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AS 2890.

51993

Australian StandardR

Parking facilities Part 5: Onstreet parking

Accessed by CARDNO MBK QLD PTY LTD on 28 May 2003

This Australian Standard was prepared by Committee CE/1, Parking Facilities. It was approved on behalf of the Council of Standards Australia on 19 May 1993 and published on 16 August 1993.

The following interests are represented on Committee CE/1: A.C.T. Government Australian Automobile Association Australian Local Government Association Australian Road Transport Federation AustRoads Bicycle Advisory Council of N.S.W. Building Owners and Managers Association of Australia Commercial Vehicle Industry Association of Australia Institution of Engineers, Australia Institute of Municipal Engineering Australia Local Government Planners Association of N.S.W. Monash University Parking Association of Australia Roads and Traffic Authority, N.S.W. University of Queensland University of Sydney

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Review of Australian Standards. To keep abreast of progress in industry, Australian Standards are subject to periodic review and are kept up to date by the issue of amendments or new editions as necessary. It is important therefore that Standards users ensure that they are in possession of the latest edition, and any amendments thereto. Full details of all Australian Standards and related publications will be found in the Standards Australia Catalogue of Publications; this information is supplemented each month by the magazine The Australian Standard, which subscribing members receive, and which gives details of new publications, new editions and amendments, and of withdrawn Standards. Suggestions for improvements to Australian Standards, addressed to the head office of Standards Australia, are welcomed. Notification of any inaccuracy or ambiguity found in an Australian Standard should be made without delay in order that the matter may be investigated and appropriate action taken.

This Standard was issued in draft form for comment as DR 92153..

AS 2890.51993

Australian StandardR

Parking facilities Part 5: Onstreet parking

First published as AS 2890.51993 Accessed by CARDNO MBK QLD PTY LTD on 28 May 2003

PUBLISHED BY STANDARDS AUSTRALIA (STANDARDS ASSOCIATION OF AUSTRALIA) 1 THE CRESCENT, HOMEBUSH, NSW 2140
ISBN 0 7262 8309 6

PREFACE
This Standard was prepared by the Standards Australian Committee on Parking Facilities. It is Part 5 of a series of Standards on parking facilities, the other parts in the series being as follows:
AS 2890 2890.1 2890.2 2890.3 2890.4

Parking facilities
Part 1: Part 2: Part 3: Part 4:

Offstreet car parking Commercial vehicle facilities Bicycle parking facilities Bus parking*

This Standard is largely based on the guidelines for the application of parking controls given in AS 1742.111989, Manual of uniform traffic control devices, Part 11: Parking controls, and gives

guidance on the provision and layout of onstreet parking, both as parking zones and parking areas. When AS 1742.11 is next revised, this material will be omitted, and that Standard will then be concerned only with signs and markings associated with onstreet parking.

In course of preparation.

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E Copyright STANDARDS AUSTRALIA Users of Standards are reminded that copyright subsists in all Standards Australia publications and software. Except where the Copyright Act allows and except where provided for below no publications or software produced by Standards Australia may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system in any form or transmitted by any means without prior permission in writing from Standards Australia. Permission may be conditional on an appropriate royalty payment. Requests for permission and information on commercial software royalties should be directed to the head office of Standards Australia. Standards Australia will permit up to 10 percent of the technical content pages of a Standard to be copied for use exclusively inhouse by purchasers of the Standard without payment of a royalty or advice to Standards Australia. Standards Australia will also permit the inclusion of its copyright material in computer software programs for no royalty payment provided such programs are used exclusively inhouse by the creators of the programs. Care should be taken to ensure that material used is from the current edition of the Standard and that it is updated whenever the Standard is amended or revised. The number and date of the Standard should therefore be clearly identified. The use of material in print form or in computer software programs to be used commercially, with or without payment, or in commercial contracts is subject to the payment of a royalty. This policy may be varied by Standards Australia at any time.

CONTENTS
Page
FOREWORD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SECTION 1 SCOPE AND INTRODUCTION 1.1 1.2 1.3 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 SCOPE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REFERENCED DOCUMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DEFINITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PARALLEL PARKING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ANGLE PARKING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ROADWAY WIDTH LIMITATIONS FOR PARALLEL AND ANGLE PARKING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CENTREOFROAD PARKING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 5 5 7 7 7 9 14 16 16 18 18 18 19 20 20 20 21 21 24 24 24 25 25 28 28 29 4

SECTION 2 PARKING ARRANGEMENTS AND BAY DIMENSIONS

SECTION 3 ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS 3.1 GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2 END CLEARANCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3 PROVISION FOR PEDESTRIANS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.4 PROTECTION OF THROUGH TRAFFIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.5 UNSAFE PARKING LOCATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.6 LIGHTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SECTION 4 PROVISION FOR SPECIAL GROUPS 4.1 GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2 TRUCKS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3 TAXI STANDS AND FEEDER STANDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4 MOTORCYCLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5 PARKING FOR PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SECTION 5 PARKING CONTROL MEASURES 5.1 GENERAL PRINCIPLES FOR ALLOCATION OF PARKING SPACE . . . 5.2 PARKING CONTROL SIGNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3 CLEARWAYS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4 TIME LIMITS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5 FEE PAYMENT PARKING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.6 AREA PARKING CONTROL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.7 RESIDENT PERMIT PARKING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.8 OTHER PARKING CONTROLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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AS 2890.5 1993

FOREWORD
The provision of on-street parking is an integral part of urban transportation planning. In conjunction with off-street parking facilities, it seeks to cover the complete parking needs, especially in commercial and business districts. Parking authorities need to develop policies for both on-street and off-street parking. A typical policy for high activity business districts would have most of the parking demand met by providing off-street parking, and parking on arterial and sub-arterial roads severely restricted. The principal function of a public road is the movement of vehicular traffic. On-street parking should therefore be permitted only to the extent that it will not result in an unacceptable loss of capacity for moving traffic or that it will not create unacceptable hazards for moving traffic due to the partial blocking of moving lanes or the parking manoeuvre itself. The use of this Standard does not alter the need to comply with regulatory and administrative requirements of both State and local authorities.

