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THESIS

THE INTERPRETING OF PUPPET SHADOW AMBROSIA OF IMMORTALITY BY THE DALANG AND THE EXTENT OF AUDIENCES COMPREHENSION

PUTU LIRISHATI SOETHAMA

POSTGRADUATE PROGRAMME UDAYANA UNIVERSITY DENPASAR 2010

THE INTERPRETING OF PUPPET SHADOW AMBROSIA OF IMMORTALITY BY THE DALANG AND THE EXTENT OF AUDIENCES COMPREHENSION

Thesis As fulfillment to obtain a Master Degree In Linguistics

PUTU LIRISHATI SOETHAMA Reg. No. 0890161027

MASTER DEGREE PROGRAMME STUDY PROGRAM OF LINGUISTICS POSTGRADUATE PROGRAMME UDAYANA UNIVERSITY DENPASAR 2010

APPROVAL SHEET This thesis has been approved on October 22nd , 2010

Supervisor I

Supervisor II

Prof. Dr. I Gusti Md. Sutjaja, M.A NIP. 194410021978031

Drs. I Gd. Putu Sudana, M.A NIP. 195408031981031002

Head of Master Program In Linguistics Udayana University

Director of Postgraduate Studies Udayana University

Dr. I Nyoman Suparwa, M.Hum NIP. 196203101985031005

Prof. Dr. dr. A.A. Raka Sudewi, Sp. S(K) NIP. 195902151985102001

This thesis has been examined by the examining board On Friday, October 22nd 2010 Based on Decree of Rector of Udayana University No. 1678/HI4.4/HK/2010 Date: October 13th 2010

The Board of Examiners Chairman : Prof. Dr. I Gusti Md. Sutjaja, M.A Secretary : Drs. I Gd Putu Sudana, M.A Members : Prof. Dr. Ni Luh Sutjiati Beratha, M.A Prof. Dr. I Nengah Sudipa, M.A Drs. I Nyoman Sedeng, M.Hum

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
First of all let me praise and thanks to Sang Hyang Widhi Wasa because of His favor this thesis can be completed. On this occasion, let me say thank you so very much to Prof. Dr. I Gusti Md. Sutjaja, M.A, as main supervisor who never stop to provide encouragement for the continuity of my writing and always ready to give time though he always travels to foreign countries. My great gratitude goes to Drs. I Gd Putu Sudana, M.A, as my second supervisor who tirelessly correcting errors of my writing and gave a very valuable input to me. The grand gratitude is also addressed to the Rector of Udayana University Prof. Dr. dr I Made Bakta, Sp.PD (KHOM) for the opportunity and facilities given to me to follow and to complete master program education at Udayana University. Acknowledgements are also addressed to the Director of the Postgraduate Program at Udayana University chaired by Prof. Dr. dr. A.A. Raka Sudewi, Sp. S(K) for the opportunity given to me to be a master degree student at Udayana University. I also like to thank the First Assistant Director of Postgraduate Program at Udayana University, Prof. Dr. Made Budiarsa, M.A for the support and opportunity given to me to be able to join the last graduation of this year. Your support gave me more spirit to complete this thesis quicker. Along this my gratitude also goes to the dean of the Faculty of Literature at Udayana University, Prof. Dr. I Wayan Ardika, M.A for the permission granted to me to get education in master program. In this occasion I also express my gratitude to Drs. I Nyoman Suparwa,

M.Hum, head of Master Program in Linguistics Udayana University and all staff in Linguistics Department who have helped me in expediting the process of writing this thesis. And of course my best gratitude to my parents, father and mother who always ready to support and to give a helping hand whenever I need. My best gratitude goes to my father for the enlightening and very enjoyable moments of scientific discussion. My humble gratitude goes to my mother who always stands nearby and provides input. To my beloved brother who is ready to crack jokes to pump my excitement. My deep gratitude goes to my beloved one for the never ending companion and comfort every time. To the friends who gave much input and support. To you all I addressed this thesis. May God always bestow blessing to those who have helped the implementation and completion of this thesis.

Denpasar, October 2010

Putu Lirishati Soethama

ABSTRACT

This writing is entitled The Interpreting of Puppet Shadow, Ambrosia of Immortality, by the Dalang and the Extent of Audiences Comprehension. It is aimed at finding the mode used by the interpreter, the dalang himself, in this performance and also to find out the degree of comparison of the audience who watch this performance. The data was taken from puppet shadow Ambrosia of Immortality, an episode from Mahabaratha epic story tells which about the eclipse and the beginning of the emergence of the world. This performance was played in San Francisco, America in 1998. The data was also taken from questionnaires filled by twenty audiences. The data was collected by reading the script of the performance, watching the performance, and also spreading questionnaires and dvds to twenty audiences which refers to the sample and population in this writing. The data was analyzed qualitatively by using descriptive narrative technique as well as quantitatively by using table to present the tabulation data. In analyzing the data, two theories were used, namely theory of consecutive interpreting proposed by Pchhacker to analyze the first problem and the other theory proposed by Kopczynski about quality in interpreting, problems and ways in understanding interpreting. The result of this analysis in this study reveals the mode used by the interpreter in the puppet shadow performance Ambrosia of Immortality was consecutive mode. In terms of the extent of audiences comprehension, it was found that from the criteria: dalang, shadowcasters, story, language and sound/music, the audience has a good extent in comprehending the performance. This was due to the good interpretation made by the dalang.

Keywords: dalang, wayang, consecutive interpreting, extent of audiences comprehension.

ABSTRAK

Tulisan ini yang berjudul The Interpreting of Puppet Shadow, Ambrosia of Immortality, by the Dalang and the Extent of Audiences Comprehension memiliki tujuan untuk menemukan modus yang digunakan oleh interpreter, yang dalam pementasan ini dilakukan oleh sang dalang itu sendiri, dan juga untuk mengetahui tingkat pemahaman penonton yang menonton pertunjukan ini. Data-data diambil dari pementasan wayang Ambrosia of Immortality, sebuah episode dari cerita epik Mahabaratha yang menceritakan tentang gerhana dan awal munculnya dunia. Pementasan ini pernah dimainkan di San Francisco, Amerika pada tahun 1998. Data juga diambil dari kuesioner yang diisi oleh dua puluh penonton. Data dikumpulkan dengan membaca naskah pertunjukan, menonton pementasan, dan juga menyebarkan kuesioner dan dvd untuk dua puluh khalayak yang menjadi sampel dan populasi dalam penulisan ini. Data dianalisis secara kualitatif dengan menggunakan teknik deskriptif naratif serta kuantitatif dengan menggunakan tabel untuk menyajikan tabulasi data. Dalam menganalisa data, digunakan dua teori, berturut-turut yaitu teori oleh Pchhacker untuk menganalisa masalah pertama dan teori lainnya oleh Kopczynski untuk menganalisa masalah kedua tentang kualitas dalam penerjemahan, masalah dan cara-cara dalam memahami penerjemahan. Hasil analisis dalam penelitian ini menunjukkan modus yang digunakan oleh penerjemah dalam pementasan wayang Ambrosia of Immortality adalah modus consecutive Dalam hal tingkat pemahaman penonton, ditemukan bahwa dari kriteria: dalang, shadowcasters, cerita, bahasa dan suara / musik, penonton memiliki pemahaman yang baik dalam memahami terjemahan yang dilakukan oleh penerjemah. Hal ini disebabkan oleh penafsiran yang baik yang dibuat oleh dalang.

Kata kunci: dalang, wayang, consecutive interpreting, extent of audiences comprehension.

CONTENTS

Page TITLE........................................................................................................... PREREQUISITE TITLE ........................................................................... APPROVAL SHEET .................................................................................. EXAMINERS BOARD ............................................................................... ACKNOWLEDGEMENT .......................................................................... ABSTRACT ................................................................................................. TABLE OF CONTENT .............................................................................. LIST OF TABLES ...................................................................................... LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AND TERMS ............................................ LIST OF APPENDICES............................................................................. i ii iii iv v vii ix xii xiii xiv

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION................................................................ 1.1 Background ............................................................................................. 1.2 Problems .................................................................................................. 1.3 Aims of the Study.................................................................................... 1.4 Significance of the Study ........................................................................ 1.5 Scope of Discussion ................................................................................

1 1 3 4 4 5

CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEWS, CONCEPTS, AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK................................................... 2.1 Literature Review .................................................................................... 2.2 Concepts .................................................................................................. 2.2.1 The Concept of Interpreting ................................................................. 2.2.2 The Concept of Balinese Wayang .......................................... 6 6 11 11 15 17 18 22 23 23 25 26 27 27 28

2.3 Theoretical Framework ........................................................................... 2.3.1 Theory of Consecutive Interpreting ..................................................... 2.3.2 Quality in Interpreting .......................................................................... 2.3.3 Problems and Ways of Understanding Interpreting ............................. 2.3.3.1 Understanding ................................................................................... 2.3.3.2 Different Kinds of Texts ................................................................... 2.3.3.3 Identification of the main ideas ......................................................... 2.3.3.4 Analysis of links ................................................................................ 2.3.3.5 Memory ............................................................................................. 2.3.3.6 Re-expression ....................................................................................

CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHOD .................................................. 3.1 Data Source ............................................................................................. 3.2 Method and Technique of Collecting Data ............................................. 3.3 Method and Technique of Analyzing Data ............................................. 3.4 Method and Technique of Presenting Data .............................................

31 31 34 34 35

CHAPTER IV THE ANALYSIS OF INTERPRETING AMBROSIA OF IMMORTALITY BY THE DALANG AND THE COMPREHENSION OF THE AUDIENCE ................................................................................ 4.1 The Analysis of Mode of Interpreting ..................................................... 4.2 The Analysis of the Extent to which the Audience Comprehends the Story ................................................................................. 46 37 37

CHAPTER V CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION ............................. BIBLIOGRAPHY ....................................................................................... APPENDICES .............................................................................................

58 60 63

LIST OF TABLES

Table Table 1. The effect of dalang presentation and shadowcasters on the comprehension of the audience ....................................................... Table 2. The effect of story and language on the comprehension of the audience ..................................................................................... Table 3. The language being mastered by the audience................................ Table 4. The effect of sound and music on the comprehension of the audience .....................................................................................

