presently were only scratching the surface of understanding the full importance of biodiversity and how it helps maintain ecosystem function. The scope of this task is immense. In the meantime, a wise insurance policy for

maintaining ecosystem services would be to conserve biodiversity. In doing so, we increase the chance of maintaining our ecosystem services in the event of future impacts such as disease, invasive species and of course, climate change. This is the international year of biodiversity a time to recognize that biodiversity makes our survival on this planet possible and that our protection of biodiversity maintains this service.

Feminism
Pregnancy-based sex discrimination in Mexico is widespread Leahy '04 (Sen. Patrick Leahy (d-vt) "PregnancyBased Sex Discrimination In MexicoS Maquiladora Industry" page online @ http://capitolwords.org/date/1997/07/29/S82583_pregnancy-based-sex-discrimination-in-mexicosmaqu/)
DVTMr. President, I want to bring to the attention of

the Senate that Human Rights Watch, the International Labor Rights Fund, and Mexico's National Association of Democratic Lawyers have asked the U.S. National Administrative Office [U.S. NAO] to investigate reports of widespread pregnancy-based sex discrimination in Mexico's maquiladora industry.These organizations report that maquiladoras routinely administer pregnancy exams to prospective female employees in order to deny them work, in blatant violation of their privacy. Female employees face invasive questions about contraceptive use, sexual activity, and menses schedules. In some cases, women who become pregnant after being hired are forced to resign. Maquiladora owners fear that pregnant women will reduce production standards and that legally mandated maternity benefits will drain industry money. The report concludes that the Mexican Government has failed to investigate these discriminatory practices in violation of their own laws and NAFTA.The request for an investigation is the first of its
kind that has been brought before the U.S. NAO. The case represents an important opportunity to convey to our trading partners and United States corporations who have operations in Mexico that sex discrimination is intolerable, illegal, and in

violation of NAFTA.As we consider expanding NAFTA benefits to the Caribbean Basin and other South American countries, the United States should demonstrate to our trading partners that we take labor rights violations seriously. I hope the U.S. NAO will consider this case expeditiously and I look forward to its report. The priviledge of free trade and its economic benefits should be conditional upon the trading partners abiding by the same labor and environmental laws.

Maquiladora workers are mostly women and are subjected to prejudice and sexual harassment LAB 3/8/ 2012 Latin American Bureau is an independent
charitable organisation based in London providing news, analysis and information on Latin America http://lab.org.uk/mexico-planting-a-seed-for-change-inwomens-labour-rights The vast majority of workers employed in maquila factories in Mexico are women, reflecting the subordination of women in society and the sexual division of labour. Other
occupational groups at the bottom of the value chains or in the margins of the economy, such as paid domestic workers, are also comprised mostly of women.

Informal labour conditions create an environment in which women suffer from constant violation of their labour rights, yet they usually have no other choice but to participate in the economy under such conditions. In the maquila industry in Mexico, women continue to face constant factory shutdowns, layoffs, sexual harassment and even death threats. Increased competition for fewer jobs makes women reluctant to complain about these rights violations. Obliged to remain silent, women workers are denied access to social, maternity and health benefits. Moreover, government labour and economic policies consistently ignore the effects on the lives of women of entry to the workforce under such conditions: their family relationships and ties to the community are affected and they experience significant deterioration in their quality of life . Labour justice for

women is not part of the policy agenda of any political party, legislator or state authority in Mexico. For this reason, the battle fought by women's labour rights organisations is so important. However, they confront increasingly difficult conditions, not only because of their lack of resources and job insecurity, but also because of the violence directed towards them. A recent report by the Special Rapporteur on the Situation of Human Rights Defenders reveals that, in Mexico, labour rights defenders submitted the largest number of complaints of attacks against their physical integrity from non-State agents.

Maquiladora labor laws go unenforced Edward J. Williams 2001, Ph.D. Professor of Political
Science THE UNIONIZATION OF THE MAQUILADORA INDUSTRY ANDTHE NORTH AMERICAN AGREEMENT ON LABOR COOPERATION: STRATEGIES CONCEIVED AND FRUSTRATED http://www.academia.edu/2781239/The_Unionization_of_th e_Maquiladora_Industry_and_the_North_American_Agreeme nt_on_Labor_Cooperation_Strategies_Conceived_and_Frustr ated The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) has sparked significant controversy among social scientists and policymakers regarding its effects on member nations' economies. However, few observers have systematically examined the potential effectiveness of the treaty's labor side accord for promoting worker rights in the three member countries. Specifically, we are interested in the North

American Agreement on Labor Cooperation's (NAALC) potential as a tool for cross-border efforts to unionize the maquiladora industry. Through an analysis of the accord, the political context for union activism in the U.S. and Mexico, and the cases brought before the NAALC to date, we argue that the agreement can only indirectly help organizing efforts. The NAALC has weak enforcement powers that will unlikely counteract entrenched political actors who oppose independent unionism in the maquiladoras. Rather than compelling member countries to enforce their own labor laws, the accord's potential positive role for workers will be its promotion of cross-border alliances and its potential to provide negative publicity for anti-labor policies and employers. In this light, the NAALC is neither a panacea nor an obstacle to cross-border organizing, but a modest tool in workers' uphill battle to organize the maquiladora sector.

Maquiladoras have high instances of rape Mike Westfall 6/8/2009 The Cutting Edge Maquiladoras-American Industry Creates Modern-Day Mexican Slaves http://www.thecuttingedgenews.com/index.php?article=113 55 An article titled "Maquila Neoslavery" by journalist and human rights activist Gary MacEoin in the National Catholic Reporter, noted that a typical maquila 9-hour day quota for a woman is to iron 1,200 shirts. MacEoin said few survive the unhealthy working conditions, poor ventilation, verbal abuse, strip searches, and sexual harassment for more them six or seven years. Dr. Ruth Rosenbaum, executive director CREA, said the wages do not enable them to meet basic human needs of their family for nutrition, housing, clothing, and non-consumables and that one maquiladora worker

provides only 19.8 percent of what a family of four needs to live. Author Rachel Stohr talked of the brutal treatment, the wage slavery, of how the Mexican government gains economically from these factories and how the enforcement of Mexican labor laws is just not happening in a 2004 University of New Mexico story. To the U.S. companies who run maquiladora factories, the workers are expendable and only the financial investment is important. According to Rev. David Schilling, director of ICCRs Global Corporate Accountability Program, for years religious institutional investors have been pressing corporations to pay their Mexican employees a sustainable living wage. Martha Ojeda, director of Coalition for Justice in the Maquiladoras, said they work long productive hours for the worlds biggest corporations and still cannot provide the most basic needs for their families, they cannot afford to consume the items they produce. Brian Chasnoff wrote in the Comite Fronterizo de Obreros that the Immigration Clinic of San Jose says that it hears of so much rape in the maquiladoras that it is disgusting.