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AS 2890.5 1993

STANDARDS AUSTRALIA

Australian Standard Parking facilities

Part 5: On-street parking

S E C T I O N

S CO P E

A N D

I N T R OD U C T I O N

1.1 SCOPE This Standard sets out requirements for the location, arrangement and dimensions of on-street parking facilities. It includes provisions for special classes of vehicles and for people with disabilities, together with guidelines for the control of parking. It normally applies to parking on public roads that provide for through traffic as well as traffic seeking access to immediately adjacent development. However, in large off-street car parking areas, high volume circulating roadways on which there is some parking may need to be treated in accordance with this Standard. 1.2 REFERENCED DOCUMENTS The following documents are referred to in this Standard: AS 1158 1158.1 1428 1428.1 1742 1742.2 1742.11 1742.13
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Code of practice for public lighting Performance and installation design requirements Design for access and mobility Part 1: General requirements for accessBuildings Manual of uniform traffic control devices Part 2: Traffic control devices for general use Part 11: Parking controls Part 13: Local area traffic management Parking facilities Part 1: Off-street car parking Part 2: Commercial vehicle facilities Part 3: Bicycle parking facilities

2890 2890.1 2890.2 2890.3 1.3

DEFINITIONS For the purpose of this Standard, the definitions below apply.

1.3.1 Clearway a continuous length of roadway along which stopping is restricted part-time or full-time, and along which special enforcement provisions may apply. 1.3.2 No parkinga requirement similar to No stopping except that stops for short periods as specified in regulations, are permitted. 1.3.3 No stopping a requirement that a vehicle may not be stopped or allowed to remain stationary except when necessary to avoid conflict with other traffic or to comply with the directions of a member of the police force or a traffic control sign or signal.

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AS 2890.5 1993

1.3.4 Parking control areaa network of one or more streets or other area throughout which uniform parking controls apply, and which are defined by signs at the boundaries advising road users of the control requirements. 1.3.5 Parking zone a portion of a roadway available for parking, full- or part-time, and designated by means of parking control signs (see AS 1742.11). 1.3.6 Roadthe entire width of a right-of-way between property boundaries, and including footpaths. 1.3.7 Roadway any one part of the width of a road devoted particularly to the use of vehicles, inclusive of shoulders and auxiliary lanes.

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AS 2890.5 1993

S E C T I O N

P AR K I N G B A Y

A R R A NG E ME N T S

A N D

D I M E N S I O N S

2.1 GENERAL On-street parking for cars generally comprises the following: (a) Parallel kerbside parking (see Clause 2.2). (b) Angle kerbside parking (see Clause 2.3). (c) Centre-of-road parking, either parallel or angle parking (see Clause 2.5). Facilities are also provided for trucks, motorcycles, buses, taxis, bicycles and other special uses (see also Section 4). Guidance on the types of parking permitted on roads of various widths and traffic volume, is given in Clause 2.4. 2.2 PARALLEL PARKING 2.2.1 General characteristics Parallel kerbside parking in the direction of traffic flow is the basic method of parking provided for in regulations. It presents, under properly controlled conditions, the least impediment to the orderly and regular flow of traffic along a road. The number of vehicles able to parallel park along any given length of kerb is not as high as in angle parking, but it has the advantage of minimizing accidents associated with parking and unparking manoeuvres. Parallel parking is also the best system for use where parking must be provided and street capacity must be kept to a maximum, because it requires a lesser width of roadway for parking and manoeuvring. 2.2.2 Dimensions and layout of parking spaces Figure 2.1 shows typical layouts of parallel parking spaces. The minimum width of these spaces for various uses is given in Table 2.1 (see also Clause 2.4(a)). TABLE 2.1 WIDTH OF PARALLEL PARKING SPACES
Space usage Cars and light commercial vehicles, normal conditions Cars and light commercial vehicles, restricted roadway width, parking of wide vehicles unlikely and where a continuously marked narrow parking lane will aid traffic flow Trucks and buses
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Space width, minimum m 2.3 2.1

2.6

To provide orderly parking, it is desirable to mark parking spaces in areas of high demand and turnover. Pavement markings shall be in accordance with AS 1742.11, which also details pavement messages that may be marked on the road to supplement parking sign controls and help users to recognize the applicable parking restrictions. 2.3 ANGLE PARKING 2.3.1 General characteristics Angle parking can generally accommodate up to twice as many vehicles per unit length of kerb as parallel parking. Small angles (30 degrees or less) give little advantage over parallel parking, especially where there are frequent driveways or other kerb interruptions. The maximum advantage occurs at 90 degrees. However, all forms of angle kerbside parking present a greater hazard to road users than parallel parking. Studies show that when parking is changed from angle to parallel kerbside parking, the accident rate along a length of road decreases substantially and the traffic capacity is greatly increased.

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AS 2890.5 1993

LEGEND: X = width of spacesee Table 2.1 Y = length of end space where vehicles may enter or leave the space dir ectl y5.4 m minimum Z = length of intermediate space6.0 m to 6.7 m, depending on parking turnover and tr affi c volume (see Note 3) W = length of end space which is obstructed at one end by a kerb or barr ier 6.3 m or length Z of adjacent space, whichever is the greater

NOTES: 1 2 3 Space markings may be broken or unbroken. Unbroken longitudinal space markings can assist in the guidance of traffic past parking spaces. No Stopping restrictions may be supplemented by a yellow line 80 to 100 mm wide, close to the kerb, broken for part-time and unbroken for full-time restrictions. Where parking turnover is high and vehicles backing into parking spaces cannot be readily tolerated, increased space lengths, up to 8 m, should be considered. FIGURE 2.1 TYPICAL PARALLEL PARKING LAYOUT FOR CARS

The use of angle kerbside parking may therefore need to be considered in conjunction with other measures designed to lessen the adverse effects.
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The parking manoeuvre is generally more easily accomplished with angle parking than with parallel parking, and is easier with small angles than with large. As the angle of parking increases so does the width of roadway which is required for parking and unparking manoeuvres. 90 degrees is the only angle suitable for access from both approach directions. Angle parking may be either front-in or reverse-in. Any town or city applying angle parking should be consistent in adopting one form or the other. Reverse-in angle parking is prohibited by law in some States.
NOTE: When proposing the use of reverse-in angle parking, consideration should be given to potential minor hazards associated with vehicles stopping in the moving traffic stream prior to reversing into a parking space, and with nose swing into the adjacent through traffic lane as each vehicle starts its back-in manoeuvre. These hazards are of most concern where moving lanes are narrow and lane traffic volumes are high. Reverse-in angle parking may also result in excessive footpath obstruction from the rear overhang of vehicles, and could contribute to excessive exhaust fumes on the footpath.