Page

46

47 47

48

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AND TERMS

ABBREVIATIONS SL : Source Language in Kawi, the original language of wayang performance

TL1 : Target Language 1 in Bahasa Indonesia, language being used by dalang Wija to tell the story of Ambrosia of Immortality to dalang Larry. TL2 : Target Language 2 in English, language being used by dalang Larry to interpret the story of Ambrosia of Immortality to the audience.

TERMS Wayang : traditional puppet shadow. Dalang : puppet master or shadow master.

LIST OF APPENDICES

Page 1. Script of Ambrosia of Immortality performance in Kawi, Bahasa Indonesia and English ................................................................... 2. Questionnaires ........................................................................................... 63 71

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background Balinese wayang is more than a shadow play, it is integrally linked to Balinese culture and religion and so to their daily life. The stories are religious stories, the puppets are created by holy men and wayang is a required element of Balinese religious ceremonies. It used to be performed only within a sacred context and the dalang in his role as the instigator of activity, conflict and conclusion is considered during the performance to be an embodiment of the Hindu god, Siwa. Wayang is an essential medium of Balinese culture, and its idiom is the root of traditional Balinese painting, dance, and even the ways in which people behave toward each other in everyday life. Bali has long been one of the worlds most famous travel destinations. Ever since the early 20th century, when the Dutch discovered Balis natural beauty and its amazing array of cultural forms, visitors have flocked to Balis shores. Worldfamous anthropologist, linguists, musicians, painters, everyone seems to have spent time in Bali. But what do Balinese think of their island, their culture? What do fellow Indonesians think of Bali? Their views are virtually unknown to the outside world. By translating and interpreting Balinese stories into English, there will be some contributions as to bring an understanding of some complexities of Balinese life to a broader international audience.

The translation of terms which have cultural meaning becomes the main concern of the translator today. It is because translation process is not merely a linguistic phenomenon such as forming and meaning, but it must be considered a means of transferring culture. It must be admitted that there is a close relation between language and culture. The most difficult problems in translating are found in the differences between cultures. Many words may look equivalent but they are not since they also have special connotations. Larson (1998:179) mentions, a translator has to be considered not only getting involved in the two languages but also in the two cultures. The difference in culture gives a difficult task for both the translator and the interpreter. The difference of culture occurs when there are some concepts in the SL which do not have lexical equivalent in TL. It can be caused by the difference of geography, customs, beliefs, world view, and various other factors. When the cultures are very different, it is often very difficult to find equivalents of the lexical items. Wayang kulit is performed by a single puppeteer called a dalang. The dalang is responsible for single-handedly working the puppets and simultaneously narrating the story by altering the tone of his voice to represent the various characters. To become dalang, mastery in all branch of art, philosophy and literature is not enough. A dalang must also be a master of language and have knowledge of ancient Javanese Kawi as well as being fluent in all levels of the Balinese dialect. The success of a wayang kulit performance relies entirely on the skill of the dalang and his ability to enthrall the audience by giving his puppets a sense of spirit.

A traditional wayang kulit performance normally starts late into the evening and it can last up to several hours with the audience sitting crossed legged on the ground enjoying the slight chill of the night air. Each performance includes artistic elements of literature, drama and voice characterization where the dalang takes on the roles of director, choreographer and performer. The dalang must possess a diverse knowledge that covers topics in philosophy, religion, culture and current affairs. He must have the ability to summarize the story with fresh dialogue and add touches of humor. Often references are made to current news headlines and the inclusion of a few crude comments always arouses interest. Therefore, in order to bring the complexities of Balinese stories into the broader international audiences, a dalang has to master English since in the wayang performance there is no interpreter.

1.2 Problems According to the background above, there are two problems which can be formulated, as follows: 1. What is the mode of the puppeteer in interpreting the story of wayang into English? 2. The extent to which the audience comprehends the story of wayang performed in English?

1.2 Aims of the Study Based on the problems, this study aims at: 1. Identifying the mode being used of the puppeteer in interpreting the story of wayang into English. 2. Explaining the extent of audiences comprehension of the story of wayang performed in English.

1.3 Significance of the Study The significance of the study can be divided into theoretical significance and practical significance 1.3.1 1. Theoretical Significance This study contributed to the development of cultural linguistic studies, particularly the Balinese terms used in the story of wayang equivalence into English. 2. It useful to the student, puppeteer, and guide who want to learn more about how to interpret the story of wayang, and how to be an ideal interpreter (a person who appropriate both bilingual and bicultural). 3. This study also useful for the study regarding interpreting of two different cultures. 1.3.2 1. Practical Significance This study introduced the complexities of Balinese life to a broader international audience.

2.

This study exemplified how unique terms in one language can be interpreted into another language with a very different cultural background.

1.4 Scope of Discussion The discussion limited to the performance of Ambrosia of Immortality (a performance which blends the concept of Balinese wayang and modern wayang) by puppeteer (referred to dalang) Wija and Larry. The study will also account for the responses and the comprehension of the audience in understanding the story of Wayang in English.

CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW, CONCEPTS AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

2.1 Literature Review There are several works to be reviewed regarding to the interpreting mode and process and cultural aspect. Those descriptions of the works are considered as having relation to the object of this study. Zinamnyi in her article A diagrammatic approach to redefining the role of the interpreter based on a case study in forensic psychology investigates the role of the interpreter by examining a case study within a forensic psychology setting. During the session with a nine-year-old boy as the service user and a forensic psychologist as the service provider, the interpreter faces an ethical dilemma. The story the young boy presents is in conflict with the information he has previously disclosed to the interpreter. The paper proposes the development of diagrammatic representations to help the interpreter position themselves within the communicative triad by presenting the interpreters role along two axes the impartiality axis and the involvement axis. Given the complex nature of the forensic psychology setting, interpreter role definitions in community interpreting in general and in mental health and legal interpreting in particular provide a backdrop to the argument. Finally, the role of the interpreter is defined in terms of the nature of the session rather than the broader interpreting environment, whereby

the interpreter needs to constantly reconsider their position to the primary participants. The study from Zinamnyi has a relevancy with this study from the role of the interpreter point of view. Interpreter has a great role and has to position themselves whether they are in community, legal, or health interpreting because this will give a great impact in describing the content of what they are interpreting. Albl-Mikasa from University of Tbingen in his work (Non-)Sense in Notetaking for Consecutive Interpreting emphasizes cognitive theories of text and language processing, and in particular relevant theory, to the analysis of notes in consecutive interpreting. In contrast to the pre-cognitive view, in which note-taking is seen mainly as a memory-supporting technique, the process of note-taking is described as the reception and production of a notation text. Adding the relevancetheoretical constructs of explicature and implicature to the general account of cognitive text processing as coherence building and the construction of a mental representation at local and global levels, this approach allows for the comparison of source, notation and target texts with respect to the underlying propositional representation, and shows how the sense of highly fragmentary notation texts is recovered in consecutive interpreting. The paper is based on an empirical study involving consecutive interpretations (EnglishGerman) by five trainee interpreters. The analysis shows that the interpreters operate relatively closely along micropropositional lines when processing the source, notation and target texts, with the explicature regularly having the same propositional form as the corresponding proposition in the source text. From this study we can find the relevancy with the interpreting of puppet shadow study that in consecutive interpreting we do not

always need to conduct note taking. Though this note taking is one the method and technique in consecutive interpreting to grasp the better main idea of what is being interpreted but we can consider it just as memory-supporting technique and it does not always becomes a crucial part in consecutive interpreting. Budiartana, scholar of Udayana University, analyses the process of interpreting performed by tour guides. His thesis The Process of Interpreting Performed by The Tour Guides at Sukawati Art Market, contains the mode of interpreting adopted by the tour guides at Sukawati Art Market is liaison interpreting, meanwhile the setting of interpreting which was performed in the informal setting at the art market was escort interpreting. The procedures applied in the interpreting process by the tour guides there include five out of seven procedures. They are equivalent, literal, modulation, transposition and borrowing procedure. The thesis from Budiartana has a similarity with this study because he analyzed the interpreting conducted by tour guide in Sukawati art market and found the procedures implied in the process. Meanwhile in this study, what analyzed was the mode of the interpreting in puppet shadow performance. Both of these studies used Balinese environment and culture as the data. It shows that many interpreting activities happen in the island and can enrich the study of interpreting. Grbi, from University of Graz mentions, in his work entitled Constructing Interpreting Quality, that the issue of quality has attracted considerable attention recently in translation and interpreting studies. Few publications, however, seek to explore systematically the theoretical implications of the different notions of quality. The aim of this paper is to explore quality as a social construct and to examine

interpretations and definitions of quality in the field of translation and interpreting studies and practice. It is evident that the notion of quality is relative, in that it depends both on the individual who is assessing quality and on the given context or specific situation, but the relativity of quality as an attribute or notion pertaining to an object also extends to the benchmarks set up in order to gauge quality. This paper will focus on the multi-perspectivity of some of the quality benchmarks that have been applied in the context of three systems within which quality discourse has developed over the years: training, professional practice and interpreting research. The study from Grbi has a great relevancy with this study of interpreting puppet shadow since both analyzed the quality of interpreting conducted in particular situation. It is true that quality depends both on the individual who is assessing quality and on the given context or specific situation. Each different situation will create different assessment on interpreting quality. Liu in How do Experts Interpret? Implications from Research in Interpreting Studies and Cognitive Science discusses expertise in simultaneous interpreting is defined as the result of well-practiced strategies in each of the comprehension, translation, and production processes, and the interaction among these processes, which are specific to the needs of the task of simultaneous interpreting. What allows the interaction among the comprehension, translation, and production processes to act in sync is interpreters ability to manage their mental resources in an efficient manner, particularly in the way attention is managed. Expert-novice difference is examined by comparing skills and sub-skills, by analyzing the cognitive abilities underlying the act of simultaneous interpreting, and by providing evidence and

counter-evidence from Interpreting Studies and cognitive science. Even though the study from Liu regarding how the experts interpret has a slight different since it discusses about simultaneous interpreting meanwhile this thesis discusses about consecutive interpreting but the work from Liu has a relevancy with this thesis. Both studies talks about the interaction among the comprehension, translation, and production processes from interpreters ability to manage their resources in an efficient manner, particularly in the way attention is managed to give a the best interpreting for the audience. Kurz, from University of Vienna, Austria in The Impact of Non-Native English on Students' Interpreting Performance explains that English has become the worlds lingua franca and dominant conference language. Consequently, interpreters are increasingly confronted with nonnative speakers whose pronunciation differs from Standard English. Non-native source texts which deviate from familiar acoustic-phonetic patterns make perception more difficult for the interpreter, who, according to Giles Effort Models, is forced to devote a considerable part of his processing to the Listening and Analysis Effort. For students and novices in the interpreting profession such situations are particularly difficult to cope with. The paper describes some of the major findings of a study carried out by Dominika Kodrnja (2001) as a diploma thesis under the authors supervision to demonstrate the detrimental effect of a strong non-native accent on students interpreting performance. This is what we have to be very careful with if we talk about interpreting, interpreter of non-native English. Indeed the pronunciation is different from Standard English. By taking this as a consideration we can minimize the error

and mistakes happen from non-native English interpreter. Moreover they interpret something related with culture as in this puppet shadow performance. But since the interpreter of this performance is an American then we can less worry. We need to be more careful in blending two different cultures, east and west, ensuring perfect understanding for the audience by giving good pronunciation and of course good explanation and interpretation of the whole idea of the content.