Human Rights

Squo
Maquiladora's Rights are unprotected in the squo National Academics Press '03 ("Safety is Seguridad: A Workshop Summary" book online @http://books.google.com/books?id=Bi2DjVu9trQ C&dq=%22united+states+should%22+maquila&sou rce=gbs_navlinks_s)
There was also a discussion regarding the need for a multinational approach. Workshop, participants thought that the United States could work with representatives of Spanish-speaking countries to assess, develop, and improve materials in the context of home countries. The United States could also work with Mexico
in particular (and with Mexico's Secretary for Health) to develop materials for use with workers in both countries, and for training workers who will immigrate or who move back and forth across the border. It may

be useful for the United Slates to work with the U.S.-Mexico Border Health Association, the U.S.-Mexico Foundation for Science, the Pan American Health Organization and similar organizations. And finally the United States should work with maquiladora health and safety support networks
(American Public Health Association, American Industrial Hygiene Association, Mexican Industrial Hygiene Association). The workshop participants were greatly appreciative of the opportunity provided by NIOSH for them to come together to discuss these issues. The diversity of the participants was noted. Participants included representatives from government agencies, community organizations, academic research centers, employers, outreach workers, and union members. Discussions were open, honest, and productive.

Together there was agreement on the importance of the problem, particularly in relation to the numbers of workers affected, the risks inherent both in common occupations for Latinos and in workers with little or no command of English, and in the lack of power to affect change or ask for their

rights. The power differential between workers and employers is particularly great because of the lack of legal status of many workers, even when employers recruit across the border. The need to protect all workers, as reflected in the NIOSH initiative in convening this conference, was praised by the participants.

Human rights are integral to U.S. Mexico relations

Wilkinson 4/30/13 LA Times- Activists urge Obama to speak out on Mexico's human rights record http://articles.latimes.com/2013/apr/30/world/la-fg-wn-mexico-obamavisit-human-rights-20130430 Any discussion of human rights issues would
Tracy

probably occur behind closed doors. Rights organizations say Obama is missing an opportunity to criticize Mexico's record at a time when Pea Nieto can avoid being blamed for it. He assumed the presidency just five months ago, at the end of President Felipe Calderons six-year term. Under Calderon, the government fought powerful drug cartels and arrested key criminal figures. But killings, kidnappings and other severe human rights abuses by the police and military soared, according to human rights groups, as well as testimony collected by The Times. During that period, the Obama administration repeatedly voiced its support for Calderons efforts. "Presidents

Obama and Pea Nieto have a golden opportunity to address issues affecting the lives of people on both sides of the border," Frank Jannuzi, interim executive director of Amnesty International USA, said in a statement Tuesday. "Respecting human rights must be integral to any joint plan for further bilateral cooperation between the two countries -- not just words during a presidential photo-op, he added. Do not squander this moment. Jose Miguel Vivanco, director of the Americas program at the
New York-based Human Rights Watch group, wrote to Obama this week to chastise the administration for its uncritical support of Calderons policies and failure to condemn abuses.

This visit provides an ideal opportunity to break that silence by demonstrating the U.S. governments concern for Mexicos human rights problems and *the new governments+ commitment to supporting a new approach,
Vivanco wrote. He noted that Pea Nietos administration has said that it would

adjust the drug-war strategy. Current and former officials from Mexico and the United States told The Times last week that one of those adjustments will be to reduce the role U.S. advisors play in Mexico's security affairs. Obama on Friday travels from Mexico to Costa Rica, where he will meet with several Central American leaders. With that in mind, a coalition of human rights groups from the region urged the leaders Tuesday to confront the abuses faced by thousands of Central Americans who travel across Mexico every year in an effort to reach the U.S. Many from Guatemala, Honduras and El Salvador, especially, are kidnapped by criminal drugand-extortion gangs -- often working in cahoots with Mexican police -- and held for ransom, forced into slave labor or killed.

Key to Global Human rights promotion in Mexico is key for human rights globally
Kenneth Roth 2/24/10 executive director of Human Rights Watch, Empty Promises?
http://www.hrw.org/news/2010/02/24/empty-promises

After eight years of the Bush administration, with its torture of suspected terrorists and disregard for international law, Barack Obama's victory in the November 2008 U.S. presidential election seemed a breath of fresh air to human rights activists. Obama took office at a moment when the world desperately needed renewed U.S. leadership. In his inaugural address, Obama immediately signaled that, unlike Bush, he would reject as false "the choice between our safety and our ideals." Obama faces the challenge of restoring the United States' credibility at a time when repressive governments -- emboldened by the increasing influence of authoritarian powers such as China and Russia -seek to undermine the enforcement of international human rights standards. As he put it when accepting the Nobel Peace Prize, the United States cannot "insist that others follow the rules of the road if we refuse to follow them ourselves." His Nobel speech in Oslo also affirmed the U.S. government's respect for the Geneva Conventions. "Even as we confront a vicious adversary that abides by no rules," Obama argued, "I believe the United States of America must remain a standard bearer in the conduct of war. That is what makes us different from those whom we fight. That is a source of our strength."
When it comes to promoting human rights at home and abroad, there has undoubtedly been a marked improvement in presidential rhetoric. However, the translation of those words into deeds remains incomplete. AN INCOMPLETE REVERSAL Obama moved rapidly to reverse the most abusive aspects of the Bush administration's approach to fighting terrorism. Two days after taking office, he insisted that all U.S. interrogators, including those from the CIA, abide by the stringent standards adopted by the U.S. military in the wake of the Abu Ghraib debacle. He also ordered the shuttering of all secret CIA detention facilities, where many suspects "disappeared" and were tortured between 2001 and 2008. Finally, he promised to close the detention center at Guantnamo Bay, Cuba, within a year. But it is not enough for the government to stop using torture; perpetrators must also be punished. The Obama administration has so far refused to investigate and prosecute those who ordered or committed torture -- a necessary step to prevent future administrations from committing the crime. While in office, as he did during the campaign, Obama has repeatedly spoken of wanting to "look forward, not back." And although Attorney General Eric Holder has launched a "preliminary review" of interrogators who exceeded orders, he has until now refrained from prosecuting those who ordered torture or wrote the legal memos justifying it. This lets senior officials -- arguably those who are most culpable -- off the hook. Meanwhile, Obama's one-year deadline for closing Guantnamo has slipped because of congressional opposition and the complexity of deciding how to handle the cases of more than 200 detainees. The real issue, however, is less when Guantnamo will close than how. Human Rights Watch and other nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) have urged the administration to prosecute detainees in regular federal courts, repatriate them, or resettle them in safe countries willing to accept them. However, the White House has insisted on maintaining two other options: prosecuting suspects before military commissions or continuing to hold them indefinitely without charge or trial. The Obama administration's military commissions would avoid the most problematic aspect of the Bush administration's commissions -- the power to introduce at trial statements obtained through coercion and abuse. But the