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Long vehicles are usually unable to make use of angle parking spaces. In commercial areas, for example, adequate parallel loading spaces should also be provided to cater for long vehicles and commercial vehicles. 2.3.2 Angle parking space width Recommended minimum parking space widths are given in Table 2.2. These are based on the dimensions of the design vehicle given in AS 2890.1. The space widths relate to the frequency of parking and unparking manoeuvres as developed for AS 2890.1 for off-street parking. The varying degrees to which car doors can be opened are also shown. TABLE 2.2 ANGLE PARKING SPACE WIDTHS RELATED TO PARKING TURNOVER
Use category Low turnover Medium turnover Typical uses Generally all-day parking, e.g. commuter parking Generally more than 2 hour parking but less than a full day, e.g. town centre, sports facility, airport visitor parking Generally short-term parking, including areas where children and goods are frequently loaded into vehicles, e.g. at shopping centres Limits on door opening Front door opened to first stop Front door opened to second stop Rear door fully opened Space width, m (Note 2) 2.4 2.5

High turnover

2.6

Disabled user

Front door fully opened plus wheelchair manoeuvring space

3.2 (Note 3)

NOTES: 1 The above examples are not rigid requirements, e.g. wider spaces may be required for some designs and narrower spaces may be required in central business districts and at other high land cost locations. 2 Space width is dimension A on Figures 2.3, 2.4 and 2.5 for 45, 60 and 90 degree angle parking respectively. Space width is reduced for 30 degree angle parking (see Figure 2.2). 3 See Clause 4.5 regarding the need to increase the width of disabled parking spaces above 3.2 m whenever practicable.

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2.3.3 Angle parking layout Parking space dimensions for various angles of front-in parking are shown in Figures 2.2, 2.3, 2.4 and 2.5 for parking angles of 30, 45, 60 and 90 degrees respectively. Wheelstops may be required to control encroachment onto pedestrian paths by excessive kerb overhang (see Clause 3.3). 2.4 ROADWAY WIDTH LIMITATIONS FOR PARALLEL AND ANGLE PARKING The types of parallel or angle parking which can be permitted on a through roadway will depend on the width of roadway and traffic volumes, with an additional allowance for high speed traffic. Restrictions on parking related to some functional classifications of road or abutting land uses may also be applied. Width limitations which should be observed when determining the type of parking appropriate in a particular case, are as follows: (a) Parallel parking Under low speed urban conditions, i.e. traffic speeds past the site generally not exceeding 60 km/h, the width from kerb to left-hand edge of the nearest moving traffic lane that should be provided is the parking space width from Table 2.1, plus 0.5 m clearance. This clearance should be increased by 1.0 m for each 10 km/h by which traffic speeds exceed 60 km/h, up to a maximum of 3.0 m. (b) Angle parking Figures 2.2, 2.3, 2.4 and 2.5 indicate the minimum widths between the separation line or median, and the kerb, for parking angles of 30, 45, 60 and 90 degrees respectively, that should be available before angle parking is permitted.
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Dimensions

Use category (see Table 2.2) Low 2.1 4.2 Medium 2.3 4.6 4.4 4.1 4.7 3.0 2.5 5.2 High 2.5 5.0 4.4 4.1 4.9 2.9 2.5 5.3 Disabled 3.2 6.4 4.4 4.1 5.4 2.9 2.5 5.1

A space width (Note 7) B space width parallel to kerb D lateral depth of spaces (Note 1) D1 D2 D3 M manoeuvre space (Note 3) J allowable encroachment into adjacent traffic lanes (Note 4)
Minimum width required, kerb line to outer edge of a moving traffic lane = D + M J

4.4 4.1 4.5 3.1 2.5 5.1

L width of lane(s) for moving traffic: 0-800 vehicles/hour (Note 5) 800-1600 vehicles/hour (Note 5) W minimum overall width required, kerb line to separation line = D + M J + L ; 0-800 vehicles/hour (Note 5) 800-1600 vehicles/hour (Note 5) S wheelstop distance: Nose-in parking Rear-in parking (Note 6)

3.5 6.5

3.5 6.5

3.5 6.5

3.5 6.5

8.6 12.1 0.6 0.9

8.7 12.2 0.6 0.9

8.8 12.3 0.6 0.9

8.6 12.1 0.6 0.9

DIMENSIONS IN MILLIMETRES NOTES: 1 Dimension D is selected as foll ows (see Note 2): D 1 where parking is to a wall or high kerb not allowing any overhang. D 2 where parking is to a low kerb which allows 600 mm overhang. D 3 where parking is controll ed by wheelstops install ed at ri ght angles to the dir ecti on of parking. 2 3 4 Formulae from which values of D1, D 2 and D 3 have been calculated are given in AS 2890.1. Dimension M gives the lateral space required when manoeuvring into or out of a parking space. Roadway width li mitati ons are dealt with further in Clause 2.4. Dimension J is the extent to which a vehicle can be all owed to obstruct the adjacent moving traff ic lane whil e manoeuvring into or out of a parking space. The value J = 2.5 m is appropriate to traff ic speeds of 60 km/h or less past the site. At higher speeds it is recommended that J be reduced by 1.0 m for each 10 km/h by which the speed exceeds 60 km/h, wit h a minimum value of J = 0. The quoted traff ic volumes are one-way maximum hourly volumes, total of all lanes, during the times parking is permit ted. Rear-i n angle parking spaces slope in the opposit e dir ecti on. Widths of 30 degree angle parking spaces are small er than other angle parking spaces due to reduced confli ct of open doors against adjacent vehicles.

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5 6 7

FIGURE 2.2 LAYOUT AND MINIMUM ROADWAY WIDTH FOR 30 DEGREE ANGLE PARKING SPACES
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Dimensions

Use category (see Table 2.2) Low 2.4 3.4 Medium 2.5 3.5 5.2 4.8 5.6 3.7 2.5 6.8 High 2.6 3.7 5.2 4.8 5.7 3.5 2.5 6.7 Disabled 3.2 4.5 5.2 4.8 6.1 3.5 2.5 6.7

A space width B space width parallel to kerb D lateral depth of spaces (Note 1) D1 D2 D3 M manoeuvre space (Note 3) J allowable encroachment into adjacent traffic lanes (Note 4)
Minimum width required, kerb line to outer edge of a moving traffic lane = D + M J

5.2 4.8 5.5 3.9 2.5 6.9

L width of lane(s) for moving traffic: 0-800 vehicles/hour (Note 5) 800-1600 vehicles/hour (Note 5) W minimum overall width required, kerb line to separation line = D + M J + L ; 0-800 vehicles/hour (Note 5) 800-1600 vehicles/hour (Note 5) S wheelstop distance: Nose-in parking Rear-in parking (Note 6)
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3.5 6.5