2.2 Concepts The concepts in this study are based on several ideas proposed by the experts in the field of interpreting, the concept of wayang, and the relation between language and culture. 2.2.1 The Concepts of Interpreting Since people start communicating with one another, within their environment or among the environments, the issues among them are about to develop. The diversity of the issues triggers people to solve it in one way or another. It is easy indeed when they communicate in the same language. They understand each other and the issues are easily solved. However, when people talk different language the way in solving the problems may become a though way. They need to understand each other in a certain time which is regarded very limited. Thus interpreting is acquired.

There are few definitions of interpreting, according to Pchhacker: Interpreting is a form of translation in which a first and final rendition in another language is produced on the basis of a one-time presentation of an utterance in a source language. (Pchhacker, 2004) In addition, Setton (1999) notes that interpreting is a process by which a spoken language or utterance take place in one language which is intended or presumed to convey the same meaning as previously existing in another language. Interpreting involves three ways of communication, namely, the speaker, the interpreter, and the hearer. Interpreting (oral translation) focuses on the time of the rendering immediately after the delivery of the utterances from the speaker, the interpreter renders the message of the speaker to the hearer. Interpreting as an oral translation is delivered in a communicative situation, where the needs of attention are focused on the message of the utterances of SL and the transfer of the message to the TL. According to Hatim and Ian Mason (1992), there are three (principal modes) basic forms of interpreting: 1. Simultaneous interpreting, conducted in special booths where the interpreter listens through earphones and sometimes watches what is going on. As the speakers statement proceeds, it is translated simultaneously into the other language. The transfer of the message from the source language (SL) to the target language (TL) is conducted at more or less the same time. 2. Consecutive interpreting, involves the interpreter in taking notes of what is being said by the speaker. At the end of each fairly large chunk of speech (or an entire speech), the interpreter gives an oral translation (normally in a reduced

form) with or without help from the notes. The focus of the transfer comes after the SL message that has been delivered and it tends to concentrate on the information relevant to the text structure and context. 3. Liaison interpreting is a form of oral interpreting in which two speakers who do not know each others language or know it imperfectly communicate through an interpreter, normally in spontaneous conversational settings. The focus of

the interpreter is maintaining the continuity of exchange of the message of the participants in the communication. Interpreting is different from to translation in way of time while the process is happening. The interpreting happens one time only and no repetition. As it is said by Pchhacker, 2004: ..., interpreting can be distinguished from other type of translational activity most succinctly by its immediacy: in principle, interpreting is performed here and now for the benefit of people who want to engage in communication across barriers of language and culture. (Pchhacker, 2004) It is clearly said that interpreting is only conducted one time and it cannot be repeated. What is uttered by the speaker in source language is immediately needed to be said by the interpreter as clearly as possible in target language just only once. Pchhacker stated the categorization of interpreting is based on the setting of the interpreting: Some of the first mediated contracts between communities speaking different languages will have served the purpose of trading and exchanging goods, of doing business which would give us business interpreting as a primeval type of interpreting. (Pchhacker: 2004)

He also said that liaisons interpreting mainly used in business negotiations, Henri van Hoof (1962) in Pchhacker (2004: 14) said ... liaisons interpreting as a form of interpreting practiced mainly in commercial negotiations. More than thirty years later, Gentile et al. (1996) took advantage of the generic meaning of liaison, denoting the idea of connecting and linking up, and extended the term liaison interpreting to a variety of interpreting setting across the inter- vs intra-social dimension.

It means that the liaison interpreting has a new denotation, which focuses on the context of the text which is already patterned through the intra social of the setting of the process. Hatim and Mason stated about the focus of the information when interpreting is conducted. They said that the consecutive interpreting focus on the structure of the text, while simultaneous interpreting focused more in the texture and liaisons interpreting rely on the context of the text. In the case of simultaneous interpreting, context and structure are revealed only piecemeal and can thus be accessed more effectively via texture, i.e. the word as they are spoken. In the case of consecutive interpreting, texture and context are retained only in a most short-lived manner and can thus be stored more effectively via structure. In the case of liaisons interpreting, texture and structure are manifested only partially and can thus be negotiated more effectively via context. (Hatim and Mason: 1999)

Further more, Hatim and Mason state about the similarity and the difference between simultaneous and liaison interpreting is as follows: Liaison interpreting input bears an interesting resemblance to that of simultaneous; in both cases the interpreter receives a first instalment of a longer text and more or less immediately embarks upon delivery. But the resemblance ends here: while the second instalment of simultaneous input is never long in coming, providing the interpreter with more textural

information to be processed, the liaison interpreter has to treat the first portion as a self-contained unit. (Hatim and Mason, 1999: 50) It indicates that the simultaneous interpreter already have the text in hand what is supposed to be interpreted to the hearer. On the other hand, the liaison interpreter only depends on self-reliance to interpret what is being said by the speaker, since the text is not given to them.

2.2.2 The Concept of Balinese Wayang Albteam in http://blog.baliwww.com mentions that wayang kulit, or shadow puppets as they are more commonly known as in English, are part of an ancient heritage of pre-Hindu culture that still exists in many regions around Indonesia. The word wayang means puppet, while kulit means skin. Wayang puppets are cut from thin pieces of buffalo hide and intricately carved and decorated to symbolize different characters. The figures are braced with a single support stick and often have articulating arms and legs that can be manipulated to act out dramatic scenes. Some wayang kulit characters especially the jesters (Sangut, Delem, Merdah and Tualen) are made from special cow hide (hide from cow that had been struck to death by lightning or unborn calf). In Bali a wayang kulit performance is a popular form of village entertainment that invariably accompanies a religious ceremony or rite. Performances are usually adaptations of epic legends and tales that are retold in story form against a white cloth screen that is lit with a shimmering oil lantern. Wayang kulit is performed by a lone puppeteer called a dalang. The dalang is responsible for single-handedly working the puppets and simultaneously narrating

the story by altering the tone of his voice to represent the various characters. To become dalang mastery in all branch of art, philosophy and literature is not enough; one has to learn, observe and adhere to Dharma Pewayangan (code of conduct of wayang kulit performer) in order to become a true dalang. Dharma Pewayangan contains necessary knowledge which is needed in performing wayang kulit performance such as Mantra (incantation), Upakara (offering), Sasana (code of conduct), Brata (prohibition and exercise), Pengasih (charm), Peleburan Wisya (poison antidote) and Kawisesan (magical power). The wayang kulit is performed behind a white cloth screen known as kelir, supported by the light of lampu blencong, a traditional lamp which uses coconut oil and a burning wick. The lampu blencong is hung between the dalang and the puppets so the shadows show up clearly on the screen. The shadows look alive as if they are dancing on the screen because the flame always flickers. Often a Balinese dalang is not only a performing artist, but also a religious leader or lay priest. He is able to initiate various purification ceremonies pertaining to the Hindu religion. A dalang must also be a master of language and have knowledge of ancient Javanese Kawi as well as being fluent in all levels of the Balinese dialect. The success of a wayang kulit performance relies entirely on the skill of the dalang and his ability to enthrall the audience by giving his puppets a sense of spirit. A traditional wayang kuilt performance normally starts late into the evening and it can last up to several hours with the audience sitting crossed legged on the ground enjoying the slight chill of the night air. Each performance includes artistic

elements of literature, drama and voice characterization where the dalang takes on the roles of director, choreographer and performer. The dalang must possess a diverse knowledge that covers topics in philosophy, religion, culture and current affairs. He must have the ability to summarize the story with fresh dialogue and add touches of humor. Often references are made to current news headlines and the inclusion of a few crude comments always arouses interest. A dalang always travels with an assistant who has the job to keep the puppets in an orderly fashion. A small group of musicians also accompanies each puppet performance on a set of Balinese xylophone instruments made from bronze keys atop bamboo resonators. The music is purely a backup to the dialogue that erupts at a rapid pace to emphasize a particular scene and then dissolves into a gentle tinkle. Many wayang kulit performances are inspired by the great Hindu epics of the Mahabharata and Rayamana, which are tales with the universal theme of the triumph of good over evil. Performances are cleverly entwined with subliminal ethical messages. Characters generally fall into the categories of good and bad. There are always scenes of battle, hostility and underhand trickery, but the closing act invariably depicts a glorious victory for the hero over his enemies. Despite scenes of violence, wayang kulit subconsciously teaches the audience the advantages of leading a moral and harmonious life. There are many form of wayang kulit in Bali. Wayang Lemah, Wayang Sudamala, and Wayang Sapuleger which are closely related to religious Hindu rituals. Wayang Parwa delivers stories based on Mahabharata epic. Wayang

Ramayana is based on Ramayana epic. Wayang Tantri is specialized on fables. Wayang Gambuh, Wayang Arja, Wayang Cupak and Wayang Calonarang is based on Balinese folklores. Wayang Babad delivers stories in relation with history of Bali and Balinese. Wayang Wong and Wayang Golek Gede are newly created forms of wayang which enrich the culture of wayang in Bali.