Obama commissions, as approved by Congress, continue to suffer from a lack of independence (their judges are military officers, who must report to superiors in the chain of command), controversy about the offenses they cover (some are not clearly war crimes or were not clearly criminal at the time they were committed), and untested rules of procedure (unlike regular courts or even courts-martial, which have well-established procedures, the rules for military commissions are being constructed largely from scratch). These due process shortcomings are likely to keep the public and the press focused on the fairness of the trials accorded suspects, rather than the gravity of their alleged crimes. Obama has also tried to distinguish himself from Bush in his approach to detaining suspects without charge or trial. The new administration has abandoned Bush's claim of inherent executive authority and relied instead on an interpretation of Congress' 2001 authorization to use military force against al Qaeda, the Taliban, and associated groups. But both approaches still permit the detention of suspects not captured on a traditional battlefield, such as in Afghanistan. That is a controversial approach because it permits U.S. soldiers or law enforcement officials to indefinitely detain suspected terrorists anywhere in the world without regard to the due process standards of the United States or any other country. Obama's refusal to end the use of military commissions and detention without trial risks perpetuating the spirit of Guantnamo even after the physical facility has been shut. STREET CRED The Bush administration had difficulty encouraging foreign leaders to respect human rights because of its perceived arrogance, hypocrisy, and unilateralism. Since taking office, Obama has worked hard to restore U.S. credibility. Obama's speeches in Accra, Cairo, Moscow, Oslo, and Shanghai have been a key vehicle for promoting a renewed U.S. human rights agenda. Rather than merely preaching abstract principles, Obama has drawn examples from the United States' checkered history and his own life story to encourage other nations to respect human rights. The humility in this approach avoids Bush's hectoring tone and places the United States squarely within the community of nations as a country that, like others, struggles to respect human rights and benefits when it does so. In Accra, in a rebuke to President Bill Clinton's embrace of authoritarian African leaders in the 1990s, Obama observed, "Africa doesn't need strongmen, it needs strong institutions," such as "strong parliaments; honest police forces; independent judges; an independent press; a vibrant private sector; a civil society." However, Obama has not put sustained pressure on such U.S. allies as Paul Kagame of Rwanda or Meles Zenawi of Ethiopia to reform their increasingly authoritarian rule. Forceful U.S. condemnations have been largely limited to such pariahs as Robert Mugabe of Zimbabwe, Omar al-Bashir of Sudan, and the military junta in Guinea. In Cairo, Obama rejected Bush's attempt to justify the invasion of Iraq as an exercise in democracy promotion, declaring that "no system of government can or should be imposed by one nation on any other." But he insisted nonetheless that the United States remains committed "to governments that reflect the will of the people." He stressed the importance of principled conduct even when it works against short-term U.S. interests, suggesting that, unlike Bush, he would accept an electoral victory by Egypt's Islamist opposition group, the Muslim Brotherhood. Frustrating as that comment might have been to the government of Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak, Obama has generally shown too much deference to his hosts. He has not publicly criticized U.S. allies in the Middle East that violate democratic principles, nor is there any evidence that he has privately encouraged these authoritarian governments to move in a more democratic direction. For example, Washington has promised Cairo that there will be no human rights conditions placed on U.S. economic assistance to Egypt and has acquiesced in the Egyptian government's demand that all funds from the U.S. Agency for International Development earmarked for NGOs go only to those groups that comply with the Mubarak government's onerous restrictions. Obama's desire to maintain close relations with Mubarak, especially in the hope that he might assist in resolving the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, seems to have taken precedence over the human rights principles Obama articulated in his Cairo speech. In Moscow, Obama met with civil-society representatives and praised the vital role they play in Russian society. He explained that criticisms and tough questions from U.S. civil-society organizations help him make better decisions and strengthen the United States -- a bold statement in a country where NGOs monitoring human rights or promoting government accountability are routinely harassed. Yet his administration has not applied sustained pressure on the Russian government to stop trying to silence leaders of NGOs. Nor has Obama warned Russian leaders that serious abuses, such as the brazen murders of activists and journalists fighting human rights abuses in the North Caucasus, could damage the bilateral relationship. Similarly, in China, Obama followed in the footsteps of successive U.S. presidents by downplaying the importance of human rights in favor of promoting trade, economic ties, and diplomatic cooperation. Before a handpicked audience of "future Chinese leaders" in Shanghai, he spoke of the United States' journey up from slavery and the struggles for women's and workers' rights, making clear that the United States, too, has a far-from-perfect human rights record. He affirmed the United States' bedrock belief "that all men and women are created equal, and possess certain fundamental rights." However, in a question-and-answer session, he seemed to suggest that China's draconian "great firewall" on the Internet was a reflection of different "traditions," rather than demanding that it be torn down. That remark led to a storm of criticism from Chinese bloggers, and Obama left the country appearing to be in thrall to Chinese economic power and barely interested in risking anything to protect the rights of the 1.3 billion Chinese still living under a dictatorship. In a speech at Georgetown University a few weeks later, Secretary of State Hillary Clinton justified this approach as "principled pragmatism," and administration officials have spoken privately of building up political capital to press China on human rights in the future. But there is no such pressure today. From Clinton's February 2009 statement that human rights "can't interfere" with other U.S. interests in China to Obama's refusal to meet with the Dalai Lama in October, Washington has consistently failed to confront China's authoritarian rulers on questions of religious and political freedom. MULTILATERALISM LITE During the 2008 election campaign, Obama promised to replace Bush's notorious unilateralism with a greater commitment to cooperation, alliance building, and engagement with adversaries. One early symbol of this new approach was the decision to reverse Bush's policy and authorize U.S. participation in the UN Human Rights Council -- an important step toward trying to salvage that troubled institution. The 47-member council has been dominated by authoritarian governments since its inception in June 2007. Its members have incessantly criticized Israel and have generally seemed more concerned