3.5 6.5

3.5 6.5

3.5 6.5

10.4 13.9 0.6 0.9

10.3 13.8 0.6 0.9

10.2 13.7 0.6 0.9

10.2 13.7 0.6 0.9

DIMENSIONS IN METRES
NOTES : 1 Dimension D is selected as follows (see Note 2): D 1 where parking is to a wall or high kerb not allowing any overhang. D 2 where parking is to a low kerb which allows 600 mm overhang. D 3 where parking is controlled by wheelstops installed at right angles to the direction of parking. 2 3 4 Formulae from which values of D 1, D 2 and D 3 have been calculated are given in AS 2890.1. Dimension M gives the lateral space required when manoeuvring into or out of a parking space. Roadway width limitations are dealt with further in Clause 2.4. Dimension J is the extent to which a vehicle can be allowed to obstruct the adjacent moving traffic lane while manoeuvring into or out of a parking space. The value J = 2.5 m is appropriate to traffic speeds of 60 km/h or less past the site. At higher speeds it is recommended that J be reduced by 1.0 m for each 10 km/h by which the speed exceeds 60 km/h, with a minimum value of J = 0. Th e quoted traffic volumes are one-way maximum hourly volumes, total of all lanes, during the times parking is permitted. Rear-in angle parking spaces slope in the opposite direction.

5 6

FIGURE 2.3

LAYOUT AND MINIMUM ROADWAY WIDTH FOR 45 DEGREE ANGLE PARKING SPACES
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Dimensions

Use category (see Table 2.2) Low 2.4 2.8 Medium 2.5 2.9 5.7 5.1 6.0 4.6 2.5 8.1 High 2.6 3.0 5.7 5.1 6.0 4.3 2.5 7.8 Disabled 3.2 3.7 5.7 5.1 6.3 4.3 2.5 7.8

A space width B space width parallel to kerb D lateral depth of spaces (Note 1) D1 D2 D3 M manoeuvre space (Note 3) J allowable encroachment into adjacent traffic lanes (Note 4)
Minimum width required, kerb line to outer edge of a moving traffic lane = D + M J

5.7 5.1 5.9 4.9 2.5 8.3

L width of lane(s) for moving traffic: 0-800 vehicles/hour (Note 5) 800-1600 vehicles/hour (Note 5) W minimum overall width required, kerb line to separation line = D + M J + L ; 0-800 vehicles/hour (Note 5) 800-1600 vehicles/hour (Note 5) S wheelstop distance: Nose-in parking Rear-in parking (Note 6)

3.5 6.5

3.5 6.5

3.5 6.5

3.5 6.5

11.8 15.3 0.6 0.9

11.6 15.1 0.6 0.9

11.3 14.8 0.6 0.9

11.3 14.8 0.6 0.9

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DIMENSIONS IN METRES NOTES: 1 Dimension D is selected as foll ows (see Note 2): D 1 where parking is to a wall or high kerb not allowing any overhang. D 2 where parking is to a low kerb which allows 600 mm overhang. D 3 where parking is controll ed by wheelstops install ed at ri ght angles to the dir ecti on of parking. 2 Formulae from which values of D1, D 2 and D 3 have been calculated are given in AS 2890.1. 3 Dimension M gives the lateral space required when manoeuvri ng into or out of a parking space. Roadway width li mitati ons are dealt with further in Clause 2.4. 4 Dimension J is the extent to which a vehicle can be all owed to obstruct the adjacent moving traff ic lane whil e manoeuvring into or out of a parking space. The value J = 2.5 m is appropriate to traff ic speeds of 60 km/h or less past the site. At higher speeds it is recommended that J be reduced by 1.0 m for each 10 km/h by which the speed exceeds 60 km/h, wit h a minimum value of J = 0. 5 The quoted traff ic volumes are one-way maximum hourl y volumes, total of all lanes, during the times parking is permit ted. 6 Rear-i n angle parking spaces slope in the opposit e dir ecti on.

FIGURE 2.4 LAYOUT AND MINIMUM ROADWAY WIDTH FOR 60 DEGREE ANGLE PARKING SPACES
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Dimensions

Use category (see Table 2.2) Low 2.4 Medium 2.5 5.4 4.8 5.4 5.8 2.5 8.7 High 2.6 5.4 4.8 5.4 5.4 2.5 8.3 Disabled 3.2 5.4 4.8 5.4 5.4 2.5 8.3

A space width B space width parallel to kerb D lateral depth of spaces (Note 1) D1 D2 D3 M manoeuvre space (Note 2) J allowable encroachment into adjacent traffic lanes (Note 3)
Minimum width required, kerb line to outer edge of a moving traffic lane = D + M J

Same as Dimension A 5.4 4.8 5.4 6.2 2.5 9.1

L width of lane(s) for moving traffic: 0-800 vehicles/hour (Note 4) 800-1600 vehicles/hour (Note 4) W minimum overall width required, kerb line to separation line = D + M J + L ; 0-800 vehicles/hour (Note 4) 800-1600 vehicles/hour (Note 4)
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3.5 6.5

3.5 6.5

3.5 6.5

3.5 6.5

12.6 16.1 0.6 0.9

12.2 15.7 0.6 0.9

11.8 15.3 0.6 0.9

11.8 15.3 0.6 0.9

S wheelstop distance: Nose-in parking Rear-in parking

DIMENSIONS IN METRES NOTES: 1 Dimension D is selected as foll ows (see Note 2): D 1 where parking is to a wall or high kerb not allowing any overhang. D 2 where parking is to a low kerb which allows 600 mm overhang. D 3 where parking is controll ed by wheelstops install ed at ri ght angles to the dir ecti on of parking. 2 Formulae from which values of D1, D 2 and D 3 have been calculated are given in AS 2890.1. 3 Dimension M gives the lateral space required when manoeuvring into or out of a parking space. Roadway width li mitati ons are dealt with further in Clause 2.4. 4 Dimension J is the extent to which a vehicle can be all owed to obstruct the adjacent moving traff ic lane whil e manoeuvring into or out of a parking space. The value J = 2.5 m is appropriate to traff ic speeds of 60 km/h or less past the site. At higher speeds it is recommended that J be reduced by 1.0 m for each 10 km/h by which the speed exceeds 60 km/h, wit h a minimum value of J = 0. 5 The quoted traff ic volumes are one-way maximum hourl y volumes, total of all lanes, during the times parking is permit ted.