2.3 Theoretical Framework The theory being implemented in this paper is about the model of interpreting. How the process of interpreting is conducted can be described in a simplest model.
Monolingual speaker of language A Interpreter Monolingual speaker of language B

Sa

Iaba

Sb

Figure 1.Andersons type-case model of three-party interaction (from Pchhacker: 2004)

From the model above it can be seen that the first diamond shape as the person of monolingual A trying to communicate to speaker in monolingual B and in between there is an interpreter who conducts as a bridge in rendering the information in both language A and B the one way around arrows shows that the communication can be conducted in one way to another. In other words it can be said that the monolingual speaker A is able to give some information to monolingual B through the mediation of interpreter and vice versa.

2.3.1 Theory of Consecutive Interpreting Pochhacker (2004) stated that consecutive interpreting is one of the modes of interpreting that is identified based on the pace of time of the rendering. In consecutive interpreting the utterances of the speaker may be uttered in certain pace of time when the speaker makes a pause then the interpreter starts to interpret the message of the source language to the target language, this type of mode is conducted based on the needs of the user (client). Consecutive interpreting is a mode in which the interpreter begins their interpretation of a complete message after the speaker has stopped producing the source utterance. At the time that the interpretation is rendered the interpreter is the only person in the communication environment who is producing the message. In practice, a consecutive interpretation may be rendered when the interpreter does not have a text in its entirety, that is, the person delivering the source utterance may have more to say, but the interpreter has enough information to deliver a message that could stand alone if needed. It is important to note that although the person who originates the message has ceased their delivery of new information, this speaker has not necessarily given up the floor and, once the interpretation has been delivered, the speaker may resume delivery of their message. Consecutive interpreting describes a situation where the participants and the interpreter speak one after the other. This alternating between participant and interpreter takes the following form: participant speaks in language one and, when finished, the interpreter speaks in language two. The burden rests squarely on the

interpreter to accurately and quickly convey the content of what is spoken from one language to the other. There are some characteristics of consecutive interpreting. (1) translation of the speakers words into other language directly after he/she has spoken, usually sentence by sentence basis; (2) taking notes; (3) ensuring perfect understanding for all parties; (4) no equipment needed; (5) often used for single speeches; (6) needing preparation before doing the interpreting. In consecutive interpreting, the interpreters start to interpret only after the speaker has finished his/her utterances. Rendering in consecutive interpreting can be rendered in certain chunk of utterances, approximately in a few minutes of utterances or shortly after the speaker has uttered few sentences, this depends on the need where the communication takes place. According to Santiago (2005) in the mode of consecutive interpreting the interpretation of the complete message is delivered after the speaker has stopped producing the source utterances. When the interpretation is rendered and the interpreter is the only person in the communication environment who is producing the message. Consecutive interpretation is rendered as 'short CI' and 'long CI'. In short CI, the interpreter relies on memory; each message segment being brief enough to memorize. In long CI, the interpreter takes notes of the message to aid rendering long passages. These informal divisions are established with the client before the interpretation is effected, depending upon the subject, its complexity, and the purpose of the interpretation.

From www.translationmate.com we can find some explanation that in consecutive interpreting, the interpreter speaks after the source-language speaker has finished speaking. The speech is divided into segments, and CI interpreter sits or stands beside the source-language speaker, listening and taking notes as the speaker progresses through the message. When the speaker pauses or finishes speaking, the interpreter then renders the entire message in the target language. Consecutivelyinterpreted speeches, or segments of them, tend to be short. Fifty years ago, the CI interpreter would render speeches of 20 or 30 minutes, today, 10 or 15 minutes is considered long, particularly since audiences don't like to sit through 20 minutes of speech they cannot understand. Often, the source-language speaker is unaware that he or she may speak at length before the CI interpretation is rendered, and might stop after each sentence to await its target-language rendering. Sometimes, the inexperienced or poorly trained interpreter asks the speaker to pause after each sentence; sentence-by-sentence interpreting requires less memorization, yet its disadvantage is in the interpreter's not having heard the entire speech or its gist, and the overall message is harder to render both because of lack of context and because of interrupted delivery (e.g., imagine a joke told in bits and pieces, with breaks for translation in between). This method is often used in rendering speeches, depositions, recorded statements, court witness testimony, and medical and job interviews, but it is always best to complete a whole idea before it is translated. Full (i.e., unbroken) consecutive interpreting allows for the source-language message full meaning to be understood before the interpreter renders it to the target

language. This affords a truer, accurate, and accessible interpretation than does simultaneous interpretation. Since consecutive interpreting does not presuppose a particular duration of the original act of discourse, it can be conceived of as a continuum which ranges from the rendition of utterances as short as one word to the handling of entire speeches, or more or less lengthy portions thereof in one ago (figure 2)
Consecutive Interpreting

-------------------------------------------------note-taking Short consecutive classic consecutive

Figure 2. Pchhackers continuum of consecutive interpreting (from Theory and Practice of Interpreting: 2007)

The most typical situations when the consecutive interpreting is required are as follows: 1. Negotiations, including by phone; 2. Seminars, meetings, round table discussions and other business events; 3. Briefings, press-conferences, presentations, drink reception, festive events; 4. On spot translation of business documents, at which the complete translation is not necessary, but it's necessary to understand the gist; 5. Adjusting equipment by foreign specialist; 6. Interpreting at exhibitions;

7. Interpreting in court hearing, interrogations, signing of documents with notarization and obligatory, in such cases, reading loudly and other legal procedures; 8. Excursions around Kiev and suburbs of Kiev for your foreign colleagues; 2.3.2 Quality in Interpreting Quality has been a central topic in the history of translation and interpreting. Scholars have been repeatedly addressed the question of how to define the distinguishing parameters of how good and poor translation and interpretation, and have discussed the value of translation strategies. Traditionally, this appraisal tend to assume the existence of the perfect, ideal translation and interpreting which complies with general norms and codes. According to Kopczynski (1994), pragmatic sense quality is not an absolute value, but it is contextually determined. In other words, context complicates the problems of quality in that it introduces situational variables that might call for different priorities in different situation of translations. Those variables are: 1. The speaker, his status and the status of his receptors 2. The speakers intention in issuing the message 3. The speakers attitude toward the message and the receptors 4. The receptors attitude toward the message and the speaker 5. The interpreter, his/her competence, judgments, attitudes and strategies 6. The form of the message 7. The illocutionary force of the message

8. The existing norms of interaction and interpretation of a speech community 9. The setting 2.3.3 Problems and Ways of Understanding Interpreting The three stages of a consecutive interpreter's work are the

understanding of the speaker's original message, the immediate analysis of its content and the re-expression of the same content in another language, with the help of some notes the interpreter writes down upon hearing the original message. 2.3.3.1 Understanding The understanding we refer to here is not of words but of ideas, since an interpreter has to convey concepts. But what happens if an interpreter doesn't know a word or an expression that he/she hears in a speech? First of all we can underline that an interpreter can understand a speaker's meaning without actually understanding every single word and expression used. For example, let's imagine that a delegate says: I don't think that the advisory committee is the appropriate forum for discussion of this point. What is important is that the groundwork be done in the technical working parties, in order to prepare the basis for a decision in the executive committee. Let's assume that the interpreter understands neither forum nor groundwork. Yet this does not prevent him/her from understanding that (1) the advisory committe is not the right place to discuss the matter, and (2) the question has to be properly prepared for the executive committee by the technical working parties. The interpretation is possible without all the words and without changing the meaning.

But the interpreter can also benefit from working in consecutive, since after hearing the whole speech, he/she should be able to deduce the meaning of toll from the context, given the numbers of clues they have. Moreover, interpreters cannot be expected to be encyclopaedic dictionaries, and they must accept that there are times when they do not know a word or an idiomatic expression. In a situation of direct contact with the delegates, the interpreter must admit his/her ignorance and, if necessary, clarify the question with the delegates. On the other hand, the interpreter does not have the right to guess at meanings in order to hide a normally possible, even if embarrassing, situation. Furthermore, in order to understand meaning without knowing all the lexical items, and to be able to deduce from context, interpreters must in any case have a thorough knowledge of their working languages, and that's one of the reasons why it takes three to four years on average to form a professional with sufficient knowledge to allow him/her to undertake this career. Another key element in interpreting is the kind of attention required, that is to say an active attention, which must lead the interpreter to ask him/herself: What does the speaker mean? 2.3.3.2 Different kinds of texts. Speeches may be of different kinds. They can present logical arguments showing both points of view on a question before arriving at a synthetic conclusion, they can be a sequence of logical deductions leading to an obvious conclusion according to the speaker's point of view, and they may simply be descriptive, focusing on an event, a scene or a situation. There are polemical speeches, whose purpose is to convince the audience, and rhetorical ones, where content is secondary,

the main aim being to pay tribute to somebody or some organization through elegant style and cultural references, and there are elusive ones, where the main aim is not communicating anything or hiding something. If a speaker is following a logical line of thought, weighing up pros and cons, the interpreter must be able to spot the turning points in the speech, and therefore has to pay attention to discursive linking devices such as but, however, on the other hand, conversely, on the contrary, etc. If the speech follows a series of deductions, the interpreter must pay attention to links such as as, given that, therefore, consequently, because, thence, henceforward, which can all be key words. In this case, the interpreter shouldn't miss any stage of the reasoning, lest the whole speech structure comes tumbling down. In the case of a narrative, chronological speech, it goes without saying that an interpreter must pay due attention to time phrases, dates and verb tenses. The audience want to know what happened and when. Speeches may also be polemic in nature, and in this case the interpreter must try not only to convey the content of the original, but also the nuances and the intensity of the feelings expressed. Or they may be rhetorical, where form becomes more important than content, such as in dinner or farewell speeches, in which the spirit of the speech, rather than its exact details, must be forcefully conveyed. In such a situation, special attention must be paid to images, metaphors and similes, anecdotes, jokes and so on. One golden rule, however, must be remembered: the interpreter must make no addition to a speech, under no circumstance, as his/her job is to communicate a message as it is, without adding or deleting anything.