with protecting abusive leaders than condemning them for human rights violations. But the positive step of joining the council was significantly offset in September, when Washington distanced itself from a council-sponsored report -- written by the respected South African jurist Richard Goldstone -- that accused Israel (as well as Hamas) of war crimes during its December 2008-January 2009 invasion of the Gaza Strip and called for the perpetrators to be brought to justice. Washington's strong criticism of the report called into question Obama's commitment to the impartial application of human rights principles to friends and foes alike. The move was particularly unfortunate because the report broke new ground for the council by criticizing an Israeli adversary, Hamas. Obama had it right in Oslo, when he said that "only a just peace based on the inherent rights and dignity of every individual can truly be lasting." Unfortunately, he has not yet applied that insight to Israel. The Obama administration has also taken a more positive approach to international law than the wary and often hostile Bush administration did. Accelerating a trend that began in the late Bush years, Obama has actively supported the work of the International Criminal Court, especially in Darfur and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, as well as, more recently, in Kenya. For the first time, U.S. officials have participated as observers in deliberations about the tribunal's future. The United States is also embracing certain UN human rights treaties, after an eight-year hiatus. It signed the new Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities. In October, when Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu suggested that the laws of war should be amended to make it easier for states to fight irregular armed groups, Susan Rice, the U.S. ambassador to the United Nations, pushed back by reaffirming Washington's commitment to the Geneva Conventions -- a position that Obama himself reiterated in Oslo. Yet there have been limits to Obama's commitment to international law. His administration has sent mixed signals about a 1997 treaty banning antipersonnel land mines, first announcing that it would not sign the treaty and then saying that a policy review was still ongoing, even though the United States has not used, produced, or exported these weapons in the 12 years since the treaty was established. The administration has so far failed to seize this easy opportunity to embrace an important multilateral treaty. Similarly, the administration has not yet joined many of its NATO allies in endorsing the 2008 Convention on Cluster Munitions, which bans the use of these indiscriminate weapons, even though the U.S. military has not used them since 2003 and recognizes the danger they pose to civilians. And although the Obama administration has declared that it plans to ratify the UN Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, it has not pressed for Senate ratification of it, nor has it pressed for Senate ratification of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. The United States has the dubious distinction of being the only country other than Somalia not to have ratified the children's rights treaty and finds itself in the unenviable company of only Iran, Nauru, Somalia, Sudan, and Tonga when it comes to the trea ty on women's rights. DESTRUCTIVE ENGAGEMENT Obama has rightfully rejected Bush's policy of dealing with repressive governments mainly by refusing to talk to them. His new approach has been most visible in Myanmar (also called Burma) and Sudan, where U.S. envoys have increased communication with senior officials without abandoning pressure on their governments to curb repression. In the case of Sudan, despite some mixed signals, the administration has managed to engage the government on the importance of curbing violence in Darfur and southern Sudan without speaking directly with President Bashir, who has been indicted as a war criminal. In Central Asia, however, this emphasis on engaging authoritarian regimes has yielded disappointing results. In the highly repressive nations of Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan, where the dominant U.S. concern is sustaining military supply lines into neighboring Afghanistan, the Obama administration has refrained from publicly articulating specific human rights concerns. It has limited itself instead to general statements about U.S. support for democracy and the rule of law while stressing U.S. respect for the sovereign prerogatives of these countries' autocratic leaders. The administration has also largely squandered the opportunity to push for reform in Kazakhstan, despite the fact that its repressive government was particularly susceptible to pressure in the months before it assumed the rotating chairmanship of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe. In Afghanistan, Obama administration officials recognized from the outset that abusive and corrupt warlords linked to President Hamid Karzai's government were fueling the Taliban's popularity throughout the country. After Karzai's tainted electoral victory in August, the administration pushed his government to distance itself from some officials with blood on their hands or ill-gotten gains in their pockets. However, it is not yet clear whether Washington is prepared to sever its own ties with some of these tainted officials, such as the president's younger brother, Ahmed Wali Karzai, a powerful figure in Kandahar who is reportedly on the CIA payroll despite being connected to drug traffickers. Nor is there any indication that U.S. Special Forces will abandon the abusive militia they have hired in provinces such as Herat and Uruzgan. Across the border in Pakistan, the Obama administration has been providing conditional military aid to the elected government -- a more principled approach than its predecessor's, which unconditionally supported the autocratic rule of General Pervez Musharraf. Washington also accepted the reinstatement of ousted Supreme Court Chief Justice Iftikhar Chaudhry, even though his constitutional rulings and his revival of corruption charges could imperil President Asif Ali Zardari, a U.S. partner. Still, Obama has not taken up the cases of thousands of people who disappeared during Musharraf's rule. Nor has he pushed for human rights abusers from the Pakistani military, including Musharraf himself, to be held accountable. Closer to home, in Latin America, Obama has cooperated with regional allies far more than his predecessor did. Unlike Bush, who tacitly accepted the 2002 coup attempt against Venezuela's Hugo Chvez, Obama was quick to join regional allies in condemning the ouster of Honduran President Manuel Zelaya last June and calling for his reinstatement -- even if the administration did not adequately pressure the de facto government to accept Zelaya's return. The White House has rightly deferred consideration of a much-sought-after free-trade agreement with Colombia, whose government has failed to dismantle the highly abusive paramilitary forces responsible for the murder of hundreds of trade unionists and others. Genuinely dismantling those paramilitary forces, and holding their leaders and accomplices accountable, should be a prerequisite to any free-trade agreement. At the same time, however, Obama has continued the misguided Bush-era policy of certifying the Colombian military's compliance with the human rights standards necessary to receive U.S. military aid -- despite an ongoing atmosphere of impunity for the soldiers and officers responsible for