FIGURE 2.5

LAYOUT AND MINIMUM ROADWAY WIDTH FOR 90 DEGREE ANGLE PARKING SPACES
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2.5

CENTRE-OF-ROAD PARKING

2.5.1 General characteristics Unprotected centre-of-road parking should be considered only in streets with little through traffic and where all traffic moves slowly. The central line of parked vehicles separates opposing traffic flows and provides a continuous refuge for pedestrians, but this type of parking generates additional pedestrian movements across the road. It is essential that adequate visibility be preserved at intersections. Hazardous conditions would be brought about by permitting centre-of-road parking too close to the cross-street traffic lanes. A combination of kerbside parking and centre-of-road parking provides a large number of street parking spaces per unit length of street. Angle kerbside parking is rarely possible where centre-of-road parking is permitted. If time limits are introduced, the combination of kerbside and centre-of-road parking allows time limits of different periods and durations to be instituted on the road. Short-term parking demands at the kerbside may be satisfied by imposing a time limit of, say, half an hour or less on parking. Longer limits may be set in the centre-of-road parking zone to accommodate drivers requiring longer parking periods. This arrangement minimizes turnover of parking in the centre of the road. 2.5.2 Roadway width requirements Table 2.3 gives a guide to the minimum roadway width, related to traffic volume, which should be available before centre-of-road parking is permitted. For traffic volumes greater than those shown in Table 2.3, there are no general criteria that can be applied, so a traffic engineering assessment should be made of the conditions in every instance. TABLE 2.3 CENTRE-OF-ROAD PARKINGMINIMUM ROADWAY WIDTH
One-way flow, vehicles per hour Up to 400 401 - 800 Minimum roadway width m 23 29

NO TE: The Table is applicable to a two-way roadway with kerbside parallel parking both sides and a 5.4 m wide, 90 degree, centre-of-road parking area.

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2.5.3 Alternative layouts Where overall roadway widths are sufficient to allow centre-of-road parking within a wide median, a parking area isolated from through traffic, e.g. as shown in Figure 2.6, is to be preferred. Such a facility can be designed in a similar way to an off-street car park.

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FIGURE 2.6

TYPICAL CENTRE-OF-ROAD PARKING AREA

ISOLATED FROM THROUGH TRAFFIC

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S E C T I O N

E N VI R O N M E N T A L F A C T O R S

3.1 GENERAL The high demand for on-street parking in many urban locations will often put pressure on authorities to try to provide more parking than is environmentally reasonable. This Section places environmental limits on parking provision in the interest of safety, preservation of access and the convenience of all road users, as follows: (a) (b) (c) (d) Provision of adequate Clause 3.2). end clearances to intersections and driveways (see

Preservation of safe and convenient pedestrian access (see Clause 3.3). Protection of parking areas from through traffic (see Clause 3.4). Identification of unsafe parking locations (Clause 3.5).

3.2 END CLEARANCES In determining the required clearances between the end of a parking area and an intersection, laneway, driveway or pedestrian crossing, the following need to be considered: (a) The regulatory no-stopping distance at an intersection as specified in traffic regulations. This is normally measured to the intersection of the kerb and the prolongation of the property line in the intersecting street. Where parking demand is low and parking within the no-stopping distance is unlikely, it may not be necessary to install a no-stopping sign. However, in locations of high demand and where parking restrictions are actively policed, it is highly desirable to provide signs or other indicators of the limit of parking. It is essential where the property line in the intersecting street is ill-defined. The provision of additional end clearance to preserve adequate intersection sight distance for traffic entering from side streets, laneways or driveways. At minor laneways and driveways, it is normally sufficient to provide enough parking end clearance so that entering drivers can just see the oncoming traffic without placing part of their vehicles in danger of collision. Typical cases where regulatory end distances may be insufficient include (i) (ii) (iii) (c)
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(b)

angle parking in the main street; main street parking on a curve; and end spaces sometimes occupied by large vehicles.

The prohibition of parking for additional distances on the approaches to signalized intersections to accommodate queues. Length of parking prohibition on the departure sides should match those on the approach so as to promote an orderly traffic flow downstream of the signals. The need to provide for left turn lanes at intersections. In addition to restrictions at intersections, the need to prohibit parking for specified distances in the vicinity of (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) childrens and pedestrian crossings; bus/tram stops; railway level crossings; fire hydrants; and road bridges, except where parking provisions can be made.

(d) (e)

The extent of such prohibitions is given in traffic regulations.

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Provision of end clearances is illustrated in Figure 3.1. Regulatory no-stopping distances should normally be regarded as a minimum. There may however, be exceptions where the drivers required sight line distance to an entering vehicle or a pedestrian about to cross is fully provided at some lesser no-stopping distance. An example would be where kerb extensions have been constructed at a pedestrian crossing. In such cases, the regulatory no-stopping distances can be reduced provided that this is allowed in traffic regulations.

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X = the regulatory or approved no-stopping distance Y = the distance requir ed to provide adequate sight distance for entering tr affi c (see Clause 3.2(b)) .

NOTE: If Y < X, then X is used. FIGURE 3.1 TYPICAL END TREATMENTS

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3.3 PROVISION FOR PEDESTRIANS On-street parking zones should be arranged so that obstruction of pedestrians and encroachment onto pedestrian paths is minimized. The following requirements shall be observed: (a) Angle parking, front-inshall not be permitted adjacent to footpaths 2 m or less in width unless wheelstops controlling front overhang encroachment onto the footpath, are provided. Angle parking, reverse-inshall not be permitted adjacent to footpaths 2.3 m or less in width unless wheelstops controlling rear overhang encroachment onto the footpath by more than 300 mm are provided. In this case, the effects of exhaust fumes on pedestrian traffic should also be monitored and additional clearance to parked vehicles provided (e.g. by wheelstops, footpath widening) if necessary.
NOTE: In extreme cases it may be necessary to abandon reverse-in parking.

(b)

Where wheelstops are used they shall be 90 to 100 mm in height and at least 2.0 m in length. The distance from wheelstop to kerb shall be as shown in Figures 2.2 to 2.5. The use of wheelstops in locations where they may be a hazard to pedestrians, should be avoided wherever practicable. Where parking is permitted adjacent to a median or separator, a clear and level width of at least 900 mm should be provided along the median or separator for the passage of pedestrians between two lines of parked cars, or between a line of parked cars and the far side of the median or separator. 3.4 PROTECTION OF THROUGH TRAFFIC There will be many instances where the provision of parking zones on busy or high speed roads, or in unexpected locations is likely to create a hazard. Typical locations which should be considered for protection include (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) kerbside parking part way around a left-hand curve with limited sight distance across the curve; parking just beyond a crest; a parking area which starts just beyond a roadway narrowing or lane reduction; parking on the right-hand side of a one-way roadway; or any other location where a parking zone protrudes an unexpectedly large distance into a roadway, or where parking manoeuvres may encroach into a high speed traffic lane.