2.3.3.3 Identification of the main ideas. In analyzing a message, the interpreter has to identify the main ideas and give them their proper relevance in the interpretation. Moreover, owing to the intrinsic difficulty of a speech or to the speaker's speed, he/she might be forced to omit one or more elements of the original. It is clear that if the interpreter doesn't translate some details, the interpretation will not be perfect but still adequate, whereas, if he/she misses out significant points of the discourse, the result will be a seriously flawed performance. Indeed, interpreters should be capable of providing a summary of a speech, since delegates often do not want a detailed interpretation but only an exhaustive and precise summary of what has been said. Generally, one can say that delegates need answers to these three basic questions: who does what, and when, and who says or thinks what. Let's take an example : The Secretary-General has put forward to the member states a new proposal for the reform of the functioning of the U:N. US State Department sources conformed yesterday that, although in principle they recognized the need for reform, they did not see it being along the lines suggested by the Secretary-General

All this could be reduced to: The Secretary-General has made a proposal for U.N reform. The US has said that it is against the proposal, although it is in favour of reform in principleThis simplification represents the main ideas according to the subject-verbobject model, but we have to keep in mind that there are always secondary details,

expressed by adverbs, adjectives, lists of examples, exclamations which also have a role to play in the speech, and that, if left out, do not necessarily impinge on the substance of the message. To sum up, the interpreter has to stress the most important ideas of a speech, pay great attention to verb forms, identify the relative value of the secondary elements of the discourse and leave out anything which is irrelevant to the understanding of the original message. 2.3.3.4 Analysis of links A speech is not only a sequence of ideas, but also a series of ideas related to one another in a particular way. Ideas may be linked by logical consequences, logical causes, put together without cause-effect relations, and may also be expressed by a series of opposing concepts. 2.3.3.5 Memory A consecutive interpreter listens to a speech and then reproduces it in a different language. This means that he/she must resort to short-term memory. For this reason, mnemonic techniques are of paramount importance in interpreters' training. One possibility is that of internally visualizing the content of a speech, creating images in one's mind, and concentrating on ideas, not on single words. Another option is that of connecting the main ideas to a series of numbers, but an effective technique is that of concentrating on the main ideas and on the links among them, trying to reproduce the structure of the speech as a kind of skeleton. The objective is to create a telegraphic version of the discourse, and to link its different parts through its semantic-logical connections. In the context of speech

analysis, we have to underline another basic point that is the importance of the beginning and the end of the text to be interpreted. The beginning is just like the starting point of a journey, and it often includes significant elements which are useful to understand the overall meaning of a speech. The end is usually the most important part of a message, since it contains its conclusions, or a summary of what has just been said, or a comment of vital significance, and therefore interpreters, sensing the end coming near, have to redouble their concentration in order to provide a precise, well-structured and clear oral translation of the final part of a speech. 2.3.3.6 Re-expression After understanding and analyzing, interpreters have to re-express the speech they have just heard. It must be clear that they are not required to give an academically perfect translation. Their role is to make sure the speaker is understood by the audience. What does this mean in practice? First, interpreters must recognize that they are public speakers and therefore they have to establish contact with the audience, speaking clearly and articulating precisely. They are supposed to establish eyecontact with the audience, since there is always the risk of looking at their notes all the time, thereby losing contact and communicative interaction with the recipients of the message. A good interpreter will look at his/her notes only from time to time, and express the translation in an effective way, without wavering or repeating ideas, through a steady but not monotonous rhythm. When dealing with figures, for instance, he/she will reduce the pace so that the delegates can jot down

notes. The general gist of the speech will be conveyed also by means of a correct use of pauses and changes in tone, in order to enliven the performance. Interpreting is a profession that is all about communication. In order to communicate well, interpreters have to "make their own speech" out of the speeches they interpret, and their speech must be faithful to the original and as accurate as possible. Interpreters understand the ideas of a discourse and have to re-express the same ideas: therefore, they can invert the order of two sentences, merge two sentences in one, or divide long sentences up into a number of shorter ones. In order to do that, they must have clearly understood and completely analyzed the original speech, before starting with the re-expression. Here, there's another point to be kept in mind: real interpreters have to continue to work on their working languages, including their mother tongue, with the aim of keeping them rich, lively, effective and up-to-date. 1. Be informed about the latest national/international events with learning new terminology and also of grabbing the spirit of the era we are living in 2. Constantly enrich one's general vocabulary and style, through regular reading of a broad range of well-written publications in all working languages; 3. Following the press in one's native language too, which is of particular importance for the interpreters for living abroad; 4. Watch television, see movies, go to the theatre, and listen to songs in their original lang 5.

CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHOD

The method used in conducting a research has a very important role in a scientific writing since it will affect the validity of the result of the research itself. The method is also intended to give an idea of how to conduct the research for this writing that covers the determination of data source, data collection, and data analysis. The library research method and field research method used in this study. The description of the method can be seen in the following explanations. 3.1 Data Source In this study, the data were Kawi phrases and sentences and its translation in Bahasa Indonesia and English. The data were also taken from the performance Ambrosia of Immortality by dalang Wija and Larry, where the dalang use English to interpret the story to the audience. I Wayan Wija is one of the most popular Dalangs (shadow puppet master) in Bali, originates from Peliatan, Ubud, performing nearly every night of the year. In addition to the traditional shadow puppetry, Wija has also pioneered "Wayang Tantri," a kind of Aesop's fables of traditional Indonesian stories for which he created new animal puppets including giant dinosaurs. Wija is a master of designing new types of puppets with up to five rods held in one hand, which allows for extreme subtlety of motion.

Larry Reed is a nationally and internationally recognized theatre artist, who is a trailblazer in the contemporary shadow theatre field. In 1972, he founded ShadowLight Productions to nurture indigenous shadow theater traditions and to explore and expand the possibilities of the shadow theatre medium. Reed has pioneered contemporary shadow theater by integrating traditional shadow theater techniques which he studied and performed for two decades with American theater and film styles. He is one of the few Americans trained in Wayang Kulit, Balinese shadow puppetry, and has collaborated with artists from diverse backgrounds and traditions including Tibetan, Chinese, Indonesian, and American. Reed was voted one of the top 50 artists of the San Francisco Bay Area in 1995 and 1996 by SF Live/Metropolitan. Reeds filmmaking experience includes producing, writing, and directing in the U.S., Mexico, Columbia, Taiwan, and Indonesia. His film Shadow Master, an intimate portrait of a family of Balinese performers, aired on PBS and Discovery. Fluent in five languages, His translations have appeared in the Asia Theater Journal and University of Hawaii Press. As a shadow artist, designer, and director, he has collaborated with Lee Breuer, Mabou Mines, the Mark Taper Forum, and the Santa Fe and LA Operas. As the Balinese shadow theater representative at the Indonesian National Theater Shadow Festival, he is one of few Westerners ever invited to perform at the festival The Ambrosia of Immortality is a rarely seen episode of the Mahabarata, which precedes the traditional repertoire of Wayang Bali. A cast of 9 masked actor/shadowcasters performing with shadowmasters I Wayan Wija and Larry Reed. Five musicians create the sound of a full gamelan orchestra by combining live

instruments and digital sampling. One thinks of heaven as a place of peace, but as our story begins the universe is askew. In the heavens, war rages between the gods who have it all and the former gods (demons) who want it all back. Both sides are tired of fighting. They go to Wisnu, the Preserver, to present their grievances. Wisnu offers a solution: a great endeavor requiring both the skill of the gods and the strength of the demons. Together they must churn the Milky Ocean to create the essence of life -the ambrosia of immortality. In order to do that, they must uproot a great mountain, and convince the King of the Snakes to serve as the rope to spin the mountain. Both sides are skeptical but become obsessed with succeeding in this epic test of faith. Sages of old looked deep into their minds and saw universe upon universe created, preserved, and destroyed. They called the creator Brahma; the preserver Wisnu; and the destroyer Siva. They counted eons, gazed through light years, investigated thought and form and sacred sounds, and distilled their understanding into stories for us to experience. Their insights led them to an understanding of simple things: day/night, hot/cold, soft/sharp, pleasure/pain, good/bad. Nothing exists without its opposite. The trick is to keep things in balance. Since this writing is a combination of library research and field research writing method therefore there are two types of data, data source and population and also sample. Above are the data source meanwhile the population taken from questioners filled by the audiences of Ambrosia of Immortality performed by dalang Wija and dalang Larry. Since this Ambrosia of Immortality already performed in San Fransisco in 1998, then the performance documented and copied in form of dvd and spread to twenty audiences. These twenty audiences are the population of this

study. And the sample of this study is the whole population that is also twenty audiences. The criteria of these audiences who were given dvd and questionnaires that they should understand English in order to be able to capture the story and they also could watch the dvd only once. This requirement due to make the situation similar to watch the live performance, they could not watch it over and over again. . 3.2 Method and Technique of Collecting Data The process of collecting the data was started by reading the script of Ambrosia of Immortality. The script contained the whole story and conversations of the performance. Interviewing the dalang of this performance was also part of technique of collecting the data, in order to find information regarding their background. Since this Ambrosia of Immortality already performed in 1998, it documented in the form of dvd. Therefore watching the performance and spreading the dvd as well as questioners to twenty audiences in order to find out how well they comprehend the story, was also integrated in collecting the data. This method was very effective in finding the data since the live performance already performed twelve years ago therefore the only way to get the data was by spreading the dvds of the performance and questionnaires to these twenty audiences to capture how well they comprehend the story of the performance.

3.3 Method and Technique of Analyzing the Data The technique of analysis applied in this study was firstly finding out the translation of Kawi into Bahasa Indonesia and English being used by the dalang in

interpreting the story of the performance.. In translation as well as interpreting, the basic process is to compare a SL word with a TL word which has similar meaning, but it is not obvious one to one equivalence. The tabulation data was made on the Kawi used by dalang, the translation in Bahasa Indonesia and in English is also still used by dalang. The conversations that had been transcribed into written text presented to analyze the mode of interpreting. Secondly, the data was analyzed using the interpreting theory proposed by Pchhacker to find the mode of the dalang in interpreting the story. Since the main analysis of the data is based on the problems and scope of discussion then the next party was analyzing the comprehension of the audience toward the performance. All questionnaires which filled by the audience of Ambrosia of Immortality supported the analysis.