Obama has similarly fallen short in Mexico, where the U.S. government promised to contribute $1.35 billion over several years to the government for equipment and training to combat drug trafficking. Roughly 15 percent of these funds are dependent on Mexico's compliance with certain human rights requirements, including bringing military abuses under the jurisdiction of civilian courts. Mexico has utterly failed to meet that requirement, but the State Department has nevertheless allowed a portion of these funds to be delivered. All of this calls into question Obama's commitment to curbing military abuses and ending official impunity south of the border. WALKING THE WALK From a human rights perspective, there is no doubt that the Obama White House has done better than the Bush
widespread extrajudicial executions.

administration. As one would expect from so eloquent a president, Obama has gotten the rhetoric largely right. The challenge remains to translate poetic speeches into prosaic policy -- and live up to the principles he has so impressively articulated. Making that shift will not be easy, but the consistent application of human rights principles is essential if Washington is to redeem its reputation and succeed in promoting the global values that Obama rightly believes are the key to prosperity and stability throughout the world.

Those Kantian Ethics doe Arnold et. Al 8 [Denis G. Arnold and Norman E. Bowie,
Professor Arnold joined the Belk College of Business in 2008. Previously he was a tenured faculty member and Director of the Center for Applied and Professional Ethics at the University of Tennessee at Knoxville, Sweatshops and Respect for persons, http://webpages.marshall.edu/~davis194/MNC3.pdf, KP] Critics of sweatshops frequently ground their protests in appeals to human dignity and human rights. Arguably, Kantian ethics provides a philosophical basis for such moral pronouncements. The key principle here is Kant's second formulation of the categorical imperative: "Act so that you treat humanity, whether in your own person or in that of another, always as an end and never as a means only." ^ The requires that we respect people. One significant feature of the idea of respect for persons is that its derivation and application can be assessed independently of other elements of Kantian moral
popular expression of this principle is that morality

philosophy. Sympathetic readers need not embrace all aspects of Kant's system of ethics in order to grant the merit of Kant's arguments for the second formulation of the categorical imperative.'^ This is because Kant's defense of respect for persons is grounded in the uncontroversial claim that humans are capable of rational, self-governing activity. We believe that individuals with a wide range of theoretical commitments can and should recognize the force of Kant's arguments concerning respect for persons. Kant did not simply
assert that persons are entitled to respect, he provided an elaborate argument for that conclusion. Persons

ought to be respected because persons have dignity. For Kant, an object that has dignity is beyond price. Employees have a dignity that machines and capital do not have. They have dignity because they are capable of moral activity. As free beings capable of self governance they are responsible beings, since freedom and self-governance are the conditions for responsibility. Autonomous responsible beings are capable of making and following their own laws;
they are not simply subject to the causal laws of nature. Anyone who recognizes that he or she is free should recognize that he or she is responsible (that he or she is a moral being). As Kant argues, the

fact that one is a moral being entails that one possesses dignity.

Exctinction
Failure to protect human rights makes extinction inevitable Human Rights Web, 94 (An Introduction to the Human
Rights Movement Created on July 20, 1994 / Last edited on January 25, 1997, http://www.hrweb.org/intro.html) The United Nations Charter, Universal Declaration of Human Rights, and UN Human Rights convenants were written and implemented in the aftermath of the Holocaust, revelations coming from the Nuremberg war crimes trials, the Bataan Death March, the atomic bomb, and other horrors smaller in magnitude but not in impact on the individuals they affected. A whole lot of people in a number of countries had a crisis of conscience and found they could no longer look the other way while tyrants jailed, tortured, and killed their neighbors. Many also realized that advances in technology and changes in social structures had rendered war a threat to the continued existence of the human race. Large numbers of people in many countries lived under the control of tyrants, having no recourse but war to relieve often intolerable living conditions. Unless some way was found to relieve the lot of these people, they could revolt and become the catalyst for another wide-scale and possibly nuclear war. For perhaps the first time, representatives from the majority of governments in the world came to the conclusion that basic human rights must be protected, not only for the sake of the individuals and countries involved, but to preserve the human race.

Human Rights Promotion


US incorporation of customary international law prevents extinction
Rhonda Copelon, Professor of Law and Director of the International Womens Human Rights Law Clinic, 1999, 3 N.Y. City L. Rev. 59, p. L/N The indivisible human rights framework survived the Cold War despite U.S. machinations to truncate it in the international arena. The framework is there to shatter the myth of the superiority [*72] of the U.S. version of rights, to rebuild popular expectations, and to help develop a culture and jurisprudence of indivisible human rights. Indeed, in the face of systemic inequality and crushing poverty, violence by official and private actors, globalization of the market economy, and military and environmental depredation, the human rights framework is gaining new force and new dimensions. It is being broadened today by the movements of people in different parts of the world, particularly in the Southern Hemisphere and significantly of women, who understand the protection of human rights as a matter of individual and collective human survival and betterment. Also emerging is a notion of third-generation rights, encompassing collective rights that cannot be solved on a state-by-state basis and that call for new mechanisms of accountability, particularly affecting Northern countries. The emerging rights include human-centered sustainable development, environmental protection, peace, and security. 38 Given the poverty and inequality in the United States as well as our role in the world, it is imperative that we bring the human rights framework to bear on both domestic and foreign policy.

Econ

Reforms Key to Econ


Rights solves economy Weissbrodt et. Al 3 [David Weissbrodt and Muria
Kruger; Professor David S. Weissbrodt is a distinguished and widely published scholar of international human rights law. He teaches international human rights law, administrative law, immigration law, and torts. October 2003, http://www.jstor.org/stable/pdfplus/3133689.pdf Norms on the Responsibilities of Transnational Corporations and Other Business Enterprises with Regard to Human Rights, KP+ There is also increasing reason to believe that greater respect for human rights by compa- nies leads to greater sustainability in emerging markets4 and better business performance.5 For example, observance of human rights aids businesses by protecting and maintaining their corporate reputation, and creating a stable and peaceful society in which they can prosper and attract the best and brightest employees.6 Moreover, consumers have demonstrated that they are willing to pay attention to standards and practices used by a business that observes human rights and may even boycott products that are produced in violation of human rights standards.7 Similarly, there is evidence that a growing proportion of investors is seeking to pur- chase shares in socially responsible companies.8 All in all, business enterprises have increased their power in the world.9 International, national, state, and local lawmakers are realizing that this power must be confronted, and that the human rights obligations of business enterprises, in particular, must be addressed.