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In its simplest form, protection of through traffic in hazardous situations involves the use of edge lines or transition lines (see AS 1742.2), supplemented with raised pavement markers. Where there is a possibility of greater hazard, pavement bars to guide moving traffic away from and past the parking zone, should be used. An alternative method of protection is the construction of short kerb extensions at the leading end, or at both ends of the parking zone. Kerb extensions may be used for a combination of purposes, including a pedestrian crossing approach, bicycle parking area, landscaping area, and as a component of a slow point (see AS 1742.13). Appropriate steps shall be taken to adequately delineate such kerb extension, with particular attention being given to making them visible to moving traffic at times when the parking zone is empty. 3.5 UNSAFE PARKING LOCATIONS The following considered to be unsafe for parking and should not be used: (a) locations are generally

On the inside of the sharp curves. It will often be difficult to protect such a parking zone from oncoming traffic, and the hazard will usually be greater if the zone is only partly occupied.

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(b)

Within a T-junction, opposite a high-volume or high-speed terminating road, or a terminating road on a steep downgrade. Hazards can include vehicles over-running the intersection or misjudging the turning path. People entering or leaving a vehicle on the drivers side are especially vulnerable. On islands and reservations including the central island of a roundabout. The sources of possible hazard include obstruction of intersection sight distance for moving traffic, movements into and out of parking spaces in unexpected locations, reductions in the effective width of moving traffic lanes and hazardous pedestrian movements. Any of the locations listed in Clause 3.4 which cannot be properly protected.

(c)

(d)

3.6 LIGHTING Performance and installation design requirements for the lighting of urban roads are given in AS 1158.1. The lighting categories appropriate to on-street situations are: (a) (b) Category A lighting generally applicable to arterial roads. Category B lighting generally applicable to local roads.

Provision of Category A lighting will result in levels of illuminance of both the roadway and the surround (verge) of arterial roads, which will satisfy the needs of vehicle parking in either location. Provision of levels of illuminance specified for Category B will satisfy the needs of vehicle parking on local roads.

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S E C T I O N

P RO V IS I O N F O R G R O UP S

S P EC I A L

4.1 GENERAL The following special groups of vehicle type or user may need to be catered for in on-street parking provisions: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) 4.2 Trucks (see Clause 4.2). Taxis (see Clause 4.3). Motorcycles (see Clause 4.4). People with disabilities (see Clause 4.5). Buses. Bicycles (see AS 2890.3). TRUCKS

4.2.1 General provisions The long-term kerbside parking of trucks (other than light commercial vehicles) on-street is generally discouraged, often by law. Wherever there is a need for trucks to be parked other than on private property, a parking area physically separated or otherwise remote from the through roadway should be sought. For the requirements of such a facility, see AS 2890.2. In the event that limited kerbside parking is required, parallel parking is the only practicable configuration. Spaces need to be made long enough to accommodate the vehicle and the necessary manoeuvre space for parking and unparking. On-street angle parking for trucks is almost never practicable. 4.2.2 Loading zones Short-term stopping for purposes of loading or unloading goods vehicles is provided for by means of loading zones. They should be provided where it is necessary to allow vehicles to stand for the picking up or setting down of goods. They should allow stopping parallel to the kerb and should have a length which will accommodate the vehicles which normally use them. Bearing in mind the need to locate loading zones close to the premises being served, consideration should be given to placing loading zones at the beginning or end of a section of parking, rather than in the middle, to reduce the need for awkward vehicle manoeuvring, especially the reversing of trucks. 4.2.3 Truck zones In some States short-term stopping of heavy goods vehicles is catered for by use of truck zones. The usage and legal requirements relating to truck zones are in other respects similar to those for loading zones, except that time limits may not apply provided the vehicle is loading or unloading. 4.3 TAXI STANDS AND FEEDER STANDS Taxi stands should be provided in locations convenient for patrons. It is desirable that taxis stand parallel to the kerb, facing in the direction of the main traffic stream so that waiting taxis may progress from the tail of the taxi queue to the head. Minimum length of taxi stands should be (5.4 n + 1.0) metres, where n is the number of taxis to be accommodated. Should there be a demand for greater allocation of space at any particular location, the main stands should be fed from feeder stands established at a reasonable distance from the main stand. The feeder stand should be so placed that the lead taxi can observe when a space becomes vacant at the main stand. A feeder stand may feed one or more main stands.

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4.4 MOTORCYCLES Motorcycle parking zones are normally provided in groups according to demand. Conversion of car parking spaces as illustrated in Figure 4.1 can provide the required facilities. Use of irregular spaces and undersize remnants should also be considered. Where cars are found to occupy motorcycle spaces, installation of kerbing may be required. The minimum size of a motorcycle parking space is 2.5 m 1.2 m.

DIMENSIONS IN METRES

NOTE: In angle parking zones, only car spaces at the ends can be converted, and then only if roadway crossfall is not too steep. FIGURE 4.1 CONVERSION OF A CAR PARKING SPACE TO MOTORCYCLE SPACES

4.5

PARKING FOR PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES

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4.5.1 General requirements In any parking zone it is desirable to set aside a number of parking spaces for people with disabilities. Such spaces should be in angle parking zones as adequate provision for people with disabilities at kerbside parallel parking spaces, particularly the provision of wheelchair access, can be difficult. Where available parking is largely parallel, it is usually more practicable to provide special side-street or off-street parking areas which include disabled parking spaces. Clear signposting to these areas from the main street shall be provided. A guide to the proportion of car parking spaces which should be provided for people with disabilities in a parking zone, taking into account the aggregate of both on-street and offstreet spaces available in the locality, is given in AS 2890.1. These spaces should be provided in accordance with Figures 2.2 to 2.5. In locating these, account should be taken of the following: (a) (b) Proximity of any particular establishments towards which disabled users are likely to be heading. Ease of access from the parking spaces to the abutting developments.

Requirements and guidance on access for people with disabilities are also given in AS 1428.1.

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4.5.2 Parking space design requirements disabilities shall comply with the following: (a)

Parking spaces for use by people with

Pavement requirements A parking space shall consist of an unobstructed area having a firm plane surface, all at the one level, with a fall not exceeding 1:40 in either the direction of parking or at 90 degrees to it, or 1:33 if the surface has a bituminous seal. Space widthangle parking For angle parking the parking space width shall be not less than 3.2 m. This width shall be regarded as an absolute minimum, as it will often be difficult for a disabled person to cope with wheelchair transfer if the adjacent angle parking space is occupied. Wherever practicable, it is desirable for a space of up to 3.8 m wide to be provided. Space widthparallel parking Parallel parking spaces shall not be marked as disabled spaces, nor included in the count of spaces available for people with disabilities unless (i) (ii) a 3.2 m wide space can be provided, e.g. by indenting the space into the footpath area; and kerb ramps as shown in Figure 4.2(a) are also provided.