3.4 Method and Technique of Presenting the Data The data of the study presented in SL, TL1 and TL2. SL here refers to Source Language that is Kawi language. Meanwhile TL1 refers to Bahasa Indonesia, the language being used by Dalang Wija to tell the content of the story to dalang Larry. Dalang Larry used the story in Bahasa Indonesia, which was explained before by dalang wija, to interpret the story in English. Therefore TL2 is the interpretation of the story by dalang Larry in English. Formal and informal technique was used in presenting the data. Tabulation data in form of table was part of formal technique meanwhile the qualitative description was part of informal technique of presenting the data. The analysis was presented descriptively, which can be exemplified as follows:

1. SL : Bali ayuwa ta mojar kita detya luwir kraman detyaadharma TL1: Bali, kau sebut dirimu maharaja. Kamu hanyalah iblis yang tidak punya prinsip. Kamu tidak mengerti dharma. TL2: Bali you call yourself king of the titans. You are nothing but a demon. You have no principles. You dont understand the dharma. 2. SL: Uduh kamu Bali lawan IndraHyang Wisnu antian..wusta..apan..ingulun lawan sira Sang Hyang Basuki karya pinaka. TL1: Hai kamu Bali dan Indra, Aku meminta Raja Basuki untuk membantumu. TL2: Indra and Bali I have asked the lord of dragons King Vasuki to appear to come to your aid. From both samples the dalang used partial translation in interpreting the SL into TL. He did not use the word adharma, from the first sample, and put it as it is into English, but demon instead. This may due to the confusion of the audience if the dalang used the word adharma, since this is public performance and the audiences were not all understand the word adharma. The audiences have to understand the background culture first in order to catch the meaning of adharma. Besides the descriptive analysis of how the interpreter interprets the conversations in the puppet shadow, the data also presented in the form of table. This table contains the answer and percentage of the audience understanding at the performance. The description and analysis also follow the table.

CHAPTER IV THE ANALYSIS OF INTERPRETATION OF AMBROSIA OF IMMORTALITY MADE BY THE DALANG AND THE EXTENT OF AUDIENCES COMPREHENSION

This chapter is concerned with the analysis of interpreting in the Ambrosia of Immortality performance and the comprehension of the audience. In this case, the analysis is divided into the mode of interpreting used in the performance and explaining the comprehension of the audience toward the performance. Data taken for analysis were the conversations among puppet and shadowcasters in Kawi language and the translation in Bahasa Indonesia and English. The data of the study presented in SL, TL1 and TL2 in appendices. The analysis of mode of interpreting conducted by the interpreter presented descriptively as follows.

4.1 The Analysis of Mode of Interpreting From the theory of the modes interpreting proposed by Pochhacker there are three modes of interpreting: simultaneous, consecutive, and liaison interpreting. In this writing the mode of interpreting offered by the dalang is consecutive mode because in Ambrosia of Immortality performance the dalang used some characteristics contained only in consecutive mode. Those characteristic such as:

1. Translation of the speakers words into other language directly after he/she has spoken, usually sentence by sentence basis. In consecutive interpreting the utterances of dalang Wija in Kawi may be uttered in certain pace of time when he makes a pause then dalang Larry starts to interpret the message of the source language in Kawi to the target language in English. Rendering in consecutive interpreting can be rendered in certain chunk of utterances, approximately in a few minutes of utterances or shortly after the speaker has uttered few sentences, this depends on the need where the communication takes place. SL: Yan mangkana Indra lumapah aneng suarga watek ing dewata. TL1: Indra pergilah engkau ke surga dan panggil orang-orangmu. TL2: Indra you go up to heaven and call your people. After this utterance came another utterance, SL: Marikanan sapta patalabuta kala, pisaca. TL1: Sementara Bali akan turun ke neraka dan memanggil iblis, raksasa, hantu,

dan setan serta seluruh teman-teman mereka untuk membantu.


TL2: Meanwhile Bali will go down below call all the titans, the giants, the ghosts, the ghouls, the satans and all their friends to come and help. Dalang Larry interpreted the sentences directly after dalang Wija spoke, sentence by sentence basis after the speaker has stopped producing the source utterance. At the time that the interpretation is rendered, the interpreter is the only person in the communication environment who is producing the message.

The same process also happened when dalang Wija spoke, SL: Ri sakti nikanang Sang Hyang Maha Purusa, mijil Sang Hyang Brahma sakeng Padmahredaya; ya ngadakaken Brahmanda metu prakerti.

TL1: Semuanya berawal pada akhir jaman. Dunia telah sirna dan hanya ada Sang

Wisnu, tertidur dalam laut keheningan.


TL2: Our story begins at the end of time. The universe has dissolved and there is nothing but the power of Lord Wisnu, asleep in an ocean of emptiness. Dalang Larry interpreted it directly after the sentence above, did not leave too long pause, and continue to other sentence, SL: Ya.. sanghyang tiga sakti karamanyan jagat raya..triloka..tan ana singsan. TL1: Sang Hyang tiga sakti menciptakan rangkaian jagad raya. Satu menjadi dua,

dua menjadi tiga, dan tiga menjadi sepuluh ribu gelap terang, panas dingin, sunyi dan ramai.
TL2: One becomes two, two becomes three, and three becomes ten thousand things light and dark, hot and cold, sound and silence. This utterance was at the beginning of the performance, as the narration. Therefore, they need to make it in coherence without making too long pause. In this stage, dalang Larry applied one of consecutive mode characteristics, translation of the speakers words into other language directly after he/she has spoken, usually sentence by sentence basis.

2. Taking notes. Consecutive interpretation is rendered as 'short CI' and 'long CI'. In short CI, the interpreter relies on memory; each message segment being brief enough to memorize. In long CI, the interpreter takes notes of the message to aid rendering long passages. These informal divisions are established with the client before the interpretation is effected, depending upon the subject, its complexity, and the purpose of the interpretation. As we see all the sentences and phrases above, dalang Wija did not utter long sentences, often only short and simple utterances. Such as: SL: Kankadian apa mangke ingong. TL1: Bagaimana denganku? Ini giliranku. TL2: What about me? Its time. Its time. And also SL: Ieeh Balibiprayawatek ing dewata gandarwa TL1: Raja Bali, tuanku Indra sangat setuju dengan rencanamu. Beliau akan pergi

ke surga dan anda bisa pergi ke neraka.


TL2: King Bali, my lord Indra is in total accord with your plan. He will go to heaven and you sir can go to hell. This kind of utterances did not need the interpreter to take notes. This taking notes did not occur in this performance, besides because of the reason mentioned above also because of the interpreter also took part as the dalang which means both of his hand hold wayang therefore he could not hold pen and paper to note down the utterances in Kawi. This may also refers to characteristics number 6 later on that the interpreter already made preparation before the performance.

3. Ensuring perfect understanding for all parties. The best utterance to show this characteristic may represent by sentence: SL: Saking prakerti mijil Maha Tatwa; Maha Tatwa mijilaken Ah Ham Tatwa; Ah Ham Tatwa mijilaken Tri Guna - Satwam, Rajas, Tamas; kasengku dening Sang Hyang Tiga Wisesa mengaran Brahma, Wisnu, Iswara; ia nimitanian maputer nikang Bhuwana..samangkana! Mijil ya ta tikanang Triguna Satwa Rajas Tamas pada hwa yaya sira Sanghyang Tiga Wisesa Brahma Wisnu lawan sira Hyang Mahadewa. TL1: Wisnu kemudian bermimpi tentang bunga teratai. Dari jantungnya lahirlah

tiga kekuatan besar Brahma, Wisnu dan Siwa pencipta, pemelihara dan penghancur.
TL2: After ten million years, Wisnu begins to dream. He dreams of a lotus flower. And from the heart of the lotus, the three great powers emerge Brahma, Wisnu, and Shiva the creator, the preserver, and the destroyer. Here, the interpreter did not translate literally all the cultural words, but he chose to use general word which has general meaning to deliver the message to the audience. He put the priority in ensuring understanding for the audience toward the message from the utterance in Kawi. Only some part of the sentence being delivered to the audience but without lessening the essence of the message.

This also happened to other sentences such as: SL: Yan kita marekan Dharma antian moah TL1: Hey Indra, kamu selalu berbicara tentang Dharma. Jika apa yang kamu

benar, aku tidak ingin berurusan dengan itu. Jika kamu berkata tentang kebenaran, aku ingin melakukan yang salah. Jika kamu dewa, aku adalah anti dewa.
TL2: Hey Indra, you talk about Dharma. If what you say is right, I want nothing to do with it. If what you say is right, I want to be wrong. If you are god, I am anti god. We might find that not all of the audience will understand the meaning of the conversation if the interpreter stopped his utterance only until the word Dharma. He needed to put more explanation but again without neglecting the content and the message of the story. By giving more explanation, the audience will understand more what is meant by the speaker about Dharma. Other example of this characteristic, SL: Uduh kita Bali lawan Indraapan sakti yan kita maka rwa. TL1: Wahai Bali dan Indra kalian telah lepas kendali, terlalu banyak kehancuran.

Kalian memandang rendah kemampuan kalian sebab kalian berdua amat sakti. Bali, kamu kuat seperti gunung dan Indra kamu sedalam laut. Aku ingin membuat gunung dan laut bersatu.
TL2: Bali and Indra the battle between you two has become out of control, there is too much death and destruction. You underestimate the effect of your power because you both are very strong. Bali you are as strong as mountain and Indra you are as deep as the sea. I would like to bring mountain and sea together.

This is utterance from Sang Hyang Wisnu to Sang Indra and King Bali. After their battle creates much destruction, Wisnu appears and put both of them in reflection of what they just did. The interpreter ensures perfect understanding why both of this gods creature could make such destruction, by explaining the power they posses. Indras intelligence is deep as the sea and Bali is strong as mountain. This will definitely help audience to understand why their battle create destruction to the world.