Long-term revenues outweigh Hillemans 03[Carolin F. Hillemanns; German lawyer with


solid management experience of an international nongovernmental organisation, and strong background in general public international law and corporate social responsibility, 8/26/03, UN Norms on the Responsibilities of Transnational Corporations and Other Business Enterprises with regard to Human Rightshttp://www.germanlawjournal.com/pdfs/Vol04No10/ PDF_Vol_04_No_10_1065-1080_European_Hillemanns.pdf , KP] Although the business community will have to bear the costs of implementing mechanisms to ensure compliance with the Norms, a stable and regulated society is a prerequisite for the successful operation of a company. The costs should accordingly be seen as a good investment that will pay for themselves in the form of higher future revenues. 178

Poor Working conditions hamper economy Dorman 2000 (The Economics of Safety, Health, and WellBeing at Work: An Overview, Peter Dorman InFocus Program on SafeWork, International Labour Organisation The Evergreen State College May, 2000, http://oit.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/--ed_protect/---protrav/--safework/documents/publication/wcms_110382.pdf) D.R Occupational injury and illness are matters of health, but they are also matters of economics, since they stem from

work, and work is an economic activity. The economic perspective on occupational safety and health (OSH) encompasses both causes and consequences: the role of economic factors in the etiology of workplace ill-health and the effects this has on the economic prospects for workers, enterprises, nations, and the world as a whole. It is therefore a very broad perspective, but it is not complete, because neither the causation nor the human significance of OSH can be reduced to its economic elements. The purpose of this paper will be to indicate the most important contributions economic analysis has made to our understanding and management of OSH, and to suggest directions for future work in this area.

Mexico is one of Americas Leading Trade Partners Lee 2012 (The State of Trade, Competitiveness and
Economic Well-being in the U.S.-Mexico Border Region Erik Lee Christopher E. Wilson Working Paper Series on the State of the U.S.-Mexico Border Please Cite Only With Authors Permission June 2012) D.R Commerce between the United States and Mexico is one of the greatyet underappreciated success stories of the global economy. In fact, in 2011 U.S.-Mexico goods and services trade probably reached the major milestone of one-half trillion dollars with virtually no recognition.1 The United States is Mexicos top trading partner, and Mexico which has gained macroeconomic stability and expanded its middle class over the last two decadesis the United Statessecond largest export market and third largest trading

partner. Seventy percent of bilateral commerce crosses the border via trucks, meaning the border region is literally where the rubber hits the road for bilateral relations. This also means that not only California and Baja California, but also Michigan and Michoacn, all have a major stake in efficient and secure border management. )

Improving Maquiladoras is key to Competitiveness Hernndez 2011 (Impact of Central America Maquiladoras
in Economic Growth and Employment Jos G. Vargashernndez, M.B.A.; Ph.D. M.N.E.E. Viridiana Nez-Lpez University Center for Economic and Managerial Studies University of Guadalajara) D.R The activity of assembling high-tech products is a facilitator of potentialities for both employing human resources with higher levels of professional training and for investments in human capital. The orientation towards the promotion of foreign direct investment for the creation of the maquiladora industry of high technology, such as electronics, biotechnology, etc., to displace the low-tech maquiladora industry, will allow Central American countries to achieve higher levels of competitiveness and quality to increase participation in market shares under processes of economic globalization. The challenge is to formulate and implement an industrial policy combining different industrial schemes of local, regional and global supply chains with non-traditional exports and maquila. Government policies should be focused to achieve labor stability, decent jobs, democratic governance for the estimated 500, 000 workers seeking better living conditions and to live with dignity. The implementation of training

programs and job training will help strengthen the competitiveness and productivity, as well as to improve the living conditions of the workforce. The trend is towards an increase in the maquiladora industries in Central America countries, which would bring increases in rates of employment and exports, but the challenge is to ensure that these increases also enhance economic development and social welfare for the region.

Better Working Conditions Increases Profitability KAUFMANN 2009 ( Sustainable Success For companies
operating in developing countries, it pays to commit to improving social and environmental conditions, Sustainable Success For companies operating in developing countries, it pays to commit to improving social and environmental conditions, June 22, 2009 GLOBAL BUSINESS, Wall Street Journal) D.R Companies that excel in providing health insurance, retirement benefits and professional development for their employees also show above-average profitability. The most successful companies not only enforce safety standards strictly but also improve them over time. And they support local communities with initiatives in education, health care, environmental protection and agricultural development. Finally, the most successful companies set high social and environmental standards in the selection of their suppliers, monitor the suppliers to ensure compliance, and work with them to continually improve their performance in these areas. How exactly do such efforts affect profits? We found that sustainable management yields six major competitive advantages: A STERLING REPUTATION: A growing number of consumers consider competing companies social and

environmental records when deciding which products to buy. A reputation for concern about these issues sets a company apart from its competitors. Consider the popularity of fair-trade groceries, whose distributors promise to promote the welfare of the providers and the environment. Its important to remember that a companys reputation in this regard depends not only on its own actions but also to a large degree on those of its suppliers. BETTER EMPLOYEES: In emerging countries, where living conditions are most in need of improvement, employees are especially proud of working for companies that are recognized as leaders in sustainability. That gives these companies a big advantage in all three areas of human-resources management: hiring, retaining and motivating the most talented workers.

Maquilas Key
Maquiladoras key player in Mexican ExportsStromberg 2002 (The Mexican Maquila Industry and the
Environment; An Overview of the Issues Per Stromberg 2002) D.R The Mexico-United States border region comprises one of the most dynamic and complex industrial areas in the world. The region is characterized by high population growth and increasing urbanization and industrialization, all of which is taking place in a context of rapid political and economic change (Rincn, 2000). The Mexico-located maquila in-bond industry is a key player in this development. In the 1993-98 period, the maquilas accounted for 41.5% of the average Mexican export value (Dussel, 2000), and in the 1994-2000 period its share of foreign direct investment grew from 6% to 21.4%.