(b)

(c)

(d)

Provision of accessible path of travel A continuous, accessible path of travel in accordance with AS 1428.1 shall be provided between each parking space and the adjacent footpath, and thence to the final destination so that the path does not cross any vehicular traffic path at an uncontrolled location. Signs Parking spaces shall be identified by a parking control sign incorporating the international symbol of access for people with disabilities (see AS 1742.11).

(e)

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(a)

On-street parallel parking space

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(b)

On-street angle parking space


DIMENSIONS IN METRES

NOTES: 1 2 Two 1.0 m kerb ramps as specified in AS 1428.1, should be provided at the locations shown. Two or more adjacent disabled spaces will normally require only one ramp each. Parking space may be delineated by yellow broken lines. International access symbol may be painted in yellow within the parking space.
DIMENSIONS IN METRES

FIGURE 4.2

PARKING SPACES FOR DISABLED PEOPLE

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S E C T I O N

P AR K I N G

C O N T R O L

M E A S U R E S

5.1 GENERAL PRINCIPLES FOR ALLOCATION OF PARKING SPACE In many areas of intense residential, business or industrial activity, demand for on-street parking space exceeds supply. Space available for parking must therefore be allocated on a priority basis. In such cases, the responsible authority will need to estimate the total demand and allocate priorities among the competing interests. This will need to be done over a sufficiently large area to ensure that a parking problem is not simply transferred to an adjacent street. In residential areas, residents demands for long-term parking near their homes is usually paramount. This can be provided, subject to regulations, by implementing time-limit parking with exceptions for vehicles displaying a resident parking permit, or by implementing a permit zone for the exclusive use of permit vehicles. In such areas it is important to provide sufficient space for visitors vehicles and other non-permit vehicles. In business areas, parking associated with the conduct of business usually takes priority. This includes short-term parking for clients or customers, bus stops and taxi ranks for clients and customers who do not drive and loading zones for the delivery and picking up of goods. The exact priorities for the allocation of parking spaces can only be decided by study and consultation. Parking of increasing duration is usually located at increasing distances from the main activity areas to provide greatest convenience to the greatest number of people wishing to gain access to the area. In industrial areas, depending on the extent of off-street parking, priority is given to short-term parking for clients and long-term parking for employees, to avoid a spill of all-day parking into adjacent non-industrial areas. Loading facilities are usually provided off-street, but no-stopping restrictions may be necessary to ensure that large vehicles can negotiate access roads. In all the above areas, consideration must be given to the design of parking spaces for disabled drivers or passengers. This can include the provision of reserved spaces (see Clause 4.5) as well as other concessions provided through regulation, such as extensions to posted parking time limits. 5.2 PARKING CONTROL SIGNS The usual method of controlling on-street parking is by means of parking control signs. Requirements for the use of these signs together with associated pavement markings to prohibit stopping or parking, to control parking durations, and to reserve space for special usages or classes of vehicle are specified in AS 1742.11.
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5.3

CLEARWAYS

5.3.1 General It is often necessary to prohibit kerbside stopping during periods of high flow for all vehicles except buses and so provide an additional lane for moving traffic. Long continuous lengths of no-stopping restrictions may be designated by signs as clearways. Clearways should not be established to control stopping along isolated lengths of road when normal parking controls would be adequate. 5.3.2 Guidelines The need for a clearway depends on one-way traffic volumes, the number of lanes available, and the presence or absence of trams. The traffic volumes at which a clearway lane should start to operate, and hence make an extra lane available for moving traffic, is shown in Table 5.1.

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The periods over which peak-hour stopping prohibitions are imposed should be uniform over as large an area as possible. The start and finish times, however, will usually vary with changing peak traffic flow times such as often occurs at different distances from the centre of employment. Clearways should be continuous, embracing short intermediate sections which might not otherwise be justified on the basis of warrant considerations alone. Duration of the clearway should not be less than one hour, and may extend to three hours or longer in large cities. Extended clearways, of 12 or 24 hours duration, may also be appropriate on high volume roads. Weekend clearways may also be required on busy weekend routes. TABLE 5.1 GUIDELINES FOR THE PROVISION OF CLEARWAYS
Flow lanes available in one direction before clearway installed One-way flow rate at which stopping is banned (vehicles per hour) Flow lanes available in one direction after clearway installed

Streets with mixed trams and motor traffic 1 2 600 1 200 2 3*

Streets with no trams or segregated tram tracks 1 2 3 800 1 600 2 400 2 3 4

* For the safety of alighting and boarding passengers, refuge islands should be provided beside the tracks at tram stops on streets with two or more flow lanes to the left of the tram tracks.

5.4 TIME LIMITS Where parking demand exceeds supply, it is necessary to impose time limits to increase the turnover and so allow more people to use the more sought-after spaces to gain access to the adjacent facilities. The limits should be determined only from a proper study of parking patterns. Generally, with adequate enforcement, an efficient time limit results in a few spaces being vacant most of the time.
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In business districts, turnover demands are usually too high for long-term, on-street parking. Limits of increasing duration are usually applied at increasing distances from the heart of the district. This ensures the highest turnover for premium-demand areas while allowing longer-term parking at greater walking distances. The usual periods provided for are half, 1, 2, 3 and 4 hours, but in the vicinity of post offices, banks, or other service type locations, limits as low as 5 minutes may be used to advantage. 5.5 FEE PAYMENT PARKING

5.5.1 General If time limits are to operate successfully, they have to be adequately enforced. A very small number of consistent violators parking for lengthy periods will reduce the advantages of any scheme. Where competition for parking is intense and satisfactory enforcement is difficult to maintain, fee payment parking should be implemented.

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Properly designed fee payment parking schemes provide the following benefits: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Increased turnover in parking spaces, which often has the effect of reducing traffic volume by eliminating vehicles circulating in search of parking places. An accurate time check on parking duration, thereby simplifying enforcement. Discouragement of all-day or other long-term users from parking in zones restricted to short-term. Reduction in the number of people required for time-limit enforcement. The opportunity to impose price controls on the demand for kerbspace. Maximum charges can be imposed where demand is greatest, whereas lower charges can assist in redistributing demand to less competitive areas.