4. No equipment needed. There were no equipments needed by the interpreter in interpreting the performance Ambrosia of Immortality.

5. Often used for single speeches. A consecutive interpreter listens to a speech and then reproduces it in a different language. In this case, understanding the utterance means not of words but ideas, since an interpreter has to convey concepts. The interpreter also has to stress the most important ideas of a speech, pay great attention to verb forms and leave out anything which is irrelevant to the understanding of the original message. Because a speech is not only a sequence of ideas, but also a series of ideas related to one another in a particular way, this means that the interpreter must resort to short-term memory. Concentrating on the main ideas and on the link among them, trying to reproduce the structure of the speech, underline the importance of the beginning and the end of the text to be interpreted. The beginning is just like the starting point of a

journey which is useful to understand the overall meaning of the speech. The end is usually the most important part of a message since it contains its conclusions or a summary of what has just been said. Since this is a wayang performance where the interpreter has to interpret sentence per sentence basis because it is in form of conversation therefore this characteristic does not appear in the interpreting by dalang Larry. In other setting of consecutive interpreting they may have agreement between the speaker and interpreter that the utterance will be segmented per ideas per speech. Then it would make easier both parties to deliver the message.

6. Needing preparation before doing the interpreting. Both dalang, dalang Wija and dalang Larry made a huge preparation quite long before the performance. This preparation definitely includes language and conversation used in the performance, material for interpreting and also how they will conduct it. The original language of wayang in Kawi translated into Bahasa Indonesia by dalang Wija to make dalang Larry easier interpret it into English. Dalang Larry need to know the content of the story before he started interpreting the story into English, learned the terminology and grab the essence of the performance to make a perfect interpreting in order to ensure understanding to the audience. Besides that, as a professional, dalang Larry also pioneered contemporary shadow theater by integrating traditional shadow theater techniques which he studied and performed for two decades with American theater and film styles. He is one of the few Americans trained in Wayang Kulit, Balinese shadow puppetry, and has

collaborated with artists from diverse backgrounds and traditions including Tibetan, Chinese, Indonesian, and American. His wide insight in wayang and shadow performance made him best for this special collaboration performance. From Wikipedia we can find that there are six types of interpreting namely: conference interpreting, legal and court interpreting, escort interpreting, public sector interpreting, medical and media interpreting. If we look at the mode of interpreting conducted by the interpreter of Ambrosia of Immortality performance that is consecutive mode it interacts closely with public sector interpreting or commonly said community interpreting. In this community interpreting some factors affect the interpreting such as speech's emotional content, hostile or polarized social surroundings, stress, the power relationships among participants, and the interpreter's degree of responsibility, even the life of the other person depends upon the interpreter's work (but it did not reach that deep in this wayang performance interpreting). In this Ambrosia of Immortality performance, the speech emotional content from dalang Wija not only interpreted but also imitated by dalang Larry, to create the same situation and understanding on the audience side regarding what scene is performed on the stage. This interpreting also requires a high degree of responsibility of the interpreter toward his speech because there is a cultural idea and concept he should carries and delivers to the broader international audience. If he made any mistakes the idea and concept would not reach to the audience yet made misunderstanding of the content. Meanwhile if we look at the modalities of interpreting as we can find in Wikipedia this consecutive interpreting has a great relation with on-site interpreting.

Indeed, Interpreting services can be delivered in multiple modalities but the most common modality through which interpreting services are provided is on-site interpreting. Besides on-site interpreting we can also find telephone interpreting and also video interpreting. This on-site interpreting also called "in-person interpreting," requires the interpreter to be physically present in order for the interpretation to take place. In on-site interpreting settings, all of the parties usually located in the same place. As happen in this performance, dalang Larry as the interpreter be present at the same location with dalang Wija and the audience of the performance. Spoke sentence per sentence basis after the Kawi language also made this one of on-site consecutive interpreting.

4.2 The Analysis of the Extent to which the Audience Comprehends the Story Below are the tables based on questionnaires answered by twenty audiences after watching the Ambrosia of Immortality performance. Table 1. The effect of dalang presentation and shadowcasters on the comprehension of the audience DALANG SCALE Very understand Understand Quite understand Less understand Blank SHADOWASTERS SCALE % Very understand Understand Quite understand Less understand Blank 40 50 10 -

% 50 50 -

From the first table, the effect of dalang presentation and shadowcasters on the comprehension of the audience, we can see that 50% of the audience or 10 audiences very understand the dalang presentation. Meanwhile the other half understands the dalang presentation. This might happen because the high ability of the dalang to tell the story of wayang. Both are professionals and often perform outside and inside their countries, they often deal with various kind of audience, therefore it is not difficult for the audience to understand the play of the dalang. Quite different with the shadowcasters, it is uncommon in traditional wayang performance to include shadowcasters in the story. But in Ambrosia of Immortality we can see the collaboration between leather puppet and shadowcasters with lighting show, this might create various understanding on the audience. 40% of the audience very understand the role of the shadowcasters, 50% choose the scale of understand it, and only 10% or 2 people who quite understand the role of shadowcasters. The mixing between puppet and shadowcaters give more value, aesthetic, and at the same time, uniqueness toward the performance. There were no boundaries between puppet and shadowcasters, they appear at the same size, same importance, and share balance portion

Table 2. The effect of story and language on the comprehension of the audience STORY SCALE Very understand Understand Quite understand Less understand Blank LANGUAGE SCALE Very understand Understand Quite understand Less understand Blank

% 40 35 20 5 -

% 25 25 50 -

Table 3. The language being mastered by the audience LANGUAGE Kawi English Both Kawi and English % 10 90 -

The second table shows the effect of story and language on the comprehension of the audience. This criterion plays a very important role in this analysis since language is the medium to share the story to the audience. From the story, we can see that 40% of the audience very understand it, 35% understand the story, 20% choose to quite understand and only 5% who understand less the story. Meanwhile from the language, 25% or 5 people understand the language very clearly, 25% understand it and 50% quite understand the language. Their comprehension on the language gives impact to their comprehension of the story, because by understanding the language they can be able to take the gist of the story. Table 3. The language being mastered by the audience also gives some impact

proportions on the comprehension of the audience. The audiences who understand Kawi (10% or 2 people) definitely very understand the language and the story, since the original language was Kawi language. The other 90% who understand English choose understand and quite understand the language used by the dalang in interpreting the story. This is due to the word choice by the dalang. The dalang used simple words and sentences, less words contains cultural terms, adding some jokes, description and interpretation of difficult words rather than use the words literally to keep the cultural value. All these strategies made the audience will understand easily and take the essence of the story. Table 4. The effect of sound and music on the comprehension of the audience SOUND/MUSIC SCALE Very understand Understand Quite understand Less understand Blank

% 35 60 5 -

Meanwhile, the fourth table in this analysis tells us about the comprehension of the audience of Ambrosia of Immortality performance on the sound/music. In interpreting, this plays a very important role because if we cannot hear what the interpreter says than we cannot take conclusion of what the story is all about. If he whisper or mumble it will be hard to understand what he says then we will lose the content of the story. From this table we know that 35% of the audience choose to very understand or in this case hear the interpreter very clearly, 60% understand or

hear the interpreter clear, while only 5% who hear him enough. In this performance, besides the interpreter voice, there are also several voices as the sound of gamelan instruments. Here, the interpreter should speak very clear and louder than the gamelan in order to make the audience heard what is being said by him. The interpreter also should do the best of his ability to give intonation and voices the same as the other dalang speaks in Kawi. This will also help the audience to know which part in Kawi is interpreted into English. Besides that, reducing the sound of gamelan in order to increasing the clarity sound of interpreter can also implement.

From Kopczynskis theory (1994) about quality in interpreting, problems and ways in understanding interpreting we can find several items of how to measure the good quality interpreting and interpreter.

1. Understanding The understanding refer here is not of words but of ideas, since an interpreter has to convey concepts. We can underline that an interpreter can understand a speaker's meaning without actually understanding every single word and expression used. In order to understand meaning without knowing all the lexical items, and to be able to deduce from context, interpreters must in any case have a thorough knowledge of their working languages.

As in: SL: Luwir Bali tanpa Indra tan hana guna. TL1: Bali dan Indra kalian adalah tubuh dan jiwa. Kalian membutuhkan satu sama

lain, janganlah bermusuhan. Tubuh tanpa jiwa bukan apa-apa seperti rumah kosong. Dan jiwa tanpa tubuh adalah tiada seperti angin.
TL2: Bali and Indra, you are body and spirit. You need each other, you should not be enemies. A body without spirit is nothing but an empty house. And a spirit without a body is nothing but wind. Sentences above are the utterance from Sang Hyang Wisnu to Sang Indra and King Bali when they were on battle to fight each other. From this example we can see the understanding of the interpreter on the concept of tan hana guna. The interpreter understands the concept that it means one is body and the other is spirit, they are nothing without each other. By interpreting the phrase into this describing sentence, the audience will be understand more the concept of the utterance. We can also take other example: SL: Yangirimarikanan segara detya Kan kadian punapuh ikanan karya. Kadi apa. TL1: Tuanku Wisnu, Raja Bali sanggup untuk mengangkat gunung dan

membawanya kemanapun. Namun Raja Bali tidak tahu bagaimana cara membuat gunung itu berputar.
TL2: Lord Wisnu, King Bali has no trouble at all with the idea of uprooting a mountain and carrying it anywhere you want. But what he doesnt know, what he doesnt understand is how to make the mountain turn. How to spin the mountain. How to churn the ocean.

From the performance we know that this is the utterance from King Bali to Sang Hyang Wisnu and interpreted by Delem as the servant or punakawan or interpreter of King Bali. The interpreted did not want to use the same and short sentence, but chose to give more explanation of what is wanted by King Bali. By doing this, the audience will understand the idea and concept why King Bali want to have more support from Sang Hyang Wisnu. It is because he does not know how to spin the mountain and how to churn the ocean. For the audience who does not know who is King Bali and what is the capability of him, will hard to understand the story if the interpreter does not put more explanation regarding the want of King Bali. This is a very good way to give more understanding to the audience.

