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Problem Statement: It is required a complete design for a square spread footing showing in Figure 1 with the following design conditions:

Figure 1. The Footing Dead Load = 350 kips Live Load = 275 kips weight of soil and concrete above base = 130 psf Net Allowable soil pressure at the bottom of the footing = 3,750 psf f`c = 3,000 psi, Welded wire reinforcement fy = 80,000 psi Footing pedestal 1 x 1 Base Area : The base area of the footing is determined using service (unfactored) loads with the net permissible soil pressure. Af = = 167 ft2

Use a 13 x 13 ft square footing (Af = 169 ft2) This example is to be used for educational purposes only. 1

Loads Soil Reaction: To proportion the footing for strength (depth and required reinforcement) factored loads are used. Pu = 1.2 (350) + 1.6 (275) = 860 kips qs = Pu/Af = 860/169 = 5.10 ksf

Depth: Determine depth based on shear strength without shear reinforcement. Depth required for shear usually controls the footing thickness. Both wide-beam action and two-way action for strength computation need to be investigated to determine the controlling shear criteria for depth. Assume overall foot thickness = 33 in. with a clear cover of 3 in., and an assumed wire diameter of in., effective depth in the primary direction is 29.75, in the secondary direction is 29.25. The average effective depth d= 29.5 in. = 2.46 ft

Wide-beam action: Vu = qw x tributary area bw = 13 ft = 156 in. Tributary area = 13 (6.0 2.46) = 46.0 ft2 Vn = (2 bw d) = 0.75 (2 x 156 x 29.25) /1000 = 375 kips > Vu O.K. Two-Way Action: Vu = qs x tributary area Tributary area = Vu = 5.10 x 151.9 = 775 kips = minimum of

= 151.9 ft2

bo = 2 ( 30 + 29.5) + 2 (12+ 29.5) = 202 in. = 30/12 = 2.5 bo/d = 202/29.5 = 6.8

## = 40 for interior columns

Vc = 0.75 x 3.6 x 202 x 29.5 / 1000 = 881 kips > Vu = 775 kips O.K. Reinforcement: Critical section for moment is at face of column Mu = 5.10 x 13 x 62/2 = 1193 ft-kips Compute required As assuming tension-controlled section ( = 0.9) Required Rn = Mu / bd2 = = 115 psi = 0.85 / fy

= 085 x 3 / 60

= 0.00147

(gross area) = d/h x 0.00147 = 24.75 /33 x 0.00147 = 0.00133 Check minimum As required for footings of uniform thickness; for grade 80 Welded Wire Reinforcement r:
min

## = 0.0018 x 60/80 = 0.00135 > 0.00133

Required As = bd As = 0.00147 x 156 x 29.75 = 6.87 in2 Use D16 @ 4 each way As = 6.84 in2 Note that a lesser amount of reinforcement is required in the perpendicular direction due to lesser Mu , but for ease of placement, the same uniformly distributed reinforcement will be used each way. Also note that dt = 29.25 in. for perpendicular direction. Check net tensile strain ( t) a = As fy / 0.85 fc b = = 1.38 This example is to be used for educational purposes only. 3

c = a/

## = 1.38/0.85 = 1.62 = 0.003/c

= [0.003/c ] dt 0.003 = (0.003/1.62) x 29.75 0.003 = 0.0521 > 0.004 Therefore, the section is tension-controlled and initial assumption is valid, O.K.
t

Development of Reinforcement: Critical section for development is the same as that for moment ( at face of column). ld = Clear cover = 3.0 in. Center-to-center bar spacing = cb = minimum of db

Ktr = 0 (no transverse reinforcement) = = 2.0 use 2.0 t = 1.0 (less than 12 in. of concrete below bars) e = 1.0 (uncoated reinforcement) t e = 1.0 < 1.7 s = 0.8 (less than No. 7 bars) = 1.0 (normal weight concrete) ld =[ ] x 0.451 = 19.76 in. > 12.0 in. O.K.

Since ld = 19.76 in. is less than the available embedment length in the short direction the D 16 wires can be fully development. Use D 16 @ 4 each way. Reinforcement Details: Figures 2 and 3 show the reinforcement details and the dimension of the WWR.

1'

6'

2'-9"

3" 2'-54

13' WWR1

## Figure 2. Cross section

12'-6"

12'-6"

WWR1 D16XD16@4"X4"
Figure 3. Sheet Details Reinforcement Quantities: The total steel weight for the footing = 517 lbs. Design Using Grade 60 Rebar. Figure 4 shows the reinforcement detail using Grade 60 Rebar. The total steel weight for the footing using Grade 60 Rebar = 868 lbs. Conclusions: The ratio between the total weight per using Grade 80 WWR to the total weight using Grade 60 Rebar = (517/868)*100 = 60 %. This example is to be used for educational purposes only. 5

Placed of WWR Should be significantly faster than placement of the reinforcing bars, resulting in additional overall saving.

1'

6'

2'-9" 13'

2'-4"

13 # 8 Each Direction