However, if fee-payment parking schemes are not properly designed or effectively enforced, many users may not pay the fee, strong public resentment may be generated, and meter feeding (exceeding the posted time limit by paying the fee again) may be encouraged. The types of fee payment dealt with in this Clause are (i) (ii) meter parking (see Clause 5.5.3); and coupon parking (see Clause 5.5.4).

5.5.2 Guidelines for the implementation of fee-payment parking area The implementation of fee-payment parking may be considered under the following conditions: (a) (b) (c) Where an insufficient turnover of spaces is indicated by short-term parkers resorting frequently to illegal parking or double parking. Where a high demand is indicated by the continuous usage of at least 70 percent of available parking spaces during business hours. Where studies reveal insufficient off-street parking facilities within reasonable walking distance from large generators of high short-term parking demand, such as stores, banks or other commercial centres. Meter parking

5.5.3

5.5.3.1 Mechanical meters This is the most common type of fee payment on-street parking. The traditional mechanical meters display time available and expiry of time. Their main features are as follows: (a)
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Each parking space can have its own meter (either one or two meters on a single post) erected near the kerb. Single-headed meters should be located near the front of the spaces which they serve. The meters are easily identifiable by both motorists and enforcement agencies. Enforcement is effective as the display of expiry of time is readily seen by enforcement officers. They are convenient for all motorists because coins are the normal method of payment. Fees are paid on-the-spot, and hence immediately recoverable and accountable by the parking authority. Mechanical breakdowns. Prone to vandalism. High labour costs involved in the collection of cash and maintenance of meters.
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(b) (c) (d)

However, mechanical meters have certain disadvantages such as the following: (i) (ii) (iii)

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(iv) (v)

Visually unattractive. Intrusion into pedestrian areas.

5.5.3.2 Electronic/com puterized m eters A s f ar as is pr acticable, all electronic/computerized meters in a region which have a similar function should be operated in the same way so that drivers can become familiar with them. The following describes some of the various forms of electronic/computerized parking meters which are currently in use: (a) Electronic parking meters These are conventional parking meters with electronic mechanisms. Their advantages over the mechanical type are as follows: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (b) Rates are easily altered on-street. Audit information can be stored in each meter. The need for winding is eliminated. The number of moving parts is substantially reduced. Tokens can be accepted.

Centralized parking meters These meters have a display which allows several numbered spaces to be monitored. The driver must select the appropriate space when paying. One meter can cater for several spaces ranging from two to about 20. The meters offer the following: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) Audit facilities. Reduced maintenance costs. Better cash security. Reduced cash collection costs. Availability of card readers as an option. Option of fitting communication facilities for remote fault reporting and interrogation of statistical information about parking patterns.

(c)

Parking ticket machines These machines print a ticket which is displayed in the parked vehicle to show the time of expiry. On-street machines usually control between 10 and 20 parking spaces each, the greater number in angle parking locations. These machines offer the following: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) Complete auditing of cash received. Use of the ticket by drivers as a receipt. Pre-programming of rate and time changes. Cash security. Availability of card readers as an option. Option of fitting communication facilities for remote fault reporting and collection of statistical information about parking patterns.

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5.5.4 Coupon parking Coupon parking involves prepayment for coupons (of different monetary values, and usually colour-coded) and requiring one or more to be displayed in the vehicle depending on the cost of time bought. Before display, coupons require the driver to perforate or scratch relevant information such as year, month, date and time of arrival. As coupon parking does not involve any meters, large savings in installation and maintenance costs can be made by parking authorities and a better and safer streetscape is available for pedestrians on footpaths.

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The scheme can involve high administration costs in the distribution of coupons and sales commission to proprietary companies. In addition, where fee payment parking exists or is introduced in adjoining councils, complications will arise in disbursement of moneys obtained from the sale if a single system is used. Alternatively, if a different system of coupon parking is used in each council area, different coupon formats will be required, and arrangements will have to be made to inform users of the different systems, by signposting or other means. 5.6 AREA PARKING CONTROL

5.6.1 General description Area parking control is used to provide a uniform parking control over a large area. Whereas the parking control signs mentioned in Clause 5.2 control a single line of stopping or parking, area parking control operates using an entry and exit signing system which defines the boundary of the controlled area. When used appropriately, area parking controls offer the advantages of reduced total signing costs and improved amenity, compared with the exclusive use of parking control signs. The types of areas most suitable for such application are (a) (b) (c) 5.6.2 (a) large areas encompassing a network of streets over which the same general restrictions are to apply; off-street carparks and other areas where positioning of parking control signs may be difficult; and extended lengths of individual streets. Types of parking control Three types of parking control areas are used: Parking areas In these areas, a single blanket time-limit parking restriction (e.g. 2-hour parking) will be imposed, either full- or part-time as indicated on area control signs. No stopping areas throughout. No parking areas throughout. In these areas there is a blanket restriction on stopping In these areas there is a blanket restriction on parking

(b) (c)

The signs required at the entry and exit to an area parking scheme, and the signs required within the scheme are specified in AS 1742.11. Any exceptions to these blanket restrictions which may be required at a particular location, e.g. a location at which some time-limit parking is allowed within an otherwise blanket no-stopping area, are effected by means of conventional kerbside parking control signs. Regulatory no-stopping restrictions, e.g. in the vicinity of intersections or pedestrian crossings, will remain in force within parking areas, and will also be indicated by means of conventional parking control signs. 5.7 RESIDENT PERMIT PARKING Where off-street parking for residents is limited and parking demand in residential streets by non-residents is excessive, permit systems which allow residents to park their vehicles near their homes for periods longer than the duration indicated on the parking signs, may be introduced. Permit schemes should be so arranged that parking for visitors and other non-residents is restricted in duration to such an extent that there will usually be enough unoccupied spaces for residents, whilst at the same time keeping inconvenience to visitors and others with legitimate business in the residential area, to a minimum. The schemes are normally administered by the issue of window labels to nominated vehicles.

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The system described above is preferable in most cases to the establishment of permit zones, as such zones would then exclude visitors and others with legitimate business in the residential area from parking, even for short terms. Permit zones should be considered as a last resort where parking by non-residents cannot otherwise be adequately controlled. 5.8 OTHER PARKING CONTROLS The demand for other types of parking restriction depends on types of adjacent activities to which people wish to gain access by vehicle. Temporary signing may be necessary at works zones to allow construction vehicles to deliver materials and goods to building construction sites where deliveries offstreet are not practicable. Other special requirements may be provided for by using nostopping or no-parking signs with appropriate exceptions. Each case should be considered on its merits, but the number of special provisions should be kept to a minimum to avoid confusion to motorists or the expectation that special exceptions are easy to obtain.

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