2. Different kinds of texts. Speeches may be of different kinds, there are logical arguments speech, speakers point of view speech, focusing on an event, rhetorical speech and elusive ones. Speeches may also be polemic in nature, and in this case the interpreter must try not only to convey the content of the original, but also the nuances and the intensity of the feelings expressed. As in: SL: Ieeh Balibiprayawatek ing dewata gandarwa TL1: Raja Bali, tuanku Indra sangat setuju dengan rencanamu. Beliau akan pergi

ke surga dan anda bisa pergi ke neraka.


TL2: King Bali, my lord Indra is in total accord with your plan. He will go to heaven and you sir can go to hell.

This is an utterance in Kawi from Sang Indra and utterance from Tualen, the servant or punakawan or interpreter of Sang Indra. The act shows the split jobs between Sang Indra (gods side) and King Bali (demon side). Indras job to go to heaven and call for other gods meanwhile Balis job is to go to hell and call for his demon friends. The interpreter interpret it not only by using simple words heaven and hell but also by using sarcastic but funny intonation when he says go to hell. This will create a sudden understanding in audience mind that Indra in representative of his servant, Tualen, does not like King Bali and even though they share grant job and it is King Balis job to go to hell, still he put slight sarcastic hope in his utterance that King Bali will go to hell forever. Other example: SL: Wah Indra luwir kita mare rikanan segara mankana TL1: Tuanku Indra, Raja Bali berkata, Kalian para dewa tidak perlu mengotori

tangan rapuh kalian dengan ikut mengangkat gunung. Biar kami para raksasa yang melakukannya.
TL2: My lord Indra, King Bali says, You gods dont have to bother dirtying your delicate little hands by lifting up the mountain. The giants can do that all by themselves. This is utterance from King Bali to Sang Indra. It is almost the same with what implies inside the utterance from Sang Indra to King Bali. Since both do not like each other but they cannot fight due to honor command from Sang Hyang Wisnu. Therefore they can only express it in the intonation of their utterance. We all know the image of dewata or gods are fragile and never done dirty and physical jobs because they have servant to do it for them. Here the interpreter wants to put in the

audience mind that King Bali is willing to do the hard work but by saying it in sarcastic intonation, You gods dont have to bother dirtying your delicate little hands by lifting up the mountain. Next sentence following tells the mighty of giants because they can conduct the work without any help from gods, the giants can do that all by themselves. Only hearing the intonation, the audience will understand though ng Hyang Wisnu made them to work together but the anger is still there.

3. Identification of the main ideas. In analyzing a message, the interpreter has to identify the main ideas and give them their proper relevance in the interpretation. It is clear that if the interpreter doesn't translate some details, the interpretation will not be perfect but still adequate, if he misses out significant points , the result will be a seriously flawed performance. Moreover, to owe the speed of the speaker, the interpreter might be forced to omit one or more elements of the original. Lets take example: SL: Saking prakerti mijil Maha Tatwa; Maha Tatwa mijilaken Ah Ham Tatwa; Ah Ham Tatwa mijilaken Tri Guna - Satwam, Rajas, Tamas; kasengku dening Sang Hyang Tiga Wisesa mengaran Brahma, Wisnu, Iswara; ia nimitanian maputer nikang Bhuwana..samangkana! Mijil ya ta tikanang Triguna Satwa Rajas Tamas pada hwa yaya sira Sanghyang Tiga Wisesa Brahma Wisnu lawan sira Hyang Mahadewa. TL1: Wisnu kemudian bermimpi tentang bunga teratai. Dari jantungnya lahirlah

tiga

kekuatan besar Brahma, Wisnu dan Siwa pencipta, pemelihara dan

penghancur.

TL2: After ten million years, Wisnu begins to dream. He dreams of a lotus flower. And from the heart of the lotus, the three great power emerge Brahma, Wisnu, and Shiva the creator, the preserver, and the destroyer. This is narration from dalang Wija as the start of the performance. He mentions Tri Guna Satwam, Rajas, Tamas in his narration. But dalang Larry does not include it in his interpreting. He only mentions about the great power, Brahma, Wisnu and Shiva. He puts the priority and the main idea on the emerge of the power, thus by eliminating some points does not mean the meaning will be different. The concept is still the same, the audience will still grasp the narration of the starting performance and how the world is created. And in fact, it will make them easier to understand, because the emerge of those three power is the main idea. Interpreting the whole utterance will forcing the audience with all new terms, indeed make them confuse rather than understand. We can also take an example from: SL: Yan kita marekan Dharma antian moah TL1: Hey Indra, kamu selalu berbicara tentang Dharma. Jika apa yang kamu

benar, aku tidak ingin berurusan dengan itu. Jika kamu berkata tentang kebenaran, aku ingin melakukan yang salah. Jika kamu dewa, aku adalah anti dewa.
TL2: Hey Indra, you talk about Dharma. If what you say is right, I want nothing to do with it. If what you say is right, I want to be wrong. If you are god, I am anti god. Most of the audiences might far from understanding the concept of Dharma. Here the interpreter chooses to describe the concept inside the utterance of King

Bali. Dharma is concept of truth, close with gods far from demon. Since King Bali said that what is said by Indra is dharma, truth and right, therefore King Bali himself is the wrong, the anti god. Dharma in the comprehension of the audience is concept of god, truth, and the opposite of King Bali as representative of demon and giants.

4. Analysis of links A speech is not only a sequence of ideas, but also a series of ideas related to one another in a particular way. Ideas may be linked by logical consequences, logical causes, put together without cause-effect relations, and may also be expressed by a series of opposing concepts. Since this is a wayang performance, not a speech, the interpreter does need many linking devices nor pay much attention on verb forms but the interpreter needs to take the link of the story for consideration. A sentence in Kawi, how to interpret it and what will be suitable for the audience in English to make the story in one sequence and understandable for the audience. This seems already happened, since 40% of the audiences very understand the story of the performance, 35% understand the story, 20% choose to quite understand and only 5% who understand less the story 5. Memory A consecutive interpreter listens to a speech and then reproduces it in a different language. This means that he must resort to short-term memory. In this case, the interpreter already made preparation months before the Ambrosia of Immortality performed. Dalang Larry not only became the interpreter but also playing the puppet with dalang Wija. This was hardening his task as interpreter. But

he succeed, because the audience felt entertain and at the same time understand the meaning of the story.

6. Re-expression After understanding and analyzing, interpreters have to re-express the speech they have just heard. It must be clear that they are not required to give an perfectly academic translation. Their role is to make sure the speaker is understood by the audience. Many of the utterances in this performance are re-expression of the Kawi language. The interpreter did not give academically perfect translation but more to the ideas and concept of the story. This is definitely to create the better comprehension on the audience. As in utterance of Delem, the servant or punakawan or interpreter of King Bali: SL: Yangirimarikanan segara detya Kan kadian punapuh ikanan karya. Kadi apa. TL1: Tuanku Wisnu, Raja Bali sanggup untuk mengangkat gunung dan

membawanya kemanapun. Namun Raja Bali tidak tahu bagaimana cara membuat gunung itu berputar.
TL2: Lord Wisnu, King Bali has no trouble at all with the idea of uprooting a mountain and carrying it anywhere you want. But what he doesnt know, what he doesnt understand is how to make the mountain turn. How to spin the mountain. How to churn the ocean. By describing the intention of King Bali to Lord Wisnu, Delem helps the audience to understand what is the intention about, what is the difficulty faced by King Bali. Dalang Larry did not follow the utterance in Kawi he chose to re-express

it and give more explanation without neglecting the main proportion of the original utterance. This seems increasing the comprehension of the audience on the performance overall. Lets take another example: SL : Bali ayuwa ta mojar kita detya luwir kraman detyaadharma TL1: Bali, kau sebut dirimu maharaja. Kamu hanyalah iblis yang tidak punya

prinsip. Kamu tidak mengerti dharma.


TL2: Bali you call yourself king of the titans. You are nothing but a demon. You have no principles. You dont understand the dharma. From the sentences above we notice the changing of adharma into dharma. This correlates with the interpreters intention to make the audience understand what the concept of adharma is by changing it into dharma. This is the utterance from Sang Indra to King Bali when they just started their battle. Sang Indra is from gods side meanwhile King Bali is representative of demons and giants. By linking the word dharma at the end of the sentence with the utterance before that the audience can have view in mind that King Bali is a demon who has no principles therefore he does not understand dharma. Which means dharma is concept close to gods and goodness, good principles therefore the opposite of it must be adharma. Reexpressing adharma with dharma and giving supporting utterance will bring the audience to better comprehension regarding dharma and for sure adharma.

CHAPTER V CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION

Based on the problems and the analysis in the previous chapters, the following points can be taken as the conclusion of this study. 1. From the three modes of interpreting, simultaneous interpreting, consecutive interpreting, and liaison interpreting, based on the theory of the modes interpreting proposed by Pochhacker, the mode of interpreting offered by the dalang refers to consecutive mode because in Ambrosia of Immortality performance the dalang used some characteristics contained only in consecutive mode. Those characteristics as: translation of the speakers words into other language directly after he/she has spoken, usually sentence by sentence basis, ensuring perfect understanding for all parties, often used for single speeches, and also needing preparation before doing the interpreting. 2. The table from questionnaires to the audience analysis shows that most of the audience (more than 50%) understand or comprehend what is the story of Ambrosia of Immortality. Only few who does not understand. This is due to the good word choices from the interpreter, his wide knowledge about the performance, his long preparation, his good intonation and also clear voice.

The way he interpreted the utterance in Kawi by describing the word and using simpler words rather than let the word leave untranslated in order to maintain the meaning. Some suggestions can be drawn out: 1. Wayang is as essential medium of Balinese culture, and its idiom is the root of traditional Balinese painting, dance, and even the ways people behave toward each other in everyday life. Therefore those who wants to make similar kind of performance, blending between east and west, should mastering the knowledge about the original performance. This will make big impact in how the interpreting will conduct. 2. The interpreter voice should clear enough in order to ensuring better understanding to the audience.