Decline of Maquiladoras performance has hurt the U.S economy, reforms needed. GAO 2003 (Mexico's Maquiladora Decline Affects U.S.Mexico Border Communities and Trade; Recovery Depends in Part on Mexico's Actions GAO-03-891, Jul 25, 2003, U.S governmental Accountability Office) D.R Mexico's maquiladoras have evolved into the largest component of U.S.-Mexico trade. Maquiladoras import raw materials and components for processing or assembly by Mexican labor and reexport the resulting products, primarily to the United States. Most maquiladoras are U.S. owned, and maquiladoras import most of their components from U.S.

suppliers. Maquiladoras have also been an engine of growth for the U.S.-Mexico border. However, the recent decline of maquiladora operations has raised concerns about the impact on U.S. suppliers and on the economy of border communities. Because of these concerns, GAO was asked to analyze (1) changes in maquiladora employment and production, (2) factors related to the maquiladoras' decline, and (3) implications of recent developments for maquiladoras' viability. After growing rapidly during the 1990s, Mexican maquiladoras experienced a sharp decline after October 2000. By early 2002, employment in the maquiladora sector had contracted by 21 percent and production had contracted by about 30 percent. The decline was particularly severe for certain industries, such as electronics, and certain Mexican cities, such as Tijuana. The downturn was felt on the U.S. side of the border as well, as U.S. exports through U.S.-Mexico land border ports fell and U.S. employment in manufacturing and certain other trade related sectors declined. The cyclical downturn in the U.S. economy has been a principal factor in the decrease in maquiladora production and employment since 2000 . Other factors include increased global competition, particularly from China, Central America, and the Caribbean; appreciation of the peso; changes in Mexico's tax regime for maquiladoras; and the loss of certain tariff benefits as a result of the North American Free Trade Agreement. Maquiladoras face a challenging business environment, and recent difficulties have raised questions about their future viability. Maquiladoras involved in modern, complex manufacturing appear poised to meet the industry's challenges. Still, experts agree that additional fundamental reforms by Mexico are necessary to restore maquiladoras' competitiveness. U.S.

trade and homeland security policies present further challenges for maquiladoras.

Cross Border Trade with Mexico good for U.S economy Keeler 12 ($500 billion a year: Realizing the full value of
cross-border trade with Mexico, Sharon Keeler, Arizona State University) D.R Mexico has an economy the size of Russia and more economic potential than China, said ASU President Michael Crow. Yet we have decided to pretend we dont have a G20 neighbor. Mexico is a powerful economic ally, yet we are purposefully ignorant and we must defeat that. The economic value of the U.S.-Mexico partnership for many in the U.S. remains hidden in plain sight. For example: U.S. sales to Mexico are larger that all U.S. exports to China, India, Russia and Brazil, combined, as well as all combined sales to Great Britain, France, Belgium and the Netherlands . Mexico is the second-largest export market for the U.S. (Canada is first), and the U.S. is the largest global export market for Mexican exports. Approximately 6 million U.S. jobs depend on trade with Mexico. Mexicos $349 billion in 2011 exports to the world, on average, contained 37 percent U.S. inputs. For every dollar Mexico makes from exporting to the U.S., it will in turn spend 50 cents on U.S. products and services. Twenty-two U.S. states count Mexico as their No. 1 or No. 2 export market states as close to the border as Arizona, California and Texas and as far away as from the border as New Hampshire,

Michigan and Ohio. Closer to home, the economic impact on Arizona is huge. $11.9 billion in revenue and 111,216 jobs in Arizona rely on trade with Mexico. In addition, Mexican tourists comprise 70 percent of international overnight visitors. Michael Camuez, U.S. Assistant Secretary of Commerce, said that as a competitive region the United States, Mexico and Canada are competing against the rest of the world. The countries need to leverage their power, advantage and close proximity.

Mexico is linked to U.S trade Villarreal, U.S Mexican Relations 2012 (U.S.-Mexico
Economic Relations: Trends, Issues, and Implications, M. Angeles Villarreal, Specialist in International Trade and Finance, August 9, 2012, http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/row/RL32934.pdf) D.R Mexicos export-oriented assembly plants are closely linked to U.S.Mexico trade in various labor-intensive industries such as auto parts and electronic goods. These plants generate a large amount of trade with the United States, and a majority of the plants have U.S. parent companies. Foreignowned assembly plants, which originated under Mexicos maquiladora program in the 1960s,11 account for a substantial share of Mexicos trade with the United States. The border region with the United States has the highest concentration of assembly plants and workers. Prior to NAFTA, a maquiladora was limited to selling up to 50% of the previous years export production to the domestic market. Most maquiladoras currently export the majority of their production to the U.S. market.

Offcase

T
FDI in manufacturing is economic engagement Carol C. Adelman et al June 28, 2005 Dr. P.H., Director,
Center for Science in Public Policy Jeremiah Norris, Senior Fellow Jean Weicher, Research Associate from the Hudson Institute for data and research. Americas Total Economic Engagement with the Developing World: Rethinking the Uses and Nature of Foreign Aid http://www.isn.ethz.ch/DigitalLibrary/Publications/Detail/?ots591=0c54e3b3-1e9c-be1e2c24-a6a8c7060233&lng=en&id=19754 This number includes foreign direct investment and net capital markets in developing and emerging economies, and is an important measure of U.S. total economic engagement with developing nations.10 This category is most indicative of the U.S. contribution to long-lasting economic growth and prosperity in these countries. The number includes direct investment by American companies in agriculture, manufacturing and service industries that creates jobs and income for poor people. It represents the involvement of U.S. companies and institutions in foreign capital markets as well, investment that helps develop permanent economic and social infrastructure in the developing world.

Foreign direct investment is economic engagement Department of State 2009 http://20012009.state.gov/e/eeb/92986.htm Total economic engagement is putting all of the players to the same plow. EEB is harnessing trade and economic policy

formation, proper governance, and ODA activities together. The bureau also integrates the American individual. Working with U.S. citizen-partners participating in developing economies abroad is a key element of total economic engagement . An accurate accounting of a nations total engagement must include economic policies as well as, trade, remittances, and foreign direct investment. In these areas, the U.S. leads the world in total economic engagement with the developing world. The private donations of American citizens, military emergency aid and peacekeeping and government assistance provide the primary sources for development financing. In all of EEBs endeavors with State regional bureaus, the White House, and other economic agencies (e.g., USTR, Treasury), we promote Total Economic Engagement as the standard for assessing our country and regional economic strategies because we have seen that this holistic economic strategy delivers tangible results.

Plan Popular/Say Yes


Companies say yes, it benefits their economy, and the are more easily exposed to human rights violations Weissbrodt et. Al 3 [David Weissbrodt and Muria Kruger;
Professor David S. Weissbrodt is a distinguished and widely published scholar of international human rights law. He teaches international human rights law, administrative law, immigration law, and torts. October 2003, http://www.jstor.org/stable/pdfplus/3133689.pdf Norms on the Responsibilities of Transnational Corporations and Other Business Enterprises with Regard to Human Rights, KP+ Many companies have acknowledged their human rights obligations and the need to restore confidence in corporate social responsibility. The Norms provide companies that want to be socially responsible with an easily understood and comprehensive summary of their obligations under such systems as human rights law, humanitarian law, international labor law, environ- mental law, consumer law, and anticorruption law. Accordingly, the Norms help to establish a level playing field for competition. Clarifying their duties may actually benefit businesses, as a growing body of evidence is demonstrating that compliance with human rights standards enhances a company's bottom line. Consumers are often willing to take the human rights con- duct of a business into account in making their purchasing decisions. Nowadays, businesses are also more likely to be exposed to liability for conduct that violates human rights

standards. Clarification would help businesses to determine whether they should pursue a proposed course of conduct that might expose them to liability, consumer backlash, investor flight, and/or loss of the best and brightest employees. Some companies have already expressed support for the Norms and agreed to apply them in their own operations as a way of affirming their commitment to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

Basically everyone likes the plan Hillemans 03[Carolin F. Hillemanns; German lawyer with
solid management experience of an international nongovernmental organisation, and strong background in general public international law and corporate social responsibility, 8/26/03, UN Norms on the Responsibilities of Transnational Corporations and Other Business Enterprises with regard to Human Rightshttp://www.germanlawjournal.com/pdfs/Vol04No10/ PDF_Vol_04_No_10_1065-1080_European_Hillemanns.pdf , KP] The Norms have been mostly welcomed by all interested parties, since they clarify the expectations and responsibilities of all companies regarding human rights and shed light on the contested and confusing field of corporate social responsibility.20 In so doing, however, the Norms overturn two paradigms that have to date dominated the discourse on corporate social responsibility: namely that all initiatives should be voluntary and that there is no one size fits all model to cope with the different situations facing businesses, for example, in the extractive sector and the apparel industry. The International Organization of Employers, the International Chamber of Commerce and some other

business representatives have criticized the Norms for these shifts in policy. They assert the traditional view in international law that the promotion and protection of human rights is a task and obligation reserved for national governments.21

There is Support for cross-border trade Villarreal, U.S Mexican Relations 2012 (U.S.-Mexico
Economic Relations: Trends, Issues, and Implications, M. Angeles Villarreal, Specialist in International Trade and Finance, August 9, 2012, http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/row/RL32934.pdf) D.R In the remainder of the 112th Congress, policymakers will likely maintain an active interest in Mexico on issues related to cross-border trade, Mexicos participation in the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) agreement negotiations, economic conditions in Mexico, migration, and border issues. Congress also will likely take an interest in the economic policies of Mexican Presidentelect fEnrique Pea Nieto, who is expected to enter into office for a six-year term on December 1, 2012. During his campaign, Pea Nieto advocated a 10-point economic plan that includes, among other measures, implementing recently passed legislation to counter monopolistic practices, passing fiscal reform, opening up the oil sector to private investment, making farmers more productive, and doubling infrastructure investments.

Bipartisan support for assisting Mexico with human rights which are central to relations Julian Pecquet 04/26/13 The Hill-writer Lawmakers:

Obama administration should press Mexico on human rights http://thehill.com/blogs/global-affairs/americas/296467lawmakers-obama-administration-should-press-mexico-onhuman-rights The Obama administration should make progress on human rights a central part of U.S.-Mexican relations, a bipartisan group of 24 lawmakers said Friday ahead of President Obama's trip next week. The letter to Secretary of State John Kerry, spearheaded by Rep. Jim Moran (D-Va.), comes as President Enrique Pea Nieto has vowed to ensure that rights established on paper become reality. The State Department is withholding $18 million in security assistance pending progress on human rights, and the lawmakers urged Kerry to keep the cuts in place until the country shows an increase in the number of official abuse allegations that are prosecuted. Now is an opportune moment to work with the Mexican government to improve the situation in that country, wrote the lawmakers. We are encouraged by President Enrique Pea Nietos strong statements affirming his commitment to human rights and we believe they provide the United States with an important opening to raise our concerns with the Mexican government. We believe that a measurable increase in the number of cases of abuses that are investigated and prosecuted in civilian jurisdiction should be a key benchmark by which the State Department assesses the progress made by the Pea Nieto government on human rights. The letter goes on to decry: The failure to reform Mexicos Military Code
of Justice to ensure human rights abuses by the military against civilians are tried in civilian court; A 400 percent increase in reports of torture by the Mexican security forces to obtain confessions; The failure to implement protection measures mandated under the Law for the Protection of Human Rights Defenders and Journalists; and More than 26,000 disappearances including more than 2,000 involving federal authorities. The letter is signed by Reps. Ted Poe (R-Texas), Tim Bishop (D-N.Y.), Sam Farr (D-Calif.), Yvette Clarke (D-N.Y.), Jim McGovern (D-Mass.), Luis Gutierrez (D-Ill.), Jan Schakowsky (D-Ill.), Hank Johnson (D-Ga.), John Carter (R-

Texas), Randy Hultgren (R-Ill.), John Lewis (D-Ga.), Barbara Lee (D-Calif.), Maxine Waters (D-Calif.), Charlie Rangel (D-N.Y.), Michael Capuano (D-Mass.), Raul Grijalva (D-Ariz.), Tony Cardenas (D-Calif.), Peter Welch (D-Vt.), Bill Foster (D-Ill.), Rosa DeLauro (D-Conn.), Ed Blumenauer (D-Ore.), Alan Lowenthal (D-Calif.) and Danny Davis (D-Ill.).

Obama and Nieto are committed to human rights Ruth Isabel Robles 4/25/13
Just a week before President Obamas first visit to Mexico since President Pea Nieto assumed office, 24 Members of Congress sent a letter on April 23rd to newly appointed

Secretary of State John Kerry with a clear request -- make the defense of human rights a central part of the bilateral agenda with our neighbor. This letter, co-sponsored by Representative Moran (D-VA) and Representative Poe (R-TX), reflects bi-partisan concern about the persistence of grave human rights violations in Mexico. President Pena Nieto has expressed his commitment to human rights since assuming office on December 1, 2012, noting that one of Mexicos greatest challenges is to make sure that rights established on paper become reality. These representatives underscore
the scope and severity of challenges that lay ahead, noting a five-fold increase in complaintsfrom 534 in 2007 to

2,723 in 2012of human rights violations by Mexican soldiers and federal police, including torture, rape, extrajudicial executions, arbitrary detention, enforced disappearances, as well as other abuses.